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Mizrahi Jews

Mizrahi Jews
Mizrahi Jews (‫ חרזמ תודהי‬Yahadut Mizrah) Total population 3.0 to 4 million (estimate) Regions with significant populations Israel France United States England Canada Iran Chile Argentina Mexico Languages Hebrew, Arabic, Persian, Marathi, JudeoMalayalam, Dzhidi, Judæo-Arabic, Georgian, Bukhori, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri and JudæoAramaic Religion Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs. Part of a series of articles on Jews and Judaism 2,500,000-3,000,000 400,000 200,000-300,000 70,000 35,000 25,000 2,700 2,170 1,000 Philosophy · Ethics · Kabbalah Customs · Synagogue · Rabbi Texts Tanakh (Torah · Nevi’im · Ketuvim) Targum Talmud (Mishnah · Gemara) Rabbinic (Midrash · Tosefta) Mishneh Torah · Tur Shulchan Aruch Zohar · Tanya Ethnicities Ashkenazi · Sephardi · Mizrahi Romaniote · Italki · Yemenite African · Beta Israel · Bukharan · Georgian • Mountain · Chinese Indian · Khazars · Karaim • Samaritans • Crypto-Jews Population Jews by country · Rabbis Population comparisons Israel · United States · Russia Iraq · Spain · Portugal · Italy Poland · Germany · Bosnia Latin America · France England · Netherlands · Canada Australia · Hungary · India Turkey · Greece · Africa Iran · China · Pakistan · Romania · Lists of Jews Denominations Orthodox · Conservative Reform · Reconstructionist Liberal · Karaite · Humanistic Renewal · Alternative Languages Hebrew · Yiddish Judeo-Persian · Ladino Judeo-Aramaic · Judeo-Arabic History Timeline · Leaders Ancient · Temple Babylonian exile Jerusalem (in Judaism · Timeline) Hasmoneans · Sanhedrin Schisms · Pharisees Jewish-Roman wars Christianity and Judaism Islam and Judaism Diaspora · Middle Ages Sabbateans · Hasidism · Haskalah Emancipation · Holocaust · Aliyah Israel (history) Arab conflict · Land of Israel

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Mizrahi Jews
The term Mizrahim or Adot Hamizrah, Oriental communities, grew in Israel under the circumstances of the meeting of waves of immigrants from the Ashkenazi, Sephardic and Oriental Jewish collectivities. In modern Israeli usage, it refers to all Jews from North African and West Asian countries, many of them Arabic-speaking Muslim-majority countries. The term came to be widely used more by so-called Mizrahi activists in the early 1990s. Since then in Israel it has become an accepted semi-official and media designation.[2] Many "Mizrahi" ("Oriental" Jews) today reject this (or any) umbrella and simplistic description and prefer to identify themselves by their particular country of origin, or that of their immediate ancestors, e.g. "Iranian/Persian Jew", "Iraqi Jew", "Tunisian Jew", etc, or prefer to use the old term "Sefardic" in its broader meaning.

Mizrahi Jews or Mizrahim, (Hebrew: ‫,םיחרזמ‬ Modern Mizraḥim Tiberian Mizrāḥîm ; "Easterners"), also referred to as Edot HaMizrach (Communities of the East) are Jews descended from the Jewish communities of the Middle East, North Africa, Central Asia and the Caucasus. The term Mizrahi is used in Israel in the language of politics, media and some social scientists for Jews from the Arab world and adjacent, primarily Muslim-majority countries. This includes Iraqi Jews, Syrian Jews, Lebanese Jews, Yemenite Jews, Persian Jews, Afghan Jews, Bukharian Jews, Maghrebi Jews, Berber Jews, Kurdish Jews, Mountain Jews and Georgian Jews. It would also include the Jews of India, Jews of Pakistan, and Baghdadi Jews who settled in the last few centuries (in contrast to Jewish communities of the Indian subcontinent established millennia earlier). Despite their heterogeneous origins, Mizrahi Jews generally practise rites identical or similar to traditional Sephardic Judaism, although with some differences among the minhagim of the particular communities. This has resulted in a conflation of terms, particularly in Israel, and in religious usage, where "Sephardi" is used in a broad sense to include Mizrahi Jews as well as Sephardim proper. Indeed, from the point of view of the religious right, the Mizrahi rabbis in Israel are submitted to the jurisdiction of the Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Israel who, in most of the cases, is a Mizrahi Jew.

