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Tamilnadu by zzzmarcus

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									From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu ?????????

Seal of Tamil Nadu

Chennai
Location of Tamil Nadu in India

Country District(s) Established Capital Largest city Governor Chief Minister Legislature (seats) Population • Density Language(s) Time zone Area ISO 3166-2 Footnotes
†

India 32 1956-11-01† Chennai Chennai Surjit Singh Barnala M Karunanidhi Unicameral (235)
66,396,000 (7th)

• 511 /km2 (1,323 /sq mi) Tamil IST (UTC+5:30)
130,058 km² (50,216 sq mi)

IN-TN

Established in 1773; Madras State was formed in 1956

and renamed as Tamil Nadu on January 14, 1969[1]

Coordinates: 13°05′N 80°16′E / 13.09°N 80.27°E / 13.09; 80.27 Tamil Nadu (Tamil: ????????? pronunciation , English: "Land of the Tamils", IPA: [t̪ɐmɨɻ n̪aːɽɯ]) is one of the 28 states of India. Its capital is Chennai (formerly known as Madras) and is the largest city. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by Puducherry (Pondicherry), Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. It is bound by the Eastern Ghats in the north, the Nilgiri, the Anamalai Hills, and Palakkad on the west, Bay of Bengal in the east, Gulf of Mannar, Palk Strait in the south east and Indian Ocean in the south. For over 2500 years, the region has been the home of the last surviving classical civilization of the world, the Tamil civilization.[2][3][4] It is the homeland of Indian Tamils and their 2500 year old classical language Tamil.[5] Tamil Nadu is the eleventh largest state in India by area (about the size of Greece) and the seventh most populous state.[6] It is the fifth largest contributor to India’s GDP[7] and the most urbanised state in India.[8] The state has the highest number (10.56%) of business enterprises in India,[9] compared to the population share of about 6%. It is one of the foremost states in the country in terms of overall development.[10][11] It is home to many natural resources, grand Hindu temples of Dravidian architecture, hill stations, beach resorts, multi-religious pilgrimage sites and three UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[12][13] Tamil Nadu has lately emerged as the most Literate state in India as announced by HRD Ministry.[14] As per 2001 census Literacy Rate in Tamil Nadu is 73.45%.[15]

Website

tn.gov.in

History
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tamil Nadu
oldest extant literature, dated between 300 BC and 600 BC mentions the exploits of the kings and the princes, and of the poets who extolled them. Cherans, who spoke Tamil language ruled from the capital of Karur in the west and traded extensively with West Asian kingdoms. An unknown dynasty called Kalabhras invaded and displaced the three Tamil kingdoms between the fourth and the seventh centuries CE. This is referred to as the Dark Age in Tamil history. They were eventually expelled by the Pallavas and the Pandyas.

Pallava Rule

The Brihadeeswarar temple at Thanjavur is one of the largest monolithic temple complexes in the world - a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Prehistory
Tamil Nadu’s history dates back to pre-historic times and archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in India. In Adichanallur, 24 km from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, skeletons and bones, plus husks and grains of rice, charred rice and Neolithic celts, giving evidence confirming them to be of the Neolithic period, 3800 years ago.[16] The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi.[17] Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies.[18] About 60% of the epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India have been from Tamil Nadu and most of which are in Tamil language[19]

The Shore Temple in Mahabalipuram built by the Pallavas - a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Around 580 CE, the Pallavas, great temple builders, emerged into prominence and dominated the south for another 150 years. They ruled a vast portion of Tamil Nadu with Kanchipuram as their capital. They subjugated the Cholas and reigned as far south as the Kaveri River. Among the greatest Pallava rulers were Mahendravarman I and his son Narasimhavarman I. Dravidian architecture reached its peak during the Pallava rule.

Pandya Rule
Pallavas were replaced by the Pandyas in the 8th century. Their capital Madurai was in the deep south away from the coast. Tirunelveli was their another important city which is the South India’s second largest producer of Rice after Thanajavur. Nellaiappar temple, Tirunelveli and Meenakshi Amman Temple, Madurai are some of the best examples of Pandyan Temple architecture. Nellaiappar Temple, Tirunelveli is the first largest Shiva temple in Tamil Nadu.

Chera Rule
From early pre-historic times, Tamil Nadu was the home of the four Tamil kingdoms of the Chera, Chola, Pandya and Pallavas. The

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Tamil Nadu

Chola Empire
See also: Early Cholas, Medieval Cholas, and Later Cholas

Chola Empire under Rajendra Chola c. 1030 C.E. By the 9th century, under Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola, the Cholas rose as a notable power in south Asia. The Chola Empire stretched as far as Bengal. At its peak, the empire spanned almost 250 million acres (1,000,000 km2). Rajaraja Chola conquered all of peninsular South India and parts of the Sri Lanka. Rajendra Chola’s navies went even further, occupying coastal Burma (now Myanmar), the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Sumatra, Java, Malaya in South East Asia and Pegu islands. He defeated Mahipala, the king of the Bengal, and to commemorate his victory he built a new capital and named it Gangaikonda Cholapuram. The Cholas excelled in building magnificent temples. Brihadeshwara Temple in Thanjavur is a classical example of the magnificent architecture of the Chola kingdom. Brihadshwara temple is an UNESCO Heritage Site under "Great Living Chola Temples."[20] Another example is the Chidambaram Temple in the heart of the temple town of Chidambaram.

Thirumalai Nayak Mahal at Madurai. 1316. The invasion led to the establishment of the Madurai Sultanate.

Vijayanagar Empire
These northern invasions triggered the establishment of Vijayanagara Empire in the Deccan. It eventually conquered the entire Tamil country (c. 1370 CE). This empire lasted almost three centuries.

Rule of Nayaks
As the Vijayanagara Empire went into decline after mid-16th century, the Nayak governors, who were appointed by the Vijayanagar kingdom to administer various territories of the empire, declared their independence. The Nayaks of Madurai and Nayaks of Thanjavur were most prominent of them all in the 17th century. They reconstructed some of the oldest temples in the country such as the Meenakshi Temple.

Pandya Rule (Restored)
With the decline of the Cholas towards the end of the 11th century, the Pandyas rose to prominence once again, under Maravarman Sundara Pandya.

Rule of Nizams and Nawabs
Around 1609, the Dutch established a settlement in Pulicat. In 1639, the British, under the British East India Company, established a settlement further south, in present day Chennai.

Delhi Sultanate
This restoration was short-lived as the Pandya capital of Madurai itself was sacked by Alauddin Khilji troops from the north in

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Tamil Nadu

Fort Dansborg, built by the Danish, in Tranquebar (now Tharangambadi). The British exploited rivalries between the provincial rulers to expand their sphere of influence throughout the Nizam’s dominions. The British fought and reduced the French dominions in India to Pondicherry. Nizams bestowed tax revenue collection rights on the East India Company by the end of 18th century. Some notable chieftains or Poligars who fought the British East India Company as it was expanding were Maveeran Sundaralinga Kudumbanar , Veerapandya Kattabomman, Pulithevan and Dheeran Chinnamalai.

A semi-arid wasteland near Tirunelveli. Monsoon clouds pour torrents of rain on lush forests that are only a few kilometers away in windward-facing Kerala, but are prevented from reaching Tirunelveli by the Agasthyamalai Range of the Western Ghats (background).

British Empire
In early 19th century, East India Company consolidated most of southern India into the Madras Presidency coterminous with the dominions of Nizam of Hyderabad. Pudukkottai remained as a princely state under British suzerainty.

Independence
When India became independent in 1947, Madras Presidency became Madras State, comprising present day Tamil Nadu, coastal Andhra Pradesh up to Ganjam district in Orissa, northern Karnataka, and parts of Kerala. The state was subsequently split up along linguistic lines. In 1968, Madras State was renamed Tamil Nadu, meaning Land of Tamil.

