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      CHEMICAL PROCESS TECHNOLOGY
      SEMESTER PROJECT | GROUP NO 6




      Beverage Industry
              (Carbonated Drinks)


  Ammar Hussain, Hassam Wajahat, Osama Hasan,
   Oun Hasan Syed, Zainab Mazhar, Zohair Ahmed



                    Spring ‘10


                    Instructor
                Dr. Noaman ul Haq


School of Chemical and Materials Engineering (SCME)
National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST)
              H-12 Campus, Islamabad
                                                                              i


Summary




  The article paper focuses on the evolution of carbonated drinks dating
 back to fourteenth century. It also discusses the effect of technological
revolution, it variations over decades and challenges and development in
                                 Pakistan.

Further it focuses on the raw materials used in the industry, their quality
  and sources, followed by the processing of the raw materials and the
       process that lead to the final product i.e. carbonated drink

 The report also includes a survey showing the demand of the product.

A list of brands and companies doing business in Pakistan is also given in
                               appendix.
                                                                            ii


Acknowledgements




We are thankful to Almighty Allah for His unlimited blessings and bounties;
                for keeping us sane, sound and successful,

             Our parents for all their support and trust in us,

 Our Instructor Dr. Noaman ul Haq, for all his guidance and appreciation,

    Engr. Muhammad Asif (Coca Cola Beverages Pakistan Limited) and

            Mr. Iftikhar Ahmad (Riaz Bottlers Private Limited),

                  for all their support and coordination

and all our teachers, friends and colleagues for their help in completion of
                                this report.
                                                                                                                                                                          iii
Table of Contents
SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................................... I

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .................................................................................................................................... II

TABLE OF CONTENTS ...................................................................................................................................... III

LIST OF FIGURES .............................................................................................................................................. V

LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................................................... VI

1       INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................................... 1

    1.1         Evolution of Beverages and Carbonates ......................................................................................................1

2       BEVERAGE INDUSTRY .............................................................................................................................. 2

    2.1     Consumption Patterns of Beverages ............................................................................................................2
    2.2     Advancement in Carbonates Production .....................................................................................................3
    2.3     Technological Development.........................................................................................................................3
    2.4     Rise in Demand ............................................................................................................................................4
    2.5     Challenges and Perceptions .........................................................................................................................4
    2.6     Beverage Industry in Pakistan ......................................................................................................................5
       2.6.1 Slower Growth with Decreasing Purchasing Power .................................................................................5
       2.6.2 Increasing Consumption of Diet Products and Bottled Water .................................................................5
       2.6.3 PepsiCo Inc Remains Market Leader with New Product Launches ..........................................................6
       2.6.4 Increasing Purchases at Department Stores and Discounters .................................................................6
       2.6.5 Steady Growth with Stiff Competition .....................................................................................................6

3       THE SURVEY ............................................................................................................................................ 7

4       RAW MATERIALS ..................................................................................................................................... 8

    4.1     Basic Raw Materials ..................................................................................................................................... 8
       4.1.1 Water .......................................................................................................................................................8
       4.1.2 Sugar ........................................................................................................................................................8
       4.1.3 Acids .........................................................................................................................................................8
       4.1.4 Emulsions .................................................................................................................................................8
       4.1.5 Saponins ...................................................................................................................................................8
       4.1.6 Additives ..................................................................................................................................................9
       4.1.7 Flavorings .................................................................................................................................................9
       4.1.8 Preservatives ............................................................................................................................................9
       4.1.9 Chlorine ....................................................................................................................................................9

5       INDUSTRIAL PROCESSING OF BEVERAGES ............................................................................................... 10

    5.1     Production of Beverages ............................................................................................................................10
    5.2     Water Treatment .......................................................................................................................................10
       5.2.1 Water Sources ........................................................................................................................................11
       5.2.2 Water Treatment ...................................................................................................................................11
       5.2.3 Sand Filtration........................................................................................................................................ 11
       5.2.4 Coagulation ............................................................................................................................................ 12
       5.2.5 Alkalinity Reduction ...............................................................................................................................12
                                                                                                                                                                          iv
       5.2.6 Membrane Filtration ..............................................................................................................................12
       5.2.7 Chlorination ........................................................................................................................................... 13
       5.2.8 Iron Removal ..........................................................................................................................................13
       5.2.9 Nitrate Removal .....................................................................................................................................14
       5.2.10    Water Polishing .................................................................................................................................14
       5.2.11    U.V Systems .......................................................................................................................................14
       5.2.12    Ozone technology ..............................................................................................................................14
       5.2.13    De-aeration........................................................................................................................................14
    5.3     Syrup Preparation ...................................................................................................................................... 14
    5.4     Carbon dioxide and Carbonation ...............................................................................................................15
       5.4.1 Commercial Production of Carbon dioxide.............................................................................................15
       5.4.2 Recovery from Flue Gas .........................................................................................................................16
    5.5     Modern Filling Systems ..............................................................................................................................16
       5.5.1 Modern Carbonation Systems................................................................................................................17
       5.5.2 Counter Pressure Fillers..........................................................................................................................17
       5.5.3 Glass Bottle Filling..................................................................................................................................18
       5.5.4 PET Bottles ............................................................................................................................................. 18
    5.6     Can Filling ...................................................................................................................................................18

6       EQUIPMENT AND MACHINERY ............................................................................................................... 19

7       ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES ...................................................................................................................... 20

8       HEALTH AND SAFETY ............................................................................................................................. 22

    8.1     The Food Safety Management System (FSMS) ..........................................................................................22
       8.1.1 Policy ......................................................................................................................................................22
       8.1.2 HACCP ....................................................................................................................................................22

BIBLIOGRAPHY .............................................................................................................................................. 25

APPENDIX A .................................................................................................................................................... A

APPENDIX B .................................................................................................................................................... D

APPENDIX C .................................................................................................................................................... E
                                                                                                                                 v


List of Figures

Figure 1 Consumption Patterns of Beverages in US (2008) (Dolcera, 2009) .................................. 2
Figure 2 Survey Results for Baverage Patterns (NUST)................................................................... 6
Figure 3 Survey Breakups for Baverage Patterns (NUST) ............................................................... 7
Figure 4 Beverage Production Cycle ............................................................................................. 10
Figure 5 Water Treatment Process ............................................................................................... 11
Figure 6 Syrup Manufacture Process ............................................................................................ 15
Figure 7 Recovery of CO2 from flue gas ........................................................................................ 16
Figure 8 Group photo with our mentor from ccbpl ........................................................................ d
Figure 9 group photo with our mentors from RBL, Lahore ............................................................ e
                                                                                                                       vi
List of Tables

Table 1 The Types of Beverages (Wikipedia®, 2010) ..................................................................... 1
Table 2 Annual Beverage Consumption in USA (2008) (Dolcera, 2009) ......................................... 2
Table 3 Production lines AT Coca-Cola Beverages Pakistan Limited (Lahore).............................. 19
Table 4 Production Lines at Riaz Bottler’s (Private) Limited......................................................... 19
Table 5 List of PakistaniBeverage Brands (Jamal's, 2008) .............................................................. a
                                                                                              1


1 Introduction

1.1 Evolution of Beverages and Carbonates
Water is an essential need of the human body. Most of the biological functions are based on
appropriate consumptions of water per day (eight glasses for a normal human being). Its
shortage (Dehydration) leads to problems like malfunctioning of kidney and excretion problems
etc. Beverages were developed as an alternate to meet the body’s fundamental requirement
for hydration. A classification list of beverages is given in Table 1.

