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Ethnic cleansing

Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing is a euphemism referring to the persecution through imprisonment, expulsion, or killing of members of an ethnic minority by a local majority to achieve ethnic homogeneity in majority-controlled territory.[1] It is sometimes used interchangeably with the more connotatively severe term genocide. The term entered English and international media usage in the early 1990s to describe war events in the former Yugoslavia. Examples range from ancient history to modern day situations. Synonyms include ethnic purification .[2] The term ’ethnic cleansing’ has frequently been employed to refer to the events in Bosnia and Herzegovina which are the subject of this case ... General Assembly resolution 47/121 referred in its Preamble to ’the abhorrent policy of ’ethnic cleansing’, which is a form of genocide’, as being carried on in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... It [i.e. ethnic cleansing] can only be a form of genocide within the meaning of the [Genocide] Convention, if it corresponds to or falls within one of the categories of acts prohibited by Article II of the Convention. Neither the intent, as a matter of policy, to render an area “ethnically homogeneous”, nor the operations that may be carried out to implement such policy, can as such be designated as genocide: the intent that characterizes genocide is “to destroy, in whole or in part” a particular group, and deportation or displacement of the members of a group, even if effected by force, is not necessarily equivalent to destruction of that group, nor is such destruction an automatic consequence of the displacement. This is not to say that acts described as ’ethnic cleansing’ may never constitute genocide, if they are such as to be characterized as, for example, ’deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part’, contrary to Article II, paragraph (c), of the Convention, provided such action is carried out with the necessary specific intent (dolus specialis), that is to say with a view to the destruction of the group, as distinct from its removal from the region. As the ICTY has observed, while ’there are obvious similarities between a genocidal policy and the policy commonly known as ’ethnic cleansing’ ’ (Krstić, IT-98-33-T, Trial Chamber

Definitions
The term ethnic cleansing has been variously defined. In the words of Andrew Bell-Fialkoff: [E]thnic cleansing [...] defies easy definition. At one end it is virtually indistinguishable from forced emigration and population exchange while at the other it merges with deportation and genocide. At the most general level, however, ethnic cleansing can be understood as the expulsion of a population from a given territory.[3] The official United Nations definition of ethnic cleansing is "rendering an area ethnically homogeneous by using force or intimidation to remove from a given area persons of another ethnic or religious group"[4] However, ethnic cleansing rarely aims at complete ethnic homogeneity. The common practice is the removal of stigmatized ethnic groups, and thus can be defined as "the forcible removal of an ethnically defined population from a given territory", occupying the middle part of a somewhat fuzzy continuum between nonviolent pressured ethnic emigration and genocide.[5] In reviewing the International Court of Justice (ICJ) Bosnian Genocide Case in the judgement of Jorgic v. Germany on 12 July 2007 the European Court of Human Rights selectively quoted from the ICJ ruling on the Bosnian Genocide Case to explain that ethnic cleansing was not enough on its own to establish that a genocide had occurred:

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Judgment, 2 August 2001, para. 562), yet ’[a] clear distinction must be drawn between physical destruction and mere dissolution of a group. The expulsion of a group or part of a group does not in itself suffice for genocide. – ECHR quoting the ICJ[6]

Ethnic cleansing
ethnic cleansing and genocide of Serbs in Croatia during the Second World War and sometimes used the term "cleansing" to describe it.[11]. Some time later, on 30 June, 1941, Stevan Moljević, a lawyer from Banja Luka who was an ideologue of the Chetniks, published a booklet with the title On Our State and Its Borders. Moljević assessed the circumstances in the following manner: "One must take the opportunity of the war conditions and at a suitable moment take hold of the territory marked on the map, cleanse [očistiti] it before anybody notices and with strong battalions occupy the key places (...) and the territory surrounding these cities, freed of non-Serb elements. The guilty must be promptly punished and the others deported the Croats to Croatia, the Muslims to Turkey or perhaps Albania - while the vacated territory is settled with Serb refugees now located in Serbia.[12] The term "cleansing", more specifically the Russian term "cleansing of borders", ochistka granits (очистка границ), was used in Soviet Union documents of the early 1930s in reference to the resettlement of Poles from the 22-km border zone in Byelorussian SSR and Ukrainian SSR. The process was repeated on a larger and wider scale in 1939–1941, involving many other ethnicities with cross-border ties to foreign nationstates, see Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union and Population transfer in the Soviet Union.[5] A similar term with the same intent was used by the Nazi administration in Germany under Adolf Hitler. When an area under Nazi control had its entire Jewish population removed, whether by driving the population out, by deportation to Concentration Camps, and/or murder, the area was declared judenrein, (lit. "Jew Clean"): "cleansed of Jews".(cf. racial hygiene).

Origins of the term
The term "ethnic cleansing" entered the English lexicon as a loan translation of the SerboCroatian phrase etničko čišćenje (IPA: [ětnitʃkoː tʃîʃtɕeːɲe]) and has become synonymous with the term genocide.[7] During the 1990s it was used extensively by the media in the former Yugoslavia in relation to the Yugoslav wars, and appears to have been popularised by the international media some time around 1992. The term may have originated some time before the 1990s in the military doctrine of the former Yugoslav People’s Army, which spoke of "cleansing the field" (čišćenje terena, IPA: [tʃîʃtɕeːɲe terěːna]) of enemies to take total control of a conquered area. The origins of this doctrine are unclear, but may have been a legacy of the Partizan era. A Carnegie Endowment report on the Balkan Wars in 1914 points out that villageburning and ethnic cleansing have traditionally accompanied Balkan wars, regardless of ethnicities involved. In probably the earliest attestation of the term, Vuk Karadžić makes use of the word cleanse to describe what happened to the Turks in Belgrade when the city was captured by the Karadjordje’s forces in 1806[8]. Konstantin Nenadović wrote in his biography of famous Serbian leader published in 1883 that after the fighting "the Serbs, in their bitterness (after 500 years of Turkish occupation), slit the throats of the Turks everywhere they found them, sparing neither the wounded, nor the woman, nor the Turkish children".[9] Later attestation of the term cleansing can be found on May 16, 1941, during the Second World War, by one Viktor Gutić, a commander in the Croatian fascist faction, the Ustaše: Every Croat who today solicits for our enemies not only is not a good Croat, but also an opponent and disrupter of the prearranged, well-calculated plan for cleansing [čišćenje] our Croatia of unwanted elements [...].[10] The Ustaše carried out large-scale

Ethnic cleansing as a military and political tactic
The purpose of ethnic cleansing is to remove the conditions for potential and actual opposition, whether political, guerrilla or military, by physically removing any potentially or actually hostile ethnic communities. Although it

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Ethnic cleansing
group in pre-war Abkhazia, with a 45.7% plurality as of 1989) of Abkhazia. [17] As the results, more than 250,000 ethnic Georgians were forced to flee and approximately 30,000 people were killed during separate incidents involving massacres and expulsion. (see Ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia) [18][19] This was recognized as ethnic cleansing by OSCE conventions and was also mentioned in UN General Assembly Resolution GA/10708. [20] As a tactic, ethnic cleansing has a number of significant impacts. It enables a force to eliminate civilian support for resistance by eliminating the civilians — recognizing Mao Zedong’s dictum that guerrillas among a civilian population are fish in water, it removes the fish by draining the water. When enforced as part of a political settlement, as happened with the forced resettlement of ethnic Germans to the new Germany after 1945, it can contribute to long-term stability.[21] Some individuals of the large German population in Czechoslovakia and prewar Poland had encouraged Nazi jingoism before the Second World War, but this was forcibly resolved[22]. It thus establishes "facts on the ground" - radical demographic changes which can be very hard to reverse. For the most part, ethnic cleansing is such a brutal tactic and so often accompanied by large-scale bloodshed that it is widely reviled. It is generally regarded as lying somewhere between population transfers and genocide on a scale of odiousness, and is treated by international law as a war crime.

