Swansea

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Swansea

Swansea
City and County of Swansea Dinas a Sir Abertawe Ceremonial county Historic county Admin HQ Town charter City status Government - Type - Leader of Swansea Council - Welsh Assembly and UK Parliament Consituencies - European Parliament - MPs
Swansea City Centre in foreground with suburbs in background

Swansea Glamorganshire Swansea Guildhall 1158-1184 1969 Principal area, City Christopher Holley Swansea East, Swansea West, Gower Wales Martin Caton (Lab), Sian James (Lab), Alan John Williams (Lab) 145.9 sq mi (378 km2) Unitary Authority area: 228,100, Ranked 3rd (2,007 est.) Urban area within Unitary Authority: 169,880 (2,001) Wider Urban Area: 270,506 (2,001) 1,556.6/sq mi (601/km2) 97.8% White 1.2% S. Asian 0.3% Afro-Caribbean 0.3% Chinese GMT (UTC0) BST (UTC+1) SA1-SA7 01792 GB-SWA 00NX SS6593 UKL18 http://www.swansea.gov.uk/

Area - Total Population - Total

Coat of arms

Motto: Floreat Swansea - Density - Ethnicity

Time zone - Summer (DST) Post codes Area code(s) ISO 3166-2 ONS code OS grid reference NUTS 3 Website

Location of the City and County of Swansea (Light Green) within Wales (Dark Green)

Sovereign state Constituent country

United Kingdom Wales

Swansea (pronounced /ˈswɒnzi/ SWON-zee, Welsh: Abertawe, "mouth of the Tawe") is a city and county in Wales. Swansea is in the historic county boundaries of Glamorgan. Situated on the sandy South West Wales coast, the county area includes the Gower

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peninsula and the Lliw uplands. Swansea is the second most populous city in Wales after Cardiff and the third most populous county in Wales after Cardiff and Rhondda Cynon Taff. During its 19th century industrial heyday, Swansea was one of the key centres of the world copper industry,[1] earning the nickname ’Copperopolis’.[2]

Swansea
Denmark and Norway. The earliest known form of the modern name is Sweynesse used in Swansea’s first charter which was granted sometime between 1158–1184 by William de Newburgh, 3rd Earl of Warwick. The charter gave Swansea the status of a borough, granting the townsmen, called burgesses certain rights to develop the area. A second charter was granted in 1215 by King John. In this charter, the name appears as Sweyneshe. The town seal which is believed to date from this period names the town as Sweyse.[4][5] Following the Norman Conquest, a marcher lordship was created. Named Gower, it included land around Swansea Bay as far as the Tawe, and the manor of Kilvey beyond the Tawe, as well as the peninsula itself. Swansea was designated its chief town and subsequently received aborough charter some time between 1158 and 1184 (and a more elaborate one in 1304).[6] Swansea’s port grew, dealing in wines, hides, wool, cloth and, increasingly, coal.[6] As the Industrial Revolution reached Wales, the combination of port, local coal, and trading links with the West Country, Cornwall and Devon, meant that Swansea was the logical place to site copper smelting works. Smelters were operating by 1720 and proliferated. Following this, more coal mines (everywhere from north-east Gower to Clyne and Llangyfelach) were opened and smelters (mostly along the Tawe valley) were opened and flourished. Over the next century and a half, works were established to process arsenic, zinc and tin and to create tinplate and pottery. The city expanded rapidly in the 18th and 19th centuries, and was termed "Copperopolis".[6] From the late 17th century to 1801, Swansea’s population grew by 500%—the first official census (in 1841) indicated that, with 6,099 inhabitants, Swansea had become significantly larger than Glamorgan’s county town, Cardiff, and was the second most populous town in Wales behind Merthyr Tydfil (which had a population of 7,705). However, the census understated Swansea’s true size, as much of the built-up area lay outside the contemporary boundaries of the borough; the total population was actually 10,117. Swansea’s population was later overtaken by Merthyr in 1821 and by Cardiff in 1881, although in the latter year Swansea once again surpassed Merthyr.[6] Much of Swansea’s growth was due to migration from within and

