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Milton Friedman

Milton Friedman
Milton Friedman

Chicago school of economics Movements Libertarianism Neoliberalism Neoconservatism Positive non-interventionism Organizations Cato Institute Reason Foundation George Mason University Library of Economics and Liberty Beliefs

Born Died Residence Nationality Ethnicity Fields Institutions

July 31, 1912(1912-07-31) Brooklyn, New York City November 16, 2006 (aged 94) San Francisco, California U.S. American Hungarian and Jewish Economics Hoover Institution (1977–2006) University of Chicago (1946–77) Columbia University (1937–41, 1943–45, 1964–65) NBER (1937–40) Columbia University (Ph.D.) University of Chicago (M.A.) Rutgers University (B.A.) Simon Kuznets Gary Becker Phillip D. Cagan Analysis of money Leader of Chicago School Arthur F. Burns Friedrich Hayek John Bates Clark Medal (1951) The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (1976) Presidential Medal of Freedom 1988 National Medal of Science 1988

Monetarism Neoclassical economics Consequentialist libertarianism People David Friedman Milton Friedman Rose Friedman Frank Knight Ronald Coase Robert Fogel Gary Becker Robert E. Lucas George Stigler Friedrich von Hayek (assossiated) Theories Comparative advantage Consumer price index Economic growth Economic rationalism Efficient-market hypothesis Friedman rule Friedman’s k-percent rule Game theory Gross domestic product Homo economicus International economics International finance International trade Laffer curve Monetary theory Public choice theory Quantity theory of money Rational agent Rational choice theory

Alma mater

Doctoral advisor Doctoral students Known for Influences Notable awards

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Milton Friedman
of Chicago, he had a widespread influence in shaping the research agenda of the entire profession. Friedman’s many monographs, books, scholarly articles, papers, magazine columns, television programs, videos and lectures cover a broad range of topics in microeconomics, macroeconomics, economic history, and public policy issues. The Economist hailed him as "the most influential economist of the second half of the 20th century…possibly of all of it".[2] According to Milton Friedman—Economist as Public Intellectual, Friedman at the University of Chicago became the first recognized counterrevolution against Keynesianism. Originally a Keynesian supporter of the New Deal and advocate of high taxes, in the 1950s his reinterpretation of the Keynesian consumption function challenged the basic Keynesian model. In the 1960s he promoted an alternative macroeconomic policy called monetarism. He theorized there existed a "natural rate of unemployment" and he argued the central government could not micromanage the economy because people would realize what the government was doing and shift their behavior to neutralize the impact of policies. He rejected the Phillips Curve and predicted that Keynesian policies then in place would cause "stagflation" (high inflation and low growth).[3] Friedman’s claim that monetary policy could have prevented the Great Depression was an attempt to refute the analysis of Keynes, who argued that monetary policy is ineffective under depression conditions and that fiscal policy — large-scale deficit spending by the government — is needed to fight mass unemployment. Though opposed to the existence of the Federal Reserve, Friedman argued that, given that it does exist, a steady expansion of the money supply was the only wise policy, and he warned against efforts by a treasury or central bank to do otherwise. Influenced by his close friend George Stigler, Friedman opposed government regulation of many types. He once stated that his role in eliminating U.S. conscription was his proudest accomplishment, and his support for school choice led him to found The Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice. Friedman’s political philosophy, which he considered classically liberal and libertarian, stressed the advantages of the marketplace and the disadvantages of government

Rational expectations theory Symmetrical inflation target Ideas Central banks Denationalization Deregulation Economic freedom Economic integration Economic interdependence Economic liberalization Exchange rate Fair trade Fiat currency Free markets Free trade Foreign exchange reserves Globalization Inflation adjustment Inflation targeting Intellectual property Marketization Laissez-faire Minarchism Negative income tax Open market operations Private property Privatization School vouchers Single market Public highway Tax cuts Tax reform Topics Anti-capitalism Alter-globalization Anti-globalization Capitalism Portal Economics Portal Politics Portal Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American economist, statistician and public intellectual, and a recipient of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences. He is best known among scholars for his theoretical and empirical research, especially consumption analysis, monetary history and theory, and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy.[1] A global public followed his restatement of a political philosophy that insisted on minimizing the role of government in favor of the private sector. As a leader of the Chicago School of economics, based at the University


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intervention and regulation, strongly influencing the outlook of American conservatives and libertarians. In his 1962 book Capitalism and Freedom, Friedman advocated policies such as a volunteer military, freely floating exchange rates, abolition of licensing of doctors, a negative income tax, and education vouchers.[4] His books and essays were widely read and even circulated underground behind the Iron Curtain.[5][6] Friedman’s methodological innovations were widely accepted by economists, but his policy prescriptions were highly controversial. Most economists in the 1960s rejected them, but since then they have had a growing international influence (especially in the US and Britain), and in the 21st century have gained wide acceptance among many economists. He thus lived to see some of his laissez-faire ideas embraced by the mainstream,[7] especially during the 1980s. His views of monetary policy, taxation, privatization and deregulation informed the policy of governments around the globe, especially the administrations of Margaret Thatcher in Britain, Ronald Reagan in the US, Brian Mulroney in Canada, Roger Douglas in New Zealand, Davíð Oddsson in Iceland, Augusto Pinochet in Chile, and (after 1989) in many Eastern European countries.