Other designations
Many people, especially in Israel, identify all non-Ashkenazi Jews as Sephardim, in modern Hebrew "Sfaradim". The reason for this classification is that most Mizrahi communities use much the same religious rituals as Sephardim proper. The prevalence of the Sephardic rite among Mizrahim is partly a result of Sephardim’s joining some of their communities following the 1492 expulsion from Sepharad (Spain and Portugal). Over the last few centuries, the previously distinctive rites of the Mizrahi communities were influenced, superimposed upon or altogether replaced by the rite of the Sephardim, perceived as more prestigious. Even before this assimilation, the original rite of many Jewish Oriental communities was already closer to the Sephardi rite than to the Ashkenazi one. This broader definition of "Sephardim" as including all or most Mizrahi Jews is also common in Jewish religious circles, especially those associated with the Shas political party in Israel. The Ethiopian Jewish religious leaders in Israel have also joined the Mizrahi -Sefardic rite collectivity and the Shas party circles. Additionally, many of the Sephardic Jews exiled from Spain resettled in greater or lesser numbers in many Arabic-speaking countries, such as Syria and Morocco. In Syria, most eventually intermarried with and assimilated into the larger established community of Arabic-speaking Jews.

History and usage
"Mizrahi" is literally translated as "Eastern", ‫( חרזמ‬Mizrach), Hebrew for "east." In the past the word "Mizrahim", corresponding to the Arabic word Mashriqiyyun (Easterners), referred to the natives of Syria, Iraq and other Asian countries, as distinct from those of North Africa (Maghrabiyyun).[1] For this reason some speakers object to the use of "Mizrahi" to include Moroccan Jews.

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In North African countries, by contrast, where the Sephardim came to outnumber the pre-existing Arab and Berber Jews, it was some of the latter who assimilated into the more prosperous and prestigious Sephardic communities. In Morocco a distinction remained between the purely Sephardic Gerush Castilia of the Spanish-speaking northern strip and the more ethnically mixed Arabic or Berber-speaking communities of the interior. Either way, this assimilation, combined with the use of the Sephardic rite, led to the popular designation and conflation of most nonAshkenazic Jewish communities from the Middle East and North Africa as "Sephardic", whether or not they were descended from Spanish Jews, which is what the terms "Sephardic Jews" and "Sepharadim" properly implied when used in the ethnic as opposed to the religious sense. "Sephardim" has come to mean not only "Spanish Jews" but "Jews of the Spanish rite", just as "Ashkenazim" is used for "Jews of the German rite", whose ancestors spoke the Judeo-German, Yiddish language, whether or not they originated from Germany. In many Arab countries, older Arabicspeaking Jewish communities distinguished between themselves and the newer arrivals speaking Judeo-Romance languages, that is, Sephardim expelled from Spain in 1492 and Portugal in 1497. The established Arabicspeaking Jews called themselves Musta’arabim (Arabic for Arabizers), while the newer Sephardi arrivals called them Moriscos (Ladino for Moorish).