History

Oystermouth Castle, a venue for Shakesperian performances See also: Lower Swansea valley Archaeology on the Gower peninsula includes many remains from prehistoric times, passing through Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age. Prehistoric finds are rare in the Swansea city area. The Romans visited the area, as did the Vikings, whose name for the settlement on the river is used in English today. The name Swansea is often said to come from "Sweyn’s Ey" ("ey" being the Old Norse word for "island"). "Sweyn" is a mutation of the Viking name "Sven") and the latter part of the name comes from "sey" ("sey" being an Old Norse word that can mean "inlet"). Consequently it is pronounced Swans-y /ˈswɒnzi/), not Swan-sea.[3] The name is thought to have originated in the period when the Vikings settled along the South Wales coast (Swansea is thought to have developed from a Viking trading post). The Welsh name first appears in Welsh poems of the beginning of the 13th century, as "Aber Tawy"[4]. The founder of Swansea is believed to be the Viking king of Denmark Sweyn Forkbeard who, in 1013, conquered the Anglo-Saxons of Wessex and Mercia, and who controlled a vast empire including southern England,

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beyond Wales—in 1881, more than a third of the borough’s population had been born outside Swansea and Glamorgan, and just under a quarter outside Wales.[7]

Swansea
structure and re-opened in March 2008. Behind it stands the National Waterfront Museum, opened in October 2005. On 27 June 1906, one of the strongest earthquakes ever recorded in the UK during the twentieth century struck Swansea with a strength of 5.2 on the Richter Scale. Earthquakes in the UK very rarely cause any structural damage as most occur away from heavily populated areas but, with the earthquake centred on Swansea, many taller buildings were damaged and as of yet to be repaired.[11] Swansea was granted city status in 1969,[12] to mark Prince Charles’s investiture as the Prince of Wales. The announcement was made by the prince on 3 July 1969, during a tour of Wales.[13] It obtained the further right to have a lord mayor in 1982.[14]

High Street, In 1915 Through the 20th century, heavy industries in the town declined, leaving the Lower Swansea Valley filled with derelict works and mounds of waste products from them. The Lower Swansea Valley Scheme (which still continues) reclaimed much of the land. The present Enterprise Zone was the result and, of the many original docks, only those outside the city continue to work as docks; North Dock is now Parc Tawe and South Dock became the Marina. Little city-centre evidence, beyond parts of the road layout, remains from medieval Swansea; its industrial importance made it the target of bombing, known as the Blitz in World War II, and the centre was flattened completely. The city has three Grade One listed buildings, these being the Guildhall, Swansea Castle and the Morriston Tabernacle.[8] Whilst the city itself has a long history, many of the city centre buildings are postwar as much of the original centre was destroyed by World War II bombing on the 19th, 20th and 21st of February 1941 (the ’Three Nights Blitz’).[9] Within the city centre are the ruins of the castle, the Marina, the Glynn Vivian Art Gallery, Swansea Museum, the Dylan Thomas Centre, the Environmental Centre, and the Market, which is the largest covered market in Wales.[10] It backs onto the Quadrant shopping centre which opened in 1978 and the adjoining St David’s Centre opened in 1982. Other notable modern buildings are the BT Tower (formerly the GPO tower) built around 1970, Alexandra House built in 1976, County Hall built in 1982. Swansea Leisure Centre opened in 1977; it has undergone extensive refurbishment which retained elements of the original

Governance

City and County of Swansea Guildhall

Local government
In 1887, Swansea was a township at the mouth of the river Tawe, covering 4,562 acres in the county of Glamorgan.[15] There were three major extensions to the boundaries of the borough, first in 1835, when Morriston, St Thomas, Landore, St John-juxta-

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Swansea, and part of Llansamlet parish were added, and again in 1889 when areas around Cwmbwrla and Trewyddfa were included, and in 1918 when the borough was enlarged to include the whole of the ancient parish of Swansea, the southern part of Llangyfelach parish, all of Llansamlet parish, Oystermouth Urban District and Brynau parish.[16][17] In 1889, Swansea attained county borough status[18], and it was granted city status in 1969, which was inherited by the Swansea district when it was formed by the merger of the borough and Gower Rural District in 1974.[19] In 1996, Swansea became one of 22 unitary authorities with the addition of part of the former Lliw Valley Borough. The new authority received the name ’City and County of Swansea’ (Welsh: Dinas a Sir Abertawe).[20] Swansea was once a staunch stronghold of the Labour which, until 2004, had overall control of the council for 24 years.[21] The Liberal Democrats are the largest group in the administration that took control of Swansea Council in the 2004 local elections. For 2007/2008, the Lord Mayor of Swansea is councillor Susan Waller.