The 12th anniversary of ethnic cleansing in Abkhazia which was held in Tbilisi in 2005. One of the visitors of the gallery recognized her dead son on the photograph has sometimes been motivated by a doctrine that claim an ethnic group is literally "unclean" (as in the case of the Jews of medieval Europe), more usually it has been a rational (if brutal) way of ensuring that total control can be asserted over an area. Ethnic cleansing was a common phenomenon in the Bosnian war. This typically entailed intimidation, forced expulsion and/or killing of the undesired ethnic group as well as the destruction or removal of the physical vestiges of the ethnic group, such as places of worship, cemeteries and cultural and historical buildings. According to numerous ICTY verdicts, Serb[13] and Croat[14] forces performed ethnic cleansing of their territories planned by their political leadership in order to create ethnically pure states (Republika Srpska and Herzeg-Bosnia). Furthermore, Serb forces committed genocide in Srebrenica at the end of the war.[15] Based on the evidence of numerous Croat forces attacks against Bosnian Muslims (Bosniaks), the ICTY Trial Chamber concluded in the Kordić and Čerkez case that by April 1993 Croat leadership from Bosnia and Herzegovina had a common design or plan conceived and executed to ethnically cleanse Bosniaks from the Lašva Valley in Central Bosnia. Dario Kordić, as the local political leader, was found to be the planner and instigator of this plan. [16] In 1993, during the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict, armed Abkhaz separatist insurgency, confronted with large population of ethnic Georgians, implemented a campaign of ethnic cleansing against the ethnic Georgians (Georgians formed the single largest ethnic

Armenian civilians, being cleansed from their homeland during the Armenian Genocide

Ethnic cleansing as a crime under international law
There is no formal legal definition of ethnic cleansing.[23] However, ethnic cleansing in the broad sense - the forcible deportation of a

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population - is defined as a crime against humanity under the statutes of both International Criminal Court (ICC) and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY).[24] The gross humanrights violations integral to stricter definitions of ethnic cleansing are treated as separate crimes falling under the definitions for genocide or crimes against humanity of the statutes.[25] The UN Commission of Experts (established pursuant to Security Council Resolution 780) held that the practices associated with ethnic cleansing "constitute crimes against humanity and can be assimilated to specific war crimes. Furthermore ... such acts could also fall within the meaning of the Genocide Convention." The UN General Assembly condemned "ethnic cleansing" and racial hatred in a 1992 resolution.[26] There are however situations, such as the expulsion of Germans after World War II, where ethnic cleansing has taken place without legal redress. Timothy V. Waters argues that if similar circumstances arise in the future, this precedent would allow the ethnic cleansing of other populations under international law.[27]

Ethnic cleansing
Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Mairead Corrigan-Maguire in an open letter to President Barack Obama in May 2009,compared Israeli administrative policies in the occupied territories since the Six Days War in 1967 to ethnic cleansing. [29]

Instances of ethnic cleansing
This section lists incidents that have been termed "ethnic cleansing" by some academic or legal experts. Not all experts agree on every case; nor do all the claims necessarily follow definitions given in this article. Where claims of ethnic cleansing originate from non-experts (e.g., journalists or politicians) this is noted.

In ancient history
Ancient Assyria began to utilize mass-deportation as a punishment for rebellions starting in the 13th century BC. By the 9th century BC, the Assyrians were regularly deporting thousands of restless subjects to other lands. Carthage was completely destroyed by Rome in the Third Punic War (149-146 BC). Fifty thousand Carthaginians, perhaps a tenth of the original pre-war population, were sold into slavery.[30][31] After conquering western Anatolia in 88 BC, Mithridates VI reportedly ordered the killing of all Romans living there. The massacre of Roman men, women and children is known as the Asiatic Vespers.[32] During Julius Caesar’s campaign against the Helvetii, the Celtic inhabitants of modern Switzerland, approximately 60% of the tribe was killed, and another 20% was taken into slavery. The remainder of the Helvetii were driven back into their old lands. During the war against tribes in northern Spain trying to resist the Romans, Rome, led by emperor Augustus, pursued an extermination policy which included cleansing of the entire adult male population of Cantabria and Asturias, and all of its culture were forcibly shattered and replaced by Roman or pro-Roman settlers. There was ethnic cleansing and massacres of the Roman population of Roman Britain by Celtic Britons during Boudica’s revolt in 60-61 AD.[33]

Silent ethnic cleansing
Silent ethnic cleansing is a term coined in the mid-1990s by some observers of the Yugoslav wars. Apparently concerned with Western media representations of atrocities committed in the conflict — which generally focused on those perpetrated by the Serbs — atrocities committed against Serbs were dubbed "silent", on the grounds that they were not receiving adequate coverage. [28] Since that time, the term has been used by other ethnically oriented groups for situations that they perceive to be similar — examples include both sides in Ireland’s recent conflict, and those who object to the expulsion of ethnic Germans from former German territories during and after World War II. Some observers, however, assert that the term should only be used to denote population changes that do not occur as the result of overt violent action, or at least not from more or less organized aggression - the absence of such stressors being the very factor that makes it "silent", although some form of coercion is still used.

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Ethnic cleansing
• At the beginning of the 13th century the eastern part of the Islamic world was devastated by the Mongol invasion, which turned northern and eastern Iran into a desert. Over much of Central Asia speakers of Iranian languages were replaced by speakers of Turkic languages.[43] • The conquest of Prussia was accomplished with much bloodshed over more than 50 years, during which native Prussians who remained unbaptised were subjugated, killed, or exiled. To replace the partially exterminated native population, the Teutonic Order encouraged the immigration of German colonists. • In the 12th to 15th centuries, the Kingdom of France organized the near-total massacre of inhabitants of the southern provinces (the modern-day French regions of Aquitaine, Languedoc, Midi-Pyrenees and Provencal). The effects of what was perceived the first recorded genocide in European history is a decline in the Occitan language spoken there, although other factors like linguicide under the French Republic of the 19th and 20th centuries also applied. One major cause of the genocides in Southern France was religious schisms within the Roman Catholic Church: Included victims were the separate Christian sects like the Cathars and Camisards that developed in southern France at the time. • In 1270, the Jews of Tunisia were required either to leave or to embrace Islam. • The ethnic cleansing of the French from Sicily during the Sicilian Vespers in 1282. • The Crow Creek Massacre in 1325 was part of the ethnic cleansing of the Initial Coalescent people by the Middle Missouri villagers.[44] • Northern Iraq remained predominantly Assyrian Christian until the destructions of Tamerlane, a Turco-Mongol conqueror, at the end of the 14th century.[45] • Between the 11th and 18th centuries, the Vietnamese expanded southward in a process known as nam tiến (southward expansion). In 1471 the kingdom of Champa suffered a massive defeat by the Vietnamese, in which 120,000 Cham people were either captured or killed, and the kingdom was reduced to a small enclave near Nha Trang.[46][47]

In medieval history
• The Germanic Vandals were enslaved and deported from North Africa after the Vandal kingdom in North Africa was defeated by a Byzantine army during a Vandalic War in 533 and 534.[34] • According to a new study. According to research led by University College London In early Anglo-Saxon England, the AngloSaxons sought to limit the entry of native British genes into their population by restricting intermarriage, a policy that successfully wiped out a majority of original British genes in favour of Germanic ones, Anglo-Saxon settlers enjoyed a substantial social and economic advantage over the native Celtic Britons[35] who lived in what is now England, for more than 300 years from the middle of the 5th century.[36][37][38] • In the St. Brice’s Day massacre of 1002, the Anglo-Saxon king Ethelred the Unready ordered the death of all the Danes living in the Kingdom of England.[39][40] • The Pechenegs, nomadic Turkic people from the steppe, were nearly annihilated at the Battle of Levounion by a combined Byzantine and Cuman army in 1091. Attacked again in 1094 by the Cumans, many Pechenegs were slain or absorbed. • Jews were frequently massacred and exiled from various European countries. The persecutions rose during the Crusades. During the First Crusade (1096) flourishing communities on the Rhine and the Danube were utterly destroyed; see German Crusade, 1096. In the Second Crusade (1147) the Jews in France were subject to frequent massacres. The Crusades were followed by expulsions, including in, 1290, the banishing of all English Jews; in 1396, 100,000 Jews were expelled from France. • Jews and Christians expelled from Morocco and Islamic Spain during the reign of Berber dynasty of Almohads in the 12th century. Almohads gave a choice of either death or conversion to Islam, or exile. Some, such the family of Maimonides, fled east to the more tolerant Muslim lands, while others went northward to settle in the growing Christian kingdoms.[41][42]