Milton Friedman
wife, economist Rose Director. In 1933–34 he held a fellowship at Columbia University, where he studied statistics with renowned statistician and economist Harold Hotelling. He was back in Chicago for 1934–35, spending the year working as a research assistant for Henry Schultz, who was then working on his highly quantitative and empirical Theory and Measurement of Demand. During this year, Friedman formed what would prove to be lifelong friendships with George Stigler and Wilson Allen Wallis.

Public service
Friedman was initially unable to find academic employment, so in 1935, he followed his friend W. Allen Wallis to Washington, where Roosevelt’s New Deal was "a lifesaver" for many young economists.[9] At this stage, Friedman said that he and his wife "regarded the job-creation programs such as the WPA, CCC, and PWA appropriate responses to the critical situation", but not "the price- and wage-fixing measures of the National Recovery Administration and the Agricultural Adjustment Administration".[10] Foreshadowing his later ideas, he saw price controls as interfering with an essential signaling mechanism to help resources go where they are most valued. Indeed, Friedman later concluded that all government intervention associated with the New Deal was "the wrong cure for the wrong disease", arguing that the money supply should simply have been expanded, instead of contracted.[11] In Monetary History of the United States, he argues that the Great Depression was caused by monetary contraction, which was the consequence of poor policymaking by the Federal reserve and the continuous crises in the banking system.[12] In 1935, he began work at the National Resources Committee, which was then working on a large consumer budget survey. Ideas from this project later became a part of his Theory of the Consumption Function. Friedman moved to the National Bureau of Economic Research in fall 1937 to assist Simon Kuznets in his work on professional income. This work led to their jointly authored Incomes from Independent Professional Practice, which introduced the concepts of permanent and transitory income, a major component of the Permanent Income Hypothesis that Friedman worked out in greater

Early life
Friedman was born on July 31, 1912, in Brooklyn, New York, to recent Jewish immigrants from Beregszász in Hungary (now Berehove, part of Ukraine) both of whom worked as dry goods merchants. Shortly after Milton’s birth, the family relocated to Rahway, New Jersey. A gifted student, Friedman graduated from Rahway High School in 1928, shortly before his 16th birthday.[8] Friedman graduated from Rutgers University in New Jersey, where he specialized in Mathematics and initially intended to become an actuary. During his time at Rutgers, Friedman fell under the influence of two economics professors, Arthur F. Burns and Homer Jones, who convinced him that modern Economics could help end the Great Depression. Friedman took graduate work at the University of Chicago, earning an M.A. in 1933. He was strongly influenced by Jacob Viner, Frank Knight, and Henry Simons. It was at Chicago that Friedman met his future


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detail in the 1950s. The book hypothesizes that professional licensing artificially restricts the supply of services and raises prices. In 1940, Friedman was appointed an assistant professor teaching Economics at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, but encountered antisemitism in the Economics department and decided to return to government service.[13][14] Friedman spent 1941–43 working on wartime tax policy for the Federal Government, as an advisor to senior officials of the United States Department of the Treasury. As a Treasury spokesman in 1942 he advocated a Keynesian policy of taxation, and during this time he helped to invent the payroll withholding tax system, although he later regretted it.[15] In his autobiography, he comments on "how thoroughly Keynesian I was then".[16] As Friedman grew older he reversed himself; in 2006 he observed, "You know, it’s a mystery as to why people think Roosevelt’s policies pulled us out of the Depression. The problem was that you had unemployed machines and unemployed people. How do you get them together by forming industrial cartels and keeping prices and wages up?"[17]

Milton Friedman

University of Chicago professor Jacob Viner to Princeton University). Friedman would stay at the University of Chicago for the next 30 years. There he helped build a close-knit intellectual community that produced a number of Nobel Prize winners, known collectively as the Chicago School of Economics. At the same time he moved to the University of Chicago, Arthur Burns, who was then the head of the National Bureau of Economic Research, asked Friedman to rejoin the Bureau’s staff. He accepted the invitation, and assumed responsibility for the Bureau’s inquiry into the role of money in the business cycle. As a result, he founded the "Workshop in Money and Banking" (the "Chicago Workshop"), which led a revival in monetary studies. During the latter half of the 1940s, Friedman began a collaboration with Anna Schwartz, an economic historian at the Bureau, that would ultimately result in the 1963 publication of a book co-authored by Friedman and Schwartz, A Monetary History of the United States, 1867–1960. Friedman spent the 1954–55 academic year as a Fulbright Visiting Fellow at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. At the time, the Cambridge economics faculty was deeply divided into a Keynesian majority (including Joan Robinson and Richard Kahn) and a virulently anti-Keynesian minority (headed by Dennis Robertson). Friedman speculates that he was invited to the fellowship because his extreme laissez-faire views were unacceptable to both of the Cambridge factions, a fact that highlights how far out of the mainstream Friedman was in the 1950s. On the other hand his weekly columns for Newsweek magazine (1966-84) were widely

Academic career
Early years
In 1943, Friedman joined the Division of War Research at Columbia University (headed by Wilson Allen Wallis and Harold Hotelling), where he spent the rest of the war years working as a mathematical statistician, focusing on problems of weapons design, military tactics, and metallurgical experiments. Then in 1945, Friedman submitted Incomes from Independent Professional Practice (co-authored with Kuznets and completed in 1940) to Columbia as his doctoral dissertation. The university awarded him a Ph.D. in 1946. Friedman spent the 1945–46 academic year teaching at the University of Minnesota (where his friend George Stigler was employed). On February 12, 1945, his son, David D. Friedman was born.