Mizrahi Jews

Kurdish Jews in Rawanduz, northern Iraq, 1905. "Jewish language", since it is the language of major Jewish texts such as the Talmud and Zohar, and many ritual recitations such as the Kaddish. Traditionally, Aramaic has been a language of Talmudic debate in yeshivoth, as many rabbinic texts are written in a mixture of Hebrew and Aramaic. As spoken by the Jews of Kurdistan, Jewish Neo-Aramaic dialects are descended from Jewish Babylonian Aramaic, as could be seen from its hundreds of reflexes in Jewish Neo-Aramaic. In addition to Judeo-Aramaic, some Kurdish Jews speak an unrelated language called "Judeo-Kurdish" which is a "Jewish" form of the Indo-European Kurdish language. By the early 1950s, virtually the entire Jewish community of Kurdistan — a rugged, mostly mountainous region comprising parts of Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Iran, and the Caucasus, where Jews had lived since antiquity — relocated to Israel. The vast majority of Kurdish Jews, who were primarily concentrated in northern Iraq, left Kurdistan in the mass aliyah (emigration to Israel) of 1950-51. This ended thousands of years of Jewish history in what had been Assyria and Babylonia. In 2007, an important book came out, by Mordechai Zaken, describing the unique

Language
Most of the so-called Oriental Jewish or Mizrahi communities spoke Arabic and a number of Judeo-Arabic dialects such as Maghrebi, though these are now mainly used as a second language, especially by the older generation. Most of the many notable philosophical, religious and literary works of the Jews in the Orient were written in Arabic using a modified Hebrew alphabet. Among other languages associated with Mizrahim are Judeo-Persian (Dzhidi), Georgian, Bukhori, Kurdish, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri, Marathi, Judeo-Malayalam and called by some Judeo-Aramaic dialects. Most Persian Jews speak standard Persian. Neo-Aramaic is a Semitic language closely related to Hebrew. It is identified as a

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relationship between Jews in urban and rural Kurdistan and the tribal society under whose patronage the Jews lived for hundreds of years. Tribal chieftains, or aghas, granted patronage to the Jews who needed protection in the wild tribal region of Kurdistan; the Jews gave their chieftains dues, gifts and services. The text provides numerous tales and examples about the skills, maneuvers and innovations used by kurdistani Jews in their daily life to confront abuse, extortion and of greedy chieftains and tribesmen. The text also tells the stories of Kurdish chieftains who saved and protected the Jews unconditionally.[3]

Mizrahi Jews

Absorption into Israeli society
Refuge in Israel was not without its tragedies: "in a generation or two, millennia of rooted Oriental civilization, unified even in its diversity,” had been wiped out, writes Mizrahi scholar Ella Shohat.[6] The trauma of rupture from their countries of origin was further complicated by the difficulty of the transition upon arrival in Israel; Mizrahi immigrants and refugees were placed in rudimentary and hastily-erected tent cities (Ma’abarot) and later sent to development towns on the peripheries of Israel. Settlement in Moshavim (cooperative farming villages) was only partially successful, because Mizrahim had historically filled a niche as craftsmen and merchants and most did not traditionally engage in farmwork. As the majority left their property behind in their home countries as they journeyed to Israel, many suffered a severe decrease in their socio-economic status. Also because they did not receive the same government help that Ashkenazi Jews did. Furthermore, a policy of Austerity was enforced at that time due to economic hardships. Mizrahi immigrants arrived with many mother tongues. Many, especially those from North Africa and the fertile crescent, spoke Arabic dialects; those from Iran and Central Asia (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan) spoke Persian; Baghdadi Jews from India and Gruzinic arrived with English; the Bene Israel from Maharashtra, India arrived with Marathi, Mizrahim from elsewhere brought Georgian, Tajik, Juhuri and various other languages with them. Hebrew had historically been a language only of prayer for most Jews not living in Israel, including the Mizrahim. Thus, with their arrival in Israel, the Mizrahim retained culture, customs and language distinct from their Ashkenazi counterparts, but with time they became more assimilated, creating a new, Israeli identity. Disparities and Integration The cultural differences between Mizrahi and Ashkenazi Jews impacted the degree and rate of assimilation into Israeli society, and sometimes the divide between European and Middle Eastern Jews was quite sharp. Segregation, especially in the area of housing, limited integration possibilities over the