Topographic map of Tamil Nadu northwest and Andhra Pradesh to the north. To the east is the Bay of Bengal. The southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula is located in Tamil Nadu. At this point is the town of Kanyakumari which is the meeting point of the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the Indian Ocean. The western, southern and the north-western parts are hilly and rich in vegetation. Tamil Nadu is the only state in India which has both the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats and they both meet at the Nilgiri hills.[21] The Western Ghats dominate the entire western border with Kerala, effectively blocking much of the rain bearing clouds of the South West Monsoon from entering the

Geography and climate
Tamil Nadu covers an area of 130,058 square kilometres (50,216 sq mi), and is the eleventh largest state in India. The bordering states are Kerala to the west, Karnataka to the

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Plains Max. Min. 43.0 °C (109.4 °F) 13.1 °C (55.6 °F) Hills 32.3 °C (90.1 °F) 3.0 °C (37.4 °F)

Tamil Nadu

state. The Eastern parts are fertile coastal plains and the northern parts are a mix of hills and plains. The central and the south central regions are arid plains and receive less rainfall than the other regions. Tamil Nadu has a coastline of about 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) which forms about 18% of the country’s coastline (third longest). Tamil Nadu’s coastline bore the brunt of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami when it hit India, which caused 7,793 direct deaths in the state.[22] Tamil Nadu falls mostly in a region of low seismic hazard with the exception of the western border areas that lie in a low to moderate hazard zone; as per the 2002 Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) map, Tamil Nadu falls in Zones II & III. Historically, parts of this region have experienced seismic activity in the M5.0 range.[23] Tamil Nadu is heavily dependent on monsoon rains, and thereby is prone to droughts when the monsoons fail. The climate of the state ranges from dry sub-humid to semi-arid. The state has three distinct periods of rainfall: (1) Advancing monsoon period, South West monsoon (from June to September), with strong southwest winds; (2) North East monsoon (from October to December), with dominant northeast winds; and (3) Dry season (from January to May). The normal annual rainfall of the state is about 945 mm (37.2 in)[24] of which 48% is through the North East monsoon, and 32% through the South West monsoon. Since the state is entirely dependent on rains for recharging its water resources, monsoon failures lead to acute water scarcity and severe drought.[25] Tamil Nadu is classified into seven agro-climatic zones: north-east, north-west, west, southern, high rainfall, high altitude hilly, and Cauvery Delta (the most fertile agricultural zone). The table below shows the maximum and minimum temperatures that the state experiences in the plains and hills.[26] Tamil Nadu has a wide variety of minerals with the most lignite (almost 90% of India’s reserves), magnesite (45%) and garnet (over 40%) reserves in India, among others.[27] Tamil Nadu contributes 15% of the total salt production in the country. Forests cover over 17% of the state’s geographical area with

several protected areas of Tamil Nadu including wildlife and bird sanctuaries.[28]

Governance and administration
Top executives of Tamil Nadu Governor Chief Minister Chief Justice (Acting) Director General of Police Chief Secretary Surjit Singh Barnala M. Karunanidhi S. J. Mukhopadhaya K. P. Jain[29] K. S. Sripathi[30]

State Symbols of Tamil Nadu[31] Animal Nilgiri Tahr

Bird

Emerald Dove

Dance Flower

Bharathanattiyam Gloriosa Lily

Song Sport

Neerarum Kabaddi

Tree

Palm Tree

The Governor is the Constitutional head of the state while the Chief Minister is the head of the government and the head of the council of ministers. The Chief Justice of the Madras High Court is the head of the judiciary. The present Governor, Chief Minister and the Chief Justice (acting) are Surjit Singh Barnala, M. Karunanidhi and S. J. Mukhopadhaya respectively.[30][32][33] The major administrative units of the state constitutes 39 Lok Sabha constituencies, 234 Assembly constituencies, 32 districts, 10 municipal

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corporations, 152[10] municipalities, 611 town panchayats and 12,618 village panchayats. Chennai (formerly known as Madras) is the state capital. It is the fourth largest city in India and is also one of the five A1 Metropolitan cities of India. Tamil Nadu had a bicameral legislature until 1986, when it was replaced with a unicameral legislature, like most other states in India. The term length of the government is 5 years, as is elsewhere in India. The present government run by the DMK led alliance came to power in 2006 and comprises a council of 29 ministers, chaired by the Chief Minister. Tamil Nadu legislative assembly is chaired by the speaker Mr. R Avudaiappan and is housed at the historical Fort St. George in Chennai. The state had come under the President’s rule on four occasions - first from 1976 to 1977, next for a short period in 1980, then from 1988 to 1989 and the latest in 1991. Tamil Nadu has 10 Municipal Corporations: Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai, Tiruchirapalli,Salem Tirunelveli,Erode, Tirupur, Vellore and Thoothukudi. There is a plan to upgrade Tambaram and Ambattur as Municipal Corporations. The Corporation of Chennai, established in 1688, is the oldest Municipal Corporation not only in India but also in any commonwealth nations outside United Kingdom.[34] Tamil Nadu has been a pioneering state of E-Governance initiatives in India. A large part of the government records like land ownership records are digitised and all major offices of the state government like Urban Local Bodies — all the Corporations and Municipal Office activities — revenue collection, land registration offices, and transport offices have been computerised. Tamil Nadu is one of the states where law and order has been maintained largely successfully.[35] The Tamil Nadu Police Force is over 140 years old. It is the fifth largest state police force in India and has the largest strength of women police personnelin the country.[36] As of 2003, the state had a total police population ratio of 1:668, higher than the national average of 1:717.[37]

Tamil Nadu

Districts of Tamil Nadu 2. Coimbatore 18. District 3. Cuddalore District 19. 4. Dharmapuri District 20. 5. Dindigul District 6. Erode District 21. 7. Kanchipuram 22. District 8. Kanyakumari 23. District 9. Karur District 24. 10. Krishnagiri District 25. 11. Madurai District 12. Nagapattinam 26. District 13. Namakkal District 27. 14. Perambalur District 28. 15. Pudukkottai 29. District 16. Ramanathapuram 30. District 31. 32. Sivagangai District Thanjavur District The Nilgiris District Theni District Thoothukudi District Tiruchirapalli District Tirunelveli District Tiruvallur District Tiruvannamalai District Tiruvarur District Vellore District Viluppuram District Virudhunagar District Ariyalur district Tirupur district

Districts
The 32 districts of Tamil Nadu are as listed below with the numbers corresponding to those in the image at the right. 1. Chennai District 17. Salem District

Ariyalur district, which was created in 2001 from the Perambalur district, was restored as the 31st district of Tamil Nadu on the 23rd November, 2007. The TN government has

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also announced that Tirupur will be the new headquarters of the Tirupur district which will be formed by splitting the Coimbatore and Erode district.[38]

Tamil Nadu

Politics
Pre Independence
Prior to Indian independence Tamil Nadu was under British colonial rule as part of the Madras Presidency. The main party in Tamil Nadu at that time was the Congress Party. Regional parties have dominated state politics since 1916. One of the earliest regional parties was the South Indian Welfare Association, which was a forerunner to Dravidian parties in Tamil Nadu, was started in 1916. The party was called after its English organ, Justice Party, by it opponents and later the same was adopted as its official name. The reason for victory of the Justice Party in elections was the non-participation of the Congress Party, demanding complete independence of India. Freedom movement saw great leaders like Subramania Bharathiar (Poet who inspired freedom movement by his poetic skills), Subramania Siva, V O Chidhamdaranar (Industrialist, who managed ships under the free India banner), Thirupur Kumaran, Rajagopalachariar (Rajaji) and Sathyamurthi to name a few. E.V.Ramaswami Naicker popularly known as EVR and also as Periyar, believed in agitational politics and he took the Justice Party away from its original path. The Justice Party which had a moribund existence under E.V.Ramaswami Naicker, died at last in 1944 which he renamed the party Dravidar Kazhagam (DK for short) in 1944. DK was a non-political party which demanded the establishment of an independent state called Dravida Nadu. However, due to the differences between its two leaders Periyar and C.N. Annadurai, the party was split. Annadurai left the party to form the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). The DMK decided to enter politics in 1956.

Present chief minister M.Karunanidhi (centre) with ex-chief ministers C. N. Annadurai (left) and M. G. Ramachandran (right). AIADMK+ 69 (29.4%) 0 (0%) Independent/ 2 (0.8%) 0 (0%) Other Source: Indian Elections / Election Commission of India.[39][40] In the 19th century, western scholars discovered that the Dravidian languages that dominate the south of India formed a different linguistic group to that of the Indo-Aryan languages that are predominant in the north of the country. They also classified Indians into distinct Aryan and Dravidian races. It was proposed that the generally darkerskinned Dravidians constituted a distinct race. This concept has affected thinking in India about racial and regional differences and had an impact on aspects of Tamil nationalism, which has appropriated the claim that Dravidians are the earliest inhabitants of India, and the Aryan population were oppressive interlopers from whom Dravidians should liberate themselves.[41] Re-organisation of Indian states according to linguistic and ethnic basis has moderated Tamil nationalism, especially the demand for separation from the Indian Union. The AntiHindi agitations in mid-1960s made the DMK more popular and a more powerful political force in the state. The DMK routed the Congress Party in the 1967 elections and took control of the state government, ending Congress’ stronghold in Tamil Nadu. C.N.