University of Chicago
In 1946, Friedman accepted an offer to teach economic theory at the University of Chicago (a position opened by departure of his former


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
read and increasingly influential in political and business circles.[18] Friedman was an economic adviser to Republican presidential candidate Barry Goldwater in 1964, who lost in a landslide to Lyndon Johnson, a liberal Democrat.

Milton Friedman
Republican Party isn’t spending, it’s Iraq. As it happens, I was opposed to going into Iraq from the beginning. I think it was a mistake, for the simple reason that I do not believe the United States of America ought to be involved in aggression." His wife disagreed that it was aggression. However, after a short argument with his wife, he added "But, having said that, once we went in to Iraq, it seems to me very important that we make a success of it."[23] Milton Friedman died at the age of 94 in San Francisco on November 16, 2006.[24][25] Friedman’s son is the philosopher and economist David D. Friedman.

Nobel memorial prize and retirement
In 1976, Friedman won the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences "for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy".[1] In 1977, at age 65, Friedman retired from the University of Chicago after teaching there for 30 years. He and his wife moved to San Francisco. From 1977 on, he was affiliated with the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. During the same year, Friedman was approached by the Palmer R. Chitester Fund[19] and asked to create a television program presenting his economic and social philosophy. The Friedmans worked on this project for the next three years, and in 1980, the ten-part series, entitled Free to Choose, aired on PBS. The companion book to the series (co-authored by Milton and his wife, Rose Friedman), also entitled Free to Choose, was the bestselling nonfiction book of 1980 and has since been translated into 14 foreign languages. Friedman served as an unofficial adviser to Ronald Reagan during his 1980 presidential campaign, and then served on the President’s Economic Policy Advisory Board for the rest of the Reagan Administration. In 1988, he received the National Medal of Science and Reagan honored him with the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Milton Friedman is today known as one of the most influential economists of the 20th century.[20][21] Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Friedman continued to write op-eds and appear in the media. He made several trips to Eastern Europe and to China, where he also advised governments. In Friedman’s last email interview in 2006, he said that the greatest threat to the world’s economy is "Islamofascism, with terrorism as its weapon".[22] In an in-person interview with Friedman and his wife that same month, he said that he opposed the US invasion of Iraq: "What’s really killed the

Scholarly contributions
Friedman was best known for reviving interest in the money supply as a determinant of the nominal value of output, that is, the quantity theory of money. Monetarism is the set of views associated with modern quantity theory. Its origins can be traced back to the 16th-century School of Salamanca or even further but Friedman’s contribution is largely responsible for its modern formulation. He co-authored, with Anna Schwartz, A Monetary History of the United States (1963), which sought to examine the role of the money supply and economic activity in U.S. history. A striking conclusion of their research was one regarding the role of money supply fluctuations as contributing to economic fluctuations. Several regression studies with David Meiselman in the 1960s suggested the primacy of the money supply over investment and government spending in determining consumption and output. These challenged a prevailing but largely untested view on their relative importance. Friedman’s empirical research and some theory supported the conclusion that the short-run effect of a change in the money supply was primarily on output but that the longer-run effect was primarily on the price level. Friedman was the leading proponent of the monetarist school of economic thought. He maintained that there is a close and stable link between inflation and the money supply, mainly that the phenomenon of inflation is to be regulated by controlling the amount of money poured into the national economy by the Federal Reserve Bank. He famously quipped that deflation can be


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fought against by "dropping money out of a helicopter". Friedman’s arguments were designed to counter popular claims that inflation at the time was the result of increases in the oil price, or increases in wages: as he wrote, Inflation is always and everywhere a monetary phenomenon. —Milton Friedman, A Monetary History of the United States 1867-1960 (1963) Friedman rejected the use of fiscal policy as a tool of demand management; and he held that the government’s role in the guidance of the economy should be severely restricted. Friedman wrote extensively on the Great Depression, which he called the Great Contraction, arguing that it had been caused by an ordinary financial shock whose duration and seriousness were greatly increased by the subsequent contraction of the money supply caused by the misguided policies of the directors of the Federal Reserve. The Fed was largely responsible for converting what might have been a garden-variety recession, although perhaps a fairly severe one, into a major catastrophe. Instead of using its powers to offset the depression, it presided over a decline in the quantity of money by one-third from 1929 to 1933 ... Far from the depression being a failure of the freeenterprise system, it was a tragic failure of government. —Milton Friedman, Two Lucky People, 233 Friedman also argued for the cessation of government intervention in currency markets, thereby spawning an enormous literature on the subject, as well as promoting the practice of freely floating exchange rates. Friedman’s macroeconomic theories were soon displaced. His close friend George Stigler explained, "As is customary in science, he did not win a full victory, in part because research was directed along different lines by the theory of rational expectations, a newer approach developed by Robert Lucas, also at the University of Chicago."[26] Friedman was also known for his work on the consumption function, the permanent

Milton Friedman
income hypothesis (1957), which Friedman himself referred to as his best scientific work.[27] This work contended that rational consumers would spend a proportional amount of what they perceived to be their permanent income. Windfall gains would mostly be saved. Tax reductions likewise, as rational consumers would predict that taxes would have to rise later to balance public finances. Other important contributions include his critique of the Phillips curve and the concept of the natural rate of unemployment (1968). This critique associated his name, together with that of Edmund Phelps, with the insight that a government that brings about higher inflation cannot permanently reduce unemployment by doing so. Unemployment may be temporarily lower, if the inflation is a surprise, but in the long run unemployment will be determined by the frictions and imperfections in the labour market. Friedman’s essay "The Methodology of Positive Economics" (1953) set the epistemological course for his own subsequent research and to a degree that of the Chicago School of Economics. There he argued that economics as science should be free of value judgments for it to be objective. Moreover, a useful economic theory should be judged not by its descriptive realism (hair color, etc.) but by its simplicity and fruitfulness as an engine of prediction.

