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Kabul

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					From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kabul

Kabul
Coordinates: 34°31′59″N 69°09′58″E 34.533°N 69.166°E / 34.533; 69.166
Kabul ‫لباک‬

/

Kabul City

the Hindu Kush mountains along the Kabul River. Kabul’s main products include munitions, cloth, furniture and beet sugar, but, since 1978, a state of nearly continuous war has limited the economic productivity of the city. Kabul is over 3,000 years old, many empires have long fought over the city for its strategic location along the trade routes of Southern and Central Asia. In 1504, Babur captured Kabul and used it as his headquarters until 1526, before his conquest of India. In 1776, Timur Shah Durrani made it the capital of modern Afghanistan.[5] The population of the city is predominantly Persian-speaking.[6][7]

History
The city of Kabul is thought to have been established between 2000 BCE and 1500 BCE.[8] In the Rig Veda (composed between 1700–1100 BCE) the word "Kubhā" is mentioned, which appears to refer to the Kabul River. There is a reference to a settlement called Kabura by the Persian Achaemenids around 400 BCE which may be the basis for the use of the name Kabura by Ptolemy.[9] Alexander the Great conquered Kabul during his conquest of the Persian Empire. The city later became part of the Seleucid Empire before becoming part of the Mauryan Empire. The Bactrians founded the town of Paropamisade near Kabul, but it was later ceded to the Mauryans in the 1st century BCE. According to many noted scholars, the Sanskrit name of Kabul is Kamboj.[10][11][12].[13][14] It is mentioned as Kophes or Kophene in the classical writings. Gazetteer of Bombay Presidency 1904 maintains that the ancient name of Kabul was Kambojapura, which Ptolemy (160 CE) mentions as Kaboura (from Ka(m)bo(j)pura?). Hiuen Tsang refers to the name as Kaofu, which according to Dr. J. W. McCrindle,[15] Dr Sylvain Lévi,[16] Dr. B. C. Law,[17] Dr. R. K. Mukkerji,[18] N. L. Dey[19] and many other scholars,[20] is equivalent to Sanskrit Kamboja (Kamboj/Kambuj). Kaofu was also the appellation of one of the five tribes of the

Kabul Province Coordinates Kabul 34°31′59″N 69°09′58″E / 34.533°N 69.166°E / 34.533; 69.166 2,994,000 (1st)
UN estimate of city proper

Population (2005)[1] City Districts Area - Elevation Time zone Mayor Chief of Police

18 sectors or boroughs

1,790 m (5,873 ft) UTC+4:30 Kabul Engineer Mir Abdul Ahad Sahebi General Mohammad Ayub Salangi[2]

Kabul (Persian ‫ لباک‬Kābul; /kɑː’bol/; Pashto: ‫/ لباک‬kɑbəl/)[3], (archaic Caubul), is the capital city of Afghanistan, with a population of approximately three million. The total metropolitan population of Kabul is almost 5 million people.[4] It is an economic and cultural centre, situated 5,900 feet (1,800 m) above sea level in a narrow valley, wedged between

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Kabul
Kabul-Shahan. Barhatkin was the first Shahi King [25] followed by King Khingala [26]about 5th Century . “ The Kabul rulers are probably ” identical with the so called Turk Shahi kings who are known from other sources , as for instance from the work of the earlier Islamic geographer , Abu Rahyan al-Biruni . This famous encyclopedic from Choresmia lived from AD 973 to about AD 1050 . and worked at the court of the later Islamic ruler of East Afghanistan , Mahmud of Ghazni. In his large work on India (Tarikh al hind ) , al Biruni tells that the Turkic kings of Kabul and Gandhara claimed descent from King Kanishk , while at the same time they boasted of their Tibetan origins . They reigned according to al Biruni for 60 generations. [27]

