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Chapters 1-30 - Book

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					Thinks…




   David
    Lodge
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 1
Short denotative analysis



   •   he is in his office in the campus of the University of
       Gloucester
   •   it‟s Sunday the 23rd of February at 10.13 a.m. and he is
       testing his recorder
   •   he thinks about his previous relationship with Isabel and
       his conference in San Diego
   •   he thinks about sex and death
Characters


      •   the speaking voice
      •   Isabel Hotchkiss
      •   Carrie and not named children
      •   Laetitia Glover
      •   Helen Reed
      •   Marianne
Setting



  •   narrator‟s office in the campus of the University of
      Gloucester
  •   Sunday the 23rd of February at 10.13 a.m. and at
      11.03
Narrative technique



The speaking voice records his thoughts on his recorder


                 Stream of consciousness
                     (William James)
New language and info we gathered



      •   What ever it was
      •   Speech recognitor
      •   I wonder where
      •   To typist
      •   To slink off
      •   Squash
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 2
Short denotative analysis



•   Helen lives in a maisonette but she wants to go away
•   she does the first lesson at the university and watches
    Ghost
•   she goes to Richmond‟s party and meets the guests
    there
•   the next day she goes to the church even if she doesn‟t
    believe in God
Characters


     •   Helen Reed and Ralph Messenger: protagonists
     •   Jasper Richmond: Helen‟s friend
     •   Russell Marsden: a teacher
     •   Paul and Lucy:Helen‟s children
     •   Marianne Richmond: Jasper‟s wife
     •   Simon Bellamy: a student
     •   Rachel McNulty: a student
     •   Martin: Ralph‟s friend
     •   Oliver: Jasper‟s son
     •   Guests at the party
     •   Carrie: Ralph‟s wife
Setting


   •   maisonette
   •   Richmond‟s house
   •   college
Narrative technique



     •   journal
     •   direct style
     •   descriptions
     •   free direct style
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 3
Short denotative analysis


  •   they are looking at exhibition of paintings


  •   they decide to have lunch together
                                       religion


                                        death and life after death
  •   they speak about

                                    cognitive sciences


  •   they visit the Brain (He explains her its meanings)
Characters


                               main character:
Ralph                          professor of
                               Cognitive science

Helen                          main character:
                               novelist and professor
                               of Cretive writing
Jim, Carl, Kenji               Ralph‟s students


Professor Douglass (Duggers)   Ralph‟s collegue


                               systems
Stuart Phillips
                               administrator
Setting


  TIME
  Wednesday of the second week of the semester

  SPACE
                           University‟s Staff House

  In the                   The Brain
  University
                            Dining Room

                        Campus
Narrative technique



      •   third person narrator


      •   present tense


      •   dialogue between Ralph and Helen


      •   short descriptions
 Message

                   alternation between the
                         characters:


      1° chapter:                               2° chapter:
rational and scientific                 irrational and sentimental
       thoughts                                   thoughts



                            3° chapter:
                      discussion and synthesis
Peculiar features


•   scientific names


•   scientific but simple explanation


•   Ralph‟s and Helen‟s different cultures and points of view


•   the third chapter is the synthesis of the first and the second
 New words and info we gathered



Undergraduate   a university student who has not received
                a first degree
                a student who is taking advanced work
Postgraduate
                after graduation
PhD             Doctor of Philosophy = Dottorato di Ricerca
VC              Vice-Chancellor
                       Contents




Thomas Nagel (What is it like to
be a bat?)
Prisoner‟s Dilemma
                                   Experiments
Searle‟s Chinese Room
Frank Jackson‟s Mary
Schrödinger‟s Cat


Henry James
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 4
Short denotative analysis



 •   problem in the Brain
 •   Ralph listens to the tape
 •   religious reflection
 •   what someone can do, if the partner dies
 •   problem solved: it was a mouse
Characters




•   Ralph
•   Helen Reed
Setting




•   Office
•   Staff House
Narrative technique


Stream of consciousness
Message




our consciousness is like a private room
(The privacy of consciousness, the secrecy of thought)
Space and time