Prior to twentieth century, European cities were highly affected from cholera, dysentery and
other waterborne illnesses. Contaminated with several micro-organisms, water was hazardous.
Therefore Barley waters, Lemonades and orangeades were used to fulfill body’s hydration
requirement.

Scientific development and considerable investigations on gases paved way towards
carbonated drinks. Joseph Priestley (who is widely credited for discovery of oxygen) dissolved
carbon dioxide in water under pressures to produce carbonated waters artificially.
Commercially, mineral waters were the first beverage product to hit market followed by
carbonated drinks synonymous with “aerated mineral water”.

The first commercial artificially carbonated water product dates back to late eighteenth century
(Steen, 2006). Recommended for the consumption of lemon juice and soda water for stomach,
it was sold in tightly corked glass bottles.

Early effervescent drinks were manufactured by mixing sodium bicarbonate solution with
lemon juice or lime juice. This mixture can cure scurvy and therefore became a very strong
reason for its use in on board a ship. Thus were used for medicinal pedigree to a greater or
lesser extent. Examples include quinine tonic water, used as a cure for malaria in tropical
regions. (Steen, 2006)
                        TABLE 1 THE TYPES OF BEVERAGES (WIKIPEDIA®, 2010)

 Types of Beverages                                     Examples
Alcoholic                 Beer, Champagne etc
Non Alcoholic             Low Alcohol beer, non-alcoholic wine, apple cider etc
Soft Drinks               Carbonated Drinks, Lemonade, Squash, fruit juices, squashes etc
Cold Beverages            Milkshakes, Iced Tea, Cold Coffee etc
Hot Beverages             Tea, Coffee, Hot Chocolate etc
Others                    Buttermilk, Soup, Yogurt etc
                                                                                         2


2 Beverage Industry
2.1 Consumption Patterns of Beverages
The average annual beverage consumption of US population as per according to the 2008
Beverages Market Research Handbook is as under:
                                      CONS
              TABLE 2 ANNUAL BEVERAGE CONSUMPTION IN USA (2008) (DOLCERA, 2009)

                                 Annual Beverage Consumption
                                   Beverage                  Percentage
                          Carbonated Soft Drinks                26.22
                          Bottled Water                         14.36
                          Tap Water                              13
                          Beer                                  11.34
                          Coffee                                11.24
                          Milk                                  10.87
                          Fruit Beverages                       6.97
                          Tea                                   4.11
                          Wine                                  1.14
                          Distilled Spirits                     0.73


                                             Distilled
                                 Tea, 4.11 Spirits, 0.73
                         Fruit                                      Carbonated
                     Beverages, 6.          Wine , 1.14                 Soft
                          97                                        Drinks, 26.22


                        Milk, 10.87

                     Coffee, 11.24


                              Beer, 11.34
                                                  Tap Water, 13
                                                                            Bottled
                                                                          Water, 14.36




           FIGURE 1 CONSUMPTION PATTERNS OF BEVERAGES IN US (2008) (DOLCERA, 2009)
                                                                                              3
2.2 Advancement in Carbonates Production
The Industrial Revolution gave new life to the production of carbonates. A process of
continuous development was made and implemented. Several patents and trademarks were
filed and registered and a new boom was driven. The per unit production in mid nineteenth
century varied from 100 dozen bottles per day to 300 dozen bottles per day from manual to
steam powered units.

Near the end of nineteenth century, most of the common carbonated soft drinks of today were
already on sale. Dr. John S. Pemberton combined Cola (or Kola; was a nut from West Africa
which was used by Nigerians as a symbol of hospitality) and Coca (an extract from South
American coca leaf) to produce Coca-Cola or ‘brain tonic’ (Coca-Cola, 2010). Near the same
time, Pepsi-Cola was launched by Caleb D. Bradham. (Steen, 2006) (Pepsi, 2010)

2.3 Technological Development
In early eighteenth century it was evident that brewery fermentation, wood combustion and
acid addition to marble/chalk resulted in the production of same gas. Initially, the most widely
implemented means of commercial production was by the action of sulphuric acid on marble
chippings. Crushed marble was cheap and readily available in bulk quantities. But low quality of
marble resulted in noticeable ‘off flavors’ in the finished drinks. Therefore manufacturers
introduce filters and scrubbers to remove taints. Bubbling of the produced gas through olive oil
was also practiced for removing organic taints. This increased the cost and later was replaced
marble chippings were replaced by sodium bicarbonate.

Sweeteners proved to be the drivers for growth of carbonate industry. Saccharin was a popular
sweetener for carbonates, usually blended (50-50) with sugar for cost reduction. With
popularity of low calorie carbonates, a blend of 1 part saccharin to 10 parts cyclamate produced
a good tasting low calorie sweetener system. Saccharin leaves an unpleasant bitter after taste
when used as a sole sweetener. The quantity of carbon dioxide in a carbonated drink has a
pronounced affect upon its character and flavor impact.

Initially, naturally carbonated waters were collect into earthen ware containers, which were
tightly sealed with cork and wax. The failure occurred when highly carbonated waters reacted
with the material and thus caused a replacement by glass bottles. These glass bottles initially
were hand blown and needed a skilled labor. The glass bottles were firstly sealed with wooden
corks which later were replaced with screw stoppers and finally crown corks.

The main factor which played a significant role in the expansion of carbonate industry in the
latter half of the twentieth century was technology. This is evident from the development of
cans, plastic bottles and improvements in the distribution systems. With the introduction of
railways and steam ships in 1800’s the transport of drinks was made very easy. As time passed,
                                                                                            4
trade expanded to vaster regions which added to the cost. To reduce this trade was considered
on a local scale. The number of companies has reduced greatly to reduce the cost and this is
evident as it is now under 100 which are lesser than the initial 400. (Steen, 2006)

In a similar manner to avoid costs the number of bottling plants have also reduced quite
drastically from an impressive 7000 to roughly around 3500m, with more stress on recycling
plants. This is due to the improved productivity. PE bottles are now being recycled to improve
the efficiency and productivity. Other means of improving productivity consists of using shrink
wraps instead of crates or boxes, using micro processor controlled equipment, using automatic
machines in preference to manual power, a centralized computer controlled system and an
automatic tracing system.

2.4 Rise in Demand
 The growth of carbonates has not only increased in the west but this trend has also reached in
Asia in countries like china as well as reaching south-East Asia in the subcontinent in India.
Carbonates have dominated the soft drink market and the carbonates market is dominated by
cola. In 2004, the scale of carbonate consumption internationally was a massive 193,000 million
liters. However, research conducted shows that in the recent times the number of carbonates
produced are on the decline.

Three factors contributed largely to the popularity of the carbonates and these included:
marketing, lifestyle and technology. The use of powerful images to advertise their brands have
interested the public significantly. This has further been supplemented by the easily availability
of carbonated drinks. With advancement in technology, the result has led greatly to cost
savings. As cans and bottles are recycled raw material is saved. Use of automatic machinery has
further aided this process making it cost effective. An interesting statistic tells us that in 1998
the price of carbonated drinks fell by 1% in the UK despite the inflation being 12% (Steen,
2006). This was only possible due to the awareness of saving the costs and the introduction of
the modern technology.