Kushano-Hephthalite Kingdoms in 565 CE. Yuechi who had migrated from across the Hindukush into Kabul valley around the Christian era.[21] According to some scholars, the fifth clan mentioned among the Tochari/ Yuechi may have been a clan of the Kambojas[22] The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom captured Kabul from the Mauryans in the early 2nd century BCE, then lost the city to their subordinates in the Indo-Greek Kingdom in the mid 2nd century BCE. Indo-Scythians expelled the Indo-Greeks by the mid 1st century BCE, but lost the city to the Kushan Empire nearly 100 years later. It was conquered by Kushan Emperor Kujula Kadphises in the early 1st century CE and remained Kushan territory until at least the 3rd century CE.[23][24] Kabul was one of the two capital cities of the Kushans. Around 230 CE the Kushans were defeated by the Sassanid Empire and were replaced by Sassanid vassals known as the Kushanshas or Indo-Sassanids. In 420 CE the Kushanshahs (Kushan kings) were driven out of Afghanistan by the Chionites tribe known as the Kidarites, who were then replaced in the 460s by the Hephthalites. The Hephthalites were defeated in 565 CE by a coalition of Persian and Turkish armies, and most of the realm fell to those Empires.

The rulers of Kabul-Shahan built a huge defensive wall around the city to protect it from invaders. This wall has survived until today and is considered a historical site. Around 670 CE the Turk Shahi were replaced by the Hindu Shahi dynasty. The Last Shahi Dynasty King Bhimpal was the son of Tirlochanpal , his death in ’1028 AD’ brought to an end the Hindu Shahi dynasty [28]

Islamic conquest
In 674, the Islamic invasions reached modern-day Afghanistan. Kabul to the east fell in 871 despite the heroic resistance of the Hindushahi.[29]. However, it was not until the 9th century when Ya’qub bin Laith as-Saffar, a coppersmith turned ruler, established Islam in Kabulistan. Over the remaining centuries to come the city was successively controlled by the Samanids, Ghaznavids, Ghorids, Timurids, Mughols, Durranis, and finally by the Barakzais. In the 13th century the Mongol horde passed through and took control of the area. It may have been around this time that the name "Kabul" was first given to the city.[30] A Moroccan traveller, Ibn Battuta, visiting Kabul in 1333 writes:[31] “ We travelled on to Kabul, formerly a vast town, the site of which is now occupied by a village inhabited by a tribe of Persians called Afghans. ”

Shahi Dynasty
Kabul became part of the surviving Shahi Kingdom of Kapisa, who were also known as

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In the 14th century, Kabul rose again as a trading center under the kingdom of Timur (Tamerlane), who married the sister of Kabul’s ruler at the time. But as Timurid power waned, the city was captured in 1504 by Babur and made into his headquarters or capital. Haidar, an Indian poet who visited at the time wrote "Dine and drink in Kabul: it is mountain, desert, city, river and all else."

Kabul
residents were again massacred. The invaders again came in 1879 under General Roberts, partially destroying Bala Hissar before retreating to India. Amir Abdur Rahman was left in control of the country. In the early 20th century, King Amanullah Khan rose to power. His reforms included electricity for the city and schooling for girls. He drove a Rolls-Royce, and lived in the famous Darul Aman Palace. In 1919, after the Third Anglo-Afghan War, Amanullah announced Afghanistan’s independence from foreign interventions at Eidgah Mosque. In 1929, Ammanullah Khan left Kabul because of a local uprising and his brother Nader Khan took control. King Nader Khan was assassinated in 1933 and his 19-year-old son, Zahir Shah, became the long lasting King of Afghanistan. Kabul University opened for classes in early 1930s, and in 1940s, the city began to grow as an industrial center. The streets of the city began being paved in the 1950s. In the 1960s, Kabul developed a cosmopolitan mood. The first Marks and Spencer store in Central Asia was built there. Kabul Zoo was inaugurated in 1967, which was maintained with the help of visiting German Zoologists. In 1969, a religious uprising at the Pul-e Khishti Mosque protested the Soviet Union’s increasing influence over Afghan politics and religion. This protest ended in the arrest of many of its organizers including Mawlana Faizani, a popular Islamic scholar. In July 1973, Zahir Shah was ousted in a bloodless coup and Kabul became the capital of a republic under Mohammad Daoud Khan, the new President. In 1975 an east-west electric trolleybus system provided public transportation across the city. The system was built with assistance from Czechoslovakia. After the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, on December 24, 1979, the Red Army occupied the capital. They turned the city into their command center during the 10-year conflict between the Soviet-allied government and the Mujahideen rebels. The American Embassy in Kabul closed on January 30, 1989. The city fell into the hands of local militias after the 1992 collapse of Mohammad Najibullah’s pro-communist government. As these forces divided into warring factions, the city increasingly suffered. In December, the last of the 86 city trolley buses came to a halt because of the conflict. A system of 800