Swansea

International links
The City & County of Swansea is twinned with: • Mannheim, Federal Republic of Germany • Pau, French Republic • Cork, Republic of Ireland Connections with: • Ferrara, Republic of Italy • Århus, Kingdom of Denmark Friendship link with: • • • Nantong, People’s Republic of China New York City, USA The Hague, Netherlands

Geography

Welsh politics
The National Assembly constituencies are: • Gower, current AM is Edwina Hart, Labour since 1999 • Swansea East, current AM is Val Lloyd, Labour since 2001 • Swansea West, current AM is Andrew Davies, Labour since 1999 The city is also part of the South Wales West regional constituency and is served by Peter Black AM, Alun Cairns AM, Dai Lloyd AM and Bethan Jenkins AM.

Three Cliffs Bay See also: List of places in Swansea

Boundaries
The "City and County of Swansea" local authority area is bordered by unitary authorities of Carmarthenshire to the north, and Neath Port Talbot to the east. Swansea is bounded by Swansea Bay and the Bristol Channel to the south.

UK politics
The UK parliamentary constituencies in Swansea are: • Gower, current MP is Martin Caton, Labour since 1997 • Swansea East, current MP is Sian James, Labour since 2005 • Swansea West, current MP is Alan Williams, Labour since 1964 (the MP with the longest continuous service - 45 years as of 2009)

Physical description
The local government area is 378 km² (146 sq mi) in size, about 2% of the area of Wales. It includes a large amount of open countryside and a central urban and suburban belt.[22] Swansea can be roughly divided into four physical areas. To the north are the Lliw uplands which are mainly open moorland, reaching the foothills of the Black Mountain. To the west is the Gower peninsula with its

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Swansea
About three quarters of Swansea is bordered by the sea—the Loughor Estuary, Swansea Bay and the Bristol Channel. The two largest rivers in the region are the Tawe which passes the city centre and the Loughor which flows on the northern border with Carmarthenshire.[22] In the local authority area, the geology is complex, providing diverse scenery. The Gower peninsula was the first area in the United Kingdom to be designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB). Excluding the urbanised area in the south-eastern corner of the county, the whole of the Gower peninsula is part of an AONB.[23] Swansea has numerous urban and country parklands[24]. The region has featured regularly in the Wales in Bloom awards[25]. The geology of the Gower peninsula ranges from carboniferous limestone cliffs along its southern edge from Mumbles to Worm’s Head and the salt-marshes and dune systems of the Loughor estuary to the north. The eastern, southern and western coasts of the peninsula are lined with numerous sandy beaches both wide and small, separated by steep cliffs. The South Wales Coalfield reaches the coast in the Swansea area. This had a great bearing on the development of the city of Swansea and other towns in the county like Morriston. The inland area is covered by large swathes of grassland common overlooked by sandstone heath ridges including the prominent Cefn Bryn. The traditional agricultural landscape consists in a patchwork of fields characterised by walls, stone-faced banks and hedgerows. Valleys cut through the peninsula and contain rich deciduous woodland.[23] Much of the county is hilly with the main area of upland being located in the council ward of Mawr. Areas of high land up to 185 metres (600 ft) range across the central section of the county and form the hills of Kilvey, Townhill and Llwynmawr, separating the centre of Swansea from its northern suburbs. Cefn Bryn, a ridge of high land, forms the backbone of the Gower peninsula. Rhossili Down, Hardings Down and Llanmadoc Hill form land features over 600 ft high. The highest point of the county is located at Penlle’r Castell at 374 metres (1215 ft) on the northern border with Carmarthenshire[22].

Satellite photo of Swansea rural landscape dotted with small villages. To the east is the coastal strip around Swansea Bay. Cutting though the middle from the south-east to the north-west is the urban and suburban zone stretching from the Swansea city centre to the towns of Gorseinon and Pontarddulais.[22]

Rhossili Beach as seen from headland, Gower peninsula The most populated areas of Swansea are Morriston, Sketty and the city centre. The chief urbanised area radiates from the city centre towards the north, south and west; along the coast of Swansea Bay to Mumbles; up the Swansea Valley past Landore and Morriston to Clydach; over Townhill to Cwmbwrla, Penlan, Treboeth and Fforestfach; through Uplands, Sketty, Killay to Dunvant; and east of the river from St. Thomas to Bonymaen, Llansamlet and Birchgrove. A second urbanised area is focused on a triangle defined by Gowerton, Gorseinon and Loughor along with the satellite communities of Penllergaer and Pontarddulais.[22]