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• Spain’s large Muslim and Jewish minorities, inherited from that country’s former Islamic kingdoms, were expelled following a Alhambra decree in 1492, while converts to Catholicism, called Moriscos or Marranos, were expelled between 1609 and 1614.[48]

Ethnic cleansing
large-scale migrations continuing into the late 19th century, the period during which most Hmong people emigrated to Southeast Asia.[51][52] In the Great Expulsion of 1755 after the French and Indian War (Seven Years’ War), the British deported around 4000 to 5000 French Acadians were deported from Acadia; many later settled in Louisiana, where they became known as Cajuns In 18th century, the Dzungars were annihilated by Qianlong Emperor in several campaigns. About 80% of the Dzungar population, or around 500.000 to 800.000 people, were killed during or after the Chinese conquest in 1755-1757.[53] The Qing Dynasty filled in the depopulated area with immigrants from many parts of their empire, but a century later the Muslim Rebellion ravaged the same region. Expulsion and ethnic cleansing of the St. Domingue’s 40,000 French settlers during the Haitian Revolution from 1791 to 1804. Jean-Jacques Dessalines, first ruler of an independent Haiti, declared Haiti an allblack nation, slaughtered remaining whites on the island and forbade Caucasians from ever again owning property or land there. [3] Expulsion by Russia of more than a million Crimean Tatars, Crimean Goths and Nogais of the Kuban and Budjak steppes to Ottoman Empire after the Crimean Khanate was annexed by Russia in 1783. When the Venezuelan War of Independence started, the Spanish enlisted the Llaneros, playing on their dislike of the criollos of the independence movement. José Tomás Boves led an army of llaneros which routinely killed white Venezuelans. After several more years of war, which killed half of Venezuela’s white population, the country achieved independence from Spain in 1821.[54][55] During the Chios Massacre in 1822, Ottoman troops killed about 42,000 Greek islanders of Chios; sold 45,000 into slavery; and exiled 23,000. Fewer than 2,000 Greeks managed to survive on the island. In the immediate aftermath of Dom Pedro’s abdication in 1831, the poor people of color, including slaves, staged anti-Portuguese riots in the streets of Brazil’s larger cities.[56]

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In early modern history
• Deportations of Armenians by Persian Safavids, which begun in the 1530s under Tahmasp I. Between 1604 and 1605 Shah Abbas relocated some 150,000 Armenians to an area of Isfahan called New Julfa. • Hundreds of thousands of Poles and Jews had been wiped out or driven from the lands of present-day Ukraine by Zaporozhian Cossacks during the Khmelnytsky Uprising (1648-1654).[49] As a result of events during The Deluge, population of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth dropped by one-third. • After the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland and Act of Settlement in 1652, Irish Catholics had most of their lands confiscated and were banned from living in towns. As many as 100,000 Irish men, women and children were forcibly taken to the colonies in the West Indies and North America as indentured servants or slaves.[50] The contemporary commentator Prendergast reported that four fifths of Ireland’s population was removed or killed and that whole counties were empty. Many were forcibly removed to poorer agricultural land in Connacht. Several thousand Irish soldiers were sold to the King of Spain, the Dutch and a Polish privateer. The death toll could have been over 1 million. • Kosovo was taken temporarily by the Austrian forces during the Great Turkish War with help of Serbian soldiers who lived in the Krajina within the Monarchy. After the Austrians retreated in 1690, hundreds of thousands of Serbs from Kosovo had to flee to Bosnia and Vojvodina to evade Ottoman reprisals. •

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18th and 19th centuries
• Conflict between Miao groups and newly arrived Han settlers increased during the 18th century under repressive economic and cultural reforms imposed by the Qing Dynasty. This led to armed conflict and •

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• On November 19, 1835, mainland Māori invaded the Chatham Islands. They massacred some 300 Moriori men, women and children, and enslaved the remaining 1,300 survivors. By 1862, only 101 Morioris were alive. Modern inhabitants are descendants of those who invaded and conquered the archipelago in 1835.[57] • In the United States in the 19th century, particularly during the 1830s, the US government forced relocation of various Native American peoples from their traditional areas to more western, often remote reservations elsewhere in the country, a process known as Indian Removal. The Trail of Tears, which led to the deaths of about 2,000 to 8,000 Cherokees from disease, and the Long Walk of the Navajo, are well-known examples.[58][59][4] • Cherokee trail of tears: 16,000 Cherokee who had adopted colonial white cultural norms of housing, clothes, business and language were forcibly removed from their ancestral lands and placed into internment camps where 2000 to 3000 would die from disease. The Survivors were then force marched 1200 miles to tribal reservation lands, 2000 to 3000 more died of disease, exposure, and starvation in these marches • Choctaw Trail of Tears, On February 25, 1831, U.S. President Andrew Jackson began the forced marched of 15,000 Choctaw out of their ancestral lands, 2500 died of starvation and exposure along the way. • The Tasmanians, estimated at 8,000 people in 1803, were reduced to a population of around 300 by 1833, although much of this has been attributed to the effect of diseases to which they had no natural immunity (including smallpox and syphilis) and alcoholism.[60] Estimates of the total number of Tasmanian deaths at the hands of European settlers vary, with some controversial estimates ranging as low as 118 in the period from 1803 until 1847.[61] This conflict is a subject of the Australian history wars. • during the Caste War of Yucatán, the Mayas performed ethnic cleansing of the white Spanish and light-skinned Mestizo people from the eastern Yucatan and the territory of Quintana Roo. The greatest success of the Maya revolt was reached in

Ethnic cleansing
the spring of 1848, with the Europeans and Mestizos driven from most of the peninsula, other than the walled cities of Campeche and Mérida and the south-west coast. Ainu people are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, northern Honshū, the Kuril Islands, much of Sakhalin, and the southernmost third of the Kamchatka peninsula. As Japanese settlement expanded, the Ainu were pushed northward, until by the Meiji period, they were confined by the government to a small area in Hokkaidō, in a manner similar to the placing of Native Americans on reservations. Kurdish tribes, in 1842-1847, expelled the Assyrian Christian population from Eastern Anatolia.[62] After the Balkan countries (e.g., Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria) achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire from early 1800s to early 1900, they expelled Turkish, Muslim, and Jewish populations from within their territories.[63] Expulsion of Muslim populations in Northern Caucasus by imperial Russia throughout 19th century. Particularly, expulsion of Circassians to Anatolia in 1864.[64] (see Muhajir (Caucasus) for more details) During the mid-19th century, the Muslims of China revolted against the Qing Dynasty, most notably in the Dungan revolt (1862-1877) and the Panthay rebellion 1856-1873) in Yunnan. The Manchu government committed genocide to suppress these little known revolts.[65][66][67] killing a million people in the Panthay rebellion,[68][69] and several million in the Dungan revolt.[69] A "washing off the Muslims"(?? (xi Hui)) policy had been long advocated by officials in the Manchu government.[70]

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20th century
• Pontian Genocide (1914-23); Violent campaigns instigated by the Ottoman Turks against the Greek community of Pontus Black Sea area. In this area an estimated 350,000 were killed. • Treaty of Neuilly (1919); Greece and Bulgaria exchange minority populations, with some exceptions.