   Wednesday, 26th February, 6.51 p.m.
New language and info we gathered


to belch = ruttare
wiring = impianto elettrico
riveting = appassionante
utter = completo
huff = arrabbiato
to inherit = ereditare
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 5
Short denotative analysis


•   Helen Reed remembers events of the previous day
•   consciousness as a problem
•   architecture of the mind
•   shopping in Cheltenham
•   chat at Messenger‟s house
Setting


•   Cheltenham
•   Messenger‟s house
Message


To represent consciousness is a problem
New language and info we gathered


aprons = grembiule, gironzolare, indugiare
grief = dolore
to loiter = intransitive verb; attardarsi
to poke = attizzare
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 6
Short denotative analysis
•   Ralph Messenger is in his office testing his new elaborate
    software which recgnizes your voice while you‟re speaking
•   he‟s talking about his private thoughts trying to recall an
    experience distant in time



                             GOAL:
               find out how our mind recomposes
                   memories after many years

•   first memory: the loss of his virginity with a married older
    woman
Characters

   •   Ralph Messenger

   •   The Richmonds (Marianne)

   •   Carrie Messenger

   •   Martha Beard

   •   Tom Beard

   •   Helen Reed
Setting


    TIME

    •   Sunday, the 2nd of March, 8.45 a.m.

    •   Messenger at the age of seventeen

    SPACE
    •Messenger‟s office at University of
    Glouchester
    •   a ship farm in the Dales
Narrative technique



     •   stream of consciousness as a first person
         narration

     •   large use of dots
Message


STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS TO RECALL MEMORIES




   old details remind
                            can we reconstruct our
   us of something
                           older memories when our
   new and move our
                             mind is vulnerable to
   mind from one
                            thoughts more recent?
   thought to another



                                    YES
New words



  amount of gibberish = parole senza senso
  to snog = sbaciucchiarsi
  loo = cesso
  g-string = perizoma
  glee = allegria
  to cuckold = cornificare
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 7
Short denotative analysis

Helen Reed tells some of her activities:

   •   reading her student‟s work-in-progress
   •   thinking of her daughter
   •   reflect about the “relationship mother-daughter”
   •   deciding to have a e-mail address
   •   invitation to Ralph‟s hot tub
   •   thinking about Jean-Dominique Bauby (a French writer)
   •   visiting Gloucester Cathedral
   •   giving instructions to her tenants
Characters
•   Helen        The speaking voice

•   Ralph


•Many students of
Creative Writing (just
mentioned)

•Jean-Dominique           A French journalist
Bauby (just
mentioned)

•Lucy (just          Helen‟s daughter
mentioned)
Setting
TIME
From Monday the 3rd of March to Saturday the 8th of
March

SPACE
                            Her maisonette
   • in the University      The Brain

                            Campus bookshop

   • a shop in Gloucester


   • Gloucester Cathedral
Narrative technique


   • first person narrator
   •   journal
   •   past tense
   •   accounts followed by reflections
Message


                      LITERATURE



     fiction                            J.-D. Bauby



 the writer invents                     eyelid code:
lives and thoughts                 importance of literature
Peculiar features

•   importance of reflections


•   from banal daily experience to existential problems


•   meta-literature


•   different lifestyles:   •relationship between mother and
                            daughter
                            •renting one‟s house
                            •independence of young people
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 8
Short denotative analysis

  The eighth chapter is arranged into four novels:

  1.What   is like to be a freetail bat?

  2.What   is like to be a Vampire bat?

  3.What   is it like to be a bat?

