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									       Chapter 4
Intranets and Extranets



                          1
                OBJECTIVES
   Introduction
   Technical Infrastructure
   Planning an Intranet
   E-mail and Intranet
   Extranets




                               2
                     Definition
 Internet.
A group of networks/computers that are connected
  together into a huge global network.

 Intranet.
A private version of the Internet that lets people within an
  organization exchange data by using Web browsers.

 Extranet.
An extension of a company intranet to connect with its
  customers, suppliers, and business partners.

                                                           3
                 Introduction
   Intranet is a term we use when we apply
    Internet technology to serve the internal
    needs of an organization

   It is a network connecting a set of clients
    using standard internet protocols, especially
    TCP/IP and HTTP


                                                    4
   Groupware: programs or software that help
    people work together when the are located
    far from another, include
     Shared database
     E-mail

     Electronic meeting : allow participants to display
      and see other information
     Documents management

     report filling



                                                           5
   Mid to large organization are spending
    thousands of dollars just to keep their
    documents under control
   Intranet can be viewed as a tool that provides
    Internet-Like capabilities at the internal
    organizational level
   Extranet: in an Intranet with extensions that
    allow clearly identified user to access data


                                                     6
     WHAT IS AN INTRANET?

   An organization-wide software and information
    distribution system applying Internet technology
    to a closed network
   All authorized resources are available to any
    authorized person



                                                   7
     WHAT IS AN INTRANET?

   A way of thinking how people in a business
    working together
     It is a network of people, not a wired machine
     Focus on messages not media

     the intranet is no longer the network itself, but a
      service run over it



                                                            8
                 INTRANET
   Usually runs in a client/server environment and
    a local area network configuration
   IP connects computers
   Company network is separated from other
    networks by firewall




                                                      9
                    INTRANET
   Firewall:
       Preventing unauthorized access to the company’s
        internal data
   Technically
       Internet and Intranet are the same except that only
        selected people are allowed to connect to the
        Intranet



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11
   What is an Intranet?
    An intranet is a private space that gives employees in a
    company the ability to organize information, readily
    access that information, manage documents, share
    calendars and enable efficient collaboration, all in a
    familiar, browser-based environment.
   Because all your important business information resides
    in a central repository, it's available at any time, from
    anywhere in the world, using a simple web browser.
   Authorized users outside your company such as your
    remote workers, suppliers, partners or clients can also
    use it to collaborate, communicate and share business
    critical information.


                                                           12
How Can an Intranet Help Me Do My Job?
   Intranets address the needs of everyone in your
    organization. Some typical uses include:
       Sharing documents with anyone you authorize
       Scheduling meetings and sharing calendars with colleagues
        and remote workers
       Conducting discussions on everything from product ideas to
        employee suggestions
       Creating and sharing access to information databases, or even
        building your own database-driven applications
       Managing and delegating action items and project tasks
       Maintaining standard contact directories of all your
        employees, suppliers and customers
       Conducting opinion polls among your employees
       Posting announcements and sharing web links among all your
        colleagues
                                                                   13
     A simple comparison will help show the differences
      between each type.

                Internet      Intranet         Extranet
     Access      public        private        semi-private
     Users      everyone    members of a    group of closely
                                specific       related firms
                               company
Information    fragmented    proprietary     Shared in closely
                                           trusted held circles

                                                                  14
              Intranet and Web site
     Aspect
                      Corporate website                      Intranet

                 Communicate information;         Broad goals, including:
                 support marketing; sell          communicate information
Business goals
                 products                         accurately, improve staff
                                                  efficiency
                 External users: wide range of    Internal users: good
                 skills and experience; limited   understanding of
Audience
                 understanding of                 organization; wide range of
                 organization                     information needs
                 Infrequent users: not familiar   Frequent users: familiar with
Familiarity      with site or organization        site and organization

                 Secondary issue for the site,    Primary goal of the site: to
                 unless frequently used by        improve staff efficiency
Efficiency
                 visitors

                                                                              15
             Intranet and Web site
Aspect
               Corporate website                Intranet

               Secondary issue for the site,   Primary goal of the site: to
               unless frequently used by       improve staff efficiency
Efficiency
               visitors


Browsers &     Many and varied                 Consistent (SOE: standard
platforms                                      operating environment)

Size           Small to medium                 Medium to extremely large

               Narrow, structured around       Broad, varied information
Content &      key products and services       types and content
structure


                                                                              16
               Intranet and Web site
Aspect             Corporate website                Intranet

                   Weekly or monthly               Daily
Content updates

                   Appearance very important       Consistency more important
Presentation       for promotion and sales         than appearance