Although less popularly known for these advances, Friedman was also widely agreed to be a brilliant statistician. One of his most famous contributions to statistics is sequential sampling. "Friedman did statistical work at the Division of War Research at Columbia. He and his colleagues came up with a sampling technique, known as sequential sampling, which became, in the words of The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, ’the standard analysis of quality control inspection.’ The dictionary adds: ’Like many of Friedman’s contributions, in retrospect it seems remarkably simple and obvious to apply basic economic ideas to quality control; that however is a measure of his genius.’"[28]. Another well known statistical procedure he developed is the Friedman test.


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Milton Friedman
performed better by the private sector. Above all, if some public goods are provided by the state, he believed that they should not be a legal monopoly where private competition is prohibited. For, example, in response to the United States Post Office’s legal monopoly on mail, he said There is no way to justify our present public monopoly of the post office. It may be argued that the carrying of mail is a technical monopoly and that a government monopoly is the least of evils. Along these lines, one could perhaps justify a government post office, but not the present law, which makes it illegal for anybody else to carry the mail. If the delivery of mail is a technical monopoly, no one else will be able to succeed in competition with the government. If it is not, there is no reason why the government should be engaged in it. The only way to find out is to leave other people free to enter. —Milton Friedman, Friedman, Milton & Rose D. Capitalism and Freedom, University of Chicago Press, 1982, 29 Friedman made headlines by proposing a negative income tax to replace the existing welfare system and then opposing the bill to implement it because it merely supplemented the existing system rather than replace it. In 2005, Friedman and more than 500 other economists called for discussions regarding the economic benefits of the legalization of marijuana.[33] Michael Walker of the Fraser Institute and Friedman hosted a series of conferences from 1986 to 1994. The goal was to create a clear definition of economic freedom and a method for measuring it. Eventually this resulted in the first report on worldwide economic freedom, Economic Freedom in the World. This annual report has since provided data for numerous peer-reviewed studies and has influenced policy in several nations. Along with sixteen other distinguished economists he opposed the Copyright Term Extension Act and filed an amicus brief in Eldred v. Ashcroft.[34] Friedman argued for stronger basic legal (constitutional) protection of economic rights

Other work
He was also a key member of the team during World War II that developed a new proximity fuse for anti-aircraft projectiles, which prevented shells from going off unless they were near the object they are meant to destroy.[28]

Public policy positions
Friedman was in favor of abolishing the Federal Reserve System and replacing it with a mechanical system in nature that would keep the quantity of money going up at a steady rate, issued directly by the government and cutting back on fractional reserve banking powers for the banks. He also supported libertarian policies such as decriminalization of drugs and prostitution. Milton Friedman was a leading proponent of a volunteer military, stating that the draft was "inconsistent with a free society".[29] In Capitalism and Freedom, he argued that conscription is inequitable and arbitrary, preventing young men to shape their lives as they see fit.[30] During the Nixon administration he headed the committee to explore a move towards a paid/volunteer armed force. He would later state that his role in eliminating the conscription in the United States was his proudest accomplishment.[31] Friedman did, however, believe a nation could compel military training as a reserve in case of war time.[30] He served as a member of President Reagan’s Economic Policy Advisory Board in 1981. In 1988, he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the National Medal of Science. He said that he was a libertarian philosophically, but a member of the U.S. Republican Party for the sake of "expediency" ("I am a libertarian with a small ’l’ and a Republican with a capital ’R.’ And I am a Republican with a capital ’R’ on grounds of expediency, not on principle.") But, he said, "I think the term classical liberal is also equally applicable. I don’t really care very much what I’m called. I’m much more interested in having people thinking about the ideas, rather than the person."[32] Friedman was supportive of the state provision of some public goods that the market is not seen as being able to provide. However, he argued that many of the services performed by government could be


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and freedoms in order to further promote industrial-commercial growth and prosperity and buttress democracy and freedom and the rule of law generally in society.[35]

Milton Friedman
philosophy in a lecture at La Universidad Católica de Chile, saying: "free markets would undermine political centralization and political control."[39] Friedman also met with the military dictator, President Augusto Pinochet, for 45 minutes during his visit. He did not serve as an advisor to the Chilean government, but did write a letter providing them with a plan to end hyperinflation. Later, Friedman said he believed that market reforms would undermine Pinochet.[40] Chilean graduates of the Chicago School of Economics and its new local chapters had been appointed to key positions in the new government soon after the coup, which allowed them to advise Pinochet on economic policies in accord with the School’s economic doctrine. According to his critics, Friedman did not criticize Pinochet’s dictatorship at the time, nor the assassinations, illegal imprisonments, torture, or other atrocities that were wellknown by then.[41] Later, in Free to Choose, he said the following: "Chile is not a politically free system and I do not condone the political system ... the conditions of the people in the past few years has been getting better and not worse. They would be still better to get rid of the junta and to be able to have a free democratic system."[42] See more under Criticism. Friedman defended his role in Chile on the grounds that, in his opinion, the move towards open market policies not only improved the economic situation in Chile but also contributed to the softening of Pinochet’s rule and to the eventual transition to a democratic government in 1990. That idea followed from Capitalism and Freedom, in which he declared that economic freedom is not only desirable in itself but is also a necessary condition for political freedom. He stressed that the lectures he gave in Chile were the same lectures he later gave in China and other socialist states.[43] In the 2000 PBS documentary The Commanding Heights, Friedman continued to argue that criticism over his role in Chile missed his main point that freer markets led to freer people, and that Chile’s unfree economy had led to the military government. Friedman suggested that the economic liberalization he advocated led to the end of military rule and a free Chile.[44]