Dravidian Politics
Political Alliance DMK+ Assembly Elections 163 (69.6%) Lok Sabha Elections 39 (100%)

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Tamil Hindu Christian Muslim Other religions Total Note 1: mainly Telugu Note 2: mainly Malayalam Note 3: mainly Urdu Annadurai became the DMK’s first Chief Minister. Muthuvel Karunanidhi took over as Chief Minister and party leader after Annadurai’s death in 1969. Karunanidhi’s leadership was soon challenged by M.G. Ramachandran, popularly known as MGR. In 1972, he split from DMK and formed the Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (ADMK) and later renamed the party as All India Anna Dravid Munnetra Kazhagam. He was the Chief Minister of the state from 1977 until his death in 1987. After the death of MGR and the defeat of AIADMK in the 1989 assembly polls, J. Jayalalithaa took control of the party. She was elected as the General Secretary of the unified AIADMK. There have been several splits in both the DMK and the AIADMK, but since 1967 one of those two parties has held power in the state. The rise of Congress Party, Vijayakanth’s DMDK and Dr. Ramdoss’s PMK in the recent years has ensured that no single party is in majority to run a government and thereby giving rise to coalition politics. 81% 4% 3% 1% 89% Other languages 7%1 1%2 2%3 1% 11%

Tamil Nadu
Total 88% 5% 5% 2% 100%

populous states (states whose population exceeded 20 million in 2001). Its decadal rate of population growth has declined in every decade since 1971, one of only three populous states (along with Kerala and Orissa) to show this trend. The state has registered the lowest fertiliy rate along with Andhra Pradesh and Goa in India in year 2005-06 with 1.8 children born for each woman, lower than required for population sustainability.[46] According to National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3), Tamil Nadu registered a fertility rate of 1.8, the lowest in India in year 2005-2006.[47][48]

Education and social development

Demographics and Religion
Tamil Nadu is the seventh most populous state in India with a population of 66,396,000,[43] as of July 1, 2008 (approximately 5.79% of India’s population). It is the eleventh most densely populated state in India. In 2008, its population density was 511 persons per square kilometre,[43] having increased from 429 in 1991, significantly higher than the Indian average of 324 persons per square kilometre.[44] 44% of the state’s population live in urban areas, the highest in India.[45] Tamil Nadu’s population grew by 11.19% between 1991 and 2001, the second lowest rate for that period (after Kerala) amongst

The main entrance of IIT Madras, showing its logo and its motto. Tamil Nadu has performed reasonably well in terms of literacy growth during the decade 1991-2001. The state’s literacy rate increased from 62.66% in 1991 to 73.47% in 2001.[44] which is above the national average. A survey conducted by the Industry body Assocham ranks Tamil Nadu top among Indian states with about 100% Gross Enrollment

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Ratio (GER) in primary and upper primary education.[49] Tamil Nadu has 19 universities,[50] 250 engineering colleges[51] and 1150 arts college, 2550 schools and 5000 hospitals. Some of the reputed institutes include University of Madras, IIT Madras, Anna University (includes MIT Chennai - Madras Institute of Technology), PSG College of Technology, SVCE, NIT Tiruchi, Madras Medical College and Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. The Indian Institute of Management is scheduled to open in Trichy by 2009-2010.[52] Tamil Nadu produces the highest number of engineering graduates in India (around 30,000) every year which attracts many software companies to set up their shop in south India. India has a human development index calculated as 0.619, while the corresponding figure for Tamil Nadu is 0.736, placing it among the top states in the country.[53][54] The life expectancy at birth for males is 65.2 years and for females it is 67.6 years.[55] However, it has a number of challenges, significantly, the poverty is high, especially in the rural areas. As of 2004-2005, the poverty line was set at Rs. 351.86/month for rural areas and Rs. 547.42/month for urban areas.[56] Poverty in the state dropped from 51.7% in 1983 to 21.1% in 2001[57] For the period 2004-2005, the Trend in Incidence of Poverty in the state was 22.5% compared with the national figure of 27.5%.[58] The World Bank is currently assisting the state in reducing poverty[59] High drop-out and low completion of secondary schools continue to hinder the quality of training in the population. Other problems include class, gender, inter-district and urban-rural disparities. The Dravidian movement, which championed the causes of educating the people and eradicating superstitions, began in Tamil Nadu. In addition, it aimes to uplift the socially repressed Dravidian people and drew considerable support from the middle classes for their efforts in this matter. The movement was committed to social justice which led to the expansion of reservations for the deprived communities. Tamil Nadu now has a 69% reservation in educational institutions, the highest among all Indian states.[60] The Mid-day Meal Scheme program in Tamil Nadu, initiated by Kamaraj, was expanded considerably during the rule of the AIADMK in 1983. It feeds over a fifth of the state’s population. Despite this, the state is

Tamil Nadu
among the 12 states in India that have alarming level of hunger according to the 2008 Global Hunger Index.[61][62]

Culture
Tamil Nadu has a long tradition of venerable culture. Tamil Nadu is known for its rich tradition of literature, music and dance which continue to flourish today. Unique cultural features like Bharatanatyam (dance), Tanjore painting, and Tamil architecture were developed and continue to be practised in Tamil Nadu.

Language and Literature
Tamil is the official language of Tamil Nadu which was the first language to be declared as classical language of India, the other being Sanskrit.Tamil is also one of the official languages of India.[63] Most of the older works are in verse form, and prose gained popularity later. All through history, Tamil literature has sought to inform and inspire, educate and entertain. Tamil poetry has universal appeal as evidenced by many examples. ????????? ?????????????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ????? ????? ’The mark of wisdom is to discern the truth From whatever source it is heard.’ - (Tirukkural - 423) Tirukkural which was written nearly two millennia ago portrays a universal outlook. This is evident as the author, Thiruvalluvar, does not mention his religion, land, or the audience for his work. He is portrayed as a holy saint of Tamil Nadu today. There is an evidential history that the kings of olden days rolled out Tamil Sangam (Tamil organisation) to develop literature works in Tamil. The Sangam headquartered in Madurai generated a large amount of notable literary works. The first Tamil printing press was established at Tarangambadi by the Danish missionaries. During the Indian freedom struggle, many Tamil poets and writers provoked national spirit, social equity and secularist thoughts among the common man, notably Subramanya Bharathy. Even today, Tamil Nadu is home to creative writers like Bharathidasan, Jayakanthan, Jayamohan, Sujatha, Indira Parthasarathy.

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English Language is also widely spoken across Tamil Nadu in Educational institutions and by white collar professionals. Famous carnatic music composer & poet Thyagayya is from Tamil Nadu.

Tamil Nadu
concentrated in the southern districts of Kanyakumari, Thoothukudi and Tirunelveli. St. Thomas Mount in Chennai, the place where St. Thomas, one of the disciples of Jesus Christ, was believed to have been martyred,[65] is an important pilgrimage site for Indian Christians. The Santhome Basilica, supposedly built atop the tomb of St. Thomas, and the Vailankanni Basilica of Our Lady of Good Health — revered churches by India’s Roman Catholics — are good examples of majestic church architectures in Tamil Nadu. The Church of South India is headquartered in Chennai. Muslims are mainly concentrated in areas such as Kayalpatnam, Keelakarai, Ambur, Vaniyambadi, Madurai, Nagore and Melapalayam, with the state capital Chennai also home to a good number of Muslims. In Chennai, the most popular areas with Muslim population include Triplicane, Royapettah, Ice House, Adam Market, Zam Bazaar, Ellis Road, Supari Gunta - part of three important Assembly Constituencies, Chepauk, Triplicane & Thousand Lights. Among Muslims, 97.5% are Tamil speaking Sunni and the rest are Urdu speakers. All Tamil Muslims are Sunnis, who adhere to either Hanafi or Shafi schools of thought. Erwadi in Ramanathapuram district and Nagore in Nagapattinam district are important pilgrimage site for Muslims, while the Thousand Lights Mosque in Chennai is one of the largest mosques in the country. Karpudaiyar masjid in Kayalpatnam is the oldest mosque in Tamil Nadu.

Religions

With Hindus forming over 90% of the population, Hindu temples are ubiquitous in Tamil Nadu earning it the sobriquet ’The Land of Temples’. Shown here is the Meenakshi Amman Temple complex in Madurai, which is one of the grandest temples in the country. Tamil Nadu was the home of several Hindu movements not in the usual mainstream. About 90% people follow Hinduism. These include Shankara’s Advaita, Ramanuja’s Vishistadvaita, Alwar Sri Vaishnavism, Nayanar Shaivism, Several important Hindu Tamil figures became important figures for Hinduism as a whole (e.g.Ramanuja.) In modern times, worldwide important figures for Hinduism were Ramana Maharishi and Sri Sri Ravi Shankar. Other saints known more locally to Hindus within India are Raghavendra Swami the Dvaita Vaishnava, Paramahamsa Sri Nithyananda or the Nithyananda Foundation, Sivananda the expert of yoga and Vedanta. Main god for tamil peoples Murugan, other Popular forms of God include Vishnuand, Shiva, although many other forms are also worshiped. These other forms of God include Rama, Krishna, Ganesh, Paravati, Surya, and others. There is even a temple dedicated to the form of Hanuman and Ganesh in one form - Adianta Prabhu.[64] The government emblem of Tamil Nadu contained the popular Hindu temple of Srivilliputhur. Christians and Muslims form roughly over 8% of the population. Christians are mainly

Festivals
Pongal, also called as Tamizhar Thirunaal (festival of Tamils) or Makara Sankranti elsewhere in India, a four-day harvest festival is one of the most celebrated festival of Tamil Nadu. The Tamil language saying Thai Pirandhal Vazhi Pirakkum — literally meaning, the birth of the month of Thai will pave way for new opportunities — is often quoted with reference to this festival. The first day, Bhogi Pongal, is celebrated by throwing away and destroying old clothes and materials by setting them on fire to mark the end of the old and emergence of the new. The second day, Surya Pongal, is the main day which falls on the first day of the tenth Tamil month Thai (January 14 or January 15 in western calendar). The third day, Maattu Pongal, is meant to offer thanks to the cattle, as they provide