Modern history
Nadir Shah of Persia invaded and captured the city in 1738 but was assassinated nine years later. Ahmad Shah Durrani, an Afghan military commander and personal bodyguard of Nader, took the throne in 1747, asserted Pashtun rule and further expanded his new Afghan Empire. His son Timur Shah Durrani, after inheriting power, transferred the capital of Afghanistan from Kandahar to Kabul in 1776.[32] Timur Shah died in 1793 and was succeeded by his son Zaman Shah Durrani. In 1826, the kingdom was claimed by Dost Mohammed and taken from him by the British Indian Army in 1839 (see Afghan Wars), who installed the unpopular puppet Shah Shuja. An 1841 local uprising resulted in the loss of the British mission and the subsequent Massacre of Elphinstone’s army of approximately 16,000 people, which included civilians and camp followers on their retreat from Kabul to Jalalabad. In 1842 the British returned, plundering Bala Hissar in revenge before retreating back to India. Dost Mohammed returned to the throne.

Aerial view of Kabul in 1969. The British invaded in 1878 as Kabul was under Sher Ali Khan’s rule, but the British

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public buses continued to provide transportation services to the city.

Kabul
Afghan National Police (ANP) and the Afghan National Army (ANA) provide security for most of the city.

Climate
Climate chart for Kabul J F M A M J J A S O N D

34 60 68 72 23 1

6.2 1.6 1.7 3.7 19 22 28 9 22 4 15 8 -1 -5

Kabul in 2008. By 1993 electricity and water in the city was completely out. At this time, Burhannudin Rabbani’s militia (Jamiat-e Islami) held power but the nominal prime minister Gulbuddin Hekmatyar’s Hezb-e Islami began shelling the city, which lasted until 1996. Kabul was factionalised, and fighting continued between Jamiat-e Islami, Abdul Rashid Dostum and the Hezbi Wahdat. Tens of thousands of civilians were killed and many more fled as refugees. The United Nations estimated that about 90% of the buildings in Kabul were destroyed during these years. Kabul was captured by the Taliban on September 26, 1996,[33] publicly lynching exPresident Najibullah and his brother. During this time, all the fighting between rival groups came to an end. Burhannudin Rabbani, Gulbuddin Heckmatyar, Abdul Rashid Dostum, Ahmad Shah Massoud, and the rest all fled the city. Approximately five years later, in October 2001, the United States invaded Afghanistan. The Taliban abandoned Kabul in the following months because of extensive American bombing, while the Afghan Northern Alliance (former mujahideen or millias) came to retake control of the city. On December 20, 2001, Kabul became the capital of the Afghan Transitional Administration, which transformed to the present government of Afghanistan that is led by US-backed President Hamid Karzai. Since the beginning of 2003, the city is slowly developing with the help of foreign investment. Security was provided by US (Operation Enduring Freedom) and NATO (ISAF) forces until late 2008. Currently, the