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• Massacres of the Turkish population by the Greek army of occupation and Greek scorched earth policy by Greek troops after their defeat in the Greco Turkish War. Massacre of Greek population and sack of Smyrna by Turkish troops. • The population exchange between Greece and Turkey of Greeks from Turkey and of Turks from Greece after the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922) as a consequence of the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923. • The Bolshevik regime killed or deported an estimated 300,000 to 500,000 Don Cossacks during the Russian Civil War, in 1919-1920.[71] • Thousands of armed whites burned down a black neighborhood, known as the Negro Wall Street of Tulsa, Oklahoma in the Tulsa Race Riot, one of the USA’s costliest racial riots and civil disorder.[72] Sixteen hours of rioting on May 31 and June 1, 1921 resulted in over 800 people admitted to local hospitals with injuries, an estimated 10,000 left homeless, 35 city blocks composed of 1,256 residences destroyed by fire, and $1.8 million in property damage.[72] Twenty-three black and 16 white citizens were reported killed, but estimates suggest as many as 300, mostly blacks, died.[72] • Rosewood massacre In January 1923, mobs of "whites" attacked a small Black community of 350 people, murdered more six blacks and burned every house and church to the ground. Rosewood, Florida, a rural village several miles outside Gainesville, was never repopulated. • The Soviet Union deported Poles from Belarus, Ukraine and European Russia to Kazakhstan in 1934-1938. • Deportation of Koreans by the Soviet Union from the Russian Far East to Soviet Central Asia from September to October 1937. More than 172,000 Koreans were deported. • During the Great Depression, the US government pushed out an estimated half million Mexican Americans from the Southwestern United States to Mexico, in the Great Repatriation. Approximately 60% of those hastily deported were naturalized citizens and descendants who lived in the US for over 10 years, including US-born children of Mexican parents. Mexican-Americans whose ancestry dated back to the 19th century

Ethnic cleansing
pre-annexation period were harassed by INS officials out of nativism and fears of a "Mexican takeover" of the American Southwest. Forced displacement of 150,000 Czechs after October 1, 1938, when the German army entered the border regions of Czechoslovakia surrendered in accordance with the Munich Agreement.[73] The German government’s persecutions and expulsions of Jews in Germany, Austria and other Nazi-controlled areas prior to the initiation of mass genocide. Estimated number of those who died in the process is being debated by historians and between 750,000 - 6 million Jews.[74] During the Finnish occupation of East Karelia during World War II the Russianspeaking population of the city of Petrozavodsk was held in an concentration camp. Expulsion of ethnic Finns and Karelians from Karelia, Salla, and Petsamo following the Winter War and Continuation War. Expulsion of Poles by Germany. During World War II, Nazis planned to ethnically cleanse the whole Polish population. Eventually during Nazi occupation up to 1.6 to 2 million Poles were expelled, not counting millions of slave labourers deported from Poland.[75] More than 250,000 Serbs were expelled from Croatia by the extreme nationalist Ustashe regime during the Serbian Genocide, in 1941-1945.[76] During WWII, Japanese-Americans and Japanese-Canadians were interned in camps due to fears that Japanese immigrants might be a fifth column supporting the enemy. During WWII, in Kosovo & Metohija, some 10,000 Serbs lost their lives[77][78], and about 80[77] to 100,000[77][79] or more[78] were ethnically cleansed. Deportation of Volga Germans by Soviet Union to Kazakhstan, Altai Krai, Siberia, and other remote areas, in 1941-1942. Deportation of Crimean Tatars, Kalmyks, Chechens, Ingush, Balkars, Karachays, and Meskhetian Turks by Soviet Union to Central Asia and Siberia, 1943-1944.[80] The ethnic cleansing of Hungarians, or the massacres in Bačka by titoist partisans during the winter of 1944-45, about 40.000 massacred.[81] Afterwards, between 45-48, internation camps were

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set which led directly to the death of 70.000 more, of famine, frost, plagues, tortures and executions The ethnic cleansing and massacres of Poles in Volhynia by nationalist UPA which took place in 1943 and 1944, with the bulk of victims reported for summer and autumn 1944. The ethnic cleansing of Cham Albanians from Southern Epirus by Greeks which took place in 1944 and 1945, circa 18,000-35000[82] fled to Albania, and from several hundred to 2,800 killed. Expulsion of Germans after World War II. From 1944 until 1948, between 13.5 and 16.5 million Germans were expelled, evacuated or fled from Central and Eastern Europe, making this the largest single instance of ethnic cleansing in recorded history. Estimated number of those who died in the process is being debated by historians and estimated between 500,000 and 3,000,000.[83] Istrian exodus during and after World War II. The diaspora of 350,000 Italians from Istria, Fiume and dalmatian Zara lands, after the collapse of Italian fascist regime and the annexation of the region to Yugoslavia. Manchuria, under Soviet occupation following World War II and soon to become a battlefield between the Chinese communist forces and the Nationalist forces was home to hundreds of thousands of Japanese citizens. Korea and Taiwan, now free from Japanese rule, and Sakhalin, under Soviet military occupation, were Japanese territories before World War II and had millions of Japanese residents. All these were now to be expelled. The mass deportation of Ukrainian speaking ethnic minorities from the territory of Poland after World War II, culminating in 1947 with the start of Operation Wisla. Millions of Poles were simultaneously deported from the eastern territories annexed by the Soviet Union into the western territories, which Soviets transferred from Germany to Poland. By 1950, 5 million Poles had been settled in what the government called the Regained Territories. Communist regime in Romania begins evictions of the Greek community, approx. 75,000 migrate.

Ethnic cleansing
• Mass expulsions of Hindus and Sikhs from Pakistan to India, and of Muslims from India to Pakistan. The controversy surrounding the partition of British India in 1947[84], resulted in the killings of Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs in riots. Well over 10 million people were violently displaced, and up to 500,000 lost their lives. However, unlike most other instances, no government agencies actively took part in the bloodshed, although reportedly a limited number of Indian and Pakistani troops and police posted along the border were partisan in their sympathies and abetted the rioters. Those that did not (as well as the last remaining British officers) were simply overwhelmed by the magnitude of the violence and could do little to stop it. • After India’s annexation of the Muslimruled state of Hyderabad by India in 1948, they interned or deported about 7,000 Hadrami Arabs. [85] • The Palestinian exodus, in which the substantial majority of Arab Palestinians (approximately 700,000) in the areas of British Mandate of Palestine that became part of Israel fled or were forced to leave in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.[86][87][88] The circumstances of these events are still hotly debated among historians and commentators of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. • Between the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and the Six Day War in 1967, there was a Jewish exodus from Arab lands, in which 99 percent of Sephardic Jews (approximately 800,000 people) left Arab countries of North Africa and the Mediterranean. Many migrated to Israel; others to the United States and Europe. The major populations affected were in Iraq, Syria, Yemen, Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco.[89][90][91][92][93] • After the Republic of Indonesia achieved independence from the Netherlands in 1949, around 300.000 people, predominantly Indos or Dutch Indonesians (people of mixed Indonesian and European descent), fled or were expelled.[94] • Kashmiris who have fled the Indian military action in Kashmir, have migrated to Pakistan, as well as to Great Britain, Canada and the USA.[95] Kashmiri Hindus have also been displaced due to the ongoing and anti-Indian insurgency. Some

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300,000 Hindus have been internally displaced from Kashmir due to the violence.[96] In the aftermath of the 1949 Durban Riots (an inter-racial conflict between Zulus and Asians in South Africa), hundreds of Indians fled Cato Manor.[97] On 5 and 6 September 1955 the Istanbul Pogrom or "Septembrianá"/ "Σεπτεμβριανά", secretly backed by the Turkish government, was launched against the Greek population of Constantinople. The mob also attacked some Jews and Armenians of the city. The event contributed greatly to the gradual extinction of the Greek minority in the city and country, which numbered 100,000 in 1924 after the Turko-Greek population exchange treaty. By 2007 there were only 5000 Greeks. The Turkish government further forced expulsion of the Greek minority in the Imbros and Tenedos islands in the period 1923-1993. Between 1957-1962 President Nasser of Egypt carried out an Aati-European policy, which resulted in the expulsion of 100-200,000 Greeks from Alexandria and the rest of Egypt. Many other Europeans were expelled, such as Italians and French. On 5 July 1960, five days after the Congo gained independence from Belgium, the Force Publique garrison near Léopoldville mutinied against its white officers and attacked numerous European targets. This caused the fear amongst the approximately 100,000 whites still resident in the Congo and led to their mass exodus from the country.[98] Ne Win’s rise to power in 1962 and his relentless persecution of "resident aliens" (immigrant groups not recognised as citizens of the Union of Burma) led to an exodus of some 300,000 Burmese Indians. They migrated to escape racial discrimination and wholesale nationalisation of private enterprise a few years later in 1964.[99][100] The creation of the apartheid system in South Africa, which began in 1948 but reached full flower in the 1960s and 1970s, involved some ethnic cleansing, including the separation of blacks, Coloureds, and whites into separate residential areas and private spheres. The government created Bantustans, which