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Month Avg high °C Mean °C Avg low °C Precipitation cm Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul 6 6 4 6 6 4 9 8 7 11 10 8 15 13 12 17 16 14 19 18 16

Swansea
Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year 18 17 16 16 15 13 13 12 11 9 8 8 8 7 6

7.07 5.19 4.51 4.91 3.63 4.22 5.07 5.03 5.53 8.08 7.09 7.11 67.44

Sources: uk.weather.com,[26] MSN News & Weather[27]

Demography
Population of Swansea Year Bracelet Bay, Mumbles and Swansea Bay, seen from the Mumbles Lighthouse. 1804 1811 1821 1831 S O N D 1841 1851 1861 71 52 45 49 36 42 51 50 55 81 71 71 1871 4 4 7 8 12 14 16 16 13 11 8 6 6 9 11 15 17 19 18 16 13 9 average temperatures in °C precipitation totals in mm source: uk.weather.com & MSN Imperial conversion J F M A M J J A S O N 6 1881 8 1891 1901 1911 1921 D 1931 1941 2.8 2 1.8 1.9 1.4 1.7 2 2 2.2 3.2 2.8 2.81951 Population 19,794 21,338 25,426 32,064 38,962 47,260 68,743 90,226 111,709 132,956 153,577 177,411 191,417 206,558 205,194 203,854 7.8 19.16 26.11 21.51 21.30 45.46 31.25 23.81 19.02 15.51 15.52 7.89 7.91 -0.66 -0.65 %±

Climate
Climate chart for Swansea J F M A M J J A

1961 214,834 5.39 39 39 45 46 54 57 61 61 55 52 46 43 226,406 5.39 43 43 48 52 59 63 66 64 61 55 48 46 1971 1981 223,260 -1.39 average temperatures in °F precipitation totals in inches 1991 233,145 4.43 Typical of the west of Britain, Swansea has a 2001 223,293 -4.23 temperate climate. As part of a coastal re2006 227,100* 1.7 gion, it experiences a milder climate than the mountains and valleys inland. This same locasource: Vision of Britain except * , tion, though, leaves Swansea exposed to rainwhich is estimated by the bearing winds from the Atlantic: figures from Office for National Statistics the Met Office make Swansea the wettest Historical populations are calculated city in Britain.[28]. In midsummer, Swansea’s with the modern boundaries temperatures can reach into the high twenties Celsius, depending on the weather; the According to Census 2001 data, the populahottest recorded temperature in Swansea tion in the unitary authority was 225,000, was 31.6°C, recorded in 1980[2]. and Swansea was the 34th largest settlement in the United Kingdom,[29] while the wider urban area was the 25th largest.[30] Around 82% of the population were born in Wales

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and 13% born in England;[31] 13.4% were Welsh speakers.[32] From 1804 until the 1920s, Swansea experienced continuous population growth. The 1930s and 1940s was a period of slight decline. In the 1950s and 1960s the population grew and then fell in the 1970s. The population grew again in the 1980s only to fall again in the 1990s. In the 2000s, so far, Swansea is experiencing a small amount of population growth; the local authority area had an estimated population of 228,100 in 2007.[33] The population of the Swansea urban area within the unitary authority boundaries in 2001 was about 169,880. The other urban area within the unitary authority, centred on Gorseinon, had a population of 19,273 in 2001. However, the wider urban area including most of Swansea Bay has a total population of 270,506 (making it the 25th largest urban area in England and Wales).[34]

Swansea

Swansea Grand Theatre and drama to opera and ballet. A new wing of the Grand, the Arts Wing, has a studio suitable for smaller shows, with a capacity of about 200. The Taliesin building on the university campus has a theatre, opened in 1984. Other theatres include the Dylan Thomas Theatre (formerly the Little Theatre) near the marina, and one in Penyrheol Leisure Centre near Gorseinon. Fluellen Theatre Company is a professional theatre company based in Swansea performing regularly at the Grand Theatre. In the summer, outdoor Shakespeare performances are a regular feature at Oystermouth Castle, and Singleton Park is the venue for a number of parties and concerts, from dance music to outdoor Proms. Outside the city, Pontardawe hosts an annual folk festival. Another folk festival is held on Gower.[35] Standing near Victoria Park on the coast road is the Patti Pavilion; this was the Winter Garden from Adelina Patti’s Craig-y-Nos estate in the upper Swansea valley, which she donated to the town in 1918. It is used as a venue for music shows and fairs. The Brangwyn Hall is a multi-use venue with events such as the graduation ceremonies for Swansea University. Every autumn, Swansea hosts a Festival of Music and the Arts, when international orchestras and soloists visit the Brangwyn Hall. The Brangwyn Hall is praised for its acoustics for recitals, orchestral pieces and chamber music alike.[36].