4 6 12 19 24 30 32 32 -7 -6 1 6 9 12 15 14 average temperatures in °C precipitation totals in mm source: [1] Imperial conversion J F M A M J J A

S

O

N

D

1.4 2.4 2.7 2.8 0.9 0

0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.9

39 43 54 66 75 86 90 90 82 72 59 46 19 21 34 43 48 54 59 57 48 39 30 23 average temperatures in °F precipitation totals in inches Kabul has a semi-arid climate with precipitation concentrated in the winter (in the form of snow) and spring months. Summers run from June to September and are moderate, with highs in the low 30s and very low humidity. The autumn months of October and November have moderate temperatures and low humidity. Winters are harsh, snowy and long, lasting from December to March. Spring in Kabul starts in late March and is the wettest part of the year.

Administration
Kabul City is one of the 15 districts of Kabul Province, and is divided into 18 sectors. Each sector covers several neighborhoods of the city. The number of Kabul’s sectors were increased from 11 to 18 in 2005. Unlike other cities of the world, Kabul City has two independent councils or administrations at once: Prefecture and Municipality. The Prefect who is also the Governor of Kabul Province is appointed by the Ministry of Interior, and is responsible for the administrative and formal issues of the entire province. The Mayor of Kabul City is selected

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by the President of Afghanistan, who engages in the city’s planning and environmental work. The police and security forces belong to the prefecture and Ministry of Interior. The Chief of Police is selected by the Minister of Interior and is responsible for law enforcement and security of the city.

Kabul
There is no official governmental data on the exact ethnic make-up of the city. However, it appears that the Persian-speakers form the majority of the city’s population, with Sunnite Tajiks being the largest group at approximately 45% [36][6][37], followed by Shi’ite Hazaras at 25%. Pashtuns, also Sunnite, form the most important and powerful minority due to their heavy representation in the Afghan political spectrum as well as in the military. There is also a sizable Turkicspeaking Uzbek minority in the city. There are also sizable numbers of Aimak, Baloch, Pashai, as well as Sikhs and Hindus who speak their native language as a mother tongue and Persian as a lingua-franca.

Transport
Map of Kabul City. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Shahr-e Naw (New City) Wazir Akbar Khan Macro Ryans (1, 2, 3 and 4) Khair Khana (1, 2 and 3) Dashti Barchi Kartey Sakhi Qalai Wazir Khushhall Khan Afshar Klola Pushta and Taimani Kartey Parwan Kartey Naw (New Quarter) Kartey (3 & 4) Darul-Aman Chehlstoon Chendawol Shahr-e Kohna (Old City of Kabul) Deh Buri Bibi Mahroo

The old terminal of Kabul International Airport which now serves domestic flights only. Kabul International Airport serves the population of the city as a method of traveling to other cities or countries. The airport is a hub to Ariana Afghan Airlines, which is the national airlines carrier of Afghanistan. Kam Air, Pamir Airways, and Safi Airways also have their hubs in Kabul. Turkish Airlines has recently signed a partnership contract with Ariana Afghan Airlines to make travel from Europe and the Americas to Afghanistan with less connection waits. Airlines from other nations also use the airport to arrive and depart. Firms based in Dubai are also investing in Afghan air travel. The new $35 million dollar international terminal, paid for by the government of Japan, opened in 2008 for full operation. The new terminal is the first of three terminals to be opened so far. The other two will open once air traffic to the city increases. For most passengers coming from Europe, Africa, Russia and North America, Istanbul is the connecting city for direct

Demographics
Kabul has a population between 2.5 to approximately 3 million people. The population of the city reflects the general multi-ethnic, multi-cultural, and multi-confessional characteristics of Afghanistan. According to the 2005 United Nations estimate, the population of Kabul City reached 2,994,000,[34] while according to the 2006 estimates from the Central Statistics Office of Afghanistan, it is at 2,536,300.[35]