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involved forced removals of non-white populations to reserved lands.[101][102] The governing minority forced relocation of the majority to different areas, as well as restricting their movement, education and social activities. As Algeria fought for independence, it expelled the pied-noir population of European descent and Jews; most fled to France, where they had citizenship. In just a few months in 1962, 900,000 of these European descendants and native Jewish people left the country.[103][104] Zanzibar forced ethnic cleansing of Arabs and Indians from the nation in 1964.[105][106] Some 150,000 Italians settled in Libya, constituting about 18% of the total population.[107] In 1970, the government expelled all of Libya’s ethnic Italians, a year after Muammar al-Gaddafi seized power (a "day of vengeance" on 7 October, 1970).[108] By 1969, more than 350,000 Salvadorans were living in Honduras. In 1969, Honduras enacted a new land reform law. This law took land away from Salvadoran immigrants and redistributed this land to native-born Honduran peoples. Thousands of Salvadorans were displaced by this law (see Football War). During the Bangladesh War of Independence of 1971 around 10 million Bengalis, mainly Hindus, fled the country to escape the killings and atrocities committed by the Pakistan Army. Furthermore, many intellectuals and other religious minorities were targeted by death squads and razakars. Idi Amin’s regime forced the expulsion in 1972 of Uganda’s entire ethnic Asian population, mostly of Indian descent.[109] Greek Cypriots and Greek military forced Turkish Cypriots out of Greek territory in Cyprus from 1963-1974. [110] The ethnic cleansing in 1974-76 of the Greek population of the areas under Turkish military occupation in Cyprus during and after the Turkish Invasion of Cyprus.[111] Following the U.S. withdrawal from Vietnam in 1975, the Lao kingdom was overthrown by the communists and the Hmong people became targets of retaliation and persecution. Thousands made the trek to and across the Mekong

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River into Thailand, often under attack. This marked the beginning of a mass exodus of Hmong people from Laos. The Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia disproportionately targeted ethnic minority groups. These included ethnic Chinese, Vietnamese and Thai. In the late 1960s, an estimated 425,000 ethnic Chinese lived in Cambodia, but by 1984, as a result of Khmer Rouge genocide and emigration, only about 61,400 Chinese remained in the country. The Cham Muslims suffered serious purges with as much as half of their population exterminated. A Khmer Rouge order stated that henceforth “The Cham nation no longer exists on Kampuchean soil belonging to the Khmers” (U.N. Doc. A.34/ 569 at 9).[112][113][114] Subsequent waves of hundreds of thousands of Rohingya fled Burma and many refugees inundated neighbouring Bangladesh including 250,000 in 1978 as a result of the King Dragon operation in Arakan. The Sino-Vietnamese War resulted in the discrimination and consequent migration of Vietnam’s ethnic Chinese. Many of these people fled as "boat people". In 1978-79, some 450,000 ethnic Chinese left Vietnam by boat as refugees (many officially encouraged and assisted) or were expelled across the land border with China. Aftermath of Indira Gandhi assassination in 1984 Oct 31, the ruling party Indian National Congress supporters formed large mobs and killed around 3000 Sikhs around Delhi which is known as the Anti Sikh Riots during the next four days. The mobs using the support of ruling party leaders used the Election voting list to identify Sikhs and kill them. The forced assimilation campaign of the late 80s directed against ethnic Turks resulted in the emigration of some 300,000 Bulgarian Turks to Turkey. The Nagorno Karabakh conflict has resulted in the displacement of population from both sides. 528,000 Azerbaijanis from Nagorno Karabakh Armenian controlled territories including NagornoKarabakh, and 185,000[115] to 220,000 Azeris, 18,000 Kurds and 3,500 Russians fled from Armenia to Azerbaijan from 1988 to 1989.[116] 280,000 to 304,000[115]

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aftermath of the halabja poison gas attack persons—virtually all ethnic Armenians—fled Azerbaijan during the 1988–1993 war over the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh.[117] Since April 1989, some 70,000 black Mauritanians—members of the Peul, Wolof, Soninke and Bambara ethnic groups—have been expelled from Mauritania by the Mauritanian government.[118] In 1989, after bloody pogroms against the Meskhetian Turks by Uzbeks in Central Asia’s Ferghana Valley, nearly 90,000 Meskhetian Turks left Uzbekistan.[119][120] In 1991, following a crackdown on Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar, 250,000 refugees took shelter in the Cox’s Bazar district of neighbouring Bangladesh.[121] As a result of 1991–1992 South Ossetia War, about 100,000 ethnic Ossetians fled South Ossetia and Georgia proper, most across the border into North Ossetia. A further 23,000 ethnic Georgians fled South Ossetia and settled in other parts of Georgia.[122] According to Helsinki Watch, the campaign of ethnic-cleansing was orchestrated by the Ossetian militants, during the events of Ossetian–Ingush conflict, which resulted in expulsion of approximately 60,000 Ingush inhabitants from Prigorodny District.[123] The widespread ethnic cleansing accompanying the Yugoslav wars from 1991 to 1999, of which the most significant examples occurred in eastern Croatia and self-proclaimed Republic of Serbian Krajina (1991-1995) (see Operation Storm), in most of Bosnia (1992-1995), and in the Albanian-

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dominated breakaway Kosovo province (of Serbia) (1999). Large numbers of Serbs, Croats, Bosniaks and Albanians were forced to flee their homes and expelled.[124] Beginning in 1991, political upheavals in the Balkans displaced about 2,700,000 people by mid-1992, of which over 700,000 of them sought asylum in Europe.[125][126] The forced displacement and ethniccleansing of more than 250,000 people, mostly Georgians but some others too, from Abkhazia during the conflict and after in 1993 and 1998.[127] The 1994 massacres of nearly 1,000,000 Tutsis by Hutus, known as the Rwandan Genocide[128][better citation needed] The mass expulsion of southern Lhotshampas (Bhutanese of Nepalese origin) by the northern Druk majority of Bhutan in 1990.[129] The number of refugees is approximately 103,000.[130] An estimated 1,000 Tamil people were killed, tens of thousands of houses were destroyed by the Sinhalese-dominated government of Sri Lanka in what is commonly known as Black July.The murder, looting and general destruction of property was well organized. Mobs armed with petrol were seen stopping passing motorists at critical street junctions and, after ascertaining the ethnic identity of the driver and passengers, setting alight the vehicle with the driver and passengers trapped within it. Mobs were also seen stopping buses to identify Tamil passengers and subsequently these passengers were knifed, clubbed to death or burned alive. In October 1990, the militant Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), forcibly expelled the entire ethnic Muslim population (approx 75,000) from the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. The Muslims were given 48 hours to vacate the premises of their homes while their properties were subsequently looted by LTTE. Those who refused to leave were killed. This act of ethnic cleansing was carried out so the LTTE could facilitate their goal of creating a mono-ethnic Tamil state in Northern Sri Lanka. Displacement of more than 500,000 Chechen and ethnic Russian civilians living in Chechnya during the First Chechen War in 1994-1996.[131][132][133]

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• The Jakarta riots of May 1998 targeted many Chinese Indonesians. Suffering from lootings and arsons, many Chinese Indonesians fled from Indonesia.[134][135] • More than 800,000 Kosovar Albanians fled their homes in Kosovo during the Kosovo War in 1998-9, after being expelled. Although on the contrary over 200,000 Serbs and other non-Albanian minorities were forced out of Kosovo during and after the war while most Albanians returned.[136][137] • There have been serious outbreaks of inter-ethnic violence on the island of Kalimantan since 1997, involving the indigenous Dayak peoples and immigrants from the island of Madura. In 2001 in the Central Kalimantan town of Sampit, at least 500 Madurese were killed and up to 100,000 Madurese were forced to flee. Some Madurese bodies were decapitated in a ritual reminiscent of the headhunting tradition of the Dayaks of old.[138]

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• In 2003, Sinafasi Makelo, a representative of Mbuti Pygmies, told the UN’s Indigenous People’s Forum that during the Congo Civil War, his people were hunted down and eaten as though they were game animals. Both sides of the war regarded them as "subhuman" and some say their flesh can confer magical powers. Makelo asked the UN Security Council to recognise cannibalism as a crime against humanity and an act of genocide.[139][140] • In the late-1990s and early 2000s, paramilitaries organized and armed by the Indonesian military and police forces murdered large numbers of civilians in East Timor.[141][142][143][144][145][146][147] • Since the mid-1990s the central government of Botswana has been trying to move Bushmen out of the Central Kalahari Game Reserve. As of October 2005, the government has resumed its policy of forcing all Bushmen off their lands in the Game Reserve, using armed police and threats of violence or death.[148] Many of the involuntarily displaced Bushmen live in squalid resettlement camps and some have resorted to prostitution and alcoholism, while about 250 others remain or have surreptitiously returned to the Kalahari to