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milk and are used to plough the lands. Jallikattu, a bull taming contest, marks the main event of this day. During this final day, Kaanum Pongal — the word "kanum", means ’to view’ in Tamil — youths used to gather at river banks to view and select their future life partners, but that practice has declined. The first month in the Tamil calendar is Chitterai and the first day of this month in mid-April is celebrated as Tamil New Year. Thiruvalluvar Calendar is 31 years ahead of Gregorian Calendar, that is 2000A.D. in Gregorian calendar is represented as 2031 in Thiruvalluvar Calendar. Aadi Perukku is celebrated on the 18th day of the Tamil month Aadi, which celebrates the rising of the water level in the river Cauvery. Apart from these major festivals, in every village and town of Tamil Nadu, the inhabitants celebrate festivals for the local gods once a year and the time varies from place to place. Most of these festivals are related to the goddess Maariyamman, the mother goddess of rain. Additional major Hindu festivals including Deepavali ( Death of Narakasura, Ayudha Poojai, Saraswathi Poojai (Dasara), Krishna Jayanthi and Vinayaka Chathurthi are celebrated widely. In addition, Christmas, Eid ulFitr, Easter and Bakrid are celebrated by Christians and Muslims in the state.

Tamil Nadu
Carnatic music is the classical music of Southern India. The basic form is a monophonic song with improvised variations. There are 72 basic scales on the octave, and a rich variety of melodic motion. Both melodic and rhythmic structures are varied and compelling. This is one of the world’s oldest & richest musical traditions. Carnatic music abounds in structured compositions in the different ragas. These are songs composed by great artists and handed down through generations of disciples. Three saint composers of the nineteenth century, Tyagaraja, Muthuswami Dikshitar and Shyama Shastri, have composed thousands of songs that remain favourites among musicians and audiences. The composers belonging to the Tamil Trinity of Muthu Thandavar (?1560 - ?1640 CE), Arunachala Kavi (1712-1779) and Marimutthu Pillai (1717-1787) composed hundreds of devotional songs in Tamil and helped in the evolution of Carnatic music. Today, Tamil Nadu has hundreds of notable carnatic singers who spread this music all over the world. M. S. Subbulakshmi, a renowned carnatic singer, had the honour of singing a song in the UN Security Council. In terms of modern music (light, film, pop, etc.), the music of Tamil Nadu is praised very highly. Ilaiyaraaja was the most prominent composer of film music in Tamil cinema during the late 1970s and 1980s. His work highlighted Tamil folk lyricism and introduced broader Western musical sensibilities to the South Indian musical mainstream. Tamil Nadu is also the home of Oscar Winner A.R. Rahman who is recognised worldwide and has composed film music in Tamil, Hindi films, English and Chinese films .

Music
See also: Ancient Tamil music The Kings of the olden days created sangams for Iyal Isai Nadagam (Literature, Music and Drama). Music plays a major role in sangams. Music in Tamil Nadu had different forms. In villages where farming was the primary work, the ladies who work in the fields used to sing kulavai songs. Odhuvars, Sthanikars or Kattalaiyars offer short musical programmes in the temples by singing the devotional Thevaram songs. In sharp contrast with the restrained and intellectual nature of carnatic music, Tamil folk music tends to be much more exuberant. Popular forms of Tamil folk music include the Villuppāṭṭu, a form of music performed with a bow, and the Nāṭṭuppur̲appāṭṭu, ballads that convey folklore and folk history. Some of the leading Tamil folk artists in the early 21st century are Pushpuvanam Kuppuswamy, Dr Navaneethakrishnan, Chinnaponnu, Paravai muniammal etc.

Arts and dance
Tamils have a large number of folk dances. These are performed for every possible occasion, to celebrate the arrival of seasons, birth of a child, weddings and festivals. Tamil dance is closely intertwined with the Tamil theatrical tradition. The most celebrated of these is karakattam. In its religious form, the dance is performed in front of an image of the goddess Mariamman. The dancer bears on his or her head a brass pot filled with uncooked rice, decorated with flowers and surrounded by a bamboo frame, and tumbles and leaps to the rhythm of a song without spilling a grain. Karakattam is usually

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Tamil Nadu
practised by male and female dancers all over India. Therukoothhu (street dance) is a folk tradition of dance-drama.

Film industry
Tamil Nadu is also home to the Tamil film industry, the second largest film industry in India after Hindi films. It is based in Chennai in Kodambakkam, the section of Chennai that houses cinema-related facilities, hence the portmanteau Kollywood.

Cuisine

A Bharatanatyam dancer performed to a special type of song known as temmanguppāṭṭu or thevar pāṭṭu, a folk song in the mode of a lover speaking to his beloved, to the accompaniment of a nadaswaram and melam. Other Tamil folk dances include mayilāṭṭam, where the dancers tie a string of peacock feathers around their waist; ōyilāttam, danced in a circle while waving small pieces of cloth of various colours; poykkāl kuthiraiyaaṭṭam, where the dancers use dummy horses; mān̲āṭṭam, where the dancers imitate the graceful leaping of deer; par̲aiyāṭṭam, a dance to the sound of rhythmical drumbeats, and thīppandāṭṭam, a dance involving playing with burning wooden torches. Bharatanatyam is a classical dance form originating from Tamil Nadu. Bharatanatyam is thought to have been created by Bharata Muni, a Hindu sage, who wrote the Natya Shastra, the most important ancient treatise on classical Indian dance. In ancient times it was performed in Hindu temples by Devadasis. In this form, it as also been called sadir or chinna melam. Many of the ancient sculptures in Hindu temples are based on Bharata Natyam dance postures. Bharatanatyam is a traditional dance-form known for its grace, purity, tenderness, and sculpturesque poses. It continues to be a popular and widely performed dance style at present times and is

Chettinad cuisine. Food is typically served on banana leaves. Traditionally Tamil dishes are served on a banana leaf instead of a plate and eaten with the right hand. Rice is the staple food of Tamils and accompanied with various sauces along with meat and/ or vegetarian dishes. Traditional Tamil cuisine includes Dosai, Idly, Vadai, Pongal and Uthappam. These dishes are served along with Sambar, Rasam, Kootu, Aviyal, Chatni and Poriyal. Traditionally prepared Filter Coffee is quite famous, which is unique in taste. The Chettinad region is famous for its spicy non-vegetarian cuisine, while Tirunelveli is famous for its unique wheat halwa. The fast food culture is witnessing a steady growth in Tamil Nadu in recent years.

Economy
Macro-economic trend
Tamil Nadu’s gross state domestic product for 2007 is estimated at 275,000 crores (70 billion USD) in current prices.[66][67] The state experienced a GDP growth rate of 12.1% for this period.[49] Possessing the third largest economy (2007-2008) among

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2004 05 188,921 21.81%

Tamil Nadu
6.61%

Per Capita Income of Tamil Nadu and India states in India,[68] Tamil Nadu is also the most industrialised state in India.[69] The per capita income for the period 2007 - 2008 for the state was Rs.43,000 ranking second among the South Indian states.[70] It ranks third in foreign direct investment approvals (cumulative 1991-2002) of Rs.225,826 million ($5,000 million), next only to Maharashtra (Rs.366,024 million ($8,100 million)) and Delhi (Rs.303,038 million ($6,700 million)) and the State’s FDI investment constitutes 9.12% of the total FDI in the country.[71] Tamil Nadu was the winner of fDimagazine’s Asian Region of the Future award 2005/06 in terms of FDIs, surpassing Australia’s New South Wales.[72] Chennai was ranked the top metropolitan city to invest in Asia Pacific and Tamil Nadu was ranked 9th region to invest in 2008.[73] Unlike many other states, the economic resources are quite spread out, rather than concentrated in a small industrialised area. The overall unemployment is relatively low with 2.8% rural and 4.8% urban from CSI.[74] The graph at right shows how the Per capita income of Tamil Nadu has grown steadily keeping above the national average.[75] Gross State Domestic Product in Rs. Crores and Current Prices[76] Year 1994 95 1996 97 1998 99 2000 01 2002 03 GSDP 68,666 19.32% 89,237 29.96% 118,209 32.47% 141,100 19.36% 155,099 09.92% 6.85% 7.33% 7.40% 7.18% Change Share of India 7.49%

According to the 2001 Census, Tamil Nadu has the highest level of urbanisation (43.86%) in India, accounting for 6% of India’s total population and 9.6% of the urban population.[77] and is the most urbanized state in India.[8] Services contributes to 45% of the economic activity in the state, followed by manufacturing at 34% and agriculture at 21%. Government is the major investor in the state with 51% of total investments, followed by private Indian investors at 29.9% and foreign private investors at 14.9%. Tamil Nadu has a network of about 110 industrial parks and estates offering developed plots with supporting infrastructure.[78] Also, the state government is promoting other industrial parks like Rubber Park, Apparel Parks, Floriculture Park, TICEL Park for Biotechnology,[79] Siruseri IT Park, and Agro Export Zones among others. Annual Plan outlays have increased by a record 75% from Rs.52,000 million ($1,100 million) in 2001-2 to Rs.91,000 million ($2,000 million) in 2005-6. Based on URP Consumption for the period 2004 - 2005, percentage of the state’s population Below Poverty Line was 27.5%.[56]