2.5 Challenges and Perceptions
Despite the success of modern carbonated drinks an increased hostility and a concern is raised
amongst the people. Environmentalists consider the packaging of carbonated drinks as a source
of waste and litter adding to the pollution. Other serious concerns have resulted recently with
an increase in carbonated drinks which are focused and shown by the media. These include
obesity (especially in children). The carbonated drinks are considered as “junk food”. Most of
the ailments are thought to be caused because of a carbonated drink. Many countries are
taking steps of banning carbonated drinks altogether from schools. Another research has
proven that excessive intake of carbonated drinks cause disruptive behavior in a child and
reduces his learning abilities. Another theory states that the intake of carbon dioxide in the
                                                                                           5
body affects the calcium which is an essential element of the body and thus has serious
consequences on the bone density and structure. Many anti carbonated drinks campaigns are
taking place in various countries of the world. Due to these reasons figures have shown that
carbonated drinks in the recent times have reduced significantly while sales of diet drinks,
juices and water are on a rise.

As time has evolved low calorie carbonates are being produced. Now artificial sweeteners are
used in place of sugars which reduce the chances of serious diseases that can have severe
consequences on the human body like diabetes In the future it is expected that this trend will
be followed and number of carbonated drinks will reduce and substituent like mineral water or
juices will raise considerably.

2.6 Beverage Industry in Pakistan
The beverage industry in Pakistan has grown over the time. The industry produces soft drinks,
juices, syrups, milk, and squashes. With about 170 units currently in operation throughout the
country, both upstream and downstream industries have grown and are flourishing (Ahmed,
2003). Pakistan’s soft drinks industry is set to experience volume sales growth of 30.5% till
2010. (Business Wire, 2007)

Beverages, the second largest segment consists of various brands of tea. Beverages share in net
sales and operating profit during 2008 was at 32% and 18%, respectively. Net sales of the
segment posted a healthy growth of 22% in 2008 to PKR 9.6 billion. Sharp increase of 24% in
Kenyan tea prices as well as depreciation of domestic currency reduced the margins of the
segment to 23% in 2008 from 28% in 2007. Lipton is the key brand in beverages segment of
Unilever Pakistan. A leading carbonated drink brand has its annual sale up to 175-180 million
crates. (First Capital Equities Ltd, 2010)

2.6.1 Slower Growth with Decreasing Purchasing Power
The economic crisis hit Pakistan hard, and the consumer purchasing power dropped
significantly. Carbonated drinks volume growth slowed down due to increasing poverty, and
rising unit prices have also put downward pressure on volume growth. Competition has
increased with the wide availability of imported products and additional products from local
manufacturers. (Euromonitor International, 2009)

2.6.2 Increasing Consumption of Diet Products and Bottled Water
Consumer demand for ‘diet’ products has increased. New products from international
companies which are major share holders in carbonates have been well received and imported
products in the juices category have also attracted a lot of consumer attention. On the other
hand, bottled water consumption has increased with the deteriorating water supply in urban
areas and increasing health consciousness. (Euromonitor International, 2009)
                                                                                               6
                  Remains Market Leader with New Product
2.6.3 PepsiCo Inc R               eader
      Launches
PepsiCo Inc has introduced new diet product that has been well received and supported by
good marketing activities. This new launch will help PepsiCo Inc to increase its share in the
market and prove to be tough competition for Diet Coke. Juices manufacturers have taken their
lead from Nestle by offering 100% concentrate products across the country. Bottling companies
                                                                         at
are facing stiff competition from local unregistered companies that sell at cheap prices in lower
class, urban areas. (Pepsi, 2010) (Euromonitor International, 2009)

                  urchases                tores
2.6.4 Increasing Purchases at Department Stores and Discounters
Department store chains are aggressively opening up branches in different areas of the country.
This gives consumers a choice, but creates a competitive environment for carbonated drinks
manufacturers. With rising poverty and reduced disposable income, people prefer to shop at
             owned
government-owned discount stores and big department stores that give discounts on bulk    bu
purchases. Distribution has reached the rural areas, especially in terms of juices, because
companies are searching for new areas where they can increase their market shares.
(Euromonitor International, 2009)

              rowth
2.6.5 Steady Growth with Stiff Competition
During the forecast period increasing competition with new innovative products and more
imports will see the consumption rate grow at a good pace, but unit price growth will be slower
as the overall poverty level increases in the country. This will in turn, slow down value growth.
Distribution to more rural areas is likely to improve. Companies will introduce innovative new
products in order to retain their share in the competition against imported products.
(Euromonitor International, 2009)

A survey was carried out by the team to observe the trends for preferences of beverages.
Following results were observed:


                                   Beverage Priorities
                                  Milk
                                  22%


                                                     Fruit Juice
                          Drink                         60%
                          18%




                                                                       ST)
                      FIGURE 2 SURVEY RESULTS FOR BAVERAGE PATTERNS (NUST)
                                                                                                      7
3 The Survey

Why turnover of carbonated water industry is more even though most people prefer fruit
juices?

 Stats revealed that overall 60% of people from all age groups preferred fruit juices as their first
priority of a beverage. Despite this the turnover of carbonated water is more than that of the
                          veral
fruit juices. There are several factors behind this abnormal trend. The reasons are as follows:

         Carbonated water is preferably the most served drink in the festive occasions of our
         culture such as marriages, parties and other public gatherings.
                                             requires
         Sub continental food being spicier requires a carbonated drink to aid in digestion.
         The soft drink industries use the technique of marketing to attract consumers especially
         amongst the younger generations who when attracted to such advertisements instantly
         go and buy the products.

            oft
Thus the soft drink industry has more turnover than the juice industry despite the people
                                     water n
preferring juice over the carbonated water, in our survey done by the authors. (Ahmed, 2003)


   80%


   70%


   60%


   50%
                                                                                        Fruit Juice
   40%                                                                                  Drink
                                                                                        Milk
   30%


   20%


   10%


    0%
           Female below 25   Male below 25   Female above 25    Male above 25


                       FIGURE 3 SURVEY BREAKUPS FOR BAVERAGE PATTERNS (NUST)
                                                                                               8
4 Raw Materials

4.1 Basic Raw Materials
The basic raw materials in a carbonated beverage industry are:

•   Water
•   Sugar Syrup
•   Concentrate
•   Carbon Dioxide

4.1.1 Water
It is water which is made carbonated by the addition of carbon dioxide gas under pressure.
Carbon dioxide and water form carbonic acid. Commercial soda water in siphons is made by
chilling filtered plain water to 8 degrees Celsius, adding sodium or potassium based alkaline
compound such as sodium bicarbonate to reduce acidity, and then pressurizing the water with
carbon dioxide, known as Carbonation. The gas dissolves in the water, and a top-off fill of
carbon dioxide is added to finally pressurize the siphon to approximately 120 psi (pounds per
square inch), some 30 or 40 psi higher than is present in fermenting champagne bottles. Soda
water is often manufactured on-site using devices known as carbonators. Carbonators utilize
filtered water and pressurize it to approximately 100 psi using mechanical pumps. The
pressurized water is stored in stainless steel vessels and CO2 is injected into the water
producing carbonated water. (Sof)

4.1.2 Sugar
Sugar makes up 7-12% of a soft drink. Sugar adds sweetness and body to the beverage. Sugar
also balances flavor and acids. High-intensity sweeteners are combined with sugar and other
sweeteners and flavors to improve the beverage.

4.1.3 Acids
Acids add sharpness to the background taste. The most common acid used is citric acid. Acid
also reduces ph level.

4.1.4 Emulsions
They are added to carbonated drinks primarily to enhance “eye appeal” by serving as clouding
agents. Emulsions are mixtures of liquids that are normally incompatible. They consist of water-
based elements, such as gums, pectins, and preservatives; and oil-based liquids, such as flavors,
colors, and weighing agents.

4.1.5 Saponins
                                                                                              9
They enhance the foamy head of certain carbonated drinks, like cream soda and ginger beer.