Post-1948 dispersal
After the 1948 Arab-Israeli War and subsequent establishment of the state of Israel, most Mizrahi Jews (900 000) were either expelled by their Arab rulers or chose to leave and emigrated to Israel. Roughly half of Israeli Jews are of Mizrahi origin. Anti-Jewish actions by Arab governments in the 1950s and 1960s, including the expulsion of 25,000 Mizrahi Jews from Egypt after the 1956 Suez Crisis, led to the overwhelming majority of Mizrahim leaving Arab countries. They became refugees. Most went to Israel. Many Moroccan and Algerian Jews went to France. Thousands of Lebanese, Syrian and Egyptian Jews emigrated to the United States. Today, as many as 40,000 Mizrahim still remain in communities scattered throughout the non-Arab Muslim world, primarily in Iran, but also Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, and Turkey [4]. There are few remaining in the Arab world. About 5,000 remain in Morocco and fewer than 2,000 in Tunisia. Other countries with remnants of ancient Jewish communities with official recognition, such as Lebanon, have 1,000 or fewer Jews. A trickle of emigration continues, mainly to Israel and the United States. A number have been arrested, mostly for alleged connections with Israel and the United States. Some have been executed, with religious intolerance often cited as the main contributing factor. [5]

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years.[7] Intermarriage between Ashkenazim and Mizrahim is now relatively common in Israel, however, it has been found that intermarriage does not tend to decrease ethnic differences in socio-economic status.[8] It appears that despite increased social integration, disparities persist. A study conducted by the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics (ICBS), Mizrahi Jews are less likely to pursue academic studies than Ashkenazi Jews. Israeli-born Ashkenazi are up to twice more likely to study in a university than Israeliborn Mizrahim.[9] Furthermore, the percentage of Mizrahim who seek a university education remains low compared to second-generation immigrant groups of Ashkenazi origin, such as Russians.[10] According to a survey by the Adva Center[11], the average income of Ashkenazim was 36 percent higher than that of Mizrahim in 2004.[12]

Mizrahi Jews
• Moshe Katsav, former President of the State of Israel and minister of Transportation, ethnicity/country of origin: Iran • David Levy, former minister of Foreign Affairs and Deputy Prime Minister (Moroccan Jew), minister of housing and transports • Shaul Mofaz, former Israeli Minister of Defense and chief of the IDF General Staff, Iranian Jew • Yitzhak Mordechai, retired IDF general, former minister of Defense and minister of Transportation, ethnicity/country of origin: Iraq • Dorrit Moussaieff, First Lady of Iceland (Bukharian Jew) • Yitzhak Navon, fifth president of Israel and former minister of Education, from a Sefardic Palestinian Jewish family • Shlomo Hillel, was speaker of the Knesset, minister • Amir Peretz, current Knesset member and former Israeli Minister of Defense, Labor Party chairman, and chairman of the Histadrut, ethnicity/country of origin: Morocco • Silvan Shalom, former Israeli minister of Foreign Affairs, minister of Treasury and Deputy Prime Minister, Tunisian Jew • Meir Sheetrit, current Israeli minister of Internal Affairs and former Deputy Prime Minister, minister of Treasury and of Education • Moshe Levi, Israeli general, chief of the Idf General Staff • Shlomo Ben Ami , Israeli historian, diplomat and diplomat, was minister of police • Gabi Ashkenazi, Israeli general, chief of the IDF General Staff • Dan Halutz, Israeli general , chief of the IDF General Staff • Moshe Shahal,minister and lawyer • Moshe Nissim, was Israeli finance and justice minister • Eli Cohen, Israeli spy in Syria • J. F. R. Jacob, Indian general, distinguished himself in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 • Shimon Sheetrit, Israeli lawman and politician, was justice minister, professor of law • Ran Cohen, politician from the left liberal party Meretz, former MK

Notable Mizrahim
Medicine and therapy
• Baruj Benacerraf - US scientist born in Venezuela, from a Moroccan Jewish family , Nobel prize winner • Shlomo Laniado, Israeli physician • Moshe Mani, Israeli physician • Yisrael Mordecai Safeek, American Physician Executive: Teimani Jew, Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Examiner.