Honors, recognition, and influence
Friedman allowed the Cato Institute to use his name for its Milton Friedman Prize for Advancing Liberty in 2001. The award is given out biannually. The Friedman Prize went to the late British economist Peter Bauer in 2002, Peruvian economist Hernando de Soto in 2004, Mart Laar, former Estonian Prime Minister in 2006 and a young Venezuelan student Yon Goicoechea in 2008. His wife Rose, sister of Aaron Director, with whom he founded the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice, served in the international selection committee. Friedman’s son, David D. Friedman, has carried on his tradition of arguing in favor of free markets, but to a further extreme, advocating anarchocapitalism.

Hong Kong
Friedman once said "if you want to see capitalism in action, go to Hong Kong".[36] He wrote in 1990 that Hong Kong economy was perhaps the best example of a free market economy.[37] One month before his death, he wrote the article "Hong Kong Wrong - What would Cowperthwaite say?" in the Wall Street Journal, criticizing Donald Tsang, Chief Executive of Hong Kong, for abandoning "positive noninterventionism".[38] Tsang later said he was merely changing the slogan to "big market, small government", where small government is defined as less than 20% of GDP. In a debate between Tsang and Alan Leong, rivals for the position of Chief Executive, Leong brought up the topic and accused Tsang of angering Friedman to death.

In 1975, two years after the military coup that toppled the government of Salvador Allende, the economy of Chile experienced a crisis. Friedman accepted the invitation of a private foundation to visit Chile and lecture on principles of economic freedom. He spent five days in Chile. Friedman encapsulated his


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Milton Friedman
Republic to the "Baltic Tiger". A prime element of Laar’s program was introduction of the flat tax. Laar won the 2006 Milton Friedman Prize for Advancing Liberty, awarded by the Cato Institute.[47]

Friedman visited Iceland in the autumn of 1984, met with prominent Icelanders and gave a lecture at the University of Iceland on the Tyranny of the Status Quo. He participated in a lively television debate on August 31, 1984 with leading socialist intellectuals, including Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson, who later became the president of Iceland.[45] When they complained that a fee was charged for attending his lecture at the University and that hitherto, lectures by visiting scholars had been free-of-charge, Friedman replied that previous lectures had not been free-ofcharge in a meaningful sense: Lectures always have related costs. What mattered was whether attendees or non-attendees covered those costs. Friedman thought that it was fairer that only those who attended paid. Friedman influenced a group of young intellectuals in the Independence Party, including Davíð Oddsson who became Prime Minister in 1991 and began a radical program of monetary and fiscal stabilization, privatization, tax rate reduction (e.g., lowering the corporate income tax rate from 45% to 18%), definition of exclusive use rights in fisheries, abolition of various government funds for aiding unprofitable enterprises and liberalization of currency transfers and capital markets. The Economic Freedom of the World index of Fraser Institute, a Canadian think tank that espouses free market principles, ranked Iceland as the 53rd freest economy in the world in 1975, and the 9th freest in 2004. In 2008, the Index of Economic Freedom of Heritage Foundation, an American conservative think tank, ranked Iceland’s economy as the 14th freest in the world. Davíð Oddsson was Prime Minister for thirteen and a half years, to 2004. The latest Prime Minister, Geir H. Haarde, supported similar policies until the collapse of his government following the failure of all major Icelandic banks during the credit crisis.[46].

Friedman has attracted substantial criticism from across the intellectual spectrum.

Paul Krugman
The Princeton University economist and fellow Nobel laureate Paul Krugman, while regarding Friedman as a "great economist and a great man," criticized him in 2007 by writing:[48] In the aftermath of the Great Depression, there were many people saying that markets can never work. Friedman had the intellectual courage to say that markets can too work, and his showman’s flair combined with his ability to marshal evidence made him the best spokesman for the virtues of free markets since Adam Smith. But he slipped all too easily into claiming both that markets always work and that only markets work. It’s extremely hard to find cases in which Friedman acknowledged the possibility that markets could go wrong, or that government intervention could serve a useful purpose. However, William Baumol and Alan Blinder, for example, repudiated this view, writing that "Friedman is surely no anarchist ... He recognizes that any society needs laws, and that legislation and enforcement of the law are proper roles for government in a free society."[49] Friedman himself acknowledged cases where, for instance, government regulation or a public monopoly may be preferred to private monopoly.[50] He noted numerous areas where he believed government intervention was necessary:[51] A government which maintained law and order, defined property rights, served as a means whereby we could modify property rights and other rules of the economic game, adjudicated disputes about the

Although Friedman never visited Estonia, his book Free to Choose exercised a great influence on that nation’s then 32-year-old prime minister, Mart Laar, who has claimed that it was the only book on economics he had read before taking office. Laar’s reforms are often credited with responsibility for transforming Estonia from an impoverished Soviet


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interpretation of the rules, enforced contracts, promoted competition, provided a monetary framework, engaged in activities to counter technical monopolies and to overcome neighborhood effects widely regarded as sufficiently important to justify government intervention, and which supplemented private charity and the private family in protecting the irresponsible ... would clearly have important functions to perform. The consistent [classical] liberal is not an anarchist.