  4.What   is like to be a blind bat?
Characters


        •    M*rt*n Am*s
        •    Irv*ne W*lsh
        •    S*lm*n R*shd**
        •    S*m**l B*ck*tt



 they do not act in    they are only the
    the chapter       author of the novels
                        reported in the
                            chapter
Setting



 Unknown setting, even if maybe the teacher is reading
 the works of her students in her house or may be in
 the university campus
Narrative technique



        some novels use direct speech




   the narrator uses this device to make the
       novels more real and because the
     memories are not often ordered in the
                 human mind
Message


  •the narrator uses the novels written by his
  students to argue about the changing of the
  stream of consciousness
  •I Think that the behaviour of those creatures (bats
  and vampire) is a metaphor for man‟s behaviour. In
  the third novel the writer connects the condition of the
  bats with the one of the man
  •the comparison with bats makes us fall into a
  condition of incivility, because bats show an incivil
  behaviour, which if not bad for animals, it is not
  suitable for men
New language and info we gathered


   to hang = appendere/attaccare
   to wink = battere le palpebre
   to squeak = guaire, squittire
   to gobble = trangugiare
   to zap = eliminare
   fruitfly = piccola mosca
   crevice = fessura, crepa
   eaves = cornicione
   ceiling = soffitto
   likewise = altrettanto
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 9
Short denotative analysis


  •Helen, Ralph and his family are having a
  conversation in the hot tub in the black garden of
  Messengers‟ country cottage
  •they are talking about the self-consciousness that
  we are mortal
  •everybody climbed out of the pool and ascended the
  woodebn steps that lead the rear of the house execpt
  Helen and Ralph
Characters

   •Ralph Messenger (professor and director of the
   prestigious Holt Belling Centre for Cognitive
   Science)
   •   Helen Reed (a novelist writer)

   •   Carrie Messenger (Ralph‟s wife)

   •   Mark (Ralph and Carrie‟s son)

   •   Simon (Ralph and Carrie‟s son)

   •   Emily (Carrie‟s daughter)
Setting



  The hot tub in the black garden of the Messenger‟s
  country cottage
Narrative technique



  Events are narrated by a external narrator and there
  are some dialogues that explain the point of view of the
  characters
Message



  •the protagonists are discussing if it is possibile know
  other‟s thoughts
  •Helen represent the points of view of literature while
  and Ralph represent science
  •Helen support that it is possible only in literature
  because there can be a omniscient narrator able to
  make us know what the character thinks and how
  he/she thinks
New language and info we gathered



• What is it like to be a bat: Nagel's classic "What is it like
to be a bat?" must be one of the most influential papers on
consciousness of the last century, and it's still very relevant


•Thermostat Lloyd: he thinks that the thermostat does
very well as a model of consciousness
you' ll catch your death of cold = slang,
letteralmente “Il freddo cattura la tua morte”

I don‟t really buy myself = slang, abboccare

whiff = in questo caso, ventata

keen = entusiasta

she turs to address Ralph = rigirare la domanda

crossword = parole crociate




                                  New language and info we gathered
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 10
Short denotative analysis



•Helen is reading the students‟ work-in-progress but she is
thinking about the kiss given her by Ralph and after, about the
debate having with him too
•the were discussing on the existence, or not the existence, of
the soul and she starts to think to Martin, her husband, who is
died
•Helen is thinking too about how she can be a friend of Carrie
and how she can help her with her novel
•she ask herself where courage come from or if it is only
sense of guilty
Characters


   •Ralph Messenger (professor and director of the
   prestigious Holt Belling Centre for Cognitive
   Science)
   •   Helen Reed (a novelist writer)

   •   Carrie Messenger(Ralph‟s wife)

   •   Martin (Helen‟s dead husband)


   •   Lucy (Martin‟s and Helen‟s daughter)

   •   Joanna (Martin‟s sister)
Setting



 Helen‟s house:   •   Messenger‟s country cottage
                  •   Helen and Martin‟s house
                  •   church
Narrative technique



 The events are narrated in first person by Heln Reed in
 her diary day by day
Message


 •human beings are the only animals on th earth that
 are concious they will die and tey making stories to
 win the fear of death
 • people have a soul. Is it indipendent from body? Can
 it life for eternity? Where can it live?
 •in the mind of those who knew that person.
 But those mind and memories are themselves
 allegedly constructs, fictions, tied to decaying brain
 cells, doomed to eventual extinction too
New language and info we gathered


  it never crossed my mind = non mi passò mai per la mente
  debate = dibattito
  to slap = schiaffeggiare
  to twanged = far vibrare
  harp = arpa
  to pluck = in questo caso, pizzicata
   (riferimento alle corde dell‟arpa)
overheated = surriscaldato
cheerless = triste, tetro
to endure = sopportare
at stake = in posta, in gioco
to be worn on = trascorrere in maniera noisa
feasible = fattibile, probabile




