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Tamil language

Tamil language
Tamil ????? tamiḻ Pronunciation Spoken in

Total speakers Ranking Language family

Writing system Official status Official language in

well as emigrant communities around the world.[1] It is the administrative language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, and the first Indian language to be declared as a classical [t̪əmɨɻ] (Listen) language by the government of India in 2004. India, Sri Lanka and Singapore, where it Tamil literature has existed for over two has an official status; with significant thousand years.[8] The earliest epigraphic reminorities in Canada, Malaysia, Mauritius, cords and Réunion, and emigrant communities found date from around the third cenaround the world.[1] tury BCE.[9] The earliest period of Tamil literature, 68 million native,[2][3] 77 million total[2] Sangam literature, is dated from the 300 BCE – 300 CE.[10][11] Inscriptions in Tamil Language from 1st century BCE and 20, 16,[1] 15(native speakers) 2nd century CE have been discovered in Egypt and Thailand.[12][13] The first two anDravidian Southern cient manuscripts from India,[14][15] to be acTamil-Kannada knowledged and registered by UNESCO Tamil-Kodagu Memory of the World register in 1997 & Tamil-Malayalam 2005 were in Tamil.[16] According to a 2001 Tamil survey, there were 1,863 newspapers pubTamil script lished in Tamil, of which 353 were dailies.[17] More than 55% of the epigraphical inscriptions - about 55,000 - found by the Archaeological Survey of India in India are in the Tamil [4][5] India, language.[18] [6]
Sri Lanka, and Singapore.
[7]

Regulated by Language codes ISO 639-1 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-3

No official regulation

Classification
Tamil belongs to the southern branch of the Dravidian languages, a family of around twenty-six languages native to the Indian subcontinent.[19] It is also classified as being part of a Tamil language family, which alongside Tamil proper, also includes the languages of about 35 ethno-linguistic groups[20] such as the Irula, and Yerukula languages (see SIL Ethnologue). The closest major relative of Tamil is Malayalam. Until about the ninth century, Malayalam was a dialect of Tamil[21] Although many of the differences between Tamil and Malayalam evidence a pre-historic split of the western dialect,[22] the process of separation into distinct language, Malayalam was not completed until sometime in the 13th or 14th century.[23]

ta tam tam
This page contains Indic text. Without rendering support you may see irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts. More...

Tamil is written in a non-Latin script. Tamil text used in this article is transliterated into the Latin script according to the ISO 15919 standard.

Tamil (????? tamiḻ; IPA: [t̪əmɨɻ]) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. It has official status in India, Sri Lanka and Singapore. Tamil is also spoken by significant minorities in Malaysia, Mauritius, Vietnam, Réunion as

Etymology
The exact period when the name "Tamil" came to be applied to the language is

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unclear, as is the precise etymology of the name. Southworth suggests that the name comes from tam-miz > tam-iz ’self-speak’, or ’one’s own speech’.[24] Zvelebil suggests an etymology of tam-iz, with tam meaning "self" or "one’s self", and "-iz" having the connotation of "unfolding sound". Alternately, he suggests a derivation of tamiz < tam-iz < *tav-iz < *tak-iz, meaning in origin "the proper process (of speaking)."[25]

Tamil language

Old Tamil
Epigraphic attestation of Tamil begins with rock inscriptions from the 3rd century BC, written in Tamil-Brahmi, an adapted form of the Brahmi script.[36] The earliest extant grammatical treatise is the Tolkāppiyam, a work on poetics and grammar that describes the language of the classical period, dated variously between the 3rd century BCE and 5th century CE. The Sangam literature contains about 50,000 lines of poetry contained in 2,381 poems attributed to 473 poets including many women poets.[37][38] Many of the poems of Sangam period were also set to music.[39] During the post-Sangam period of Old Tamil, important works like Thirukkural and epic poems were composed, including Silappatikaram, Manimekalai, Sīvakacintāmani, Valaiyapathi and Kundalakesi. These latter five works are known as the five great epics.

History

Middle Tamil
Ancient Tamil inscription at the Brihadeeswara Temple in Thanjavur The earliest epigraphic attestations of Tamil date to c. the 3rd century BCE.[26][27] It flourished in India as a language with a rich literature during the Sangam period (300 BCE to 300 CE).[26][28] With an estimated 30,000 inscriptions, Tamil has the largest number of inscriptions in South Asia.[29] The Tamil Sangam literature is the oldest extant literature in any Dravidian language[30] Literary works in India were preserved either in palm leaf manuscripts (implying repeated copying and recopying) or through oral transmission, making direct dating impossible.[31] External chronological records and internal linguistic evidence, however, indicate that the oldest extant works were probably compiled sometime between the 2nd century BCE and the 10th century CE.[32][33][34] Tamil scholars categorize the history of the language into three periods, • Old Tamil (300 BC - 700 CE), • Middle Tamil (700 - 1600) • Modern Tamil (1600–present).[35] The Bhakthi period is known for the great outpouring of devotional songs set to pann music, including over eight thousand Tevaram verses on Saivism and Nalayira Divya Prabandham (four thousand verses) on Vaishnavism.[40] The mediaeval period gave rise to a popular adaptation of the Ramayana in Tamil, known as Kamba Ramayanam (12th century) and a story of 63 Nayanmars known as Periyapuranam (13th century).[41] In the later medieval period (14th to 16th century), Tamil became increasingly Sanskritized, to the point of the emergence of a mixed language known as maṇippiravāḷam.