Culture

Brangwyn Hall main entrance See also: List of cultural venues in Swansea and List of people from Swansea The Royal Institution of South Wales was founded in 1835 as the Swansea Literary and Philosophical Society.

Performing arts
The Grand Theatre in the centre of the city is a Victorian theatre which celebrated its centenary in 1997 and which has a capacity of a little over a thousand people. It was opened by the celebrated opera singer Adelina Patti and was refurbished from 1983–1987. The annual programme ranges from pantomime

Festivals
Swansea hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1863, 1891, 1907, 1926, 1964, 1982 and 2006. The 2006 event occupied the site of the former Felindre tinplate works to the north of

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the city and featured a strikingly pink main tent. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Rob Brydon Nicole Cooke John Charles Mel Charles Chris Coleman Robert Croft Lisa Lee Dark Mervyn Davies Russell T Davies Nick Wire Charles Fisher Mike Gibbins James Henry Govier Iris Gower Pete Ham John Hartson • Andrew Jones • Colin Jones • Daniel Jones • Jack Kelsey • Tony Lewis • Enzo Maccarinelli • John Maddox • Man (band) • Sean Mathias • Terry Medwin • Andy Melville • Paul Moriarty • Richard Moriarty • Beau Nash • Alan Petherbridge MBE

Swansea
• Ceri Richards • John Sachs • Dean Saunders • Harry Secombe • The Storys • Haydn Tanner • Gary Taylor • Dylan Thomas • Wynford VaughanThomas • Vernon Watkins • Rowan Williams • Shane Williams • Terry Williams • Lloyd Woolf • Catherine ZetaJones • Princess Lilian of Sweden

Welsh language
There are many Welsh-language chapels and churches in the area. Welsh-medium education is a popular and growing choice for both English- and Welsh-speaking parents, leading to claims in the local press in autumn 2004 that, to accommodate demand, the council planned to close an English-medium school in favour of opening a new Welsh-medium school.[37]The Welsh-medium school is named Bryn Tawe 45% of the rural council ward Mawr speak Welsh, as do 38% of the ward of Pontarddulais. Clydach, Kingsbridge and Upper Loughor all have levels of more than 20%. By contrast, the urban St. Thomas has one of the lowest figures in Wales, at 6.4%, a figure only barely lower than Penderry and Townhill wards.[38]

Food
Local produce includes cockles and laverbread which are sourced from the Loughor estuary. Local Gower salt marsh lamb is produced from sheep which are raised in the salt marshes of the Loughor estuary.[39]

Notable people

People from Swansea are known locally as Swansea Jacks, or just Jacks. The source of this nickname is not clear. Some attribute it to Swansea Jack, the life-saving dog.[40][41] On the literary stage, the poet Dylan Thomas is perhaps the best-known. He was born Further information: Swansea City A.F.C., in the town and grew up at 5 Cwmdonkin Swansea RFC and Ospreys (rugby team) Drive, Uplands. There is a memorial to him in for more about Swansea’s major sports clubs the nearby Cwmdonkin Park; his take on St Helen’s is a cricket and rugby ground Swansea was that it was an "ugly lovely which has the tallest floodlight stand in town". In the 1930s Thomas was a member of Europe. It is the home of Swansea RFC and a group of local artists, writers and musicians Glamorgan County Cricket Club play some known as The Kardomah Gang.[42] matches there.[43] In this ground, Sir GarOther former residents include: field Sobers hit six sixes in one over; the first • Alan Woods • Michael • Dewi time this was achieved in a game of first• Ivor Allchurch Heseltine Zephaniah class cricket. The final ball landed on the • Keith Allen MP Phillips ground past the Cricketers’ pub just outside • Kevin Allen • Ian Hislop • Mal Pope the ground.[44] Strong local rivalries exist • Kingsley Amis • Leighton • Craig between Swansea and Cardiff in football and • Jimmy Austin James Quinnell between Swansea and Llanelli in rugby. • Viva • Robbie • Scott Machine(Band) James Quinnell • Mary Balogh • Alfred Janes

Sport

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Swansea has three clubs that play in Welsh Football League: Garden Village, Morriston Town and West End.