                                  New language and info we gathered
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 11
Short denotative analysis



•   Ralph Messenger is talking about his collegue and
    he criticizes him

•   Reflection on the meaning of winning a Nobel Prize

•   he remembers the moment when he kissed Helen
    and when he descovered Emily in the bathroom
Characters


 •   Ralph Messenger


 •   Helen Reed


 •   Duggers, a Ralph‟s collegue


 •   Emily Carrie‟s daughter
Narrative technique


    Stream of consciousness
         Setting


•   Thursday, March the 12th


•   17:30


•   Ralph is in his car
New words


flashy = sgargiante
to begrudges = invidiare qualcosa a qualcuno
to screw up = accartocciare
to gang up on = fare comunella contro qualcuno
broomstick = scopa
to ditch= abbandonare, mollare
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 12
Short denotative analysis


•   the female protagonist talks to Sandra Pickering
    because the protagonists of their books are the same

•   Sandra says that she wrote her book before reading
    hers and they discuss about the matter

•   Helen Reed goes to Cheltenham to buy a present for
    Ralph and a dress
Characters


  •   the female protagonist: Helen Reed

  •   Sandra Pickering: Helen‟s student

  •   Simon Bellamy: Helen‟s student

  •   Martin: Helen‟s dead husband

  •   the male protagonist: Ralph Messenger
Setting


 •   Thursday 13th March: University of Gloucester

 •   Friday 14th March: Cheltenham and Richmonds‟ house
Narrative technique

  •   journal

  •   direct and indirect style

  •   comparison between the protagonists of the two books:
      Burnt and The Eye of the Storm
          Comparison between
      Burnt and The eye of the storm


Alastair and Sebastian:

•   tall
•   gangly
                              they have the
•   absent-minded
                              same features
•   untidy
•   odd socks
New words



 to glimpse = intravvedere
 subdue = sottomettere
 sharpish = pungente
 to bang into = sbattere contro
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 13
Short denotative analysis


•   at the party the guests chat about topical problems (DNA,
    dolly the cloned sheep and elections)

•   Ralph has a lot of lovers (Marianne is one of them) and he
    takes them to a cottage

•   Ralph tries to kiss Helen
Characters

•   Ralph Messenger: the male protagonist

•   Helen Reed: the female protagonist

•   Carrie: Mr. Messenger‟s Wife

•   Prof. Douglass: a party guest

•   Laetitia Glover: a further party guest

•   Jasper Richmond: Helen‟s friend

•   Sir Stanley and Lady Hibberd: vice-director and his wife

•   Marianne: Richmond‟s wife and Messenger‟s lover
Setting


          Messenger‟s house
               EVENT




           Ralph‟s birthday
Narrative technique



  •   direct style

  •   description
Peculiar features



•   Charles Robert Darwin was an English naturalist.
    He advanced the Theory of Evolution

•   T. O. M.: Theory of the mind

•   AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
New words


 poll = sondaggio

 to wink = fare l‟occhiolino

 cheerfully = allegramente

 to feed = dare da mangiare
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 14
Short denotative analysis


     Helen passed another weekend to the Messengers

     Ralph tried to kiss her, but she doesn‟t want to have
      an affair with him

     she has new neighbours, a young couple
Characters


      •   Helen

      •   Ralph

      •   Carrie

      •   Ross and Jackie

      •   Annabelle Riverdale
Setting



 •   Messenger‟s house

 •   Helen‟s house

 •   Library
Narrative technique


 Journal
Message


Embarassment of telling something which crossed our mind,
but we don‟t really want to say it (opposition between say
what we want and what we think)
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 15
Short denotative analysis