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flights to Kabul. Passengers coming from the Middle East and the rest of Asia connect in Dubai for direct flights to Kabul. Direct flights between Kabul and Frankfurt have been put on a temporary hold until Ariana Afghan Airlines receives its five newer and safer Boeing planes, except for one Airbus that has weekly flights between the cities. Kabul Airport also has a military air base which serves as the main airport for the Afghan National Air Corps. NATO also uses the Kabul Airport, but most military traffic is based in Bagram, just north of Kabul. The Afghan National Army protects the airport. Kabul is linked with Ghazni, Kandahar, Herat and Mazar-e Sharif via a long beltway (circular highway) that stretches across the country. It is also linked by highways with Pakistan to the east and southeast and Tajikistan to the north. A highway is being rebuilt in the west to modern standards to link Afghanistan to Iran. Kabul has its own public buses (Millie Bus / "National Bus") that take commuters on daily routes to many destinations throughout the city. The service currently has approximately 800 buses but is gradually expanding and upgrading with more buses being added. Plans are underway to reintroduce the modern trolleybuses that the city once had. Besides the buses, there are yellow taxicabs that can be spotted just about anywhere in and around the city. The Kabul bus system has recently discovered a new source of revenue in whole-bus advertising from MTN similar to "bus wrap" advertising on public transit in more developed nations. There is also an express bus that runs from the city center to Kabul International Airport. Private vehicles are also on the rise in Kabul, with Land Rover, BMW, Toyota, Nissan and Hyundai dealerships in the city. More people are buying new cars as the roads and highways are being improved. The average car driven in Kabul is a Toyota Corolla. With the exception of motorcycles many vehicles in the city operate on LPG. Gas stations are mainly private-owned but the fuel comes from Iran. Bikes on the road are a common sight in the city.

Kabul
Afghan Ministry of Communications signed a US 64.5 million dollar agreement with a company (ZTE Corporation) on the establishment of a countrywide fibre optical cable network. This will improve telephone, internet, television and radio broadcast services not just in Kabul but throughout the country.[38] Internet was introduced in the city in 2002 and has been expanding rapidly. There are a number of post offices throughout the city. Package delivery services like FedEx, TNT N.V., DHL and others are also available. The city has many local language radio stations, including Pashto and Dari, as well as some programs in the English language. The Afghan government has become increasingly intolerant of Indian channels and the un-Islamic culture they bring and threaten to ban them. Besides foreign channels, the local television channels of Afghanistan include: • Ayna TV • Ariana TV • Ariana Afghanistan TV • Noor TV • Noorin TV • Tamadun TV • Shamshad TV • Tolo TV • Lemar TV • Saba TV • RTA

Education

Students of Sultan Razia School in 2002, which is for girls only. All public schools in Kabul reopened in 2002 and are improving every year. The majority of the city’s boys and girls are now attending classes. Some of the well known public schools are Amani High School, Durrani High

Communications
GSM/GPRS mobile phone services in the city are provided by Afghan Wireless, Etisalat, Roshan and MTN. In November 2006, the

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School, Ghulam Haider Khan High School, Sultan Razia School, etc. The city’s colleges and universities were also renovated after 2002. Some of them were recently developed while others existed since the early 1900s.

Kabul
Afghan National Gallery, Afghan National Archive, Afghan Royal Family Mausoleum, the OMAR Mine Museum, Bibi Mahroo Hill, Kabul Cemetery, and Paghman Gardens. Tappe-i-Maranjan is a nearby hill where Buddhist statues and Graeco-Bactrian coins from the 2nd century BC have been found. Outside the city proper is a citadel and the royal palace. Paghman and Jalalabad are interesting valleys north and east of the city.