Agriculture and Irrigation

Paddy fields in Theni District across the backdrop of the Western Ghats. Tamil Nadu has historically been one of the agricultural states;its advances in other fields launched the state into competition with other states. Even so, Tamil Nadu is a leading producer of agricultural products in India. At present, Tamil Nadu is India’s fourth biggest producer of Rice, next to West Bengal,

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Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh.[80] The Cauvery delta region of the composite Thanjavur district is known as the Rice Bowl of South India. Next to Thanjavur, is the Tirunelveli which is the second largest producer of Rice due to the undrainable river Thamirabarani. Tamil Nadu accounts for nearly 6% of the area under fruits and 4% of the area under vegetables in the country. In terms of production, the State’s share is nearly 10% in fruits and 6% in vegetables.[81] Tamil Nadu is also a leading state in the production of flowers. The total production of horticultural crops is 99.47 Lakhs during 2003-04. The main flowers grown in Tamil Nadu are Jasmine, Mullai, Chrysanthemum, Marigold and Rose. Mango and Banana are the leading fruit crops in Tamil Nadu accounting for over 84% of the area under fruit and over 87% of the total fruit production. Off-season production of mango and roundthe-year production of grapes is unique to Tamil Nadu. The main vegetables grown are tapioca, tomato, onion, brinjal and drumstick.

Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu is the only state to have a formal bio-diesel policy using jatropha plant crops and to distribute wasteland to the poor farmers for planting.[92] Tamil Nadu is the home to Dr M.S. Swaminathan, known as the "father of the Green Revolution" in India.[93] Tamil Nadu Agricultural University with its seven colleges and thirty two research stations spread over the entire state contributes to evolving new crop varieties and technologies and disseminating through various extension agencies. The net sown area is 36% of the total geographic area (National average of 46%). The gross cropped area is 53,200 km² with a cropping intensity of 119. Irrigation covers 46% of the cropped area and the remaining 54% is rainfed. Tamil Nadu’s agriculture is heavily dependent on river water and monsoon rains.

Mathur Aqueduct is one of the largest in Asia and irrigates portions of Kanyakumari district.[94] The perennial rivers are Palar, Cheyyar River, Ponnaiyar, Kaveri, Meyar, Bhavani, Amaravati, Vaigai, Chittar River & Tamaraparani. Non-perennial rivers include the Vellar, Noyal, Suruli, Gundar, Vaipar, Valparai and Varshali. Canals, tanks and wells form the sources of Irrigation for farmers in the state. As of 2005-2006, the state had 2395 canals with a length of 9,747 km, 40,319 tanks, 670 ordinary government wells, 1,620,705 ordinary private wells and 290,611 tube wells. Irrigated Agriculture Modernization and Water-bodies Restoration and Management (IAMWARM) project is a World Bank aided project being implemented in Tamil Nadu at a cost of INR 2500 crores. Duration of the project April 1 2007 to March 31 2013. The main aim of the project is to restore the existing 40319 tanks to save water to their full capacity as it was created by ancient

Vegetable plantation in Nilgiris district. The state is the largest producer of bananas,[82] flowers,[83] tapioca,[83] the second largest producer of mango,[83] coffee,[84] natural rubber,[85] coconut,[86] groundnut and the third largest producer of sapota,[83] Tea[87] and Sugarcane.[88] Tamil Nadu is also a leading producer of spices, kambu, corn, rye and oil seeds.[89][90] The main spices grown are chillies, coriander, tamarind, turmeric and curry leaves. Tamil Nadu’s sugarcane yield per hectare is the highest in India.[88] A host of sugar companies have their operations here including EID Parry I Ltd., Thiru Arooran Sugars Ltd., Sakthi Sugars Ltd., Bannari Amman Sugars Ltd. and Rajshree sugars Ltd. The state has 17,000 hectares of land under oil palm cultivation, the second highest in India.[91] Currently,

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Cattle Buffalos Sheep Goats Pigs Horses & ponies 9141 1658 5593 8177 321 25 Donkeys Total livestock 26 15800

Tamil Nadu
Total poultry 86591

forefathers of tamilnadu some 2000 years before.[95][96]

Livestock, poultry and fisheries
Among states in India, Tamil Nadu is one of the leaders in livestock, poultry and fisheries production. The table below gives the data on the total number of livestock and poultry in 2003 (All figures in thousands).[97] As per this data, Tamil Nadu had the second largest number of poultry amongst all the states and accounted for 17.7% of the total poultry population in India. The town of Namakkal is also known as the poultry hub currently it produces about 3 crore eggs a day. In 2003 - 2004, Tamil Nadu had produced 37,836 lakhs of eggs, which was the second highest figure among all the states in India, and represented 9.37% of the total egg production in the country.[98] In 2003-2004, Tamil Nadu had produced 4,752,000 tonnes of milk, with a per capita availability of 198 grams/day, much lesser than the all-India figure of 231 grams/day.[99][100][101] During 2002-2003, the state had produced 609,000 kg of wool.[102] The total fodder produced in the state during 2002-2003 was 31,929,000 tonnes, out of which 21,429,000 tonnes was dry fodder and 10,500,000 tonnes was green fodder.[103] The total number of vertinary institutions in the state in 2006 was 1854.[104] With the third longest coastline in India, Tamil Nadu is also among the leaders in fisheries and in the production and exports of related products. For the year 2005-2006, total inland fish catchment was 155,944 tonnes and marine fish catchment stood at 389,714 tonnes.[105] For the same period, the total fish and fishery products exported by the state was 72,418 tonnes which was valued at Rs. 19.96 billion. This figure represented 27.54% of the total value of fish and fishery products exported by India for that period.[106]

Hyundai’s manufacturing plant at Irungattukottai near Sriperumbudur. Detroit of Asia"). Chennai has been able to get a large number of investments due to a combination of infrastructure (ports, road, power), investment climate, low cost and good availability of man power.[107] Chennai has the presence of global vehicle manufacturing giants like Ford, Renault-Nissan, Caterpillar, Hyundai, Michelin, Komatsu, BMW, and Mitsubishi as well as domestic heavyweights like MRF, TI Cycles, Ashok Leyland, Royal Enfield, Mahindra & Mahindra(JV with Renault-Nissan to produce Logan brand of cars), TAFE Tractors, and TVS.It also has a railway coach factory, ICF(Integral Coach Factory). Recently in an equal joint venture agreement, Renault and Nissan have decided to invest Rs. 4,500 crore ($1,140 million) to set up an integrated greenfield automotive facility at Oragadam near Chennai. The plant will have an installed capacity of four lakh vehicles annually by 2010. Daimler has chosen Chennai for establishing a truck manufacturing plant in Oragadam with an investment of Rs 4,400 crores ($1,100 million).[108] Signet Solar is in the process of setting up a manufacturing plant for 300 MW of thin-film photo-voltaic modules in a project worth an estimated $500 million.[109] Sterlite Industries have their copper smelter (in Tuticorin) and aluminium (in Mettur) factories here. A large number of textile mills and engineering industries are present around the city of Coimbatore. Coimbatore is the headquarters for

Industry
Tamil Nadu is a highly industrialised state. Many heavy engineering and manufacturingbased companies are centred in and around the suburbs of Chennai (nicknamed, "The

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Pricol, LMW, ELGI, Roots industries, and Shanti gears. Coimbatore is known for its motor pump industries like Texmo, Deccan pumps and CRI pumps. Karur is known for its bus body building industries. Truck bodies are built in Tiruchengode and Namakkal near Salem. Over 11.2% of the S&P CNX 500 conglomerates have corporate offices in Tamil Nadu. The Kalpakkam Nuclear Power Plant, Ennore Thermal Plant, Neyveli Lignite Power Plant, many hydroelectric plants including Mettur and the Narimanam Natural Gas Plants are major sources of Tamil Nadu’s electricity. It is presently adding the Koodankulam Nuclear Power Plant to its energy grid. Tamil Nadu sources[110] a significant proportion of its power needs from renewable sources with wind power installed capacity at over 3600 MW[111] or over 40% of the maximum peak demand. As of 2005, Tamil Nadu is one of the few Indian states with surplus power electricity, enabling the electrical authority to sell it to neighbouring states of Andra Pradesh & Karnataka. Tamil Nadu ranks first nationwide in diesel-based thermal electricity generation with national market share of over 34%. The textile industry plays a significant role in the Indian economy by providing direct employment to an estimated 35 million people, and thereby contributing 4% of GDP and 35% of Gross Export Earnings. The textile sector contributes to 14% of the manufacturing sector. There are a lot of Textile mills located in Coimbatore. The city of Tirupur, in Tamil Nadu is the country’s largest exporter of knit wears[112] and sometimes karur to tiruppur area referred to as Textile valley of India.[113] In 2004, the export turnover from the town was more than Rs. 50,000 million ($1,000 million). Some 7,000 garment units in the town provides employment opportunity to 7,50,000 people. 56% of India’s total knitwear exports come from Tirupur. The Export Import Policy of 2002-2007 acknowledges Tirupur for its contribution to the export efforts. The home textile capital of India - city of Karur generates around (35,500 million) $750 million a year in foreign exchange and give the opportunity to 3,50,000 peoples for work.Over 60% of total India’s exports come from karur. The Karur exports of Home-Textile products such as bed linens, kitchen linens, toilet linens, table linens and wall hangings.