 •   Ralph Messenger is in tailback

 •   flashback of Ralph: Isabel Hotchkiss, their sexual
     intercourse and San Diego

 •   come back to present: sexual intercourse between Ralph
     and his wife
Characters


  •   Ralph Messenger

  •   Isabel Hotchkiss

  •   Carrie
Setting

  •   Inner Ring (the street where Ralph is in tailback)

  •   Hotel in San Diego

  •   Ralph and Carrie‟s house (their bedroom)
Narrative technique

  •   Stream of consciousness

  •   Flashback

  •   Direct speech

  •   Free direct speech
Message



     Through remembering the past we can try
            to improve our present
New words

 trap = boccaccia
 purdah = reclusione donne società musulmana e indù
 bloke = tizio, vecchione
 to dim = affievolire
 to nod = fare un cenno col capo
 to frow = disapprovare
 to truant = marinare la scuola
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 16
Short denotative analysis: Mary Comes Out

  •   Mary, a grown woman, sees colours for the first time

  • she lives into a kind of prison in which only white, black
   and grey exist

  • a masked man teaches her a lot of things about a wide
   range of subject everyday

                how do humans react when they
                  see colours for the first time?


  •FINAL TEST: A RED BUDROSE; Mary dies for the intensity
  of her sansations
Short denotative analysis: Mary’s Rose


    GUINEA PIG: Mary


        scientists     VS   philosophers



    •is colour the               •is colour
    same for                     different for
    everybody?                   everybody?

    •does it                     •does it
    happen just in               exist on its
    your brain?                  own?
Short denotative analysis: Mary Sees Red

   •   philosophers and scientists jailed Mary from the day of
       her birth

   •   her books taught her everything about everything


   •   FINAL TEST: at the age of thirty-one they take her into
       a white room with a red rose


   •   unfortunately they forgot Mary is a woman and has got
       her period: BLOOD IS RED!
Characters

   1.
   •    Mary Willingdon
   •    Lucy
   •    Hubert Dearing, the masked man
   •    Miss Calcutt

   2.
   •    Mary
   •    scientists and philosophers

   3.
   •    Mary
   •    Giles Dickinson, philosopher
   •    Mr. Stigwood, neuroscientist
Setting

    TIME

    We don‟t have any temporal reference signalling the
    first two stories but the third is set in the future, in
    year 2031

    SPACE
    •   secret house
    •   colourless house‟s underground
    •   white room
Narrative technique


   •   third-person narration

   •   dialogues between characters
Message


1. human beings are fragile in front of   Mary dies and
   thrills                                his jailer won‟t
                                          ever have his
                                          answers
 2. senses are more important than        philosophy
   brain knowledge                        beats science

 3. the reason why Mary already knew      science beats
   red colour concerns body structure     philosophy
   and scientific notions
New words and info we gathered

  1   minute/hour – hand = lancetta minuti/ore
      rosebud = bocciolo di rosa
      to kneel = inginocchiarsi


  2   to feel blue = essere triste
      to be red with anger = essere rosso di rabbia
      to be green with envy = essere verde d‟invidia


  3   to rise the stake = alzare la posta
      to nourish = nutrire
      dungeon = prigione sotterranea
Peculiar features: Mary’s name

   symbolic choice:   Mary    = Jesus‟ mother



       innocent        pure      uncontaminated



      she can be turned into whatever her
                  jailers want



  „Willing‟don = volunteer: she‟s glad to do it
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 17
Short denotative analysis



 •   discussion about fantasy and science

 •   Ralph goes to Helen‟s maisonette to install the modem
Characters


  •   Ralph Messenger


  •   Helen Reed
Narrative technique


  •   dialogue

  •   third person narrator
Setting


   •   late morning on Friday, March 21st


   •   Ralph‟s office


   •   Helen‟s maisonette
New words


    ceiling = soffitto
    to Shrug = scrollare
    to dial = fare (il numero)
    swirl = mulinello
    glance = occhiata
    to stack = impilare
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 18
Short denotative analysis


 •   Helen is getting ready for Ralph: she has a shower, she
     changes clothes and puts a careful attention in choosing
     them