4.1.6 Additives
They enhance taste, mouth-feel, aroma, and appearance of the beverage.

4.1.7 Flavorings
They may be natural, natural identical (chemically synthesized imitations), or artificial
(chemically unrelated to natural flavors). It also provides the required smell or fragrance.

4.1.8 Preservatives
In order to stop the growth of microorganisms and prevent deterioration, preservatives are
added. Anti-oxidants, such as BHA and ascorbic acid, maintain color and flavor.

4.1.9 Chlorine
Impurities in the water are removed through a process of coagulation, filtration, and
chlorination. Coagulation involves mixing floc into the water to absorb suspended particles. The
water is then poured through a sand filter to remove fine particles of Roc. To sterilize the
water, small amounts of chlorine are added to the water and filtered out.
                                                                                              10
5 Industrial Processing of Beverages

5.1 Production of Beverages
The production of the beverages starts from the preparation of simple syrup (solution of sugar
and water). In other words, the simple syrup is prepared by making a solution of sugar and
water; the combined product is well stirred in the mixing machine with the aid of agitator. The
simple syrup is then taken via pipes into another mixing machine in the compartment called
“Syrup Room”. Here the syrup is added to concentrate in order to prepare the refined syrup.
The addition of simple syrup and the concentrate gives the soft drink otherwise known as the
beverage. The type of the concentrate (flavor) added to the simple syrup gives the
corresponding beverage. The final beverage is prepared by diluting the mixture with
carbonated water and then bottled.

Prior to the bottling of the carbonated beverage, the bottles are subjected to through
sanitation processes; the carbonated beverage is filled accordingly into the bottles of various
volumes. Subsequently, the bottles are corked, labeled and stored into crates.


  Water Purification                        Sugar                             Syrup



         Bottling                       Carbonation                       Concentrate


                               FIGURE 4 BEVERAGE PRODUCTION CYCLE


5.2 Water Treatment
All carbonated drinks contain 90% of water. Thus, the quality of water used in a soft drink must
be the same for each bottle of a drink in order to meet the international standards. As water is
the main constituent in a carbonated drinks; hence, the taste of a drink relies heavily on the
quantity of water that is being used. In order to maintain the high standards of a beverage
industry, the water has to go through a number of quality tests and processes before being
used in a beverage. There is always a risk to the consumers and the business, if a low quality or
contaminated water is used in a beverage manufacturing.

Water is famously known as a universal solvent. It can dissolve almost anything, from industrial
chimney sulphur to soil contaminants. During the hydrological cycle, water picks up such
                                                                                                11
constituents and gets contaminated. It is therefore required to first clean the water before
                             water
using it as a solvent. Hence water treatment carries great significance in a beverage industry.

Each company has its own method of water treatment which depends on their individual
standards. These methods have been developed after several trial and error methods.

5.2.1 Water Sources
Town main streams are major sources of industrial use water. However, there are multiple
underground water sources as well. It totally depends on the availability of each respective
source as to which one is used by a beverage industry. Economics play a major role while
choosing a water source.

Boreholes are a source of underground water supply. They provide very consistent water
quality that too at a constant temperature. Additionally boring water is more supportive for
                                           beverage industry.
carbonation, which is a major process at a b

5.2.2 Water Treatment
Water irrespective of the source has to meet the company’s standards. Thus, water treatment
is done at a large scale. Firstly, Sand filtration is done to remove any insoluble particulates in
water followed by the process of Carbon Filtration which removes any organic matter from
water. These are the two most basic water treatment methods which are generally adopted by
every beverage industry. Later, water polishing is done to remove cryptosporidium. Hardness of
                                                           ultra-filtration
water is removed by any of the three coagulation, ultra filtration or ion exchange. Ultra     Ultra-
Filtration or Ion exchange methods are preferred by modern industries. Later, chlorination is
done to kill any bacteria, viruses or moulds in water. This is followed by carbon filtration, which
removes any chlorine traces present in water. Finally, water is disinfected by passing Ultra  Ultra-
Violet (UV) light through it.


    Sand Filtration         Carbon Filtration             Polishing              Ultrafiltration




                               Ultra Violet
                                                      Carbon Filtration           Chlorination
                                Filtration


                                  FIGURE 5 WATER TREATMENT PROCESS


5.2.3 Sand Filtration
A typical sand filter comprises of a carbon steel vessel containing a sand bed of gravel. There
are five to six valves in a sand filter. Lateral pipes are installed just below the gravel. Water is
                                                                                                12
fed into the vessel from top, ensuring that it is distributed evenly through the sand bed, in
order to achieve better separation.

The solid impurities are held back in the sand bed while the water is allowed to pass through
the bed. For maintenance purpose the sand bed needs to be backwashed, later. This removes
the collected impurities of water from the bed and ensures better efficiency of the sand bed.
This is done on weekly basis.

5.2.3.1 Specifications of a Sand filter
For a 20m3/h vessel, 330kg of graded sand is placed on top of an 1800kg gravel bed. Five valves
are placed that are operated either automatically or manually, according to the need. For
cleaning the bed the filter is equipped with a pressure relief vent. It allows back washing of the
bed to remove collected impurities. To avoid contamination steel pipes are used in the sand
filter.

5.2.4 Coagulation
Colloids are fine particles present in suspensions. They have opposite charges which prevent
them from coalescing together and make them more difficult to separate them from a solution.
Silts, Viruses and Color causing particles are all examples of colloids.

By the process of Coagulation such impurities are removed from water. An electrolyte is added
to water, this causes these oppositely charged particles to flock and eventually settle down in a
suspension. Aluminum Sulphate is a famous electrolyte used for coagulation process. Ferric
Chloride can also be used as an alternate. Known amount of electrolyte is added to know
volumetric flow rate of water to produce sludge. Special care needs to be taken while deciding
the amount of electrolyte being added to water, because excess electrolyte may increase the
turbidity of water. After adding the electrolyte the solution is mixed for 30 minutes. Then the
flocks are removed by a weir. Hydrating lime is added, to control the pH of water.

5.2.5 Alkalinity Reduction
 Alkalinity directly affects the taste of the carbonated drinks. Usually, the higher the alkalinity
of water the butter its taste is. Alkalinity is related to the hardness of water as well. Metallic
ions such as calcium and magnesium are primarily responsible for the hardness of water. Ion
exchange technique is adopted to reduce the alkalinity of water.

5.2.6 Membrane Filtration
 A membrane is a semi permeable barrier between two solvents that allows only certain
particles to pass through, thus causing separation. Transport through a membrane is achieved
due to electrical, potential, concentration, pressure or chemical differences. The flow
containing components retained in the filter is called Retenate flow. While the component that
passes through the membrane is called Permeate flow.
                                                                                                13
Raw water is fed through the membrane where it only allows smaller particles and ions to pass
through it. Most large colloids get separated because they cannot pass through the minute
sieves of the membrane. To reduce the burden on membrane, the water is first passed through
a filter to remove large colloids. Three types of systems exist; Reverse Osmosis, Nano-filteration
and Ultra-filtration. Ultra-Filtration removes 1000 molecular weight organic matter. It can be
used instead of Coagulation.

Nano-filtration is done at a lower scale. It is adopted specially for salty water where reverse
osmosis is ineffective. It can remove hardness, bacteria, viruses and other organic
contaminants. It has lower operating cost and can very well be used in place of Salt softening
technology.