Modern Tamil
In the early 20th century, the Pure Tamil Movement called for removal of all Sanskritic and other foreign elements from Tamil.[42] It received some support from Dravidian parties and nationalists who supported Tamil independence.[43] This led to the replacement of a significant number of Sanskrit loanwords by Tamil equivalents.[44] Tamil writers have won the Jnanpith awards twice.

Geographic distribution
Tamil is the first language of the majority in Tamil Nadu, India and North Eastern Province, Sri Lanka. The language is spoken

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Tamil language
President of India, Dr. Abdul Kalam, in a joint sitting of both houses of the Indian Parliament on June 6, 2004.[52][53][54] See also: States of India by Tamil speakers

Dialects
Region specific variations
Tamil is a diglossic language.[55][56] Tamil dialects are primarily differentiated from each other by the fact that they have undergone different phonological changes and sound shifts in evolving from Old Tamil. For example, the word for "here"—iṅku in Centamil (the classic variety)—has evolved into iṅkū in the Kongu dialect of Coimbatore, inga in the dialect of Thanjavur, and iṅkai in some dialects of Sri Lanka. Old Tamil’s iṅkaṇ (where kaṇ means place) is the source of iṅkane in the dialect of Tirunelveli, Old Tamil iṅkaṭṭu is the source of iṅkuṭṭu in the dialect of Ramanathapuram, and iṅkaṭe in various northern dialects. Even now in Coimbatore area it is common to hear "akkaṭṭa" meaning "that place". Although Tamil dialects do not differ significantly in their vocabulary, there are a few exceptions. The dialects spoken in Sri Lanka retain many words and grammatical forms that are not in everyday use in India,[57] and use many other words slightly differently.[58]

Distribution of Tamil speakers in South India and Sri Lanka (1961). by small groups of minorities in other parts of these two countries such as Karnataka, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra in case of India and Colombo, the hill country, north and east in case of Sri Lanka. There are currently sizeable Tamil-speaking populations descended from colonial-era migrants in Malaysia, Singapore, Burma, Vietnam, South Africa, and Mauritius. Some people in Guyana, Fiji, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago have Tamil origins,[45] but only a small number speak the language there. Groups of more recent migrants from Sri Lanka and India exist in Canada (especially Toronto), USA, Australia, many Middle Eastern countries, and most of the western European countries.

Loanword variations
See also: Indo-Aryan loanwords in Tamil and Loan words in Sri Lankan Tamil The dialect of the district of Palakkad in Kerala has a large number of Malayalam loanwords, has also been influenced by Malayalam syntax and also has a distinct Malayalam accent. Hebbar and Mandyam dialects, spoken by groups of Tamil Vaishnavites who migrated to Karnataka in the eleventh century, retain many features of the Vaishnava paribasai, a special form of Tamil developed in the ninth and tenth centuries that reflect Vaishnavite religious and spiritual values.[59] Several castes have their own sociolects which most members of that caste traditionally used regardless of where they come from. It is often possible to identify a person’s caste by their speech.[60] Tamil in Sri Lanka incorporates loan words from Portuguese,Dutch and English also.

Legal status
Tamil is the official language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is one of the official languages of the union territories of Pondicherry[46][47] and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands[48] It is one of 23 nationally recognised languages in the Constitution of India. Tamil is also one of the official languages of Sri Lanka and Singapore. In Malaysia, 543[49] primary education government schools are available fully in Tamil medium. In addition, with the creation in 2004 of a legal status for classical languages by the government of India and following a political campaign supported by several Tamil associations[50][51] Tamil became the first legally recognised Classical language of India. The recognition was announced by the then

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Tamil language
vowels, 18 consonants and one special character, the āytam. The vowels and consonants combine to form 216 compound characters, giving a total of 247 characters. All consonants have an inherent vowel a, as with other Indic scripts. This inherency is removed by adding an overdot called a puḷḷi, to the consonantal sign, whereas no such distiction is there in other Indic scipts. The Tamil script does not differentiate voiced and unvoiced plosives. Instead, plosives are articulated with voice depending on their position in a word, in accordance with the rules of Tamil phonology.

Spoken and literary variants
In addition to its various dialects, Tamil exhibits different forms: a classical literary style modelled on the ancient language (sankattamiḻ), a modern literary and formal style (centamiḻ), and a modern colloquial form (koṭuntamiḻ). These styles shade into each other, forming a stylistic continuum. For example, it is possible to write centamiḻ with a vocabulary drawn from caṅkattamiḻ, or to use forms associated with one of the other variants while speaking koṭuntamiḻ.[61] In modern times, centamiḻ is generally used in formal writing and speech. For instance, it is the language of textbooks, of much of Tamil literature and of public speaking and debate. In recent times, however, koṭuntamiḻ has been making inroads into areas that have traditionally been considered the province of centamiḻ. Most contemporary cinema, theatre and popular entertainment on television and radio, for example, is in koṭuntamiḻ, and many politicians use it to bring themselves closer to their audience. The increasing use of koṭuntamiḻ in modern times has led to the emergence of unofficial ‘standard’ spoken dialects. In India, the ‘standard’ koṭuntamiḻ is based on ‘educated non-brahmin speech’, rather than on any one dialect,[62] but has been significantly influenced by the dialects of Thanjavur and Madurai. In Sri Lanka the standard is based on the dialect of Jaffna.