 •   after that she cleans all her house even the bathroom but
     she forgets a pair of knickers in the shape of an accident
     and changes the sheets of the bed

 •   while she is waiting for Ralph she thinks about having sex
     with him
Characters

  •   Ralph Messenger: Professor and director of the
      prestigious Holt Belling Centre for Cognitive Science

  •   Helen Reed: novelist writer

  •   Carrie Messenger: Ralph‟s wife

  •   Martin: Helen‟s dead husband
Setting


  Helen‟s house
Narrative technique


 Helen is writing her journal in the first person ”I”
Message


  •   Helen is wondering whether it is right to have sex with
      Ralph because he would be the first man after Martin

  •   she feels guilty and feels it would dishonour Martin‟s
      memory

  •   she seems to believe the soul lives after death even if she
      agrees with Ralph that soul does not exist: what we call
      “soul” is our consciousness

  •   Martin has just ceased to exist, except in Helen‟s mind and
      in her memories: just a fiction
New words

  inkling = sentore
  heel = tallone
  cheddar = formaggio mezzo stagionato
  to dash = uscire di corsa
  tore = passato di to tear, strappare
  to tidy = ordinare
  simmering = bollire lentamente
  joint = comune
  burglars = svaligiatore, ladro
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 19
Short denotative analysis


  •   Ralph is thinking about his date with Helen

  •the main point is Ralph wondering whether Helen wants to
  have sex with him

  •very strange for him because he had sex with some women
  without paranoia
Characters

   •   Ralph Messenger

   •   Helen Reed

   •   Carrie Messenger
Setting


 Ralph does not mention the place where he is thinking,
 but we can suppose he is at home or in his office
Narrative technique


  Stream of consciousness
Message

•   Ralph is a science man, he is sure and has many certainties
    but in front of Helen he has so many paranoias

•   he makes so many conjectures and tries to understand if
    she wants to have sex

•   he wants to kwon what she is thinking to act consequently

•   this is the first time Ralph makes some paranoia before he
    does what he feels
New words

  spectrophotometer = spettrofotometro
  hanky-panky = qualcosa di losco, imbroglio
  boredom = noia
  niche = nicchia
  wire = fil di ferro
  to swap = fare scambio
  tit-for-tat = rendere pan per focaccia
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 20
Short denotative analysis


  •   Ralph invites Helen to eat something together

  •   Helen does not meet Ralph

  •   Ralph suggests Helen to exchange their journals (he
      wants to understand the structure of women‟s thought)

  •   Helen does not exchange her journal
Characters



     •   Ralph Messanger

     •   Helen Reed
Setting


    Unknown (maybe in their house)
Narrative technique



•   Journal           uses by Helen




•   E-mails     uses by Ralph
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 21
Short denotative analysis


•   Helen is going to spend the Easter weeknd with her
    parents, away from Ralph
•   Helen received Sandra‟s envelope and read it (Tina and
    Alastair story)
•   Reflection about sexuality
•   Helens suspects Sandra may have had an affair with
    her husband (she goes to the English School to find
    out something more)
•   Helen and Sandra have a discussion about Martin
•   Carrie and Helen go to the Brine Baths
Characters


•   Helen Reed
•   Sandra Pickering
•   Helen‟s parents
•   Carrie
Setting


•   seminar room
•   Helen‟s maisonette
•   the Humanities tower and the school of English
•   Helen‟s parents house
•   Brine Baths
Narrative technique


journal
Message


In the 21th chapter Helens speaks about sex,
about what it is for her, or better what it was like
having sex with Martin
Space and time


•   Thursday 27th March
•   Good Friday 28th March
•   Monday 31th March
•   Tuesday 1st April
•   Wednesday 2th April
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 22
Short denotative analysis


•   Carrie and Helen are chatting in the bar
•   They are talking about cheating
•   They tell how they met their husbands
Characters




•   Carrie (Martin‟s wife, she is a novelist)