Universities in Kabul
• • • • • • • Kabul University Kabul Polytechnic American University of Afghanistan National Military Academy of Afghanistan University of Afghanistan Kabul Medical University International School of Kabul

Tourism and sightseeing
The old part of Kabul is filled with bazaars nestled along its narrow, crooked streets. Cultural sites include the Afghan National Museum, notably displaying an impressive statue of Surya excavated at Khair Khana, the ruined Darul Aman Palace, the Mausoleum of Emperor Babur and Chehlstoon Park, the Minar-i-Istiqlal (Column of Independence) built in 1919 after the Third Afghan War, the mausoleum of Timur Shah Durrani, and the imposing Id Gah Mosque (founded 1893). Bala Hissar is a fort destroyed by the British in 1879, in retaliation for the death of their envoy, now restored as a military college. The Minaret of Chakari, destroyed in 1998, had Buddhist swastika and both Mahayana and Theravada qualities.

Lake Qargha

Shar-e Naw Park during winter

Inside Kabul City Center Other places of interest include Kabul City Center, which is Kabul’s first shopping mall, the shops around Flower Street and Chicken Street, Wazir Akbar Khan district, Babur Gardens, Kabul Golf Club, Kabul Zoo, Shah Do Shamshera and other famous Mosques, the

Babur Gardens in winter 2006 • • Kabul International Airport

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• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bāgh-e Bābur Park (Babur Gardens) Bāghi Bālā Park Lake Qargha Park Zarnegar Park Shar-e Naw Park Bagh-e Zanana Chaman-e-Hozori Haji Abdul Rahman Mosque (Under construction) Id Gah Mosque Pul-e Khishti Mosque Shah-e Do Shamshera Mosque Mausoleum of Tamim Ansar Kabul Museum National Archives Negaristani Milli Marriott (Under Construction) Serena Hotel InterContinental Safi Landmark Hotel[39] Golden Star Hotel[40] Heetal Plaza Hotel[41]

Kabul

The plan for Kabul’s nine billion dollar future modern urban development project, the City of Light Development. River and along Jade Meywand Avenue,[42] revitalizing some of the most commercial and historic districts in the City of Kabul, which contains numerous historic mosques and shrines as well as viable commercial activities among war damaged buildings. Also incorporated in the design is a new complex for the Afghan National Museum. Dr. Ashkouri has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with His Excellency Ambassador Said Tayeb Jawad in Washington, DC to undertake this project and to develop it for actual implementation over the next 20 to 25 years. Dr. Ashkouri has presented the City of Light Plan to President Karzai and has received a letter of support from the President and the Minister of Urban Development in support of this project’s development. About 4 miles (6 km) from downtown Kabul, in Bagrami, a 22-acre (9 ha) wide industrial complex has completed with modern facilities, which will allow companies to operate businesses there. The park has professional management for the daily maintenance of public roads, internal streets, common areas, parking areas, 24 hours perimeter security, access control for vehicles and persons. Another phase with additional 27 acres (11 ha) of land will be added immediately proceeding the first phase.[43] The city hosts the We Are the Future (WAF) center, a child care center giving children a chance to live their childhoods and develop a sense of hope. The center is managed under the direction of the mayor’s office and the international NGO. Glocal Forum serves as the fundraiser, program planner and coordinator for the WAF center. Launched in 2004, the program is the result of a strategic partnership between the Glocal Forum, the Quincy Jones Listen Up Foundation and Mr.

Reconstruction and developments
As of October 2007, there are approximately 16 licensed banks in Kabul: including Da Afghanistan Bank, Afghanistan International Bank, Standard Chartered Bank, Kabul Bank, Azizi Bank, Punjab National Bank, Habib Bank and others. Western Union offices are also found in many locations throughout the city. A small sized indoor shopping mall (Kabul City Center) with a 4-star (Safi Landmark) hotel on the top six floors opened in 2005. A 5-star Serena Hotel also opened in 2005. Another 5-star Marriott Hotel is under construction. The landmark InterContinental Hotel has also been refurbished and is in operation. File:Kabul InterContinental Hotel in 2005.jpg The renovated pool deck of InterContinental Hotel Kabul is a popular social atmosphere An initial concept design called the City of Light Development, envisioned by Dr. Hisham N. Ashkouri, Principal of ARCADD, Inc. for the development and the implementation of a privately based investment enterprise has been proposed for multi-function commercial, historic and cultural development within the limits of the Old City of Kabul along the Southern side of the Kabul