Politicians and military
• Yekutiel Adam, Israeli general (from a Caucasian Jewish family) • Binyamin Ben-Eliezer, Israeli general, current Israeli minister of Infrastructure, former minister of Defense and Israel Labor Party chairman, (Iraqi Jew), commonly called by his Arabic name "Fuad" • Aryeh Deri, former leader of Shas Party and minister of Internal Affairs, (Moroccan Jew) • Yisrael Yeshayahu Sharabi, Minister of Post and Speaker of Knesset 1970s and 80s, ethnicity/country of origin: Yemen • Dalia Itzik, former Knesset speaker • Avigdor Kahalani, former minister of Internal Security and decorated IDF tank commander

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• Nissim Dahan, rabbi and politician from Shass party, was minister of health • Tzvi Bar, Israeli border guards general, mayor of the city of Ramat Gan, (from a Kurdish Jewish family settled in PalestineBarzani) • Eli Ishai, rabbi and politician, minister of wealth affairs, vice-prime minister of Israel, leader of Shass party • Shalom Simhon, Israeli politician, from Labor party, minister of agriculture • Itzhak Peretz, Israeli rabbi and politician, among the founders of Shas founders, was a government minister

Mizrahi Jews
• Tobi Nathan, French psychotherapist (born in Egypt) • Dorit Rabinyan, Israeli Hebrew writer (from a Persian Jewish family) • Haim Sabato, Israeli rabbi and Hebrew writer • Roni Somek, Israeli Hebrew poet (from an Iraqi Jewish family) • Sasson Somekh, Israeli Arabologist • Nissim Ezekiel, Indian poet and art critic • David Ohana, Israeli historian • Andre Chouraqui, French-Israeli thinker and writer • Meir Basri, Iraqi poet

Writers and academics
• Dan Benaya Seri, Israeli Hebrew writer (from a Yemenite origin Jewish family in Jerusalem) • Erez Bitton, Israeli Hebrew poet • Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, French physicist, Nobel Prize winner (from an Algerian Jewish family) • Jacques Derrida, French philosopher (of Algerian Jewish descent) • Sami Michael, Israeli Hebrew writer (born in Iraq) • Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson, psychotherapist • Samir Naqqash, Israeli Jewish writer in Arab language (born in Iraq) • Yehouda Shenhav, Israeli sociologist (born in an Iraqi Jewish family ,Shahrabani) • Saba Soomekh, professor/writer • A.B. Yehoshua, Israeli Hebrew writer, professor (from a Sefardic family originating from Morocco) • Ella Shohat, Israeli-American sociologist and author • Albert Memmi, French-Tunisian writer • Eli Amir. Israeli Hebrew writer • Helene Cixous, French writer • Jacques Attali, French thinker and author • Shimon Adaf, Israeli Hebrew poet and writer • Ronit Matalon, Israeli Hebrew writer, from a Sephardic Egyptian family • Orly Castel Bloom, Israeli Hebrew writer (from an Egyptian Jewish family) • Jean Pierre Changeux, French biology researcher • Baruj Benacerraf, American-Venezuelian medical scientist, Nobel Prize, from a sephardic family with Moroccan roots

Entertainers
• Paula Abdul, American singer and choreographer (Syrian Jewish descent) • Hanna Aharoni, Israeli singer, born in Yemen • Joe Amar, Israeli singer • Etti Ankri, Israeli pop singer • Zohar Argov, Israeli popular singer, called "the King" of the "Mizrahi" music (Yemenite) • Gali Atari, Israeli singer and actress, won the Eurovision Song Contest (from a Yemenite family) • Yona Atari, Israeli singer and actress • Ilana Avital, Israeli singer • Aliza Azikri, Israeli pop singer • Ehud Banay, Israeli singer and composer • Evyatar Banay, Israeli singer and composer • Yuval Banay, Israeli rock singer and composer • Gabri Banay, Israeli stand up comedian from "Hagashash Ha’iver" group • Yossi Banay, Israeli singer and actor (from a Persian Jewish family settled in Jerusalem) • Meir Banay, Israeli singer • Shlomo Bar, Israeli singer and composer • Yosef Bardanashvili Israeli-Georgian composer • Amir Benayoun, Israeli pop singer and composer • Gila Beshari, Israeli singer (Yemenite descent) • Yaniv Bitton, Israeli comedian • Lili Boniche, French-Algerian singer • Patrick Bruel, French pop singer • Yizhar Cohen, Israeli singer, won the Eurovision Song Contest (Yemenite family) • Emmanuelle Chriqui, Canadian actress