Reverse Osmosis is the most efficient method of water purification, as it can remove anything.
It is based on the principle of semi permeable membrane. Between each membrane layer there
is a mesh separator. A pre-treatment is always required to remove water’s turbidity. It is also
used to meet the Bio-chemical oxidation demand.

Carbon filtration is always done before membrane separation to remove any metal ions present
in water. Metals ions such as calcium, magnesium and chlorine can easily blind the membrane.
They may block the flow of passing water.

With the period of time membrane gets inefficient and its efficiency of filtration decreases.
Then cleaning of membrane is required. This is done by recirculation of water with a cleaning
agent through the membrane for an hour. Reverse osmosis systems are cleaned by sterilizing it
under U.V systems. After maintenance a membrane works at 90% efficiency. The operating cost
depends on three factors Labor, Power and Chemistry.

5.2.7 Chlorination
Chlorination discourages bacteria growth in water. Chlorine of known concentration is added to
water for a long period of time. Amount of chlorine to water needs to be monitored closely to
avoid any excessive use of chlorine. For this purpose a feedback control system is installed.
Liquid chlorine is preferably used instead of gaseous chlorine because it is more convenient and
the dosage can be controlled much more easily. After chlorination water is passed through a
carbon filter to remove any traces of chlorine.

5.2.8 Iron Removal
Excess iron may discolor water to red, yellow or brown. At the same time it is essential for
transporting oxygen in water. Hence, optimum quantity of iron in water is 0.3 ppm. There are
two form of iron present in water; Soluble and Insoluble. Insoluble iron is first converted to
soluble iron by aeration or chlorination and then filtration is done to remove iron sludge in
water.
                                                                                                   14
5.2.9 Nitrate Removal
Nitrate content in water may cause corrosion in packed bottles and may also cause serious
illness among infants. Diseases like asthma and baby blue syndrome are common due to excess
nitrate content in water. Leaching, Sewage, Leakage in industries and wearing of rocks may lead
to high nitrate content in river water. Nitrates are highly soluble in water making it more
difficult to remove them from water. Usually, Ion exchange, Reverse osmosis, Distillation, Bio-
de Nitrification and Electro-dialysis are adopted for nitrate removal.

5.2.10 Water Polishing
Filtration is used for polishing water. Carbon or Sand filters are generally used for this purpose.
For achieving greater polishing effect, polypropylene dept filters may be used. Another
alternative are filter bags, which have lower operating cost. Kalsep fibrotex unit can also be
used. It contains numerous fibers bundled together around a central core.

5.2.11 U.V Systems
Ultra violet spectrum in light is an anti-bacterial agent. It can disinfect moulds, bacteria and
viruses. When U.V light from a source lamp passes through water it kills bacteria present in
water.

5.2.12 Ozone technology
Ozone is capable of destroying bacteria, moulds, and other organic matter present in water. It
reacts with these species donating and oxygen hence restricting their growth. It can also
remove calcium, arsenic and other metal ions present in water. In order to purify water an
Ozone generator is utilized. Ozone level is measure via oxidation reduction potential meter or
with a direct read measurement in ppm. The later is preferred due to its accuracy. Additionally,
ozone can improve the taste of water and simultaneously reduce its hardness. Later, water is
passed through a carbon filter to remove any un-reacted ozone.

5.2.13 De-aeration
Usually, de-aeration plant reduces the amount of dissolved oxygen in water to <0.5ppm. This is
done to reduce the risk of deterioration in water.

Two main methods of de-aeration are Vacuum and Reflux or both. During the process water is
sprayed into a vacuum tank, and then it is pumped into another tank that is pre-filled with
carbon dioxide gas. This whole process is knows as Reflux de-aeration.

5.3 Syrup Preparation
Syrup is one of the most important ingredients of the carbonated drinks. Syrup is simply a
mixture of sugar and water that is added to the drink to give it a sweet taste.
                                                                                             15
Sugars from the warehouse are placed in the sugar bunkers and are then transferred to the
dissolving tanks. In dissolving tank sugar is mixed with water at a temperature of about 85°C
and 800-1500 mPa pressure. The syrup is then transported to activated carbon tank where the
color and smell of the syrup is removed by the action of carbon. To remove the carbon present
in the syrup carbon filtration is done in hot pre-coat filter. The syrup is then transferred to
buffer tank and through heat exchanger (where its temperature is dropped to 15-20°C) the final
syrup is stored in the storage tank.


                                     Activated Carbon
   Sugar Warehouse                                                        Buffer Tank
                                           Tank


       Sugar Bunker                    Reaction Tank                    Heat Exchanger

       Dissolving Tank                                                    Storage Tank
                                     Hot Pre-coat Tank
           (80°C)                                                          (15 - 20°C)


                              FIGURE 6 SYRUP MANUFACTURE PROCESS


5.4 Carbon dioxide and Carbonation
As discussed before, Carbonated Drinks are combination of carbonated water and syrups.
Water is carbonated by passing carbon dioxide under pressure through water.

Discovered by Jan Baptist van Helmont, Carbon dioxide is a gas denser than air. It is colorless,
nontoxic and inert gas. Available at reasonable cost, carbon dioxide is virtually tasteless and
soluble in liquids forming carbonic acid. Its solubility increases as the liquid temperature
decreases.

5.4.1 Commercial Production of Carbon dioxide
Carbon Dioxide, the major raw material of carbonated beverage industry, is commercially
produced by following processes:

   •     Combustion of Fuel Oil
   •     Recovery of Flue Gas
   •     Thermal Decomposition of Limestone
   •     Fermentation (as a byproduct)
   •     From Waste gas streams
   •     Membrane Separation
                                                                                                  16
5.4.2 Recovery from Flue Gas
Flue gases are the exhaust gases removed to atmosphere from a fireplace, oven, furnace, boiler
or steam generator. Combustion reaction is the main origin of flue gases. Compositions of flue
gases varies with the material being burnt, but it usually contains Nitrogen (more than two
 hird),
third), Carbon dioxide, Water Vapor, Oxygen (in case of access air supply), and small ratios of
pollutants like Sulfur Dioxide, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Monoxides and particulate matter.




    Flue gas         Condensation                      Absorption       Stripping     Carbon dioxide
                                        Scrubbing




                              FIGURE 7 RECOVERY OF CO 2 FROM FLUE GAS

      ecovery
The recovery of carbon dioxide from flue gas is a multi stage process. The feed is flue gases
source either gas oil or natural gas fired steam boilers or a specially designed flue gas
                                                                            efficiency by increasing
production unit. The flue gas is first cooled using water spray (for higher e
the flue gas humidity) and then scrubbed to remove the unwanted particles. A Dry Scrubbing
System (Dry Sorbent Injection) is commonly employed. It involves the addition of an alkaline
                                                stream
material (Soda Ash in this case) into the gas stream to react with the acid gases (SO2 or NOx).
The reactions results into formation of solid salts which are removed in the particulate control
devices.

            illing
5.5 Modern Filling Systems
In the modern era the filling systems for the carbonated beverages are based on simple
principles. Some factors have to be kept in mind when designing a filling system and these
include optimum performance during filling, high filling accuracy and preserving the maximum
                                                                  influence
product quality. Some factors have to be kept in mind which influence the quality of the
product that is to be filled includes:

•   Gas constituents present in the beverages
•   Pressure during filling
•   Temperature
•   Viscosity

The most important consideration for effective filling of carbonated beverages are to maintain
          nt,
the content, control the beverage temperature during filling and prevent the oxygen pick up.
Carbon dioxide must be prevented from coming out of the solution during filling by keeping a
                                                                            requir
fixed pressure of 1 bar which is higher than the saturation pressure for required beverage
                                                                                              17
carbon dioxide content. Care should be taken that the beverages are given sufficient amount of
time to settle prior to filling. If the precautions are taken it can have certain advantages and
these include:

•   Carbon dioxide loss in the beverage is avoided
•   Carbon dioxide consumption can accurately be adjusted
•   The filling and settling times can be optimized
•   Product losses are prevented

Despite carbon dioxide content of the beverage which has a major effect on the performance
and economics of the filling process oxygen maintenance also plays a role in the preservation of
the beverage quality. Oxygen pick up in the beverages must be controlled. Pressure plays an
important role because it depends on the required carbon dioxide of the beverage. The correct
pressure prevents carbon dioxide from coming out of the solution. Temperature is also an
important parameter because at lower temperatures carbon dioxide solubility is better. Due to
these factors the gas consumption is reduced and thus adds to economics as the cost is
reduced. (Steen, 2006)

The filling process depends on several phases and these include evacuation, flushing with gas,
pressurizing with gas, filling with one speed or two speeds, fill level correction and settling.
(eHow.com, 2010)

5.5.1 Modern Carbonation Systems
 The most important considerations for effective filling of carbonated beverages include
maintaining the content of carbon dioxide, controlling the beverage temperature during filling
and also preventing the oxygen pick up. The carbon dioxide is injected in the enclosed tank and
equilibrium between the gases and the liquid is maintained. The content of carbon dioxide
required in the tank depends on the pressure and the temperature of the beverage. The higher
the carbon dioxide content required the higher is the saturation pressure and also the
temperature will be higher. The carbon dioxide content of the beverage has a major influence
on the performance as well as the cost efficiency of the filling process.

5.5.2 Counter Pressure Fillers
Carbon dioxide is absorbed under pressure and remains in solution while kept under pressure.
The pressure required in the process depends on the content of carbon dioxide in the beverage
and also the temperature. During filling process he filler bowl must be kept under the
appropriate pressure. The beverage has to be handled correctly in order to prevent the carbon
dioxide from coming out of solution due to agitation.
                                                                                                  18
5.5.3 Glass Bottle Filling
Some requirements are essential for the filing of glass bottles and these are as listed:

•   Bottle handling to the filler in feed
•   Bottle handling around the filler
•   Lifting the bottle to the filling valve
•   Air removal from the bottle prior to filling

Bottle handling to the filler in feed must be carefully controlled to avoid bottle to bottle
contact. Bottle handling around the filler must be kept under complete control and this ensures
stability.

5.5.3.1 Bottle Burst Protection
When carbonated drinks are filled in glass bottles there is a risk of bottles bursting in the filling
machine under pressure. This breakage usually occurs if the bottle has some weak point or is
damaged in some way. It is essential to protect other bottles when a burst occurs on the filling
machine so the risk of a consumer finding a piece of glass in the bottle is minimized. The
fittings are fitted with stainless steel to prevent bursting.

The most likely place for a bottle to burst is the place where the pressure is applied. The steel
are arranged here to protect the bottle.

5.5.4 PET Bottles
The PET bottle was introduced in the beverage industry more than thirty years ago. This got
many advantages with it as a flexible lightweight consumer could now be used and these
bottles could easily be conveyed. They can easily store the gases and are much better than the
glass bottles.

5.6 Can Filling
The introduction of beverages filled in cans for the first time was introduced in 1994. The filling
of beverages in cans became very accurate. They store gases much better than the
conventional bottles and save much more time and therefore gained popularity. The beverage
is handled more smoothly in the cans.
                                                                                               19
6 Equipment and Machinery

With the advancement of technology in mechanical and electronics engineering, the beverage
manufacture industry has most benefitted. The production equipment which largely used to
depend on human resource became independent and the role of workers became mere
observation. Due to the increase in demand of the product and its requirement throughout the
year, high technology fast lines are installed. Most of the equipment is imported from Germany.
The new equipment is automatically blows PET bottles, Fills it with Drink, Fills Carbon dioxide,
Caps the Bottles and pack it in crates.

Local manufacturing is hardly found. However Riaz Bottlers (Pvt.) Limited were in an installation
phase of a local line.



            TABLE 3 PRODUCTION LINES AT COCA-COLA BEVERAGES PAKISTAN LIMITED (LAHORE)

    Installation         Product Quantity            Product Type            Product Particulars
                          (Cases per day)
      2000                    24,000                      RGB               Regular Glass Bottles
      2002                    12,000                      RGB                      --Do--
      2003                    12,000                      RGB                      --Do--
      2005                    48,000                      PET                  0.5 - 1.5 liters
     2009-10                 144,000                      PET                 1.5 – 2.25 liters
      2010                    44,000                      PET                     0.5 liters
      2011                    60,000
                                                                Procurement Phase
      2011                   144,000


                   TABLE 4 PRODUCTION LINES AT RIAZ BOTTLER’S (PRIVATE) LIMITED

                       Product Quantity                    Product Type
                       (crates per hour)
                            22000                               PET
                             6000                               PET
                            45000                               RGB
                                                                                              20
7 Environmental Issues

The environment has always been ignored by most of the industries over many decades but
because of the serious consequences it made now it is taken as a serious issue and now annual
reports are prepared on every company’s environmental risks.

The environmental risks include the following : energy use, emission of greenhouse gases,
water use and waste water generation, organic residues and packaging residues.

Most of the manufacturers in the beverage industry donot produce their raw materials, so they
donot contribute to the protection of the natural resources. Basically the safety and the quality
of the manufactured beverages greatly depend on the quality of various natural resources, so
the preservation of environment is very important to the industry. This preservation can be
defined in terms of the returned water to the environment, that can be via municipal treatment
plants. Another important issue is of the solid wastes, according to an estimation 1kg of
produced beverages generates residues between 5kg to 50 kg. Organic residues are a
significant part of the solid organic residues in the beverage industry.

The other major environmental issue is the emission of green house gases(GHGs). They
basically come from the combustion operation of the plant i.e the fossil fuel combustion which
releases gases like (CO2, CH4 and N2O). Other gaseous emissions comes from the processes
themselves which contains particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, solvents, ammonia
and halogens. The production of these green house gases directly depend on the consumption
of the energy in the respective plant i.e both are directly related to each other. A GHG emission
intensity indicator is used to find out the total amount of GHGs emitted per unit of production.
By the use of these indicators we can see that by using electrical power production the GHGs
emissions can be reduced.

Water plays a very important role in the manufacturing and processing of the beverages. The
beverage industry could not function if it didn’t had water for processes like cooling,
condensation, steam production and the disposal of certain wastes.

Some groundwater problems can arise because most of the beverage industries use
groundwater as a source of water they need for the production of their drinks. For example
several years ago it was because of a bottling plant that the surroundings did not had any safe
water supply for drinking purpose.
The groundwater in any case has to be treated by the industry before its usage and this is done
by several other processing units.
Groundwater is not the only problem, some beverage industries offload their waste sludge as a
free fertilizer which is contaminated with high levels of lead, chromium and cadmium. Other
solid wastes includes the organic waste of the industries which are actually the residual
materials and are of no use to the industry. An organic residue intensity indicator estimates the
amount of unsold organic matter per physical unit of manufactured product. This provides an
                                                                                            21
indication of the effectiveness of the process in terms of minimizing the amount of residues
generated. Recycling, if possible, can also produce a differential change in the quantities of
these solid wastes.