Milton Friedman
into accepting unpopular neoliberal policies for the benefit of foreign multinational companies. With regard to Chile, she expanded on Orlando Letelier’s criticisms, arguing that repression was necessary to implement Chicago School economic policies there.[52] The libertarian author Johan Norberg published a critical response to Klein’s assertions, arguing that she "confuses libertarianism with the quite different concepts of corporatism and neoconservatism" and "she subjects Milton Friedman to one of the most malevolent distortions of a thinker’s ideas in recent history."[53]

Orlando Letelier
On his work in Chile, Friedman came under heavy criticism from the exiled Chilean Foreign Affairs Minister Orlando Letelier, who criticized Friedman’s economic theories. In 1976, Letelier wrote: It is curious that the man who wrote a book, Capitalism and Freedom, to drive home the argument that only classical economic liberalism can support political democracy can now so easily disentangle economics from politics when the economic theories he advocates coincide with an absolute restriction of every type of democratic freedom. —Orlando Letelier, "The Chicago Boys In Chile", The Nation, August 28, 1976 When he went to receive his Nobel prize in Stockholm, he was met by demonstrations. In an interview on the PBS program Commanding Heights in 2000, Friedman attributed these demonstrations by opponents he recognized from earlier occasions to communists seeking to discredit anyone with even the slightest connection to Pinochet — such as himself — adding that "there was no doubt that there was a concerted effort to tar and feather me".[44]

C.B. Macpherson
The political scientist C.B. Macpherson, in his essay, "Elegant Tombstones: A Note on Friedman’s Freedom,", challenged the assumptions underlying Friedman’s conception of “freedom”. For Macpherson, capitalism was discordant with freedom. For Friedman, freedom is negative and is seen as an absence of constraints or freedom of choice; whereas for Macpherson, and other modern liberals, freedom is positive and is defined as the freedom to develop ones fullest human potential. [54] Friedman believed that if most of the regulatory and welfare activities of Western states were discontinued freedom would be advanced. This is true if one follows the negative sense of freedom, but not so if one follows the positive version of Macpherson. [55] Macpherson also contends that the coercion in capitalism is that people cannot choose not to be in a capitalist society. They can, of course, choose to change jobs it they want, but they cannot choose not to work. [56] The workers need money but cannot barter; therefore, they are coerced into the monetary system. Furthermore, the voluntary nature of the exchange is only evident in cases of perfect competition where each product is the same and there are an infinite number of suppliers. For Friedman, economic freedom needed to be protected because it ensured political freedom.[57] .For proof he cites historical examples that demonstrate where the largest amount of political freedom is found the economic model has been capitalist. Macpherson counters that the 19th century examples that Friedman uses actually show that political freedom came first and those who gained this

Naomi Klein
In her book The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism, the writer Naomi Klein accuses Friedman of being complicit in military coups in countries such as Chile and Indonesia, as well as the invasion of Iraq, that were used as a way to shock the population


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freedom, mainly property owning elites, used this new political freedom for their own best interests which meant to open the doors to unrestrained capitalism. It follows then, that capitalism will only be maintained as long as those who have political freedom deem it worthwhile. As the 19th century progressed and suffrage was expanded, there were corresponding restraints placed upon capitalism. "[58] Friedman also contended that where socialism links economics with politics, economics cannot act as a check on political power. Macpherson countered that there is little evidence that economics does check political power. In fact, in many cases political power becomes subservient to economic power in the capitalist system.

Milton Friedman
they point me in that direction." He said he actually would "like to abolish the Fed," and points out that when he has written about the Fed it is simply his recommendations of how it should be run if it exists.[61]

Personal life
Friedman died of a heart attack in 2006.[62] He was survived by his wife, Rose Director Friedman, and two children, Janet and David. According to Milton Friedman by Lanny Ebenstein this great man "after an intense burst of childhood piety, rejected religion altogether".

See also
• Works of Milton Friedman • List of economists • List of notable Presidential Medal of Freedom recipients • History of economic thought

Murray Rothbard
In 1971, libertarian economist Murray Rothbard wrote a lengthy article for The Individualist which heavily criticized several of Friedman’s viewpoints as totalitarian and statist. In particular, Rothbard criticized Friedman’s viewpoint that the micro- and macro-spheres are entirely separate, with the government needing to take an active role in the macrosphere, as false and dangerous, the view that it is beneficial for the government to control currency to maintain constant price levels as bogus and harmful, and the viewpoint that nonpaying beneficiaries of positive externalities created by various services should be taxed to pay producers of that service as an absurd position that opens the door for the most ridiculous forms of totalitarianism. More generally, he criticizes Friedman’s efforts to make the government more efficient as highly detrimental to individual liberty, and concludes that "And so, as we examine Milton Friedman’s credentials to be the leader of free-market economics, we arrive at the chilling conclusion that it is difficult to consider him a free-market economist at all."[59] It should be noted, however, that some of Friedman’s positions changed since 1971 when this criticism was made, including his stances on governmental control of money.[60] In a 1995 interview in Reason magazine he said the "difference between me and people like Murray Rothbard is that, though I want to know what my ideal is, I think I also have to be willing to discuss changes that are less than ideal so long as