Swansea

Liberty Stadium, home of Swansea City and The Ospreys Swansea City A.F.C. moved from the Vetch Field to the new Liberty Stadium at the start of the 2005–2006 season, winning promotion to League One in their final year at their old home. The first game at the new stadium was a football friendly against Fulham which ended 1-1 on 23 July. In 2003, Swansea RFC merged with Neath RFC to form the Neath-Swansea Ospreys rugby club. Swansea RFC remained at St Helen’s in semi-professional form, but the Ospreys moved to the then-named New Stadium in Landore for the start of the 2005–2006 season. The final Ospreys match at St Helen’s was played on the same day as the final Swans league game at the Vetch on 30 April 2005. Neath-Swansea rugby games used to be hotly-contested matches, such that there was some debate about whether a team incorporating both areas was possible. The team came fifth in the Celtic League in their first year of existence and topping that league in their second year. Swansea’s rugby league side plays seven miles outside the county in the small town of Ystalyfera. They are known as the Swansea Valley Miners but were formed as the Swansea Bulls in 2002. The Swansea Bowls Stadium opened in early 2008. The stadium hosted the World Indoor Singles and Mixed Pairs Championship from in April 2008.

St. Mary’s Church in St. Mary’s Square

St. Joseph’s Cathedral, Greenhill Swansea is part of the Anglican Diocese of Swansea and Brecon and the Roman Catholic Diocese of Menevia. The Catholic see is based in Swansea at Cathedral Church of Saint Joseph in the Greenhill area. The city is home to 10 per cent of the total Welsh Muslim population; [46] Swansea’s Muslim community is raising money to open a new mosque and community centre in the former St Andrews United Reform Church.[47] Dharmavajra Kadampa Buddhist Centre, Swansea Synagogue and Jehovah’s Witness Kingdom Hall are all located in the Uplands area. The international Kagyu Buddhist group ’Pulpung Changchub Dargyeling’ [3] also holds regular meetings in Swansea. Swansea, like Wales in general, has seen many non-conformist religious revivals. In 1904, Evan Roberts, a miner from Loughor (Llwchwr), just outside Swansea, was the leader of what has been called one of the world’s greatest Protestant religious revivals.

Religion
In 2001, 158,457 people in Swansea (71 per cent) stated their religion as Christian, 44,286 (20 per cent) no religion, 16,800 (7.5 per cent) did not state a religion and 2,167 were Muslim.[45] There are small communities of other religions, each making up less than 1 per cent of the total population.[45]

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Within a few months about 100,000 people were converted. This revival in particular had a profound effect on Welsh society. The "Welsh Revival" of 1904 is acknowledged as having been an instigator of, and a major influence on the twentieth century’s Pentecostal movement. One of its first overseas influences was seen in the African American church: the Azusa Street Revival, beginning 9 April 1906 at Los Angeles, USA.

Swansea
development. New green spaces will be provided in conjunction with the proposed Quadrant Square and Grand Theatre Square. Redevelopment of the Oxford Street car park and Lower Oxford Street arcades are also planned.[48] At the sea front, The Tower, Meridian Quay is now Wales’s tallest building at a height of over 80 metres (260 ft); upon completion in 2009 it is planned to be 107 metres (350 ft) in height with a restaurant on the top (29th) floor. It is still under construction adjacent Swansea Marina. [49]

Economy

The Technium centre, one of the first of the new buildings built as part of the SA1 development scheme at Swansea Docks Swansea originally developed as centre for metals and mining, especially the copper industry, from the beginning of the 18th century. The industry reached its apogee in the 1880s, when 60% of the copper ores imported to Britain were smelted in the Lower Swansea valley.[50] However, by the end of the Second World War these heavy industries were in decline, and over the post-war decades Swansea shared in the general trend towards a post-industrial, service sector economy. Of the 105,900 people estimated to work within the City and County of Swansea, over 90% are employed in the service sectors, with relatively high shares (compared to the Welsh and UK averages) in public administration, education & health and banking, finance & insurance,[51] and correspondingly high proportions of employment in occupations associated with the service sector, including professional, administrative/secretarial and sales/customer service occupations. The local authority believes this pattern reflects