•   Helen Reed (Ralph‟s wife)
Setting


Baths
Narrative technique


•   Third person narrator
•   Direct speech
Message


•   The perfect family doesn‟t exist
•   Time passes inexorably
Space and time


Unspecified
New language and info we gathered


•   to giggle = ridacchiare
•   to envisage = prevedere
•   recreational = ricreativo
•   wire = filo elettrico / di ferro
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 23
    Short denotative analysis

•   Helen discusses with Carrie about the relationship between
    Helen and Martin


•   Reflection about the rape of a woman


•   Reflection about Robyn Penrose‟s conference


•   Dialogue with Ralph


•   Journey and visit to Ledbury


•   Helen discovers Carry has got a relationship with another man
Characters




 •   Helen Reed

 •   Ralph Messenger

 •   Martin
Narrative technique



  Stream of counsciousness
Setting


From April 6th to April 11th
New language and info we gathered

    •   Towpath
    •   Ghastly
    •   Phallocentric
    •   Sobbing
    •   Shiverig
    •   Effortlessly
    •   Sneeringly
    •   Jargon
    •   opten
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 24
Short denotative analysis


•   Messenger is waiting for his flight
•reflections about life in Praga, especially about
poverty
•   poverty versus richness
•Ralph remembers his night passed with
Ludmilla
Characters


• Ralph Messenger (a scientist and a writer)


• Ludmilla (a girl that had sex with Ralph)
Setting


Amsterdam, British Airways‟ waiting room
Narrative technique


•   Third person narrator
•   Direct speech
Message


With poverty you appreciate things that are usually
predictable
Space and time


Sunday, 6th April
New language and info we gathered


•   arrangement = accordo, composizione
•   to avoid = evitare
•   briefcase = cartella
•   entrepreneurs = imprenditore
•   to shove = spingere
•   dumpling = gnocco
•   grant = borsa di studio
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 25
Short denotative analysis


•   Helen and the Messengers go to the “duck race”
•Helen and Ralph discuss about the race in scientific terms
and they compare it to life
• Carrie gives Helen an explanation about what happened
in Ledbury
•   Carrie finds out her father is sick
•The Messengers discuss about death and heaven
(Carrie VS Ralph)
•   Carrie decides to fly to California with her daughter
Characters


•   Helen
•   Ralph
•   Carrie
•   Marianne
•   Oliver (Marianne‟s autistic son)
•   Mr. Richmond (Marianne‟s husband)
Setting



TIME:
Sunday 13th April




SPACE:
Bourton-on-the-water
Narrative technique



     •   Third person narrator


     •   Dialogues


     •   Present tense


     •   Short descriptions
 Story-line

       This part of the story creates the necessary
       conditions to Helen and Ralph‟s affair:
       •   Carrie and Ralph argue
       •   Carrie flights to California


  Message
                                            Ralph
       Helen
                                                    is very
              begins                                upset
                                  Thanks to a discussion about
to think like Ralph               death with Carrie:
(scientific and rational          “Are rational man afraid of
point of view)                    real concrete life?”
Peculiar features



  • The comparison of the duck race and life
  Only a catastrophe can stop it […] like the great duck
  race of life


  • The discussion about death, truth and life between
  Carrie and Ralph
  Your trouble is, Messenger, you are very hot on facing
  facts in the abstract, but not when they are physical, in
  your face.
New language and info we gathered


  • kinda= (slag, kind of) abbastanza)


  •   Sneer = ghigno


  •   bugger = bastardo


  •   flavour = gusto


  •   On top of all your skills
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 26
Short denotative analysis




•Ralph Messenger writes about his routine on his
notebook


• He meets Helen and they go to the pub and have
lunch


•They talk about Helen‟s novel and afterwards
they go to the cottage and they make love
Characters


 •   Ralph


 •   Ludmilla


 •   Carrie


 •   Helen
Setting



 •   At home


 •   In a pub in Horseshoes


 •   In the cottage


 •   In a swimming pool
Narrative technique



  • 1 st part free indirect style and thanks to the stream
  of consciousness expresses Ralph‟s emotions and
  feelings towards Helen. He remembers when he met
  Ludmilla for the first time in Prague.