Another type of waste are the packaging wastes which are basically produced by their
consumption. Basically packaging wastes include glass, metal, plastic, paper, cardboard, and to
a lesser extent textiles and wood, these are basically the packaging materials themselves. The
packaging wastes are being reduced by using plastics instead of metal and glass and as we
know that plastics can be recycled and are lighter in weight, so they are of great use.

The centre for science and environment (CSE) says that it tested 57 carbonated beverages
made by Coca-Cola and Pepsi at 24 bottling plants and found a ‘cocktail of between three to
five different pesticides in all samples.’
Generally the research founds that beverage industries affects the water suppliance, but the
other environmental issues such as greenhouse gas emissions and the wastes like the chemical
additives and other organic residues, all are discussed above.

 Beverage industries are taking comprehensive steps to protect the environment while giving its
consumers a convenient, high quality product.
                                                                                              22
8 Health and Safety

As concerns over food safety and transparency continue to grow in the minds of consumers,
you are required to improve the processes you have in place that monitor quality and track
material through the facility. At each critical control point of the production process, systems
are being installed to monitor operations in order to verify that operations have been properly
executed. Systems are being implemented to track all raw and in-process material through the
entire facility to meet regulations and provide information if a product recall is required.

You may be looking at the vulnerability of the networks, automation and information systems
and implementing changes to protect your systems from intruders.

8.1 The Food Safety Management System (FSMS)
8.1.1 Policy
The starting point for this standard is to have a food safety policy. It must be relevant to the
company’s position in the food chain and meet the requirements of both customers and
regulatory bodies. Having decided on policy, it must then be supported by measurable
objectives.

In addition to the food safety policy, a Food Safety Team Leader must be appointed who,
regardless of other duties, must head up a Food Safety Team. This team must have multi-
disciplinary knowledge of the products, processes, equipment and food safety hazards.

In effect, this is the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) team but now with wider
responsibilities.

8.1.2 HACCP
The need for an assessment of the hazards associated with each material used is required.
There are seven principles and twelve steps required to complete and implement a HACCP
approach.

Principle 1 – Conduct a hazard analysis (identifying potential biological, chemical or physical
contamination that can affect health):

   •   A team of experts is assembled to draw up a full product specification, including its
       preservative regime, packaging and distribution method.
   •   Mode(s) of use for the product and potential misuses or uses by particularly vulnerable
       groups of the population must be identified.
   •   A flow diagram of all the steps in the production process must be constructed.
                                                                                                  23
   •   And an on-site verification of the flow diagram carried out
   •   All the potential hazards that may reasonably be expected to occur at each step of the
       process up to the point of consumption must be listed.


Principle 2 – Determine the critical control points (CCPs):

   •   A decision tree should be used to identify whether any particular point is a CCP or not.
   •   If there is no control measure in place at a CCP (or elsewhere to the same effect), then
       the process should be changed to implement one.


Principle 3 – Determine the critical limits:

   •   Limits should be set for each critical control point, sometimes several limits at one point.


Principle 4 – Establish a system to monitor control of the CCPs:

   •   It is necessary not only to monitor but also to control, that is, to take corrective action if
       trends show that the limits may soon be exceeded, or alternatively, the responsible
       person notified


Principle 5 – Establish the corrective action to be taken when monitoring indicates that a
particular CCP is not under control:

   •   Once a CCP limit has been exceeded, the corrective action is two-fold (as identified in
       ISO 9001).
   •   First, to identify the action to bring the process back into control. There is often a
       dilemma – does production continue to make a defective product because it is easier to
       adjust the process whilst it is running or, is the process stopped and a wasteful start-up
       procedure carried out after fixing the fault?
   •   Second, what to do with the product manufactured during the ‘out of control’ period.
       Such a product will need to be isolated, but how much and what can be done with it?


Principle 6 – Establish procedures to verify that the HACCP system is working effectively:

   •   Auditing the controls is an obvious verification activity but random tests or spot-checks
       can also reveal deficiencies
                                                                                         24
Principle 7 – Establish documentation concerning the procedures needed and keep appropriate
records:

   •   The tests carried out to demonstrate that CCPs are being monitored and are in control
       are the most obvious records.
   •   Procedures and training records for the persons carrying out the CCP monitoring need
       to be retained.
   •   In addition, those who carried out the HACCP study, their findings and decision-making
       process need to be documented
                                                                                                  25
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Ahmed Naeem Reflection [Report]. - Karachi : Daily Jang, 2003.

Business Wire Pakistan Food & Drink Report Q4 2006 [Online] // Business Wire. - Business
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20070629005236&newsLang=en.

Coca-Cola Coca-Cola United States [Online] // Coca-Cola. - The Coca-Cola Company, 2010. -
March 8, 2010. - http://www.coca-cola.com.

Dolcera Premium Coffee Market Segmentation [Online] // Dolcera. - August 6, 2009. - March 8,
2010. -
http://www.dolcera.com/wiki/index.php?title=Premium_Coffee_Consumers_Market_Segment
ation.

eHow.com How are Drinks Carbonated? [Online] // eHow.com. - eHow, Inc, 2010. -
http://www.ehow.com/how-does_5137671_drinks-carbonated.html.

Euromonitor International Soft Drinks in Pakistan [Online] // Euromonitor International. -
Euromonitor International, May 2009. - March 9, 2010. -
http://www.euromonitor.com/Soft_Drinks_in_Pakistan.

First Capital Equities Ltd Company Report [Online] // Daily Times - Leading News Resource of
Pakistan. - Unilever, February 07, 2010. - March 9, 2010. -
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March 8, 2010. - http://www.jamals.com/.

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Soft Drink [Online] // madehow.com. - Advameg, Inc. - http://www.madehow.com/Volume-
2/Soft-Drink.html#ixzz0hWPvcnQC.

Steen David P. Carbonated Soft Drinks Formulation and Manufacture [Book] / ed. Ashurst Philip
R.. - Chennai : Blackwell Publishing, 2006. - pp. 1-15.

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March 8, 2010. - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drink.
                                                                                         a


Appendix A

                TABLE 5 LIST OF PAKISTANIBEVERAGE BRANDS (JAMAL'S, 2008)