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• Yair Dallal, Israeli oud player and composer • Shoshana Damari, Israeli singer (Yemen born) • Dana International,(Cohen) Israeli pop singer, won the Eurovision Song Contest (Yemenite family) • David D’or, Israeli pop and concert singer, countertenor (from a Jewish Libyan family) • Corinne Ellal, Israeli pop singer and composer (born in Tunesia) • Sasson Gabbay, Israeli theatre and cinema actor (from Iraki Jewish family) • Miki Gabrielov, Israeli pop composer and singer • Eyal Golan, Israel charm pop singer • Zion Golan, Israeli singer (Yemenite descent) • Hélène Grimaud French-born concert pianist/author of Berber-Jewish mother & Algerian-Jewish father • Sarit Hadad, Israeli singer, from a Jewish family from Azerbaijan(Mountain Jew) • Ofra Haza, Israeli pop and oriental singer (Yemenite family) • Moshe Ivghi, Israeli cinema and theatre actor • Malika Kalantarova, Famous Tajik-Bukharian dancer (People’s Artist of USSR) • Chris Kattan, U.S actor (son a Jewish-Iraki origin father) • Chemda Khalili, singer and co-host of Keith and the Girl • Fatima Kuinova, Soviet-Bukharian singer (Merited Artist of USSR) • Salah al Kuweiti, Iraki-Israeli violinist • Yehezkel Lazarov, Israeli actor • Claude Lelouch, French cinema director • Eli Luzon, Israeli "Mizrahi" popular singer (from a Libyan Jewish family) • Enrico Macias, French singer and composer • Filfil al Masri, Israeli singer • Miri Mssika, Israeli pop singer • Rivka Michaeli, Israeli comedian and radio and TV mediator (from a Jewish family originating from Georgia) • Sami Moghrabi, Moroccan singer • Haim Moshe, Israeli-born "Mizrahi" and pop singer (Yemenite) • Shoista Mullojonova, Bukharian legendary Shashmakom Folk Singer (People’s Artist of Tajikistan • Layla Murad, Egyptian singer

Mizrahi Jews
• Farhat Ezekiel Nadira (Nadira), Bollywood actress of the 1940s and 50s (Baghdadi Jew from India) • Achinoam Nini, Israeli born, Yemenite pop singer • Haim Ouliel, Israeli pop singer and composer • Kobi Oz, pop singer,composer and writer • Reinette l’Oranaise - Algerian singer • Avi Peretz, Israeli Oriental and pop singer • Moshe Peretz, Israeli singer of "Oriental" and pop music • Rita, Iranian born, Israeli pop singer • Berry Sakharof, Israeli singer and composer • Boaz Sharabi Israeli singer (born, Yemenite, Tunisian & Moroccan ancestry) • Harel Skaat, Singer and "Kokhav Nolad" ("Israeli Idol") contestant (Yemenite descent • Bahar Soomekh, Persian Jewish-American actress • Subliminal, Israeli rapper of Persian/ Tunisian descent • Shimi Tabori, Israeli singer • Ninette Tayeb, Israel singer, won "A Star is Born" (Kokhav Nolad) Contest (Moroccan/Tunisian descent) • Avi Toledano, Israeli pop singer and composer, with Sefardic Moroccan roots • Bracha Tzefira, Israeli singer • Elliott Yamin, American singer (Jewish Iraqi father) • Idan Yaniv, Israeli singer of Bukharian descent (Israeli Artist of 2007) • Yaffa Yarkoni, Israeli singer (from a Caucasian Jewish family) • Zahra al Fassia - Moroccan singer • Ariel Zilber, Israeli singer and composer (son of a Yemenite Jewish-origin mother) • Rivka Zohar, Israeli pop singer, (with Palestinian Jewish roots)