  •Ralph has continually betrayed his wife but Helen was
  different from all other women. Just she once dismissed
  Ralph doesn‟t cut and does everything to have her; he
  really does not read his book carefully and will do
  everything to make her says yes.
Story-line



•The use of stream of consciousness allows us to
understand the protagonist Ralph Messenger
•In this chapter the writer wants to tell us human
beings are attracted by things they cannot have
•As a matter of fact, Ralph contacts Helen just to have
sex because she is different from all other women with
whom he has betrayed his wife
New language and info we gathered




•   Scythe = falce


•   Prat = stupido


•   Dashboard = cruscotto
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 27
Short denotative analysis


 •   Carrie‟s father is ill

 •   Ralph and Helen enjoy themselves together

 •   Both take a position with regard to politics
Characters

The most relevant characters are:

•   Helen

•   Ralph

•   Children (Emily,Hope,…)
Setting



•   Helen is writing her journal

•   She is probably be in her maisonette
Narrative technique



 •   Journal

 •   Which person am I?

 •   The narration switches from first person to third
Message


•   Religion VERSUS erotic life



•   Horatio Carpe diem



•   Erotic life VERSUS Politics
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 28
Short denotative analysis


Ralph discovers to have an unknown liver mass

      •    With the return of Carrie the relationship between Helen
          and Ralph becomes problematic

      •   Ralph has a few problems with the students‟ newspaper

      •   Ralph asks Helen to be helped if the cancer is incurable

      •   Ralph is forced to invite Ludmilla, under the threat that she
          proves their relationship at Prague to a congress in
          Gloucester

      •   Ralph has a few problems with the police, because
          someone in his department has downloaded pedo-
          pornographic images
Characters


  •   Ralph

  •   Helen

  •   Carrie

  •   Children

  •   Ludmilla (a Ralph‟s friend)

  •   Mr Henderson(the doctor)
Setting

•   Ralph‟s house

•   Helen‟s house

•   Office

•   Hospital
Narrative technique

                               NARRATION
 •   Third person narrator
                               DIALOGUE


 •   E-mails (with Ludmilla)
Message



Rationality and Irrationality are complementary
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 29
Short denotative analysis


•   Ralph is admitted to hospital because he has a lump on
    his liver. He is very worried

•   He speaks about his love story with Helen

•   He is worried: he thinks that someone can find out his
    love story with Helen

•   He speaks about Donaldson‟s honorary degree
Characters

•   Ralph Messenger = the male character

•   Helen Reed = the female character

•   Carrie = Ralph‟s wife

•   Pomeroy = a nurse

•   Agnew = policy sergeant

•   Ludmilla Lisk = a Ralph‟s lovers

•   Jasper Richmond = chairman of arts subjects

•   Sir Stan and Lady Viv = vice-rector and his wife
Setting

 Abbey Hospital in Bath
Narrative technique


•   Stream of consciousness

•   Free direct style

•   Free indirect style
New language and info we gathered

•   To admit = ricoverare

•   Lump = massa

•   To thrive = prosperare

•   To bluff = bluffare

•   Aloud = leggere, pensare ad alta voce
   THINKS, David Lodge

Chapter 30
    Short denotative analysis


•    Helen‟s speech is presented at the end of the conference

•    Ralph finds out he has not a cancer and communicates it to
     Carrie and Helen

•    When Agnew wants to see Douglass‟ PC, he suicides
Characters

•   Ralph Messenger: the male character

•   Helen Reed: the female character

•   Agnew: policy sergeant

•   Douglass: Ralph‟s colleague
Setting

University of Gloucester
Narrative technique

  •   Monologue (Helen‟s speech)

  •   Direct style

  •   Description
New language and info we gathered


 •   Arguably = avverbio usato quando ci sono buone ragioni
     per sostenere qualcosa

 •   Pattern = modello

 •   To enhance = mettere in risalto, far aumentare

 •   Shade = ombra

 •   Bliss = gioia
Organization credits by
Dreossi Enrica
Taverna Turisan Eleonora

				
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