An eleventh century vaṭṭeḻuttu inscription, from the Brihadisvara temple in Thanjavur In addition to the standard characters, six characters taken from the Grantha script, which was used in the Tamil region to write Sanskrit, are sometimes used to represent sounds not native to Tamil, that is, words borrowed from Sanskrit, Prakrit and other languages. The traditional system prescribed by classical grammars for writing loan-words, which involves respelling them in accordance with Tamil phonology, remains, but is not always consistently applied.[63]

Writing system
See also: Vatteluttu and Grantha script

Sounds
Tamil phonology is characterised by the presence of retroflex consonants, multiple rhotics. Tamil does not distinguish phonologically between voiced and unvoiced consonants; phonetically, voice is assigned depending on a consonant’s position in a word.[64] Tamil phonology permits few consonant clusters, which can never be word initial. Native grammarians classify Tamil phonemes into vowels, consonants, and a "secondary character", the āytam.

History of Tamil script. Tamil is written using a script called the vaṭṭeḻuttu. The Tamil script consists of 12

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Short Front Close Mid Open i ? e ? a ? Labial Plosives Nasals Tap Trill Central approximants Lateral approximants ʋ ? l̪ ? p (b) ? m ? Dental t̪ (d̪) ? n̪ ? ɾ̪ ? r ? ɻ ? ɭ ? j ? ṉ ? Central Back u ? o ? Long Front iː ? eː ? (ai) ? Alveolar aː ? Retroflex ʈ (ɖ) ? ɳ ? Central

Tamil language

Back uː ? oː ? (aw) ?? Palatal tʃ (dʒ) ? ɲ ? Velar k (g) ? ŋ ?

Vowels
Tamil vowels are called uyireḻuttu (uyir – life, eḻuttu – letter). The vowels are classified into short (kuṟil) and long (five of each type) and two diphthongs, /ai/ and /au/, and three "shortened" (kuṟṟiyal) vowels. The long (neṭil) vowels are about twice as long as the short vowels. The diphthongs are usually pronounced about 1.5 times as long as the short vowels, though most grammatical texts place them with the long vowels.

Consonants
Tamil consonants are known as meyyeḻuttu (mey—body, eḻuttu—letters). The consonants are classified into three categories with six in each category: valliṉam—hard, melliṉam—soft or Nasal, and iṭayiṉam—medium. Unlike most Indian languages, Tamil does not distinguish aspirated and unaspirated consonants. In addition, the voicing of plosives is governed by strict rules in centamiḻ. Plosives are unvoiced if they occur word-initially or doubled. Elsewhere they are voiced, with a few becoming fricatives

intervocalically. Nasals and approximants are always voiced.[65] As commonplace in languages of India, Tamil is characterised by its use of more than one type of coronal consonants. Retroflex consonants include the retroflex approximant /ɻ/ (?) (example Tamil), which among the Dravidian languages is also found in Malayalam (example Kozhikode), disappeared from Kannada in pronunciation at around 1000 AD (the dedicated letter is still found in Unicode), and was never present in Telugu.[66] Dental and alveolar consonants also contrast with each other, a typically Dravidian trait not found in the neighboring IndoAryan languages. A chart of the Tamil consonant phonemes in the International Phonetic Alphabet follows:[67] Phonemes in brackets are voiced equivalents. Both voiceless and voiced forms are represented by the same character in Tamil, and voicing is determined by context. The sounds /f/ and /ʂ/ are peripheral to the phonology of Tamil, being found only in loanwords and frequently replaced by native sounds. There are

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0 ? day ? 1 ? 2 ? month ? 3 ? 4 ? year ? 5 ? 6 ? 7 ? 8 ? 9 ? 10 ? 100 ? rupee ?

Tamil language
1000 ? numeral ?

debit ?

credit ?

as above ?

well-defined rules for elision in Tamil categorised into different classes based on the phoneme which undergoes elision.

Āytam
Classical Tamil also had a phoneme called the Āytam, written as ‘?’. Tamil grammarians of the time classified it as a dependent phoneme (or restricted phoneme[68] ) (cārpeḻuttu), but it is very rare in modern Tamil. The rules of pronunciation given in the Tolkāppiyam, a text on the grammar of Classical Tamil, suggest that the āytam could have glottalised the sounds it was combined with. It has also been suggested that the āytam was used to represent the voiced implosive (or closing part or the first half) of geminated voiced plosives inside a word.[69] The Āytam, in modern Tamil, is also used to convert pa to fa (not the retroflex zha (ɻ)) when writing English words using the Tamil script.

Tamil words consist of a lexical root to which one or more affixes are attached. Most Tamil affixes are suffixes. Tamil suffixes can be derivational suffixes, which either change the part of speech of the word or its meaning, or inflectional suffixes, which mark categories such as person, number, mood, tense, etc. There is no absolute limit on the length and extent of agglutination, which can lead to long words with a large number of suffixes.