Authoring          Often centralised               Typically decentralised
models

Metadata           Support the needs of internet   Support the needs of staff
                   search engines                  and site management
Integration with   Limited, often only e-          Extensive, core part of site
other systems      commerce systems                functionality

                                                                                  17
The Difference between Internet and
          Intranet Design
   Your intranet and your public website on the open Internet are
    two different information spaces and should have two different
    user interface designs.
   Users .
       Intranet users are your own employees who know a lot about the
        company, its organizational structure, and special terminology and
        circumstances.
       Internet site is used by customers who will know much less about your
        company and also care less about it.
   Tasks.
       The intranet is used for everyday work inside the company, including
        some quite complex applications;
       the Internet site is mainly used to find out information about your
        products.

                                                                                18
The Difference between Internet and
          Intranet Design
   Type of information .
       The intranet will have many draft reports, project progress
        reports, human resource information, and other detailed
        information.
       the Internet site will have marketing information and
        customer support information.
   Amount of information .
       an intranet has between ten and a hundred times as many
        pages as the same company's public website. The difference is
        due to the extensive amount of work-in-progress that is
        documented on the intranet and the fact that many projects
        and departments never publish anything publicly even though
        they have many internal documents.

                                                                      19
        Three Sources of Information
   Formal
       The formal information is the official information of the
        organisation. It has been reviewed for accuracy, currency,
        confidentiality, liability and commitment and is the directive
        of the formal management infrastructure.
   Project or Group
       Project or group information is intended for use within a
        specific group. It may be used to communicate and share
        ideas and coordinate activities.
   Informal
       Informal information can be anything from social pages and
        newsletters, to white papers, notes and concepts that can be
        shared with others to further common interests or to solicit
        comments.
                                                                         20
    effective Intranet infrastructure
   Management
       Management consists of the roles, policies, processes and
        organisations required to manage the life cycle of formal
        Intranet content.
   Technical
       The technical infrastructure consists of the networks,
        hardware and software required to support content
        development, publishing and access.
   Content
       Content requires processes to be developed to support
        special needs such as initial conversions, creation of database
        or application interfaces.


                                                                      21
               BENEFITS
1.   Links employees and managers together
2.   Automates a lot of intraorganizational
     traffic
3.   Enables a company to gain better access to
     its primary resources – knowledge and
     experience
4.   Serves as a creative and empowering tool
5.   Establishes the foundation for developing
     enterprise-wide information systems
                                                  22
         BENEFITS (Cont’d)
6. Provides a model for new internal information
    management collaborative computing
7. Prepares a wealth of Internet knowledge to
    employees
8. Eases process integration
9. Allows company to expand the system( portable
    & scalable )


                                               23
                  APPLICATIONS
   Human Resources
       Employee handbook: save the cost of printing and updating handbook
       Benefits information: human resources staff relived from answering
        routine questions
       Employee surveys: all survey data are captured online, which save time and
        paper
       Internal/external recruiting:
       Candidate screening: online screening application speed the processing
       Organizational charts: easy to update organization chart
       Newsletters: keep employees current on company events
       Company calendars: keeps employees apprised of special events




                                                                              24
     APPLICATIONS (Cont’d)

   Sales and Marketing
     Product information: speeds the distribution of
      product data
     Market research: instance access to wealth of
      marketing information for product
     Prospecting: easy way to collect information
      about future customers quickly
     Managing sales contacts
     Sales training


                                                        25
        APPLICATIONS (Cont’d)

   Accounting and Finance
       Financial reports: sensitive financial reports can published
        on a secure access Intranet web site
       Expense reports: employee can e-mail expense reports on
        secure web site
       Accounts receivable/payable processing
       Asset management: current asset can be placed online for
        review and update
       Policies and procedures: information centerlaized for
        quick access
       Payroll: online submission
                                                                       26
     APPLICATIONS (Cont’d)

   Manufacturing and Operations
     Inventory control
     Production schedules

     Quality assurance

     Part order/requisition system




                                      27
      WHY DOES A COMPANY
      NEED AN INTRANET?
   A company has a large pool of information to
    share among hundreds of its employees
   Intranets are cheap, robust and fast
   Intranets operate across platforms
   24/7 to employees
   Information in intranet can be updated quickly


                                                     28
TECHNICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
   Client/Server Basis
     Clustered of clients connected directly to one or
      more server
     Mainframe architecture: all intelligence is within the
      central host computer