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Hani Masri, with the support of the World Bank, UN agencies and major companies. A $25 million Coca-Cola bottling plant was opened in 2006. Financing was provided by a Dubai-based Afghan family. President Hamid Karzai formally opened the facility in an attempt to attract more foreign investment in the city. In late 2007 the government announced that all the residential houses situated on mountains would be removed within a year so that trees and other plants can be grown on the hills. The plan is to try to make the city greener and provide residents with a more suitable place to live, on a flat surface. Once the plan is implemented it will provide water supply and electricity to each house. All the city roads will also be paved under the plan, which will solve transportation problems.[44]

Kabul

See also
• • • • • • 2002 Hindu Kush earthquakes City of Light Development List of cities in Afghanistan Kabul Express Kabul Golf Club Radio Kabul

Notes and references

Gallery

Sister Cities

[1] UN World Urbanization Prospects: The 2005 Revision Population Database...link [2] Quqnoos.com, Kabul’s disgraced police chief replaced (July 06, 2008} [3] Pronunciation in English varies, see National Review, November 20, 2002 [4] http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/ 2009/05/09/2565599.htm [5] Britannica Concise Encyclopedia Kabul...Link [6] ^ "Kābul (city)". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia (2007 ed.). http://encarta.msn.com/ encyclopedia_761557246/ K%C4%81bul_(city).html. Retrieved on Kabul View 2007-12-02. "Tajiks are the predominant Section of City from population group of Kābul, and Pashtuns downtown during TV-Hill are an important minority.". View from evening area of [7] "Kabul." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. Kabul time Kabul Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 17 InterContinental February 2008 <http://www.britannica.com/eb/ article-9044257>. Kabul [8] The history of Afghanistan, Bagh-e Qargha Golf Ghandara.com website Bala lake is a Park, [9] "Kabul" Chambers’s Encyclopaedia: A Park Qargha lake, popular outside Dictionary of Universal Knowledge (1901 outside the city tourist the edition) J.B. Lippincott Company, NY, destination city page 385 Darulaman [10] Ethnologische Forschungen und palace.jpg Sammlung von Material für dieselben, Darul 1871, p 244, Adolf Bastian - Ethnology. Aman [11] The People of India: A Series of Palace will Photographic Illustrations, with ..., 1868, likely be p 155, John William Kaye, Meadows Darul Aman rebuilt in Taylor, Great Britain India Office Palace the next Ethnology. few years [12] Supplementary Glossary, p. 304, H. M. Elliot. [13] Various Census of India, 1867, p 34. [14] Memoir on Cuneiform Inscription, 1849, • Tehran, Iran p 98, Cuneiform inscriptions; Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain • Moscow, Russia & Ireland, 1849, p 98, Henry Creswicke • Dushanbe, Tajikistan • Washington, D.C