Tamil Nadu
Erode is also the major inland textile hub of India especially for woven garments & sarees. Madurai and Kanchipuram are famous for their handloom and silk saris.

Wind turbines at Muppandal in Nagercoil Kanyakumari District. In the background are hills of the Western Ghats. Electronics manufacturing is a growing industry in Tamil Nadu. Companies like Nokia, Flextronics, Motorola, Sony-Ericsson, Foxconn, Samsung, Cisco, Moser Baer and Dell have chosen Chennai as their South Asian manufacturing hub. Products manufactured include circuit boards and cellular phone handsets.[114] Ericsson also has a Research and Development facility in Chennai.[115] Big EPC companies have set up their Engineering centres which include Saipem, Technip, Foster Wheeler, Mott Macdonald, Petrofac and Tecnimont ICB. The Austrian company Austrian Energy and Environment also have a design office here besides local giant ECC {Larsen & Toubro}. Sanmina-SCI is the latest company to invest in Tamil Nadu to create a state of the art manufacturing facility.[116] Nokia Siemens Networks has decided to build a manufacturing plant for wireless network equipment in Tamil Nadu.[117] Moser Baer has decided on setting up a facility to manufacture silicon-based photovoltaic thin film modules and allied products with an investment of $500 million.[118] Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, a global electrical equipment manufacturing public sector company, has manufacturing plants at Tiruchirapalli and Ranipet. The construction industry also saw new entrants like BGR Energy systems ltd, Consolidated construction consortium. The state government owns the Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers (TNPL),[119] the world’s biggest bagasse based Paper mills in Karur, as well as the world’s sixth largest manufacturer of watches together with TATA at hosur, under the brand name of "Titan".[120] 55% of all wind-generated electricity in India is created by windmills in Tamil Nadu. Renowned Danish wind power

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company NEG Micon has established its manufacturing unit in Chennai.[121] Tamil Nadu is a leading producer of Cement in India. It is the home of leading cement brands in the country such as Chettinad Cements (in Karur), Dalmia Cements (in Ariyalur), Ramco cements (Madras Cement Ltd), India cements (in Sankari, Ariyalur), Grasim etc. Big companies like MICO and Cognizant solutions have set up their design offices here. L&T is setting up big manufacturing units with an investment of 500 crores. Even temple city Madurai has attracted Honeywell to set up their centre here. The town of Sivakasi is a leader in the areas of printing, fireworks, and safety matches.[122] It was fondly called as Kutty Japan or "little Japan" by Jawaharlal Nehru. It contributes to 80% of India’s production of safety matches as well as 90% of India’s total fireworks production. Sivakasi provides over 60% of India’s total offset printing solutions and ranks as one of the highest taxpaying towns in India. Sivakasi also is a 100% employed town, putting it in the company of very few towns in India. Tamil Nadu has a significant amount of mineral reserves such as lignite (87%), vermiculite (66%), garnet (42%), zircon (38%), graphite (33%), ilmenite (28%), rutile (27%), monazite (25%), and magnesite (17%). The numbers in the brackets indicate the percentage contribution to the national share. India’s leading steel producer, SAIL has a steel plant in Salem.[123]

Tamil Nadu
Software exports from Tamil Nadu more than doubled from Rs. 76 billion ($1.6 billion) in 2003-04 to Rs. 141.15 billion {$3.53 billion} in 2005-06 and zoomed to Rs. 207 billion {$5 billion} by 2006-07 according to NASSCOM.[124] Chennai is a hub for e-publishing with 47 e-publishing units registered with the STPI in Chennai. Companies such as Symantec, Fidelity National Information Services, eBay, Hewlett-Packard, Computer Sciences Corporation, Virtusa, HCL, Wipro, TCS, Temenos, Satyam, Infosys, Polaris Software Lab, Cognizant Technology Solutions, Acme Technology Pvt Ltd, Covansys, Capgemini, Ford Information Technology, Xansa,Changepond, Verizon, iSoft,insoft, iNautix, MphasiS(Electronic Data Systems), Bally and many others have offices in Chennai. Infosys Technologies has set up India’s largest software development centre to house 25,000 software professionals at an estimated investment of Rs. 12,500 million ($270 million) in Chennai. Chennai is also the preferred destination for companies outsourcing their high-end knowledge intensive operations. Testimony to this is the presence of major market research companies such as Frost & Sullivan and equity research companies such as Irevna in Chennai. This is the next high growth area that Chennai is witnessing.

Transportation

Tidel Park in Chennai is one of the largest software parks in India. Tamil Nadu is a leading contributor in the IT and BPO sectors. Tamil Nadu is the third largest software exporter by value in India, second only to Karnataka and Maharashtra. India’s largest IT park is in Chennai.

The Pamban rail and road bridges, across the Palk Strait connects the Pamban Island with the Indian mainland. The rail bridge (right), opened in 1914, is considered to be one of the marvels of modern engineering.[125] Tamil Nadu has a well established transportation system that connects all parts of the

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state. This is partly responsible for the investment growth in the state. Tamil Nadu is served by an extensive road network, providing links between urban centers, agricultural market-places and rural areas. There are 24 national highways in the state, covering a total distance of 2,002 km.[126] The state is also a terminus for the Golden Quadrilateral project that is scheduled to be completed in 2008. The state has a total road length of 167,000 km, of which 60,628 km are maintained by Highways Department. This is nearly 2.5 times higher than the density of all-India road network.[127] It is currently working on upgrading its road network, though the pace of work is considered slow.[128] Tamil Nadu has a well developed rail network as part of Southern Railway. Headquartered at Chennai, the Southern Railway network extends over a large area of India’s Southern Peninsula, covering the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Pondicherry, a small portion of Karnataka and a small portion of Andhra Pradesh. Tamil Nadu has a total railway track length of 5,952 km and there are 532 railway stations in the state.[129] The system connects it with most major cities in India. Main rail junctions in the state include Chennai, Erode, Coimbatore, Tirunelveli Madurai, Tiruchirapalli (Trichy) and Salem. Chennai has a well-established suburban railway network and is in the process of developing a metro. Tamil Nadu has a major international airport, Chennai International Airport, that is connected with 19 countries with more than 169 direct flights every week. This is currently the third largest airport in India after Mumbai and Delhi and has a passenger growth of 18%. Other international airports present in the state are Coimbatore International Airport and Tiruchirapalli International Airport. Madurai Airport and Tuticorin Airport are domestic airports which connect their respective cities to other parts of the country. Apart from these, there are Air Force bases at Thanjavur and Sulur(Suburb of Coimbatore), and a Naval air station at Arakkonam. Increased industrial activity has given rise to an increase in passenger traffic as well as freight movement which has been growing at over 18 per cent per year.[130] Tamil Nadu has three major ports at Chennai, Ennore and Tuticorin, as well as one intermediate port, Nagapattinam, and seven

Tamil Nadu
minor ports, Rameswaram, Kanyakumari, Cuddalore, Colachel, Karaikal, Pamban and Valinokkan which are currently capable of handling over 73 million metric tonnes of cargo annually (24 per cent share of India). All the minor ports are managed by the Tamil Nadu Maritime Board.[131] Chennai Port is an artificial harbour situated on the Coromandel Coast in South-East India and it is the second principal port in the country for handling containers. Ennore Port was recently converted from an intermediate port to a major port and handles all the coal and ore traffic in Tamil Nadu. The volume of cargo in the ports grew by 13 per cent during 2005.[132][133]

Fauna and Flora

Lion-tailed macaque, an endangered species. The state has a wide range of flora and fauna. There is a wide diversity of wildlife. There are many Protected areas of Tamil Nadu, including 2 Biosphere Reserves, 5 National Parks and several Wildlife Sanctuaries, where many unique species and their habitats are protected[134] Tamil Nadu includes a

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wide range of Biomes, extending east from the South Western Ghats montane rain forests in the Western Ghats through the South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests and Deccan thorn scrub forests to tropical dry broadleaf forests and then to the beaches, estuaries, salt marshes, mangroves, and coral reefs of the Bay of Bengal.