Morphology
Tamil nouns (and pronouns) are classified into two super-classes (tiṇai)—the "rational" (uyartiṇai), and the "irrational" (aḵṟiṇai)—which include a total of five classes (pāl, which literally means ‘gender’). Humans and deities are classified as "rational", and all other nouns (animals, objects, abstract nouns) are classified as irrational. The "rational" nouns and pronouns belong to one of three classes (pāl)—masculine singular, feminine singular, and rational plural. The "irrational" nouns and pronouns belong to one of two classes - irrational singular and irrational plural. The pāl is often indicated through suffixes. The plural form for rational nouns may be used as an honorific, gender-neutral, singular form.[73] Suffixes are used to perform the functions of cases or postpositions. Traditional grammarians tried to group the various suffixes into eight cases corresponding to the cases used in Sanskrit. These were the nominative, accusative, dative, sociative, genitive, instrumental, locative, and ablative. Modern grammarians argue that this classification is artificial, and that Tamil usage is best understood if each suffix or combination of suffixes is seen as marking a separate case.[74] Tamil nouns can take one of four prefixes, i, a, u and e which are functionally equivalent to the demonstratives in English. Tamil verbs are also inflected through the use of suffixes. A typical Tamil verb form will have a number of suffixes, which show person, number, mood, tense and voice.

Numerals & Symbols
Apart from the usual numerals, Tamil also has numerals for 10, 100 and 1000. Symbols for day, month, year, debit, credit, as above, rupee, numeral are present as well.

Grammar
Tamil employs agglutinative grammar, where suffixes are used to mark noun class, number, and case, verb tense and other grammatical categories. Tamil’s standard metalinguistic terminology and scholarly vocabularly is itself Tamil, as opposed to the Sanskrit that is standard for most other Dravidian languages.[70][71] Much of Tamil grammar is extensively described in the oldest known grammar book for Tamil, the Tolkāppiyam. Modern Tamil writing is largely based on the 13th century grammar Naṉṉūl which restated and clarified the rules of the Tolkāppiyam, with some modifications. Traditional Tamil grammar consists of five parts, namely eḻuttu, col, poruḷ, yāppu, aṇi. Of these, the last two are mostly applied in poetry.[72]

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• Person and number are indicated by suffixing the oblique case of the relevant pronoun. The suffixes to indicate tenses and voice are formed from grammatical particles, which are added to the stem. • Tamil has two voices. The first indicates that the subject of the sentence undergoes or is the object of the action named by the verb stem, and the second indicates that the subject of the sentence directs the action referred to by the verb stem. • Tamil has three simple tenses—past, present, and future—indicated by the suffixes, as well as a series of perfects indicated by compound suffixes. Mood is implicit in Tamil, and is normally reflected by the same morphemes which mark tense categories. Tamil verbs also mark evidentiality, through the addition of the hearsay clitic ām.[75] Traditional grammars of Tamil do not distinguish between adjectives and adverbs, including both of them under the category uriccol, although modern grammarians tend to distinguish between them on morphological and syntactical grounds.[76] Tamil has a large number of ideophones that act as adverbs indicating the way the object in a given state "says" or "sounds".[77] Tamil does not have articles. Definiteness and indefiniteness are either indicated by special grammatical devices, such as using the number "one" as an indefinite article, or by the context.[78] In the first person plural, Tamil makes a distinction between inclusive pronouns ???? nām (we), ???? namatu (our) that include the addressee and exclusive pronouns ??????? nāṅkaḷ (we), ???? ematu (our) that do not.[78]

Tamil language
grammatically valid and meaningful sentences which lack one or more of the three. For example, a sentence may only have a verb—such as muṭintuviṭṭatu ("completed")—or only a subject and object, without a verb such as atu eṉ vīṭu ("That [is] my house"). Tamil does not have a copula (a linking verb equivalent to the word is). The word is included in the translations only to convey the meaning more easily.

Vocabulary
See also: Wiktionary:Category:Tamil language and Wiktionary:Category:Tamil derivations The vocabulary of Tamil is mainly Dravidian. A strong sense of linguistic purism is found in Modern Tamil[80], which opposes the use of foreign loan-words.[81] Nonetheless, a number of words used in classical and modern Tamil indicate borrowing from languages of neighbouring groups, or with whom the Tamils had trading links, including Munda (e.g. tavaḷai "frog" from Munda tabeg), Malay (e.g. cavvarici "sago" from Malay sāgu), Chinese (e.g. campān "skiff" from Chinese san-pan) and Greek (e.g. ora from Greek ὥρα). In more modern times, Tamil has imported words from Arabic, Persian, Urdu and Marathi, reflecting groups that have influenced the Tamil area at various points of time, and from neighbouring languages such as Telugu, Kannada and Sinhala. During the modern period, words have also been borrowed from European languages, such as Portuguese, French and English.[82] The strongest impact of purism in Tamil has been on loanwords from Sanskrit. During its history, Tamil, along with other Dravidian languages like Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam etc., was influenced by Sanskrit in terms of vocabulary, grammar and literary [83][84][85][86] reflecting the increased styles, trend of Sanskritisation in the Tamil country.[87] Tamil vocabulary never became quite as heavily Sanskritised as that of the other Dravidian languages, and unlike in those languages, it was and remains possible to express complex ideas - including in science, art, religion and law - without the use of Sanskrit loan words.[88] In addition, Sanskritisation was actively resisted by a number of authors of the late medieval period,[89] culminating in the 20th century in a movement called taṉit tamiḻ iyakkam (meaning pure