          Company               Product Range             Location and Contact
   1) Ahmed Foods (Pvt.)       Syrups and             Ahmed House, D-112, Ahmed
   Limited                     Squashes               Avenue, S.I.T.E, Karachi
                                                      (92 21) 32563524, 32563520,
                                                      afipkltd@cyber.net.pk
   2) Amrat Cola               Carbonated Drinks      House # 9, Main Double Road,
                                                      I-8/3, Islamabad
                                                      (92 51) 4449528, 4448735
   3) Al-Makka Cola            Carbonated Drinks      C-34, Sector 13-A, K.D.A.
                                                      Scheme 33, Karachi
                                                      (92 21) 34652567, 34656938
                                                      info@al-makkacola.com
   4) Coca-Cola Beverages      Carbonated Drinks      D-51, Estate Avenue, S.I.T.E.,
   Pakistan Limited            (Coca-Cola, Sprite,    P.O. Box 75700 Karachi
                               Fanta, Sprite 3G)      (92 21) 32576354, 32576351
   5) Continental Beverages    Carbonated Drinks      D-210, S.I.T.E., Estate Avenue
   (Pvt.) Limited              (RC Cola)              Karachi
                                                      (92 21) 32577001, 32577000
                                                      rccolapakistan@yahoo.com
   6) Frooto Industries        Juices                 C-1/A, S.I.T.E., Karachi
   (Pvt.) Limited                                     (92 21) 32582711, 32561393
                                                      msharif.frooto@yahoo.com
   7) Haleeb Foods Limited     Milk                   135, Ferozepur Road,
                                                      Lahore
                                                      (92 42) 37573128, 37573125
   8) Hamdard Laboratories     Syrups                 Al-Majeed, Hamdard Centre,
   (Waqf) Pakistan                                    Nazimabad-3, Karachi
                                                      (92 21) 36616001, 36620945
                                                      headoffice@hamdard.com.pk
   9) International            Carbonated Drinks      270, Sector 1-9, Industrial Area
   Beverages (Pvt.) Limited                           Islamabad
                                                      (92 51) 4411535, 4411533
                                                                                 b
10) Jannat Cola         Carbonated Drinks       51, Century Tower, Kalma
                                                Chowk, Main Boulevard,
                                                Gulberg-III, Lahore
                                                (92 42) 35846127, 35844135
11) Maaza Pakistan      Juices                  Plot #19-20,Sector-15,Korangi
(Pvt.) Limited                                  Industrial Area, Karachi
                                                (92 21) 35070849, 35071531
12) Mehran Bottlers     Carbonated Drinks       C/5-A,S.I.T.E.
(Pvt.) Ltd.             (Pakola, Apple Sidra,   Karachi
                        Bubble Up)              (92 21) 32570615, 32570614
                                                info@pakola.com.pk
13) Mitchell’s Fruit    Juices, Syrups          Mehran VIP-II Ground Floor,
Farms Limited                                   Plot 18/3, Dr. Dawood Pota
                                                Road, Karachi
                                                (92 21) 35219675, 35212112
                                                rsos@mitchells.com.pk
14) Murree Brewery      Lemonades(Original,     3-National Park Road, P.O. Box
Company Limited         Diet & Apple)           No. 13, Rawalpindi
                        Energy Drinks           (92 51) 5567041, 5567047
                                                murbr@isb.paknet.com.pk
15) Naurus (Pvt.)       Syrups, Juices and      C-1/B, Naurus Chowrangi,
Limited                 Squashes                Manghopir Road, S.I.T.E,
                                                Karachi
                                                (92 21) 32577853, 32577851
                                                npl@naurus-sundip.com
16) Nestle Pakistan     Juices                  Plot #15/1, Sector-15, Korangi
Limited                                         Industrial Area, Opp. Aslam
                                                Masjid, Karachi
                                                (92 21) 35021288, 35073940
                                                fahim.ahmed@pk.nestle.com
17) Pakistan Beverage   Carbonated Drinks       D-113, S.I.T.E., Manghopir
(Pvt.) Ltd.             (Pepsi, Dew, 7up,       Road, Karachi
                        Miranda)                (92 21) 32569801.32569805
                        Juices (Slice)          pak-beverage@cyber.net.pk
18) Pepsi-Cola          Carbonated Drinks       43-T, Gulberg-III, Lahore
International (Pvt.)    (Pepsi, Dew, 7up,       (92 42) 35872167, 35872162
Limited                 Miranda)                zahid.saleem@intl.pepsico.com
                        Juices (Slice)
                                                                                c
19) Popular Juice        Juices              311-313, Chapal Plaza, Hasrat
Industries Limited                           Mohani Road, Karachi
                                             (92 21) 32420223, 32420222
                                             popular@cyber.net.pk
20) Pure Foods           Syrups              Missan Kollar, Old Pindidas Rd.,
Company (Pvt.)                               17-km Sheikhupura Road,
Limited                                      Lahore
                                             (92 42) 37971121
                                             info@purefoodscompany.com
21) Qarshi industries    Syrups              Plot #56, 56/1-4, Phase-III,
(Pvt.) Limited                               Industrial Estate, Hattar,
                                             Haripur
                                             (92 995) 617173, 617373
                                             factory@qarshi.com
22) Shandy Cola          Carbonated Drinks   Plot # 129/7, Quaid-I-Azam
Pakistan                                     Industrial Area, Kit Lakhpat,
                                             TownShip, Lahore
                                             (92 42) 35213491, 35213495
                                             albottlers@gmail.com
23) Shezan               Juices, Syrups      L-9/22, F.B. Industrial Area,
International Limited                        Karachi
                                             (92 21) 36344722, 36344723
24) Tops Foods &         Fruit juices        3-National Park Road,
Beverages Limited                            Rawalpindi
                                             (92 51) 5567047, 5567041
                                             topsfood@ifb.paknet.com.pk
25) 7Up Bottler (Pvt.)   Carbonated Drinks   35-Industrial Area, Gulberg-III
Limited                                      Lahore
                                             (92 42) 35761244, 34761243
                                                                                              d
Appendix B

V ISIT TO C OCA -C OLA B EVERAGES P AKISTAN L IMITED (L AHORE )

On Friday 12th March, our group visited the Coca Cola Beverages Limited Located 23
Kilometers, Raiwand Road, Lahore. We were received by Mr. Muhammad Asif, the Line
Manager at unit. He entertained us and gave us valuable information regarding the processes
occurring in the factory. We were told about the Coca Cola Beverage Industry. “The bottling
unit was turned into an automatic plant in 2005”, shared Mr. Asif.

Information was provided on the setup structure of the industry. We were told about the
production planning, procurement, stores supply, production and about the warehouse of the
goods. The operation of the industry was told as well and after this our guide told us about the
Key Process Indicators. These included the Water treatment, syrup manufacture and the waste
water treatment.

After giving us a brief knowledge of the processes we were taken to see the manufacture of
Coke. We were taken in different rooms. Here we saw how the PET bottles were made, how
fast they were being filled, how they were being purified, how coke was being filled in them.
After seeing the production of fresh coke we were shown the packing and the storage of the
bottles. How they were dispatched and stored to be sent on so that it can be sent to the
consumers.

The visit was a highly entertaining one which taught us a great deal and gave us valuable
information regarding the production of coke and helped a great deal in our project on the
beverage industry.




                       FIGURE 8 GROUP PHOTO WITH OUR MENTOR FROM CCBPL
                                                                                                  e
Appendix C

V ISIT TO R IAZ B OTTLES P RIVATE L IMITED (L AHORE )

On Saturday 13th March, our group visited the Riaz Bottlers Limited situated in Gulberg, Lahore.
We were received by Mr. Iftikhar Ahmed, (Technical and Opertational Manager- PET), took us
to the tour of the unit and provided us with the valuable information regarding the processes.

We were lead to Water Treatment setup, Sugar storage, syrup manufacture, Concentrate
Storage, and Bottling area, followed by the Blowing Section for PET bottles.

Passing through the water treatment area, we were lead to Control Room of the section. P&ID
chart were shown followed by individual exhibition of process equipment.This was followed by
sugar storage and syrup room. Heat Exchanger equipment was used for cooling the
temperature of the concentrate both in syrup manufacture and syrup storage. Then we were
taken to mixing section, where all the raw materials are mixed in large mixers and are stored in
silos.Then we were directed to bottling area where we first saw the preparation of PET bottles.
Blowing machines were used for preparing the bottles from imported pre-form. Process was
catered at high temperature and pressure to obtain the required shape of the bottle.Further,
we saw the process of bottling in which prepared drinks were poured into the bottles. Three
types of bottling were going on depending on the speed of the movement of bottles.We then
visited the capping and crowning of different types of bottles, its labeling and finally the packing
in cartons and storage in the store houses before delivery.

The visit was a highly entertaining one which taught us a great deal and gave us valuable
information regarding the production of carbonated beverage and helped a great deal in our
project on the beverage industry.




                    FIGURE 9 GROUP PHOTO WITH OUR MENTORS FROM RBL, LAHORE

				
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