Tamil Nadu

Fauna
There are about 2000 species of wildlife that are native to Tamil Nadu. Protected areas provide safe habitat for large mammals including Elephants, Tigers, Leopard, Wild dog, Sloth bears, Gaurs, Lion-tailed macaques, Nilgiri Langurs, Nilgiri Tahrs, Grizzled Giant Squirrels and Sambar deer, resident and migratory birds such as Cormorants, Darters, Herons, Egrets, Open-billed Storks, Spoonbills and White Ibises, Little Grebes, Indian Moorhen, Black-winged Stilts, a few migratory Ducks and occasionally Grey Pelicans, marine species such as the Dugongs, Turtles, Dolphins and Balanoglossus and a wide variety of fish and insects.

World Chess Champion Vishwanathan Anand. at domestic and international level, organized by other sports associations at its venues.[139] The YMCA College of Physical Education at Nandanam in Chennai was established in 1920 and was the first college for physical education in Asia.[140] Cricket is the most popular sport and Kabaddi is the state game of Tamil Nadu. M. A. Chidambaram Stadium in Chennai is an international cricketing arena with a capacity of 50,000 and houses the Tamil Nadu Cricket Association. Popular cricketers from Tamil Nadu who have represented the national team include S. Venkataraghavan, Kris Srikkanth, Robin Singh, Lakshmipathy Balaji Subramaniam Badrinath and Dinesh Karthik. Cricket contests between local clubs and teams is also popular across the state. The MRF Pace Foundation in Chennai is a much sought after fast bowling academy by pace bowlers all over the world. The traditional sport of Kabaddi, called Sadu Gudu in Tamil, is another popular sport played extensively in the rural areas. Silambam is another popular traditional sport played in the rural areas. The ATP Chennai Open tournament held in Chennai every January is the biggest Tennis event in South Asia.[141] Tennis players from Tamil Nadu who had made it to the big stage include Ramanathan Krishnan, Ramesh krishnan, Vijay Amritraj, Mahesh Bhupathi and Prakash Amritrajand more recently Somdev Devvarman was runner up in ATP 2009. Tamil Nadu has a long standing motorsports culture. The sport was pioneered by Sundaram Karivardhan in its early days.

Flora
Tamil Nadu is the home to 3000 plant species including Eucalyptus, Palmyra, Rubber, Cinchona, Clumping Bamboos (Bambusa Arundinacea), Common teak, Anogeissus latifolia, Indian Laurel , Grewia, and blooming trees like Indian labumusum, Aredesia, and Solanancea. Rare and unique plant life includes Combretum ovalifolium, Ebony (Dispyros nilagrica), Habebarai reriflora (Orchid), Alsophila, Impatiens elegans, Ranunculus reniformis, and Royal fern. Tamil Nadu ranks first in Angiosperm diversity amongst all the states in the country with 5640 species (32%) of the total 17,672 species, which includes 230 red-listed species and 1559 species of medicinal plants.[135]

Sports
Tamil Nadu has made fair strides in the field of sports. The Sports Development Authority of Tamil Nadu (SDAT) is the government body that is vested with the responsibility of developing sports and related infrastructure in the state.[136][137] The SDAT owns and operates a number of world class stadiums and organizes various sporting events.[138] It also accommodates various sporting events, both

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Notable sportspersons from Tamil Nadu in the field are Narain Karthikeyan, the first Indian to participate in F1 racing, and Karun Chandok. Motor racing events are held at the Irungattukottai track (near Sriperumbudur), Sholavaram track and Kari Motorspeedway near Coimbatore.

Tamil Nadu
regular rowing races on the Adyar River.[151] The 232 year old Guindy race course in Chennai is popular horse racing venue. Apart from these, the Multi-Purpose Indoor Games Complex in Chennai hosts international events for Volleyball, Basketball, Badminton and Table Tennis. In the recent years, adventure sports have also gained popularity, especially amongst the tourists visiting the state.[152]

Tourism
Kari Motorspeedway near Coimbatore. The Tamil Nadu Hockey Association is the governing body of Hockey in the state. The Mayor Radhakrishnan Stadium in Chennai hosts international hockey events and is regarded by the International Hockey Federation as one of the best in the world for its state-of-the-art infrastructure.[142] Chennai hosted the SAF Games in 1995. Anju Bobby George, bronze medalist from Sydney Olympics, represents Tamil Nadu in the national arena.[143] Shanthi Soundararajan, silver medalist (later stripped) from Doha Asian Games, also hails from the state.[144] The Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in Chennai is a multipurpose stadium hosting Football and Track & Field events. The Indian Triathlon Federation and the Volleyball Federation of India are headquartered in Chennai.[145] Chennai hosted India’s first ever International Beach Volleyball Championship in 2008.[146] Chess and Carrom are popular indoor sports. World Chess champion and Indian Grand Master Viswanathan Anand and Arjuna Awardee and two-time world carrom champion Maria Irudayam hail from Tamil Nadu. Snooker was invented by General Sir Frederick Roberts at the Ooty Club in Udhagamandalam.[147][148] The Velachery Aquatics Sports Complex in Chennai hosts different kinds of water sports. The SDAT TNSRA Squash Academy in Chennai, one of the very few modern squash facilities in South Asia,[149] hosts international squash events. Tamil Nadu has six 18-hole Golf courses,[150] the most popular of which are the Kodaikanal Golf Club, established in 1895, and Gymkhana Club, Chennai. The Madras Boat Club, set up in 1867, hosts

Courtallam waterfalls in Tirunelveli district. Tamil Nadu’s tourism industry is the second largest in India, with an annual growth rate of 16%.[153] Tourism in Tamil Nadu is promoted by Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation (TTDC), a Government of Tamil Nadu undertaking. The tagline adopted for promoting tourism in Tamil Nadu is Enchanting Tamil Nadu. Approximately 1,753,000 foreign and 50,647,000 domestic tourists visited the state in 2007.[154] Tamil Nadu is a land of varied beauty. It boasts some of the grandest Hindu temples of Dravidian architecture in the World. The temples are of a distinct style which are famous for their towering Gopurams. The Brihadishwara Temple in Thanjavur, built by the Cholas, the Airavateswara temple in Darasuram and the Shore Temple, along with the collection of other monuments in Mahabalipuram have been declared as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[155][156] The Rajagopuram of Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple in Srirangam — the largest functioning Hindu temple in the world — is the tallest temple gopuram in the world[157] Madurai is home to one of the grandest Hindu temples in the World — Madurai Meenakshi Amman Temple. Rameshwaram, Kanchipuram and

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Palani are important pilgrimage sites for Hindus. The largest Shiva Temple in TamilNadu is Nellaiappar Temple situated in the heart of Tirunelveli city. Other popular temples in Tamil Nadu include those in Gangaikonda Cholapuram, Chidambaram, Thiruvannaamalai,Tiruchengode, Aragalur, Tiruttani, Swamithoppe, Tiruchendur and Tiruvallur.

Tamil Nadu
region of the state is renowned for its Palatial houses and cuisine. In recent years, Tamil Nadu is also witnessing a growth in Medical tourism, as are many other states in India.

See also
• • • • • Tamil people Tamil language Dravidian people South India Tamil cinema

References
[1] [2] [3] [4] Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly. The Story of India: South India. History of Tamil Nadu. TAMIL HERITAGE... the Tamils are an ancient people. [5] Tamil Nadu’s Ancient Cities May Predate Mesopotamian Civilization. [6] Population of Tamil Nadu as of 01/07/ 2008. [7] Gross Domestic Product by prices as of 28 February, 2008. [8] ^ Tamil Nadu the most urbanised State: Minister. [9] Enterprises in India. [10] India Today, dated 24th September, 2007. [11] "Tamil Nadu, The best place to do business". November 12, 2005. http://in.rediff.com/money/2005/nov/ 12guest2.htm. Retrieved on 2007-10-18. [12] Press Information Bureau. [13] UNESCO World Heritage List. [14] Tamil Nadu India’s most literate state: HRD ministry. [15] LITERATES AND LITERACY RATES-2001 CENSUS (PROVISIONAL). [16] "Skeletons dating back 3,800 years throw light on evolution". The Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ articleshow/ msid-1354201,prtpage-1.cms. Retrieved on 2008-06-11. [17] "The Hindu : National : ’Rudimentary Tamil-Brahmi script’ unearthed at Adichanallur". The Hindu. http://www.hinduonnet.com/2005/02/17/ stories/2005021704471300.htm. Retrieved on 2008-06-11. [18] "The Hindu : National : Skeletons, script found at ancient burial site in Tamil Nadu". The Hindu.