[1] ^ "Milton Friedman on". Nobel Prize. 1976. nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/1976/. Retrieved on February 20, 2008. [2] "Milton Friedman, a giant among economists". The Economist. November 23, 2006. business/ displaystory.cfm?story_id=8313925. Retrieved on February 20, 2008. [3] Nobel prize winner Paul Krugman explains, "In 1968 in one of the decisive intellectual achievements of postwar economics, Friedman not only showed why the apparent tradeoff embodied in the idea of the Phillips curve was wrong; he also predicted the emergence of combined inflation and high unemployment...dubbed ‘stagflation.” Paul Krugman, [ books?id=GcmvijkDrEcC&pg=PA43&lpg=PA43&dq= Peddling Prosperity: Economic Sense and Nonsense in an Age of Diminished Expectations (1995) p 43 online] [4] Milton Friedman (1912-2006) [5] "Capitalism and Friedman". The Wall Street Journal. November 17, 2006. feature.html?id=110009260. Retrieved on August 22, 2008.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[6] Václav Klaus (January 29, 2007). "Remarks at Milton Friedman Memorial Service". clanek.asp?id=3DpXss5H9RJv. Retrieved on August 22, 2008. [7] Sullivan, Patricia (November 16, 2006). "Milton Friedman, tireless promoter of free markets, dies". Washington Post. sharedcontent/dws/bus/stories/ 111706dnbusfriedman.33895ae.html. Retrieved on February 20, 2008. [8] Theroux, David J. (November 18, 2006). "Milton Friedman (1912-2006)". The Independent Institute. article.asp?id=1853. Retrieved on February 22, 2008. [9] Feeney, Mark (November 16, 2006). "Nobel laureate economist Milton Friedman dies at 94". The Boston Globe. city_region/breaking_news/2006/11/ nobel_lauriet_e.html. Retrieved on February 20, 2008. [10] Friedman 1999, p. 59 [11] "Right from the Start? What Milton Friedman can teach progressives." (PDF). J. Bradford DeLong. 20070308_108-115.delong.FINAL.pdf. Retrieved on February 20, 2008. [12] Bernanke 2004, p. 7 [13] Friedman 1999, p. 42 [14] Friedman 1999, pp. 84–85 [15] Schmidt, Mark (July 29, 2002). "National Taxpayers Union". Nationals Taxpayers Union. press.php?PressID=256&org_name=NTU. Retrieved on February 20, 2008. [16] Friedman & 1999 113 [17] Hawkins, John. "Interview with John Hawkins". Right Wing News. interviews/friedman.php. Retrieved on February 20, 2008. [18] CATO, "Letter from Washington," National Review, 19 September 1980, Vol. 32 Issue 19, p 1119 [19] "The PRC Fund". The PRC Fund. Retrieved on February 20, 2008. [20] "Milton Friedman: An enduring legacy". The Economist. November 17, 2006.

Milton Friedman

displaystory.cfm?story_id=8190872. Retrieved on February 20, 2008. [21] Sullivan, Patricia (November 17, 2006). "Economist Touted Laissez-Faire Policy". The Washington Post. content/article/2006/11/16/ AR2006111600592.html. Retrieved on February 20, 2008. [22] Friedman, Milton (January 22, 2007). "Email from a Nobel Laureate". Opinion Journal. ?id=110009561. Retrieved on February 20, 2008. [23] Wall Street Journal, The Romance of Economics, TUNKU VARADARAJAN, Saturday, July 22, 2006 feature.html?id=110008690 [24] Christie, Jim (November 16, 2006). "Free market economist Milton Friedman dead at 94". Reuters. article/ousiv/idUSWBT00621920061116. Retrieved on February 20, 2008. [25] Ambrose, Jay (November 22, 2006). "Milton Friedman’s legacy". a-413909~Jay_Ambrose__Milton_Friedman_s_legacy. Retrieved on February 20, 2008. [26] Stigler, George (March 15, 2003). Memoirs of an Unregulated Economist. University Of Chicago Press. pp. 34. [27] Charlie Rose Show. December 26, 2005. [28] ^ The Life and Times of Milton Friedman - Remembering the 20th century’s most influential libertarian [29] Rostker, Bernard (2006). I Want You!: The Evolution of the All-Volunteer Force. Rand Corporation. pp. 4. ISBN 9780833038951. [30] ^ Friedman, Milton (November 15, 2002). Capitalism and Freedom. University Of Chicago Press. pp. 36. [31] Doherty, Brian (1995-06). "Best of Both Worlds". Reason Magazine. 29691.html. Retrieved on February 20, 2008. [32] "Friedman and Freedom". Queen’s Journal. Archived from the original on August 11, 2006. web/20060811115145/ article.php?point=vol129/issue37/ features/lead1. Retrieved on February