Business people
• Nissim Gaon, Swiss businessman born in Sudan • Charles Saatchi, advertising executive and art collector (born in Iraq) • Maurice Saatchi, Baron Saatchi, advertising executive and chairman of the British Conservative Party • Michael Kadoorie, businessman from Hong-Kong • Shlomo Moussaieff, Jewellery Designer/ Judaic Collector and Expert (Bukharian)

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• Lev Leviev, Israeli businessman of Bukharian descent [2] • David and Simon Reuben, British businessmen born in India, from a family of Baghdadi Jews • Edmond Safra, banker from Lebanon • Ben Biggio, Haitian businessman (Syrian Jewish ancestry) • Jacques Nasser, American businessman of Lebanese origin • Nissim Gaon, Swiss businessman of Sudanese origin, from a Sefardic family • Yitzhak Teshuva, Israeli businessman of Libyan origin • Shlomo Eliyahu, Israeli businessman • Tzadik Bino, Israeli bankier and businessman • History of the Jews in Egypt • History of the Jews in Iran • History of the Jews in Iraq • History of the Jews in Morocco • History of the Jews in Tunisia • History of the Jews in Syria

Mizrahi Jews
• Yemenite Jews • Mizrahi Music • Iran-Israel relations • Israeli Black Panthers • Jewish ethnic divisions • Jewish exodus from Arab lands • To my Sister, Mizrahi Feminist Politics • Outcast (novel)

References
[1] In medieval and early modern times the corresponding Hebrew word ma’arav was used for North Africa. In Talmudic and Geonic times, however, this word "ma’arav" referred to the land of Israel as contrasted with Babylonia. [2] http://web.mit.edu/cis/www/mitejmes/ issues/200105/download/Shohat.doc [3] Mordechai Zaken, Jewish Subjects and Their Tribal Chieftains in Kurdistan: A Study in Survival, Brill: Boston and Leiden, 2007. Based on new oral sources, carefully analyzed, this book explores the relationships between Jewish subjects and their tribal chieftains in Kurdistan, focusing on the patronage and justice provided by the chieftains and the financial support provided by the Jews to endure troubles and caprices of chieftains. New reports and vivid tales unveil the status of Jews in the tribal setting; the slavery of rural Jews; the conversion to Islam and the defense mechanisms adopted by Jewish leaders to annul conversion of abducted women. Other topics are the trade and occupations of the Jews and their financial exploitation by chieftains. The last part explores the experience of Jewish communities in Iraqi Kurdistan between World War I and the massmigration to Israel (1951-52). The author, Mordechai Zaken, Ph.D. (2004) in Near Eastern Studies, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, specializes in the history of the Kurds, the oriental Jewry, and the minorities in

Religious figures
• Baruch Abouhatzera, called Baba Baruch • Israel Abouhatzera called Baba Sali, venerated rabbi born in Morocco • Ovadia Yosef, former Sephardic Chief Rabbi of Israel and spiritual leader of Shas • Mordechai Eliyahu, former Sephardic Chief Rabbi of Israel • Itzhak Kadduri, rabbi and kabbalist • Amnon Yitzhak, Orthodox rabbi of Yemenite origin • Shlomo Moussaieff (rabbi), Co-founder of Bukharian Jewish Quarter in Jerusalem • Shalomim Y. HaLahawi (Ordained Jerusalem Rabbi), Licensed Naturopathic Physician and Rabbi of Ha’ Yisrayli Torah Brith Yahad, a Mizrahi Jewish Organization