Syntax
Tamil is a consistently head-final language. The verb comes at the end of the clause, with typical word order Subject Object Verb (SOV).[79] However, word order in Tamil is also flexible, so that surface permutations of the SOV order are possible with different pragmatic effects. Tamil has postpositions rather than prepositions. Demonstratives and modifiers precede the noun within the noun phrase. Subordinate clauses precede the verb of the matrix clause. Tamil is a null subject language. Not all Tamil sentences have subjects, verbs and objects. It is possible to construct

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Tamil movement), led by Parithimaar Kalaignar and Maraimalai Adigal, which sought to remove the accumulated influence of Sanskrit on Tamil.[90] As a result of this, Tamil in formal documents, literature and public speeches has seen a marked decline in the use Sanskrit loan words in the past few decades,[91] under some estimates having fallen from 40-50% to about 20%[92]. As a result, the Prakrit and Sanskrit loan words used in modern Tamil are, unlike in some other Dravidian languages, restricted mainly to some spiritual terminology and abstract nouns.[93] In the twentieth century, institutions and learned bodies have, with government support, generated technical dictionaries for Tamil containing neologisms and words derived from Tamil roots to replace loan words from English and other languages.[42] Words of Tamil origin occur in other languages. Popular examples in English are cheroot (curuṭṭu meaning "rolled up"),[94] mango (from mangai),[94] mulligatawny (from miḷaku taṉṉir meaning pepper water), pariah (from paraiyar), ginger (from ingi), curry (from kari),[95] and catamaran (from kaṭṭu maram, ????? ????, meaning "bundled logs"),[94] pandal (shed, shelter, booth),[94] tyer (curd),[94] coir (rope).[96]Tamil words are also found in Sinhala and Malay.

Tamil language
California Press, Berkeley. ISBN 0520026721 Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju (2003). The Dravidian Languages. Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521771110. Lehmann, Thomas (1989). A Grammar of Modern Tamil. Pondicherry, Pondicherry Institute of Linguistics and Culture. Mahadevan, Iravatham (2003). Early Tamil Epigraphy from the Earliest Times to the Sixth Century A.D. Cambridge, Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674012275 Meenakshisundaram, T.P. (1965). A History of Tamil Language. Poona: Deccan College. Johann Philip Fabricius (1933 and 1972), Tamil and English Dictionary. based on J.P. Fabricius Malabar-English Dictionary, 3rd and 4th Edition Revised and Enlarged by David Bexell. Evangelical Lutheran Mission Publishing House, Tranquebar; called Tranquebar Dictionary. Pope, GU (1868). A Tamil hand-book, or, Full introduction to the common dialect of that language. (3rd ed.). Madras, Higginbotham & Co. Rajam, VS (1992). A Reference Grammar of Classical Tamil Poetry. Philadelphia, The American Philosophical Society. ISBN 087169199X Schiffman, Harold F. (1998). "Standardization or restandardization: The case for ‘Standard’ Spoken Tamil". Language in Society 27, 359–385.

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See also
Tamil script Tamil literature Invocation to Goddess Tamil List of Tamil people Official languages of India List of Indian languages by total speakers List of Indian languages by number of native speakers • List of languages by first written accounts • • • • • • •

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Footnotes
[1] ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. [2] ^ "Top 30 Languages by Number of Native Speakers: sourced from Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 15th ed. (2005)". Vistawide - World Languages & Cultures. http://www.vistawide.com/languages/ top_30_languages.htm. Retrieved on 2007-04-03. [3] "Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People". MSN Encarta. http://encarta.msn.com/ media_701500404/

References
• Caldwell, Robert. 1974. A comparative grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian family of languages. New Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corp. • Herman Tieken(2001) Kavya in South India: Old Tamil Cankam Poetry. Groningen: Forsten 2001 • Hart, George L. (1975), The poems of ancient Tamil : their milieu and their Sanskrit counterparts. University of