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Rawlinson, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. [15] Alexander’s Invasion, p 38, J. W. McCrindle; Megasthenes and Arrian, p 180, J. W. McCrindle. [16] Pre-Aryan and Pre-Dravidian in India, 1993 edition, p 100, Dr Sylvain Lévi, Jules Bloch, Jean Przyluski, Asian Educational Services - Indo-Aryan philology. [17] Some Kṣatriya Tribes of Ancient India, 1924, p 235, Dr B. C. Law - Kshatriyas; Indological Studies, 1950, p 36; Tribes in Ancient India, 1943, p 3. [18] Chandragupta Maurya and His Times, 1966, p 173, Dr Radhakumud Mookerji History; Studies in Ancient Hindu Polity: Based on the Arthaṡâstra of Kautilya, 1914, p 40, Narendra Nath Law, Kauṭalya, Radhakumud Mookerji; The Fundamental Unity of India, 2004, p 86; The Fundamental Unity of India (from Hindu Sources), 1914, p 57, Dr Radhakumud Mookerji. [19] Geographical Dictionary of ancient and Medieval India, Dr Nundo Lal Dey. [20] The Modern Review, 1907, p 135, Ramananda Chatterjee - India; Literary History of Ancient India in Relation to Its Racial and Linguistic ..., p 165, Chandra Chakraberty; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī - Kamboja (Pakistan) etc. [21] The Ancient Geography of India, p 15, A Cunningham. [22] Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 43, Dr J. L. Kamboj. [23] Hill, John E. 2004. The Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu. Draft annotated English translation...link [24] Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue ?? by Yu Huan ??: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation... Link [25] The Shahis of Afghanistan and the Punjab By Deena Bandhu Pandey Published by Historical Research Institute; [sole distributors: Oriental Publishers], 1973 Original from the University of Michigan Page 6 [26] Ganesh: Studies of an Asian God By Robert L. Brown Contributor Robert L.

Kabul
Brown Published by SUNY Press, 1991 Page 50, [27] The Afghans By Willem Vogelsang Edition: illustrated Published by WileyBlackwell, 2002 Page 183 ISBN 0631198415, 9780631198413 [28] Muhammad Bin Qasim to General Pervez Musharraf: Triumphs,Tribulations, Scars of 1971 Tragedy and Current Challenges By Asif Haroon Edition: illustrated Published by Sang-e-Meel Publications, 2004 Original from the University of Michigan [29] Arabic as a minority language By Jonathan Owens Published by Walter de Gruyter, 2000 Page 181 ISBN 3110165783, 9783110165784 [30] Markham, Clements R. (1859). Narrative of the Embassy of Ruy Gonzalez De Clavijo to the Court of Timour, at Samarcand, A.D.1403-6. London: Hakluyt Society, pp.125-126. Full text at Google Book Search. [31] Nancy Hatch Dupree at American University of Afghanistan - The Story of Kabul (Mongols) [32] Encyclopaedia Britannica - The Durrani dynasty (from Afghanistan)...Link [33] Steve Coll, Ghost Wars (New York: Penguin, 2005), 14. [34] UN World Urbanization Prospects: The 2005 Revision Population Database...link [35] Central Statistics Office, Annual Report, Kabul-Afghanistan, LINK [36] http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/ 0311/feature2/images/ mp_download.2.pdf [37] Cole, Juan (2006-05-30). "Kabul under Curfew after Anti-US, anti-Karzai Riots". San Francisco Bay Area Indymedia. http://www.indybay.org/newsitems/2006/ 05/30/18259841.php. Retrieved on 2007-11-27. [38] Pajhwok Afghan News - Ministry signs contract with Chinese company...Link [39] http://www.lmhotelgroup.com/ Lmhotelgroup/safihome.asp [40] http://www.goldenstarkabul.com [41] http://www.heetal.com [42] Kabul - City of Light Project...link [43] Afghanistan Industrial Parks Development Authority...Kabul (Bagrami) [44] Pajhwok Afghan News, Kabul beautification plan announced (December 17, 2007)

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Kabul
• Kabul Caravan • Kabul - City of Light, 9 Billion dollar modern urban development project • Sada-e Azadi Radio/TV/Newspaper (ISAF) • Kabul travel guide from Wikitravel

External links
• • • • Map of Kabul City What’s On In Kabul (pdf format) Historical Photos of Kabul The Story of Kabul

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kabul" Categories: Capitals in Asia, Kabul, Cities along the Silk Road, Cities, towns and villages in Kabul Province, Settlements established in the 2nd millennium BC This page was last modified on 22 May 2009, at 17:31 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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