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resume their independent lifestyle.[149] “How can we continue to have Stone Age creatures in an age of computers?“ asked Botswana’s president Festus Mogae.[150][151] Attacks by the Janjaweed, militias of Sudan on the African population of Darfur, a region of western Sudan.[152][153] A July 14, 2007 article notes that in the past two months up to 75,000 Arabs from Chad and Niger crossed the border into Darfur. Most have been relocated by the Sudanese government to former villages of displaced non-Arab people. Some 2.5 million have now been forced to flee their homes after attacks by Sudanese troops and Janjaweed militia.[154] Currently in the Iraq Civil War (2003 to present), entire neighborhoods in Baghdad are being ethnically cleansed by Shia and Sunni militias.[155][156] Some areas are being evacuated by every member of a particular group due to lack of security, moving into new areas because of fear of reprisal killings. As of June 21, 2007, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees estimated that 2.2 million Iraqis had been displaced to neighboring countries, and 2 million were displaced internally, with nearly 100,000 Iraqis fleeing to Syria and Jordan each month.[157][158][159] Although Iraqi Christians represent less than 5% of the total Iraqi population, they make up 40% of the refugees now living in nearby countries, according to UNHCR.[160][161] In the 16th century, Christians constituted half of Iraq’s population.[162] In 1987, the last Iraqi census counted 1.4 million Christians.[163] But as the 2003 invasion has allowed the growth of militant Islamism, Christians’ total numbers slumped to about 500,000, of whom 250,000 live in Baghdad.[164] Furthermore, the Mandaean and Yazidi communities are at the risk of elimination due to the ongoing atrocities by Islamic extremists.[165][166] A May 25, 2007 article notes that in the past 7 months only 69 people from Iraq have been granted refugee status in the United States.[167] The ethnic cleansing of African American population of some racially mixed Los Angeles neighborhoods by Mexican street gangs. According to gang experts and law

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enforcement agents the Mexican Mafia leaders, or shot callers, have issued a "green light" on all blacks.[168][169][170][171][172] In October 2006, Niger announced that it would deport the Arabs living in the Diffa region of eastern Niger to Chad.[173] This population numbered about 150,000.[174] While the government was rounding Arabs in preparation for the deportation, two girls died, reportedly after fleeing government forces, and three women suffered miscarriages. Niger’s government had eventually suspended a controversial decision to deport Arabs.[175][176] In 1950, the Karen had become the largest of 20 minority groups participating in an insurgency against the military dictatorship in Burma. The conflict continues as of 2008. In 2004, the BBC, citing aid agencies, estimates that up to 200,000 Karen have been driven from their homes during decades of war, with 120,000 more refugees from Burma, mostly Karen, living in refugee camps on the Thai side of the border. Many accuse the military government of Burma of ethnic cleansing.[177] As a result of the ongoing war in minority group areas more than two million people have fled Burma to Thailand.[178] Civil unrest in Kenya erupted in December 2007.[179] By January 28, 2008, the death toll from the violence was at around 800.[180] The United Nations estimated that as many as 600,000 people have been displaced.[181][182] A government spokesman claimed that Odinga’s supporters were "engaging in ethnic cleansing".[183] The 2008 attacks on North Indians in Maharashtra began on February 3, 2008. Incidences of violence against North Indians and their property were reported in Bombay, Pune, Aurangabad, Beed, Nashik, Amravati, Jalna and Latur. Nearly 25,000 North Indian workers fled Pune,[184][185] and another 15,000 fled Nashik in the wake of the attacks.[186][187] South Africa Ethnic Cleansing erupted on 11 May 2008 within three weeks 80 000 were displaced the death toll was 62, with 670 injured by the violence when South Africans ejected non-nationals in a nationwide ethnic cleansing / Xenophobic

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outburst ejecting the "makwerekwere" BLACKer Africans. The most affected have been Zimbabweans (30 000), Mozambiqueans (20 000 have returned to Mozambique), Somalians, Ethiopians, Congolese, Angolans. Local South Africans have also been caught up in the violence and so have other non-African nationals. Refugee camps a mistake Arvin Gupta, a senior UNHCR protection officer, said the UNHCR did not agree with the City of Cape Town that those displaced by the violence should be held at camps across the city.

Ethnic cleansing

Bibliography
• Bell-Fialkoff, Andrew (1993). "A Brief History of Ethnic Cleansing". Foreign Affairs 72 (3): 110. [5] • Jackson Preece, Jennifer (1998). "Ethnic Cleansing As An Instrument of NationState Creation". Human Rights Quarterly 20 (4): 359. doi:10.1353/hrq.1998.0039. • Petrovic, Drazen (1998). "Ethnic Cleansing - An Attempt at Methodology". European Journal of International Law 5 (4): 817. [6]

Notes
[1] ethnic cleansing - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary [2] Drazen Petrovic, "Ethnic Cleansing - An Attempt at Methodology", European Journal of International Law, Vol. No. 3. Retrieved 20 May 2006. [3] Andrew Bell-Fialkoff, "A Brief History of Ethnic Cleansing", Foreign Affairs 72 (3): 110, Summer 1993. Retrieved 20 May 2006. [4] Hayden, Robert M. (1996) Schindler’s Fate: Genocide, Ethnic Cleansing, and Population Transfers. Slavic Review 55 (4), 727-48. [5] ^ Martin, Terry (1998). The Origins of Soviet Ethnic Cleansing. The Journal of Modern History 70 (4), 813-861. [6] ECHR Jorgic v. Germany §45 citing Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro (“Case concerning the application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide”) the International Court of Justice (ICJ) found under the heading of “intent and ’ethnic cleansing’” § 190 [7] http://books.google.com/ books?id=tVeh3C8XGP4C&pg=PA67 [8] Judah, Tim (1997). The Serbs: History, Myth and the Destruction of Yugoslavia. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. pp. 75. [9] Mirko Grmek, Marc Gjidara, Neven Simac (1993) (in French). Le Nettoyage ethnique: Documents historiques sur une idéologie serbe. Paris. pp. 24. [10] Pavelicpapers.com [11] Pavelicpapers.com [12] The Moljevic Memorandum [13] "ICTY: Radoslav Brđanin judgement". http://www.un.org/icty/brdjanin/trialc/ judgement/index.htm.

See also
• Violence • Ethnocide • Rule of Law in Armed Conflicts Project (RULAC) • Population transfer • Forced settlements in the Soviet Union • Civilian casualties, civilian, non-combatant persons killed or injured by direct military action • Command responsibility • Crime against humanity • Cultural assimilation • Ethnic Cleansing, a computer game. • German exodus from Eastern Europe • World War II evacuation and expulsion • Germanisation • List of events named massacres • List of wars and disasters by death toll • Caste War of Yucatán • 1989 events • Partition of India • 1971 Bangladesh atrocities • Persecution of Hindus • Persecution of Muslims • Expulsion of Asians in Uganda in 1972 • Generalplan Ost • Population transfer in the Soviet Union • Polish minority in the Soviet Union • Transmigration program • Refugees of Iraq • Sinophobia • The Holocaust • Iraqi Turkmen

References

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[14] "ICTY: Kordić and Čerkez verdict". http://www.un.org/icty/kordic/trialc/ judgement/index.htm. [15] ICTY; "Address by ICTY President Theodor Meron, at Potočari Memorial Cemetery" The Hague, 23 June 2004 [1] [16] "ICTY: Kordić and Čerkez verdict - IV. Attacks on towns and villages: killings C. The April 1993 Conflagration in Vitez and the Lašva Valley - 3. The Attack on Ahmići (Paragraph 642)". http://www.un.org/icty/kordic/trialc/ judgement/kor-tj010226e-5.htm#IVC3. [17] US State Department, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1993, Abkhazia case [18] Chervonnaia, Svetlana Mikhailovna. Conflict in the Caucasus: Georgia, Abkhazia, and the Russian Shadow. Gothic Image Publications, 1994. [19] S State Department, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1993, February 1994, Chapter 17. [20] General Assembly Adopts Resolution Recognizing Right Of Return By Refugees, Internally Displaced Persons To Abkhazia, Georgia [21] Judt, Tony. Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 Penguin Press, 2005 [22] Judt, Tony. Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 Penguin Press, 2005. [23] Ward Ferdinandusse, [http://www.ejil.org/journal/Vol15/No5/ 9.pdf The Interaction of National and International Approaches in the Repression of International Crimes], The European Journal of International Law Vol. 15 no.5 (2004), p. 1042, note 7. [24] Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Article 7; Updated Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Article 5. [25] Daphna Shraga and Ralph Zacklin "The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia", The European Journal of International Law Vol. 15 no.3 (2004). [26] A/RES/47/80 ""Ethnic cleansing" and racial hatred" United Nations. 12/16/ 1992. Retrieved on 2006, 09-03 [27] Timothy V. Waters, On the Legal Construction of Ethnic Cleansing, Paper 951, 2006, University of Mississippi School of Law. Retrieved on 2006, 12-13