Swansea Mosque & Islamic Community Centre, St. Helens Road, Swansea city centre

Future plans
Swansea City Centre is undergoing a transformation until 2015. £1 billion is to be spent on improvements. A large area of the city is earmarked for redevelopment. A new citycentre retail precinct is planned involving demolition of the dilapidated St Davids shopping centre which has three or four traders, about 13% of the retail space in the centre and the Quadrant Shopping Centre. Including relocation of the Tesco Superstore near to the city’s Sainsbury’s store in Parc Tawe, the new retail precinct will be almost four times the size of the Quadrant Centre. The city centre is also being brightened up with street art and new walkways, along with the first phase of the David Evans - Castle Street

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Swansea’s role as a service centre for South West Wales.[51] Economic activity and employment rates in Swansea were slightly above the Welsh average in October 2008, but lower than the UK average.[51] In 2005, GVA per head in Swansea was £14,302 - nearly 4% above the Welsh average but 20% below the UK average.[51] Median full-time earnings in Swansea were £21,577 in 2007, almost identical to the Welsh average.[51]

Swansea
junior schools. There are 77 primary schools, nine of which are Welsh-Medium, and six of which are voluntary aided. There are 15 comprehensive schools under the remit of the local education authority, of which two are Welsh-medium. In addition, there are six special schools.[54] The oldest school in Swansea is Bishop Gore School. The largest comprehensive school in Swansea is the Olchfa School. There is one Roman Catholic comprehensive school in the county - Bishop Vaughan Catholic Comprehensive School. The Welsh medium schools are Ysgol Gyfun Gymraeg Gŵyr and Ysgol Gyfun Gymraeg Bryn Tawe. Independent schools in Swansea include Ffynone House School, Oakleigh House School and Craig-y-Nos School.

Education

Local media
The local newspaper is the Swansea edition of the South Wales Evening Post. The Swansea Herald of Wales is a free newspaper which is distributed freely every week to residential addresses.[55] The Cardiff edition of the free daily paper Metro is distributed throughout the city. The Council also produces a free monthly newspaper called the Swansea Leader. Swansea Life is a monthly lifestyle magazine published and distributed in Swansea. Swansea is served by three local radio stations, The Wave on 96.4 FM and DAB, Swansea Sound on 1170 AM and DAB and lastly Swansea Bay Radio on 102.1 FM. Swansea University also runs its own radio station, Xtreme Radio, on 1431 AM. Since 1924, the BBC has maintained a studio in the city;[6] Dylan Thomas worked here in the interwar years, when the studio was used for the BBC Regional Programme.[56] In mid 2008, the BBC included Swansea in its "Big Screen" project, and a large live permanent television screen has been sited in Castle Square.[57] Swansea is one of the few regions in Wales with reasonable digital radio coverage,[58] and this was improved further in January 2005 with the launch of the Swansea DAB multiplex, which carries a number of local and regional stations. The Kilvey Hill transmitter provides digital terrestrial TV, DAB, analogue radio and TV in the Swansea area, and the city is also in the catchment areas of the Wenvoe transmitter (in the Vale

The Swansea observatory Swansea University has a campus in Singleton Park overlooking Swansea Bay. Its engineering department is recognised as a centre of excellence with pioneering work on computational techniques for solving engineering design problems.[52] The Department of Physics is renowned for its research achievements at the frontiers of Theoretical Physics, particularly in the areas of Elementary Particle Physics and String Theory. And many other departments such as History, Computer Science and German were awarded an "Excellent" in the last inspection. The university was awarded the Times Higher Education Supplement Award for the UK’s "best student experience" in 2005.[53] Other establishments for further and higher education in the city include Swansea Metropolitan University and Swansea College, with Gorseinon College seven miles (11 km) outside the city. Swansea Metropolitan University (formerly Swansea Institute of Higher Education) is particularly well-known for its Architectural Glass department; stained glass being a long time speciality. In the local authority area, there is one nursery school; six infant schools and five

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of Glamorgan) and the Carmel transmitter in Carmarthenshire. Independent filmmakers Undercurrents and Studio8 are based in Swansea, and the city plays host to the BeyondTV Film Festival. BeyondTV is annual event organised by Undercurrents to showcase the best of activism filmmakers. Swansea has also hosted the annual Swansea Bay Film Festival, where past-winning directors have included Gareth Evans, Anthony James, Alun D Pughe and Andrew Jones (filmmaker).