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tamil language

Languages_Spoken_by_More_Than_10_Million_People.html. [13] "Tamil-Brahmi inscription on pottery Retrieved on 2007-04-02. found in Thailand". The Hindu. [4] "Official languages". UNESCO. 2006-07-16. http://www.hindu.com/2006/ http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ 07/16/stories/2006071603952000.htm. ev.phpRetrieved on 2008-11-11. URL_ID=22495&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html. [14] http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.phpRetrieved on 2007-05-10. URL_ID=3839&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION [5] "Official languages of Tamilnadu". [15] http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.phpTamilnadu Government. URL_ID=17246&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTIO http://www.tn.gov.in/welcometn.htm. [16] http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.phpRetrieved on 2007-05-01. URL_ID=3838&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION [6] "Official languages of Srilanka". State [17] India 2001: A Reference Annual 2001. department, US. http://www.state.gov/r/ Compiled and edited by Research, pa/ei/bgn/5249.htm. Retrieved on Reference and Training Division, 2007-05-01. Publications Division, New Delhi: [7] "Official languages and national Government of India, Ministry of language". Constitution of the Republic Information and Broadcasting. of Singapore. Government of Singapore. [18] Staff Reporter (November 22, 2005). http://statutes.agc.gov.sg/non_version/ "Students get glimpse of heritage". The cgi-bin/ Hindu. http://www.thehindu.com/2005/ DisplayContent.pl?DOCID=1999-REVED11/22/stories/2005112215970400.htm. CONST&VID=931158661-003601&WEF=latest&TYPE=simple&mode=and&version=currentVersion& Retrieved on 2007-04-26. Retrieved on 2008-04-22. [19] Krishnamurti 2003, p. 19 [8] Kamil V. Zvelebil (1992). Companion [20] Prof. A.K. Perumal, Manorama Yearbook Studies to the History of Tamil (Tamil) 2005 pp.302-318 Literature. BRILL Academic. p. 12. ISBN [21] Freeman, Rich (February 1998). "Rubies 9004093656. "p12 - ...the most and Coral: The Lapidary Crafting of acceptable periodisation which has so far Language in Kerala". The Journal of been suggested for the development of Asian Studies 57 (1): 38–65 at p.39. Tamil writing seems to me to be that of A doi:10.2307/2659023. Chidambaranatha Chettiar (1907–1967): [22] A. Govindankutty Menon (1990). "Some 1. Sangam Literature - 200BC to AD 200; Observations on the Sub-Group Tamil2. Post Sangam literature - AD 200 - AD Malayalam: Differential Realizations of 600; 3. Early Medieval literature - AD the Cluster *nt". Bulletin of the School of 600 to AD 1200; 4. Later Medieval Oriental and African Studies, University literature - AD 1200 to AD 1800; 5. Preof London 53 (1): 87–99. Modern literature - AD 1800 to 1900..." [23] Andronov, M.S. (1970). Dravidian [9] Maloney, Clarence (1970). "The Languages. Nauka Publishing House. pp. Beginnings of Civilization in South 21. India". The Journal of Asian Studies 23 [24] Southworth, Franklin C. (1998). "On the (3): 603–616. doi:10.2307/2943246. Origin of the word tamiz". International http://www.jstor.org/stable/2943246. at Journal of Dravidial Linguistics 27 (1): p. 610 129–132. [10] Classical Tamil, Government of India [25] Zvelebil, Kamil V. (1992). Companion [11] Chera, Chola, Pandya: Using Studies to the history of Tamil literature. Archaeological Evidence to Identify the Leiden: E.J. Brill. at pp. x-xvi. Tamil Kingdoms of Early Historic South [26] ^ M. B. Emeneau (Jan-Mar 1956). "India India - Abraham, Shinu Anna, Asian as a Linguistic Area". Language 32 (1): Perspectives - Volume 42, Number 2, 5. doi:10.2307/410649. "Of the four Fall 2003, pp. 207-223 University of literary Dravidian languages, Tamil has Hawaii Press voluminous records dating back at least [12] "Tamil Brahmi script in Egypt". The two millennia.". Hindu. 2007-11-21. [27] Burrow, Thomas (2001). The Sanskrit http://www.hinduonnet.com/2007/11/21/ Language. Motilal Banarsidass stories/2007112158412400.htm. Publications. pp. 337. ISBN 8120817672. Retrieved on 2008-11-11. "…In the case of Tamil the literary

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
tradition goes back for at least two thousand years…" [28] Caldwell, Robert [29] Morrison, Kathleen D.; Mark T. Lycett (1997). "Inscriptions as Artifacts: Precolonial South India and the Analysis of Texts". Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 4 (3): 219, 224. doi:10.1007/BF02428062. [30] Zvelebil, Kamil (1975). Tamil Literature. Leiden: E.J. Brill. pp. 5–21, 50–53. ISBN 9004041907. [31] Dating of Indian literature is largely based on relative dating relying on internal evidences with a few anchors. I. Mahadevan’s dating of Pukalur inscription proves some of the Sangam verses. See George L. Hart, "Poems of Ancient Tamil, University of Berkeley Press, 1975, p.7-8 [32] George Hart, "Some Related Literary Conventions in Tamil and Indo-Aryan and Their Significance" Journal of the American Oriental Society, 94:2 (Apr Jun 1974), pp. 157-167. [33] Kamil Veith Zvelebil, Companion Studies to the History of Tamil Literature, pp12 [34] See K.A. Nilakanta Sastry, A History of South India, OUP (1955) pp 105 [35] Thomas Lehmann, "Old Tamil" in Sanford Steever (ed.), The Dravidian Languages Routledge, 1998 at p. 75 [36] Iravatham Mahadevan (2003). Early Tamil Epigraphy from the Earliest Times to the Sixth Century A.D. Cambridge, Harvard University Press. [37] Rajam, V. S. 1992. A reference grammar of classical Tamil poetry: 150 B.C.-prefifth/sixth century A.D.. Memoirs of the American philosophical society, v. 199. Philadelphia, Pa: American Philosophical Society. p12 [38] Dr. M. Varadarajan, A History of Tamil Literature, (Translated from Tamil by E.Sa. Viswanathan), Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi, 1988 p.40 [39] Marr, John Ralston (1985). The Eight Anthologies. Madras: Institute of Asian Studies. at pp. 370-373. [40] Varadarajan, M. (1988). A history of Tamil literature. Madras: Sahitya Akademi. [41] Varadarajan, M. (1988). A history of Tamil literature. Madras: Sahitya Akademi. at pp. 155-157