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20, 2008. , Interview with Peter Jaworski. The Journal, Queen’s University, March 15, 2002 – Issue 37, Volume 129 [33] "An open letter". Prohibition Costs. endorsers.html. Retrieved on February 20, 2008. [34] "In the Supreme Court of the United States". Harvard Law School. eldredvashcroft/supct/amici/ economists.pdf. Retrieved on February 20, 2008. [35] A New British Bill of Rights: The Case For, ISR Online Guides [1] [36] Ingdahl, Waldemar (March 22, 2007). "Real Virtuality". The American. march-0307/real-virtuality/. Retrieved on February 20, 2008. [37] Friedman, Milton; Friedman, Rose (1990). Free to Choose: A personal. Harvest Books. p. 34. ISBN 0156334607. [38] Friedman, Milton (October 6, 2006). "Dr. Milton Friedman". Opinion Journal. feature.html?id=110009051. Retrieved on February 20, 2008. [39] "Interview with Jeffery Sachs on the "Miracle of Chile"". PBS. commandingheights/shared/minitextlo/ ufd_reformliberty_full.html. Retrieved on February 20, 2008. [40] "Commanding Heights: Milton Friedman". PBS. wgbh/commandingheights/shared/ minitext/int_miltonfriedman.html#10. Retrieved on December 29, 2008. [41] O’Shaughnessy, Hugh (December 11, 2006). "General Augusto Pinochet". The Independent. obituaries/general-augustopinochet-427998.html. Retrieved on February 20, 2008. [42] "Free to Choose Vol. 5". Free to Choose. 1980_vol5_transcript.html. Retrieved on February 20, 2008. [43] Friedman 1999, pp. 600-601 [44] ^ "Milton Friedman interview". PBS. commandingheights/shared/minitextlo/

Milton Friedman
int_miltonfriedman.html. Retrieved on February 20, 2008. [45] Friedman, Milton; Grímsson, Ólafur Ragnar. Milton Friedman on Icelandic State Television in 1984. [46] Gissurarson, Hannes H. (November 29, 2004). "Article on Icelandic economic miracle". The Wall Street Journal. 040Compecon/Scand/Iceland/ 040129prosper.htm. Retrieved on February 20, 2008. [47] "Mart Laar". Cato Institute. laar/. Retrieved on February 20, 2008. [48] The New York Review of Books, Who Was Milton Friedman?, February 15, 2007 [49] William Baumol and Alan Blinder, Economics: Principles and Policy, Second Edition, 1982, pp. 807. [50] Friedman, Milton (November 15, 2002). Capitalism and Freedom. University Of Chicago Press. pp. 28–29. [51] Friedman, Milton (November 15, 2002). Capitalism and Freedom. University Of Chicago Press. pp. 34. [52] Naomi Klein, The Shock Doctrine, Metropolitan Books, New York, NY 2007. [53] Norberg, Johan. "Defaming Milton Friedman: Naomi Klein’s disastrous yet popular polemic against the great free market economist", Reason Magazine. October 2008 [54] Friedman, Milton. Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962. Pg 6. [55] Macpherson, C.B. "Elegant Tombstones: A Note on Friedman’s Freedom." Democratic Theory: Essays in Retrieval. Claredon: Oxford, 1973. Pg 156. [56] Macpherson, C.B. "Elegant Tombstones: A Note on Friedman’s Freedom." Democratic Theory: Essays in Retrieval. Claredon: Oxford, 1973. Pg 147. [57] Friedman, Milton. Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962. Pg 5. [58] Macpherson, C.B. "Elegant Tombstones: A Note on Friedman’s Freedom." Democratic Theory: Essays in Retrieval. Claredon: Oxford, 1973. Pg 148. [59] Murray Rothbard, "Milton Friedman Unraveled". Originally printed 1971 in The Individualist. Reprinted in the Journal of Libertarian Studies, Fall 2002.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[60] Ebeling, Richard. M., [ freedom/0399b.asp "Monetary Central Planning and the State, Part 27: Milton Friedman’s Second Thoughts on the Costs of Paper Money" [61] Brian Doherty, "Best of Both Worlds. Interview with Milton Friedman," Reason Magazine, June 1995 [62] sknews.php?id=202

Milton Friedman
1867-1960. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691003548.

External links
• PBS interview, profile and video • Charlie Rose interview. December 12, 2006. • Autobiography at • Biography at • Complete text of Capitalism and Freedom at • Free to Choose Documentary • Milton Friedman: Supply Of Money • IDEAS/RePEc • The Case for Free Trade by Milton and Rose Friedman • Milton Friedman:Why Not a Volunteer Army? • Selected Bibliography for Milton Friedman, University of Chicago Library. Persondata NAME Friedman, Milton ALTERNATIVE None NAMES SHORT American economist, pubDESCRIPTION lic intellectual, nobel laureate DATE OF BIRTH PLACE OF BIRTH DATE OF DEATH PLACE OF DEATH July 31, 1912 Brooklyn, New York City, New York, United States November 16, 2006 San Francisco, California, United States of America

• Bernanke, Ben (2004), Essays on the Great Depression, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0691118205 • Friedman, Milton (1999), Two Lucky People: Memoirs, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0226264157

Further reading
• Ebenstein, Lanny (January 23, 2007). Milton Friedman: A Biography. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1403976279. • Enlow, Robert (September 25, 2006). Liberty & Learning: Milton Friedman’s Voucher Idea at Fifty. Cato Institute. ISBN 1930865864. • Friedman, Milton (November 15, 2002). Capitalism and Freedom. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226264211. • Friedman, Milton (November 26, 1990). Free to Choose: A Personal Statement. Harvest Books. ISBN 0156334607. • Friedman, Milton (February 1, 2008). Milton Friedman on Economics: Selected Papers. University of Chicago Press Journals. ISBN 0226263495. • Friedman, Milton (November 1, 1971). Monetary History of the United States,

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Milton Friedman

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