Others
• Yossi Benayoun, Israeli soccer player • Isaac Mizrahi, fashion designer originating from Israel, as family of origin (Baghdadi Jew from India) • Robert Mizrachi, poker player, Iraqi Jew • Michael Mizrachi, poker player, Iraqi Jew • Haim Revivo, soccer player

See also
• Arab Jews • Arab Jewish tribes • History of the Jews under Muslim rule • History of the Jews in Algeria • Jews of the Bilad el-Sudan (West Africa) • Mountain Jews • Bukharan Jews • Palestinian Jew • Sephardi Jews

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the region. He served as the Adviser on Arab Affairs to the Prime Minister of Israel (1997-99). [4] The Jewish Population of the World, The Jewish Virtual Library [5] The Jews of Iran, The Jewish Virtual Library [6] Ella Shohat: “Sephardim in Israel: Zionism from the Standpoint of its Jewish Victims,” Social Text, No.19/20 (1988), p.32 [7] Blackwell Synergy - Int J Urban & Regional Res, Volume 24 Issue 2 Page 418-438, June 2000 (Article Abstract) [8] Project MUSE [9] http://www.cbs.gov.il/publications/ educ_demog_05/pdf/t16.pdf [10] 97_gr_.xls [11] Adva Center [12] Hebrew PDF [1]

Mizrahi Jews
• The Forgotten Refugees • Moshe Levy The story of an Iraqi Jew in the Israeli Navy and his survival on the war-ship Eilat • My Life in Iraq Yeheskel Kojaman describes his life as a Mizrahi Jew in Iraq in the 50s and 60s • Audio interview with Ammiel Alcalay discussing Mizrahi literature • Excerpt from The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times by Norman Stillman • Etan Bloom, The Reproduction of the Model ‘Oriental’ in the Israeli Social Space; the 50s and the speedy immigration. Tel-Aviv Univ. M.A in the Unit for Culture Research, 2003. (Hebrew, with summary in English.)

Communities
• Bukharian Jews Bukharian Jewish community (English and Russian) • PersianRabbi.com Persian Jewish community • Kurdish Jewry (‫ )ןאתסידרוכ תודהי‬Kurdish Jewry (Hebrew) • The Babylonian Jewry Heritage Center Disseminating the 3000 year old heritage of Babylonian Jewry (English and Hebrew) • Iraqi Jews (‫ )قارعلا دوهي - קאריע ידוהי‬Iraqi American Jewish Community in New York. Perpetuating the history, heritage, culture and traditions of Babylonian Jewry. • Sha’ar Binyamin Damascus Jewry (Hebrew and Spanish) • Jews of Lebanon • Historical Society of Jews from Egypt • Harissa.com Tunisian Jewish site (French) • Zlabia.com Algerian Jewish site (French) • Dafina.net Moroccan Jewish site (French) • The Nash Didan Community Persian Azerbaijany, Aramaic speaking community (Hebrew, some English and Aramaic)

Bibliography
• Ella Shohat, "The Invention of the Mizrahim" in: Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 29, No. 1. (Autumn, 1999), pp. 5-20. • Mordechai Zaken, Jewish Subjects and Their Tribal Chieftains in Kurdistan: A Study in Survival, Brill: Boston and Leiden, 2007.

External links
Organizations
• World Organization of Jews from Arab Countries • Sephardic Pizmonim ProjectMusic of Mizrahi Jews. • JIMENA Jews Indigenous to the Middle East and North Africa • Multiculturalism Project - Middle Eastern and North African Jews • Hakeshet Hademocratit Hamizrachit - An organization of Mizrahi Jews in Israel

Articles
• Mizrahi Wanderings - Nancy Hawker on Samir Naqqash, one of Israel’s foremost Arab-language Mizrahi novelists • The Middle East’s Forgotten Refugees A chronicle of Mizrahi refugees by Semha Alwaya Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mizrahi_Jews" Categories: Jewish ethnic groups, Mizrahi Jews topics, Ethnic groups in Israel

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Mizrahi Jews

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