Tamil language
[42] ^ Ramaswamy, Sumathy (1997). "Laboring for language". Passions of the Tongue: Language Devotion in Tamil India, 1891–1970. Berkeley: University of California Press. http://content.cdlib.org/ view?docId=ft5199n9v7&chunk.id=ch4. [43] Ramaswamy, Sumathy (1997). "Laboring for language". Passions of the Tongue: Language Devotion in Tamil India, 1891–1970. Berkeley: University of California Press. http://content.cdlib.org/ view?docId=ft5199n9v7&chunk.id=ch4. "Dravidianism, too, lent its support to the contestatory classicist project, motivated principally by the political imperative of countering (Sanskritic) Indian nationalism... It was not until the DMK came to power in 1967 that such demands were fulfilled, and the pure Tamil cause received a boost, although purification efforts are not particularly high on the agenda of either the Dravidian movement or the Dravidianist idiom of tamiḻppaṟṟu." [44] Krishnamurti 2003, p. 480 [45] McMahon, Suzanne. "Overview of the South Asian Diaspora". University of California, Berkeley. http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/SSEAL/ SouthAsia/overview.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-23. [46] Ramamoorthy, L. Multilingualism and Second Language Acquisition and Learning in Pondicherry. Retrieved on 2007-08-16. [47] Younger, Paul. Tamil Hinduism in Indenture-based Societies. Retrieved on 2007-08-16. [48] Sunwani, Vijay K. Amazing Andamans and North-East India: A Panoramic View of States, Societies and Cultures. Retrieved on 2007-08-16. [49] http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~haroldfs/540/ handouts/sparadox/sparadox.html [50] "Classic case of politics of language". The Telegraph. http://www.telegraphindia.com/1040928/ asp/frontpage/story_3813391.asp. Retrieved on 2007-04-20. "Members of the committee felt that the pressure was being brought on it because of the compulsions of the Congress and the UPA government to appease its ally, M. Karunanidhi’s DMK." [51] S.S. Vasan. "Recognising a classic". The Hindu. http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
fl2122/stories/20041105004310600.htm. Retrieved on 2007-05-14. [52] Thirumalai, Ph.D., M. S. (November 2004). "Tradition, Modernity and Impact of Globalization - Whither Will Tamil Go?". Language in India 4. http://www.languageinindia.com/ nov2004/tamilglobalization1.html. Retrieved on 2007-11-17. [53] BBC. India sets up classical languages. August 17, 2004. Retrieved on 2007-08-16. [54] The Hindu. Sanskrit to be declared classical language. October 28, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-08-16. [55] Arokianathan, S. Writing and Diglossic: A Case Study of Tamil Radio Plays. Retrieved on 2007-08-16. [56] Francis Britto. "Diglossia: A Study of the Theory, with Application to Tamil," Language, Vol. 64, No. 1 (Mar., 1988), pp. 152-155. doi:10.2307/414796 [57] Thomas Lehmann, "Old Tamil" in Sanford Steever (ed.), The Dravidian Languages Routledge, 1998 at p. 75; E. Annamalai and S. Steever, "Modern Tamil" in ibid. at pp. 100-128. [58] Kamil Zvelebil, "Some features of Ceylon Tamil" Indo-Iranian Journal 9:2 (June 1996) pp. 113-138. [59] Thiru. Mu. Kovintācāriyar, Vāḻaiyaṭi vāḻai Lifco, Madras, 1978 at pp. 26-39. [60] "Tamil dialects". Encyclopædia Britannica Online See Tamil language.. http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9071110. Retrieved on 2007-03-28. [61] Harold Schiffman, "Diglossia as a Sociolinguistic Situation", in Florian Coulmas (ed.), The Handbook of Sociolinguistics. London: Basil Blackwell, Ltd., 1997 at pp. 205 et seq. [62] Harold Schiffman, "Standardization or restandardization: The case for ‘Standard’ Spoken Tamil". Language in Society 27 (1998), pp. 359–385. [63] Fowler, Murray (1954). "The Segmental Phonemes of Sanskritized Tamil". Language 30 (3): 360–367. doi:10.2307/ 410134. at p. 360. [64] Schiffman, Harold F.; Arokianathan, S. (1986). "Diglossic variation in Tamil film and fiction". in Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju; Masica, Colin P.. South Asian languages: structure, convergence, and diglossia. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 8120800338. at p. 371

Tamil language

[65] See e.g. the pronunciation guidelines in G.U. Pope (1868). A Tamil hand-book, or, Full introduction to the common dialect of that language. (3rd ed.). Madras, Higginbotham & Co. [66] ""A Reference Grammar of Classical Tamil Poetry: 150 B.C.-Pre-Fifth/Sixth Century A.D. By V. S. Rajam"". http://books.google.com/ books?id=2Qwf3pAxJpUC&pg=PA40&ots=kqeR3TbY Retrieved on 2007-06-01. [67] E. Annamalai and S.B. Steever, Modern Tamil in S.B. Steevar (Ed.)The Dravidian Languages, London and New York, Routledge 1998, p100-128 [68] Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju (2003). The Dravidian Languages. Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge University Press. pp. 154. ISBN 0521771110. [69] See generally F. B. J. Kuiper, "Two problems of old Tamil phonology", IndoIranian Journal 2:3 (September 1958) pp. 191-224, esp. pp. 191-207. [70] Kamil Zvelebil. "Google Books version of the book The Smile of Murugan by Kamil Zvelebil". http://books.google.com/ books?id=VF2VMUoY_okC&pg=PA4&lpg=PA4&dq= dYD8Nla0#PPA4,M1. Retrieved on 2007-05-22. [71] A.K. Ramanujam and V. Dharwadker (Ed.), The collected essays of A.K. Ramanujam, Oxford University Press 2000, p.111 [72] ""Five fold grammar of Tamil"". http://www.southasia.upenn.edu/tamil/ lit.html. Retrieved on 2007-06-01. [73] ""Classes of nouns in Tamil"". http://books.google.com/ books?id=AfwCAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA156&dq=%2 Retrieved on 2007-06-01. [74] Harold Schiffman, "Standardization and Restandardization: the case of Spoken Tamil." Language in Society 27:3 (1998) pp. 359-385 and esp. pp.374-375. [75] Steever, Sanford B. (2002). "Direct and indirect discourse in Tamil". in Güldemann, Tom; von Roncador, Manfred. Reported Discourse: A Meeting Ground for Different Linguistic Domains. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 91–108. ISBN 9027229589. at p. 105. [76] Lehmann, Thomas (1989). A Grammar of Modern Tamil. Pondicherry: Pondicherry