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[28] Krauthammer, Charles: "When Serbs Are ’Cleansed,’ Moralists Stay Silent", International Herald Tribune, 12 August 1995 [29] Stand Up to Israeli Apartheid [30] Ancient History [31] Punic Wars [32] Staff. Mithradates VI Eupator, Encyclopaedia Britannica., Accessed 26 December 2007 [33] Dig uncovers Boudicca’s brutal streak [34] J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. II Chap. XVII [35] English and Welsh are races apart [36] Evidence for an apartheid-like social structure in early Anglo-Saxon England [37] Ancient Britain Had Apartheid-Like Society, Study Suggests [38] ’Apartheid’ slashed Celtic genes in early England [39] England’s massacre of the immigrants [40] BBC Making History [41] The Forgotten Refugees [42] The Almohads [43] Battuta’s Travels: Part Three - Persia and Iraq [44] Crow Creek Massacre [45] The annihilation of Iraq [46] The Chams: Survivors of a Lost Civilisation [47] The Le Dynasty and Southward Expansion [48] Rezun, Miron, "Europe’s Nightmare: The Struggle for Kosovo", (p. 6), Praeger/ Greenwood (2001) ISBN 0-275-97072-8; Parker, Geoffrey, "Europe in Crisis", (p. 18), Blackwell Publishing (1979, 2000) ISBN 0-631-22028-3; Gadalla, Moustafa, "Egyptian Romany: The Essence of Hispania" (pp. 28-9), Tehuti Research Foundation (2004) ISBN 1-931446-19-9 [49] JewishEncyclopedia.com - "Cossacks’ Uprising", by Herman Rosenthal [50] BBC The curse of Cromwell [51] Culas & Michaud, 68–74. [52] The Hmong [53] Michael Edmund Clarke, In the Eye of Power (doctoral thesis), Brisbane 2004, p37 [54] Venezuela [55] A First-Hand Impression of the Venezuelan Opposition [56] Rebelions in Bahia [57] New Zealand A to Z | Chatham Islands [58] Perdue, Theda, "Cherokee Women and the Trail of Tears", in American

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Encounters: Natives and Newcomers from European Contact to Indian Removal, 1500-1850, p. 526, (Routledge (UK), 2000) [59] Committee on Indian Affairs, US Senate, Cherokee Settlement and Accommodation Agreements Concerning the Navajo and Hopi Land Dispute, (US Government Printing Office, 1996) [60] Historian dismisses Tasmanian aboriginal genocide "myth" [61] Our history not rewritten but put right. Accusations of genocide have been based on guesswork and blatant ideology. SMH, 24 November 2002 [62] "The Massacres of the Khilafah" [63] Justin McCarthy, Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821-1922, (Princeton, N.J: Darwin Press, c1995 [64] McCarthy, ibid. [65] Levene, Mark. Genocide in the Age of the Nation-State. I.B.Tauris, 2005. ISBN 1845110579, page 288 [66] Giersch, Charles Patterson. Asian Borderlands: The Transformation of Qing China’s Yunnan Frontier. Harvard University Press, 2006. ISBN 1845110579, page 219 [67] Dillon, Michael. China’s Muslim Hui Community. Curzon, 1999. ISBN 0700710264, page xix [68] Damsan Harper, Steve Fallon, Katja Gaskell, Julie Grundvig, Carolyn Heller, Thomas Huhti, Bradley Maynew, Christopher Pitts. Lonely Planet China. 9. 2005. ISBN 1740596870 [69] ^ Gernet, Jacques. A History of Chinese Civilization. 2. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.ISBN 0521497124 [70] Jonathan N. Lipman, "Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China (Studies on Ethnic Groups in China)", University of Washington Press (February 1998), ISBN 0295976446. [71] Kort, Michael (2001). The Soviet Colossus: History and Aftermath, p. 133. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0-7656-0396-9. [72] Cite Error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Tulsa_Race_Riot.

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[73] Forced displacement of Czech population under Nazis in 1938 and 1943, Radio Prague [74] Naimark, op. cit. [75] Poles: Victims of the Nazi Era [76] Ustasa, Croatian nationalist, fascist, terrorist movement created in 1930. [77] ^ Serge Krizman, Maps of Yugoslavia at War, Washington 1943. [78] ^ ISBN 86-17-09287-4: Kosta Nikolić, Nikola Žutić, Momčilo Pavlović, Zorica Špadijer: Историја за трећи разред гимназије природно-математичког смера и четврти разред гимназије општег и друштвено-језичког смера, Belgrade, 2002, pg. 182 [79] Annexe I, by the Serbian Information Centre-London to a report of the Select Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. [80] 60 Years After: For Victims Of Stalin’s Deportations, War Lives On [81] Tibor Cseres: Serbian vendetta in Bacska [82] Victor Roudometof, Collective Memory, National Identity, and Ethnic Conflict Greece, Bulgaria, and the Macedonian Question, p.181-182 The figure of 30,000 is adopted from the Cham associations without checking the other sources used in the discussion in this chapter. [83] The Expulsion of ’German’ Communities from Eastern Europe at the end of the Second World War, European University Institute, Florense. EUI Working Paper HEC No. 2004/1, Edited by Steffen Prauser and Arfon Rees pp. 4 [84] Talbot, Ian: "India and Pakistan", (pp. 198-99), Oxford University Press (2000) ISBN 0-340-70632-5 [85] British-Yemeni Society: Hadhrami migration in the 19th and 20th centuries [86] Benny Morris, The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge University Press. (2004) ISBN 0-521-00967-7 [87] Yoav Gelber, Palestine 1948: War, Escape and the Emergence of the Palestinian Refugee Problem. Sussex Academic Press. (2005) ISBN 1-84519-075-0 [88] Ilan Pappe, Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine. Oxford: Oneworld. (2006) ISBN 1-85168-467-0 [89] Itamar Levin, Locked Doors: The Seizure of Jewish Property in Arab Countries.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ethnic cleansing