                                                               29
TECHNICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
   Client:- requester of services( employee or manager)
   Server:- machine or PC that provides services, files,
    database, information
   Interoperability: the ability of two or more systems to
    exchange and use information
   Scalability : the ease with which a system can be
    modified or expanded




                                                              30
    TYPES OF CLIENT/SERVER
        ARCHITECTURE
1- Two-tier architectures
       For an organization with 12-100 users
   This model has 2 components
       User system interface
       Database management
   Limitation
       Performance decreases when number of computer increases
        because server maintains a connection with each client, even
        when no work is being done
       Inflexible in design ( implementation & moving)

                                                                       31
TWO-TIER ARCHITECTURE
       DESIGN


 User System Interface


 Database Management




                         32
    TYPES OF CLIENT/SERVER
        ARCHITECTURE
2- Three-tier architectures
 Support hundred of users

 This model has 3 components
     User system interface
     Processing management: provide access to resources
      based names rather than locations
     Database management

   Used in commercial distributed C/S E

                                                       33
    THREE-TIER
ARCHITECTURE DESIGN


User System Interface


Process Management


Database Management



                        34
BASIC INTRANET-ENABLING
      TECHNOLOGIES
   Server and Client PCs
   Web Server  allow online communication
   Browsers
   TCP/IP Electronic Mail
   Graphic and Multimedia Files
   Network File System (NFS)
   Internet Relay Chat (NRC)
   HTML Authoring Tools
   HTML
   Portable Electronic Document
                                              35
          USING FIREWALLS

   Intranet can be protected from unauthorized
    access via firewalls




                                                  36
            USING FIREWALLS
   Proxy
     “Go-between” agent that acts on behalf of another
     Receive a request from user to connect to a site on
      the internet, first check if the user is an authorized
      one
   Packet Filter
       Checks each packet at network level and stop any
        packet that might be a security risk


                                                               37
PLANNING AN INTRANET

   Plan ahead
   Provide justification with management support
   Build an intranet in-house or outsource it
   Form an Intranet team
   Build and test a prototype
   Ensure effective maintenance


                                                38
 PLANNING AN INTRANET

1.       Plan ahead
     •     Define the goal of the Intranet
     •     Define primary users
     •     Information sharing




                                             39
PLANNING AN INTRANET

2. Provide justification with management support
      Investment Analysis
      Map strategies




                                               40
        E-MAIL and INTRANET
   Major communication platform in business and
    government
   Email become smarter
     Defined folder
     Check voice , text, fax,…

   Intranet inherits SMTP from TCP/IP to operate
    E-mail


                                                   41
        E-MAIL and INTRANET
   Spamming
     Sending unwanted advertisements or literature
      through e-mail
     Out of control

     In USA 80% of email are spam

   Flaming
       Responding to a message or a call in anger



                                                      42
         E-MAIL and INTRANET
    Techniques for blocking spam
    1.   Blacklist the sender
    2.   Accept e-mail from a list of approved address (
         whitelist)
    3.   Use anti-spam software




                                                           43
        E-MAIL ETIQUETTE

   Write in different color to express attitude or
    mood
   Keep sentences short
   Be aware of your office and organization culture
   Avoid flaming
   Don’t use e-mail to send bad news
   Don’t type in capital letters

                                                  44
                EXTRANETS
   Is an Intranet
   That allow clearly identified customers or
    suppliers to access company related technical or
    educational information




                                                   45
                EXTRANETS
   Lets limited, controlled business partners
    interact with the firm for all kinds of exchanges
   Intranets are localized within a firm and move
    data quickly than Extranet




                                                        46
                EXTRANETS
   System designers must collaborate to make sure
    there is a common interface with the company
    they are dealing with
   Backbone of the e-business future
   Benefits: faster time-to-market, customer loyalty,
    increased partner interaction, and improved
    processes


                                                     47
        KEY CONSIDERATIONS
   Identifying users
     Normally non-employee
     Customer, suppliers,… (outside group)

   Listing technology components
   Specifying security requirements
       Varies with the type of users
   Discussing administration of extranet
   Understanding usability of extranet
                                              48
    OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
   Security
     Type of users
     Sensitivity of information transacted

     Communication lines used

   Manageability / administration
   Usability



                                              49
        ROLE OF CHAMPION
   Ensures accountability for the organization
   Promotes more effective collaboration with
    business partners which improves potential for
    increased revenue
   Provides a long-term investment in competitive
    advantage



                                                     50
      Chapter 4
Intranets & Extranets



                        51

								
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