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Institute of Linguistics and Culture. at pp. 9-11 [77] Swiderski, Richard M. (1996). The metamorphosis of English: versions of other languages. New York: Bergin & Garvey. pp. 61. ISBN 0-89789-468-5. [78] ^ Annamalai, E.; Steever, S.B. (1998). "Modern Tamil". in Steever, Sanford B.. The Dravidian Languages. London: Routledge. pp. 100–128. ISBN 0415100232. at p. 109. [79] ""Tamil is a head-final language"". http://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/people/ schuh/lx001/Discussion/d02.html. Retrieved on 2007-06-01. [80] Sumathi Ramaswamy, En/Gendering Language: The Poetics of Tamil Identity" Comparative Studies in Society and History 35:4. (Oct. 1993), pp. 683-725. [81] Krishnamurti 2003, p. 480. [82] Meenakshisundaram 1965, pp. 169-193 [83] "Literature in all Dravidian languages owes a great deal to Sanskrit, the magic wand whose touch raised each of the languages from a level of patois to that of a literary idiom" (Sastri 1955, p309); Trautmann, Thomas R. 2006. Languages and nations: the Dravidian proof in colonial Madras. Berkeley: University of California Press; "The author endeavours to demonstrate that the entire Sangam poetic corpus follows the "Kavya" form of Sanskrit poetry"-Tieken, Herman Joseph Hugo. 2001. Kāvya in South India: old Tamil Caṅkam poetry. Groningen: Egbert Forsten; Vaiyapuri Pillai in Takahashi, Takanobu. 1995, p18. [84] See Vaidyanathan’s analysis of an early medieval text in S. Vaidyanathan, "IndoAryan loan words in the Civakacintamani" Journal of the American Oriental Society 87:4. (Oct Dec 1967), pp. 430-434. [85] Caldwell, Robert. 1974. A comparative grammar of the Dravidian or SouthIndian family of languages. New Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corp, p87, 88 [86] Takahashi, Takanobu. 1995. Tamil love poetry and poetics. Brill’s Indological library, v. 9. Leiden: E.J. Brill, p16,18 [87] Sheldon Pollock, "The Sanskrit Cosmopolis 300-1300: Transculturation, vernacularisation and the question of ideology" in Jan E.M. Houben (ed.), The ideology and status of Sanskrit: Contributions to the history of the

Tamil language
Sanskrit language (E.J. Brill, Leiden: 1996) at pp. 209-217. [88] Trautmann, Thomas R. (1999). "Hullabaloo About Telugu". South Asian Research 19 (1): 53–70. doi:10.1177/ 026272809901900104. at p. 64; Caldwell, Robert. 1974. A comparative grammar of the Dravidian or SouthIndian family of languages. New Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corp, p 50; Ellis, F.W. (1820), "Note to the introduction" in Campbell, A.D., A grammar of the Teloogoo language. Madras: College Press, pp. 29-30. [89] See Ramaswamy’s analysis of one such text, the Tamil viṭututu, in Sumathi Ramaswamy, "Language of the People in the World of Gods: Ideologies of Tamil before the Nation" The Journal of Asian Studies, 57:1. (Feb. 1998), pp. 66-92. [90] Dr. M. Varadarajan, A History of Tamil Literature, (Translated from Tamil by E.Sa. Viswanathan), Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi, 1988- p.12 "Since then the movement has been popularly known as the tanittamil iyakkam or the Pure Tamil movement among the Tamil scholars." [91] Ramaswamy, Sumathy (1997). "Laboring for language". Passions of the Tongue: Language Devotion in Tamil India, 1891–1970. Berkeley: University of California Press. http://content.cdlib.org/ view?docId=ft5199n9v7&chunk.id=ch4. "Nevertheless, even impressionisticallyspeaking, the marked decline in the use of foreign words, especially of Sanskritic origin, in Tamil literary, scholarly, and even bureaucratic circles over the past half century is quite striking." [92] Krishnamurti 2003, p. 480 [93] Dr.T.P. Meenakshisundaram, A History of Tamil Language, Sarvodaya Ilakkiya Pannai, 1982 (translated) p. 241-2 [94] ^ "Oxford English Dictionary Online". Oxford English Dictionary. http://dictionary.oed.com. Retrieved on 2007-04-14. [95] "Entry in the Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/curry. Retrieved on 2008-04-17. [96] "Entry in the Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. http://www.m-w.com/

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
dictionary/coir. Retrieved on 2007-04-14.

Tamil language
• Tamil Language & Literature • Tamil Language In Context – A project providing online Tamil lessons, including video lessons. • Statement on the Status of Tamil as a Classical Language

External links
• UCLA Tamil Profile

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