Praeger/Greenwood. (2001) ISBN [113] he Cambodian Genocide and T 0-275-97134-1 International Law [90] Shohat, Ella: "Sephardim in Israel: [114] ambodia the Chinese C Zionism from the Standpoint of Its [115] Building Security in Europe’s New ^ Jewish Victims", Social Text, No. 19/20, Borderlands, Renata Dwan, M.E. Sharpe (Autumn, 1988), (pp. 1-35), Duke (1999) p. 148 University Press [116] e Waal, Black Garden, p. 285 D [91] Maurice Roumani, The Case of the Jews [117] efugees and displaced persons in R from Arab Countries: A Neglected Issue, Azerbaijan Tel Aviv: World Organization of Jews [118] air elections haunted by racial F from Arab Countries. (1977) ASIN imbalance B0006EGL5I [119] ocus on Mesketian Turks F [92] Malka Hillel Schulewitz, The Forgotten [120] eskhetian Turk Communities around M Millions: The Modern Jewish Exodus the World from Arab Lands. London. (2001) ISBN [121] urmese exiles in desperate conditions, B 0-8264-4764-3 BBC News [93] Ran HaCohen, "Ethnic Cleansing: Some [122] uman Rights Watch/Helsinki, RUSSIA. H Common Reactions" THE INGUSH-OSSETIAN CONFLICT IN [94] Struggle for Independence : 1945-1949 THE PRIGORODNYI REGION, May 1996. [95] "Kashmiri refugees denied property [123] ussia: The Ingush-Ossetian Conflict in R ownership rights in Pakistan" the Prigorodnyi Region (Paperback) by [96] India, The World Factbook. Retrieved 20 Human Rights Watch Helsinki Human May 2006. Rights Watch (April 1996) ISBN [97] "Current Africa race riots like 1949 anti1564321657 Indian riots: minister", [124] ommittee on Foreign Relations, US C TheIndianStar.com Senate, The Ethnic Cleansing of Bosnia[98] ::UN:: History Learning Site Hercegovina, (US Government Printing [99] Martin Smith (1991). Burma - Insurgency Office, 1992) and the Politics of Ethnicity. London,New [125] osnia: Dayton Accords B Jersey: Zed Books. [126] esettling Refugees: U.N. Facing New R pp. 43–44,98,56–57,176. Burden [100] sians v. Asians, TIME A [127] ookman, Milica Zarkovic, "The B [101] ell, Terry: Unfinished Business: South B Demographic Struggle for Power", (p. Africa, Apartheid and Truth, (pp. 63-4), 131), Frank Cass and Co. Ltd. (UK), Verso, (2001, 2003) ISBN 1-85984-545-2 (1997) ISBN 0-7146-4732-2 [102] alentino, Benjamin A., Final Solutions: V [128] eeder, Elaine J., "The Family in Global L Mass Killing and Genocide in the Perspective: A Gendered Journey", (p. Twentieth Century, (p. 189), Cornell 164-65), Sage Publications, (2004) ISBN University Press, (2004) ISBN 0-7619-2837-5 0-8014-3965-5. [129] oice of America (18 October 2006) V [103]Marketplace: Pied-noirs breathe life " [130] NHCR Publication (State of the world U back into Algerian tourism" refugees) [104] ied-Noir P [131] irst Chechnya War F [105] ountry Histories - Empire’s Children C [132] thnic Russians in the North of Caucasus E [106] ho’s Fault Is It? W - Eurasia Daily Monitor [107] ibya - Italian colonization L [133] hechen census fiasco C [108] ibya cuts ties to mark Italy era L [134] nti-Chinese riots continue in Indonesia, A [109] 972: Asians given 90 days to leave 1 August 29, 1998, CNN Uganda [135] ages of Hatred, Business Week W [110] RNC: Chronology - 1963-1974 T [136] erbia threatens to resist Kosovo S [111]’Ethnic cleansing’, Cypriot style". New " independence plan York Times. 1992-09-05. [137] osovo/Serbia: Protect Minorities from K http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ Ethnic Violence (Human Rights Watch) fullpage.html?res=9E0CE7D6143AF936A3575AC0A964958260. [138] ehind Ethnic War, Indonesia’s Old B Retrieved on 2008-12-29. Migration Policy [112] enocide - Cambodia G [139] R Congo pygmies ’exterminated’ D

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[140] R Congo Pygmies appeal to UN D [141] es to Kosovo, No to East Timor? Y International Herald Tribune [142] .30 Report - 8/9/1999: Ethnic cleansing 7 will empty East Timor if no aid comes: Belo [143] .S. Fiddles While East Timor Burns | U AlterNet [144]ames M. Lutz, Brenda J. Lutz, Global J Terrorism [145] utrage Over East Timor O [146] oover Institution - Hoover Digest - Why H East Timor Matters [147] e cannot look the other way on ethnic W cleansing - Opinion [148]Bushmen forced out of desert after " living off land for thousands of years". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/ main.jhtml?xml=/news/2005/10/29/ wbot29.xml&sSheet=/news/2005/10/29/ ixworld.html. Retrieved on 2005-10-29. [149] frican Bushmen Tour U.S. to Fund A Fight for Land [150] xiles of the Kalahari E [151] N condemns Botswana government U over Bushman evictions [152] ollins, Robert O., "Civil Wars and C Revolution in the Sudan: Essays on the Sudan, Southern Sudan, and Darfur, 1962-2004 ", (p. 156), Tsehai Publishers (US), (2005) ISBN 0-9748198-7-5 . [153] ower, Samantha "Dying in Darfur: Can P the ethnic cleansing in Sudan be stopped?"[2], The New Yorker, 30 August 2004. Human Rights Watch, "Q & A: Crisis in Darfur" (web site, retrieved 24 May 2006). Hilary Andersson, "Ethnic cleansing blights Sudan", BBC News, 27 May 2004. [154] rabs pile into Darfur to take land A ’cleansed’ by janjaweed [155]raq is disintegrating as ethnic cleansing I takes hold [156]There is ethnic cleansing" " [157]raq refugees chased from home, I struggle to cope [158] .N.: 100,000 Iraq refugees flee U monthly. Alexander G. Higgins, Boston Globe, November 3, 2006 [159]n North Iraq, Sunni Arabs Drive Out I Kurds [160] hristians, targeted and suffering, flee C Iraq [161]RAQ Terror campaign targets Chaldean I church in Iraq - Asia News

Ethnic cleansing

[162] NHCR | Iraq U [163] hristians live in fear of death squads C [164]onathan Steele: While the Pope tries to J build bridges in Turkey, the precarious plight of Iraq’s Christians gets only worse | World news | guardian.co.uk [165]raq’s Mandaeans ’face extinction’ I [166]raq’s Yazidis fear annihilation I [167] nn McFeatters: Iraq refugees find no A refuge in America. Seattle PostIntelligencer May 25, 2007 [168] oots of Latino/black anger R [169] thnic Cleansing in L.A. E [170] hanks to Latino Gangs, There’s a Zone T in L.A. Where Blacks Risk Death if They Enter [171] BI called to deal with ’race’ gang F violence [172] bloody conflict between Hispanic and A black gangs is spreading across Los Angeles [173] iger starts mass Arab expulsions N [174] euters Niger’s Arabs say expulsions will R fuel race hate [175] iger’s Arabs to fight expulsion N [176] NHCR | Refworld - The Leader in U Refugee Decision Support [177] urma Karen families ’on the run’, BBC B News [178] Human Rights in Burma: Fifteen Years " Post Military Coup ", Refugees International [179] .S. envoy calls violence in Kenya ’ethnic U cleansing’ [180] l Jazeera English - News - Kenya Ethnic A Clashes Intensify [181] .N.: 600,000 Displaced In Kenya Unrest U [182] BC NEWS | Africa | Kenya opposition B cancels protests [183] BC NEWS | Africa | Kenya diplomatic B push for peace [184]25000 North Indian workers leave " Pune". Indian Express. http://www.expressindia.com/latestnews/25-000-North-Indian-workersleave-Pune/276576/3/. Retrieved on 2008-04-06. [185]25000 North Indians leave, Pune realty " projects hit". Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ 25000_North_Indians_leave_Pune_realty_projects_hit articleshow/2809937.cms. Retrieved on 2008-04-04. [186]Maha exodus: 10,000 north Indians flee " in fear". Times of India. 2008-02-14. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/

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articleshow/2780795.cms. Retrieved on 2008-04-06. [187]MNS violence: North Indians flee " Nashik, industries hit". Rediff. 2008-02-13. http://www.rediff.com/news/ 2008/feb/13nasik1.htm. Retrieved on 2008-04-06.

Ethnic cleansing
• Timothy V. Waters, On the Legal Construction of Ethnic Cleansing, Paper 951, 2006, University of Mississippi School of Law (PDF) • Genocides and Ethnic Cleansings of Central and East Europe, the Former USSR, the Caucasus and Adjacent Middle East -- 1890 - 2007 • Ethnic Cleansing in West Papua • Dump the “ethnic cleansing” jargon, group implores May 31, 2007, World Science • Visegrad Genocide Memories • Srebrenica Genocide Blog • Institute for Research of Crimes Against Humanity and International Law of the Sarajevo University

External links
• Totoist Atrocities in Vojvodina 1944-1945 • Genocide of The Ethnic Germans in Yugoslavia 1944-1948 • Documents and Resources on War, War Crimes and Genocide • Photojournalist’s Account - Images of ethnic cleansing in Sudan

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethnic_cleansing" Categories: Discrimination, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2008, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2009, Ethnic cleansing, Forced migration, Human rights abuses, Persecution, Racism This page was last modified on 22 May 2009, at 14:47 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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