Kanyakumari, the Southernmost tip of Mainland India, at sunrise. Tamil Nadu is also home to many beautiful hill stations. Popular among them are Udhagamandalam (Ooty), Kodaikanal, Yercaud, Coonoor, Topslip, Valparai, Kolli Hills and Yelagiri. The Nilgiri hills, Palani hills, Shevaroy hills and Cardamom hills are all abodes of thick forests and wildlife. Mukurthi National Park & Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve are the two tiger reserves in the state. Tamil Nadu has many National Parks, Biosphere Reserves, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Elephant and Bird Sanctuaries, Reserved Forests, Zoos and Crocodile farms. Prominent among them are Mudumalai National Park, The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park, Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary and Arignar Anna Zoological Park. The mangrove forests in Pichavaram are also eco-tourism spots of importance. Kanyakumari, the southern most tip of peninsular India, is famous for its distinct and beautiful sunrise, Vivekananda Rock Memorial and Thiruvalluvar’s statue built off the coastline. Marina Beach in Chennai is one of the longest beaches in the world.[158] The stretch of beaches from Chennai to Mahabalipuram are home to many resorts, theme parks and eateries. The Waterfalls in the state include Courtallam, Hogenakal, Papanasam and Manimuthar. The Chettinad

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://www.hindu.com/2004/05/26/ stories/2004052602871200.htm. Retrieved on 2008-06-11. [19] Staff Reporter (November 22, 2005). "Students get glimpse of heritage". The Hindu. http://www.thehindu.com/2005/ 11/22/stories/2005112215970400.htm. Retrieved on 2007-04-26. [20] Great Living Chola Temples. [21] Geography of India by Joel Anderson. [22] Damage to tsunami-hit countries - India. [23] Amateur Seismic Centre, Pune. [24] Assessment Report from the National Drought Mitigation Center, Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln. [25] United Nations, System of Organizations. [26] IndiaAndIndians.com. [27] Department of Geology and Mining, Government of Tamil Nadu. [28] Tamil Nadu Forest Department. [29] [1]. [30] ^ Secretaries to Government of Tamil Nadu. [31] "National Symbols of India". High Commission of India, London. http://www.hcilondon.net/india-overview/ land-people/national-symbols.html. Retrieved on 2007-09-03. [32] Government of Tamil Nadu. [33] Chief Justice of Madras High Court. [34] Brief Note on Corporation Of Chennai. [35] Tamil Nadu crime trends. [36] TN Police. [37] [2]. [38] Tirupur district shortly from The Hindu. [39] "Election results". Indian Elections. http://www.indian-elections.com/ assembly-elections/tamil-nadu/electionresult-06.html. [40] "Parties Statistics". Election Commission of India. http://www.eci.gov.in/ StatisticalReports/ElectionStatistics.asp. [41] The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture: The Indo-Aryan Migration Debate By Edwin Bryant. [42] "Census Population" (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. http://indiabudget.nic.in/es2006-07/ chapt2007/tab97.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-12-18. [43] ^ Updated population estimates for Tamil Nadu as of 01/07/2008. [44] ^ The Tamil Nadu picture on Frontline Magazine. [45] Tamil Nadu the most urbanised state. [46] National Family Health Survey, India.

Tamil Nadu

[47] Distribution by Language - States and Union Territories - 2001. [48] Population by religious and linguistic communities. [49] ^ Tamil Nadu boasts of best school enrollment figures. [50] Universities in Tamil Nadu. [51] Engineering colleges in Tamil Nadu. [52] Opening of IIM Trichy. [53] Glaring regional disparities in human development index. [54] Human Development Reports. [55] " Top three States — a socio-economic comparison" - BusinessLine. [56] ^ "Number and Percentage of Population Below Poverty Line By States- 2004-05". [57] Tamil Nadu Poverty. [58] Poverty Profile. [59] World Bank Poverty Reduction Project. [60] "Education is the means of social mobility" - Rediff India Abroad. [61] Tamil Nadu Hunger Problem Alarming. [62] Tamil Nadu Hunger Level in Danger List. [63] India at a Glance - National Portal of India. [64] Madhya Kailash temple, Chennai. [65] St. Thomas in India. [66] "Official site". Government of Tamil nadu. http://www.tn.gov.in/budget/ budsp07_08_4.htm#Overall%20Financial%20Position Retrieved on 2007-03-23. [67] GDP from TN Govt. site. [68] 3rd largest economy. [69] Most Enterprises in India. [70] Per capita income from TN Govt. site. [71] Tamil Nadu ranks third in FDI, favoured destination. [72] FDI Magazine. [73] Top Places to invest in. [74] "Tamil Nadu Unemployment Rate". [75] State-wise Per Capita Income At Current Prices. [76] Gross Domestic Product of states as of 21 November 2006. [77] "e-CENSUSIndia". CensusIndia.net. http://en.wikipedia.org/w/ index.php?title=Tamil_Nadu&action=edit&section=1 Retrieved on 2006-08-16. [78] Example include Tidelpark and ITP Chennai. [79] TICEL Park for Biotechnology. [80] Rough rice production (000 t) in India, by state, 1961-2006. [81] National Horticulture Mission - Action Plan for Tamil Nadu. [82] Banana Production Statistics.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[83] ^ National Horticulture Mission Action Plan for Tamil Nadu. [84] Coffee Data - IndiaCoffee.org. [85] "Rubber Statistical News" - Rubber Board. [86] Coconut statistical info from IndiaCommodity.com. [87] "Production Of Tea In India During And Upto August, 2002 - TeaAuction.com. [88] ^ Sugar statistical info from IndiaCommodity.com. [89] Information on Mango from National Horticulture Board. [90] Spices in India. [91] Oil Palm Sector in India - World Wildlife Fund - India. [92] "Clean Green Energy from Tamil Nadu, India". http://www.indutourismnews.com/. Retrieved on 2006-11-15. [93] M. S. Swaminathan Research Foundation. [94] The southern tip of India - Kanyakumari. [95] iamwarm. [96] Irrigation in Tamil Nadu. [97] [3] Livesotck & Poultry Statistics from Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Animal Husbandry Dairying & Fisheries, Government of India. [98] "Estimates Of Egg Production". [99] "Per Capita Availability Of Milk. [100]Estimates of Milk Production". " [101]Share Of Milk Production By Cows, " Buffaloes & Goats". [102]Estimates Of Wool Production". " [103]Dry & Green Fodder Production". " [104]http://dahd.nic.in/stat_files/ [ NoOfIns&InfraData2006.pdf Number of Veterinary Institutions and Infrastructure Data of Animal Husbandry (Year-2006)]. [105]Milk, Egg Production and Fish " Catchment: By Districts". [106]Inland Fish Production". " [107] hennai Advantage in Investment. C [108] aimler-Hero zeros in on Chennai for D plant. [109] ignet Solar to setup manufacturing S plant in Tamil Nadu. [110] EDA - Projects of TEDA TamilNadu T Energy Development Agency by TEDA. [111] olicy Note 2008 - 2009 of Energy P Department, Tamil Nadu, India by Govt. of TamilNadu. [112] he Challenge of Reform: How Tamil T Nadu’s Textile and Apparel Industry is

Tamil Nadu
Facing the Pressures of LiberalizationPDF (471 KB) by Meenu Tewari for the Government of Tamil Nadu, India and the Center for International Development, Harvard University, Cambridge MA. [113] irupur: India’s Textile Valley! by George T Iype for rediff.com. [114] lextronics signs pact for Chennai F facility. [115] ricsson India Private Ltd. E [116] anmina sets up manufacturing plant in S Tamil Nadu. [117] okia Siemens to invest in Tamil Nadu. N [118] oser Baer Manufacturing Plant in M Tamil Nadu. [119] NPL. T [120] itan Website. T [121] estas Web page. V [122]4] SivakasiOnline.com. [ [123] AIL Plant. S [124] he Hindu Business Line : TN software T exports clock 32 pc growth. [125] he Hindu Business Line : Pamban T Bridge to be pulled down for gauge conversion. [126] conomy and Business in Tamil E NaduPDF (1.21 MB) [127] fficial site for Tamil Nadu Highways. O [128] ighways, roads to be upgraded in Tamil H Nadu. [129] amil Nadu Railway Statistics. T [130] ransportation in Tamil Nadu. T [131] reation of the Tamil Nadu Maritime C Board. [132] fficial website for Ennore Port. O [133] fficial website for Tuticorin Port. O [134] amil Nadu Forest Department, T retrieved 7/29/2007Tamil Nadu Wildlife Tourism. [135] amil Nadu Dept. of Forests, Retrieved T 9/9/2007 Biodiversity. [136]5]. [ [137]6]. [ [138]7]. [ [139]8]. [ [140] .M.C.A. College of Physical Education Y NANDANAM. [141] adal, other tennis greats arrive for N Chennai Open 2008. [142] adhakrishnan Stadium to have new R turf. [143] nju B George to be felicitated. A [144] he Sad Case of a South Indian Girl T Athlete.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[145] ll Presidents, National Sports A Federation. [146]ndia seeks to popularise beach I volleyball. [147] he History Of Snooker. T [148] HE ORIGIN OF SNOOKER : THE T NEVILLE CHAMBERLAIN STORY. [149] pening up new vistas for squash talent. O [150] olf Courses in Southern India. G [151] ports in Chennai. S [152] dventure Tourism. A [153] Steps to India 8

Tamil Nadu
[154]9] [ [155] reat Living Chola Temples - UNESCO G World Heritage Centre. [156] roup of Monuments at Mahabalipuram. G [157] ri Ranganathaswamy Temple website. S [158] arina Beach, Chennai - One of the M Longest Beaches in the World.

External links
• Tamil Nadu Government Website • Tamil Nadu at the Open Directory Project

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