Swansea

Public order

View of Swansea Bay from the Townhill. The Mumbles can be seen in the distance. The Uplands suburb can be seen in the foreground. There was a high rate of car crime during the 1990s. The BBC has described Swansea as a "black spot for car crime",[63] for example. However, over the past few years, there seems to have been a decline in car crime, possibly due to national media awareness or economic trends. Car crime is a central theme in the film Twin Town, which is set in and around Swansea. The football violence that Swansea experienced during the 1970s-1990s has considerably reduced, the only major clashes occurring between Swansea City supporters and Cardiff City supporters. Many matches between these sides have ended in violence in both Swansea and Cardiff. These two clubs have a long history of intense rivalry,[64] being described in the media as tribal.

Representation in the media
Swansea has been used as a filming location for the films Only Two Can Play[59] and Twin Town, the TV series Mine All Mine and in episodes of Doctor Who.[60] Swansea was the first city in Wales to feature in its own version of the board game Monopoly. The Swansea Edition of Monopoly features 33 landmarks around Swansea including the Mumbles Pier and the National Waterfront Museum; the game has been produced in both English and Welsh versions.[61]

Public services
Swansea is policed by the South Wales Police. The regional headquarters for the Swansea area is Cockett police station. Ambulance services are provided by the Wales Ambulance Service, and fire services by the Mid and West Wales Fire and Rescue Service. Swansea Airport is one of the country’s three Wales Air Ambulance bases, the others being Welshpool and Caernarfon.[62] Local public healthcare services are operated by Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University NHS Trust who operate two hospitals in Swansea with Accident and Emergency services: Singleton Hospital and Morriston Hospital. Waste management services are coordinated by the local council which deals with refuse collection and recycling, and operates five civic amenity sites. The electricity distribution network operator supplying Swansea is Western Power Distribution. Welsh Water provides drinking water supply and wastewater services to Swansea. There is a water treatment works at Crymlyn Burrows. Reservoirs which supply Swansea include the Cray reservoir and the Lliw Reservoirs, which are operated by Welsh Water.

Transport
See also: Transport in Wales, History of Swansea, and Wikitravel:Swansea The M4 motorway crosses though Swansea (junctions 44 to 47 inclusive). The A48, formerly a trunk road, passes through the north of the city centre, through Llansamlet and past Morriston. The A48 and the M4 connect Swansea with other towns and cities including Port Talbot, Bridgend, Cardiff, Bristol and London to the East and Llanelli and Cross Hands to the West. The A483 passes though the heart of the city centre, it provides a link to the Heads of Valleys Road to the west. On departing to the north, the A483 continues through mid Wales via towns like Ammanford, Builth Wells and Newtown and terminates at Chester. The A4067 (Swansea Valley Road) links Swansea with settlements in the Swansea Valley and continues towards Brecon. Park and Ride services are operated from car parks at Landore, Fabian Way and Fforestfach.[65] During

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busy periods of the year, additional Park and Ride services are operated from the Brynmill recreation ground. Bus routes within Swansea are predominately by First Cymru, Veolia Transport Cymru and a Park and Ride bus service. First and Veolia originate from Swansea bus station. Veolia Transport Cymru operates the rural services around the Gower peninsula and the Lliw Valley branded Gower Explorer and Lliw Link respectively. First, however, intends to introduce a service of 37-seater[66] hybrid buses on one set route between Morriston Hospital and the Civic Centre, which aims to speed up journeys and minimise delays by having passengers pay for their tickets at bus stops before boarding. First operates a shuttle bus (Service 100) to Cardiff Central bus station calling at Bridgend Designer Outlet. Swansea is on the X40 Cardiff to Aberystwyth TrawsCambria bus route connecting the west and south of Wales. National Express serves Swansea operating eastbound to Heathrow Airport, Gatwick Airport, London, Birmingham, Cardiff and Bristol, and westbound to Llanelli, Carmarthen and Haverfordwest. Recently, the city council have produced City Cruisers in the centre of Swansea. The City Cruisers are cycle powered and are designed to transport people from one section of the city to the other. There are four dedicated cycle routes in the county area: • Swansea Bay: The Maritime Quarter to the Knab Rock near the Mumbles Pier. • Clyne Valley Country Park: Blackpill to Gowerton forming part of National Cycle Route 4. • Along the east bank of the River Tawe forming the start of National Cycle Route 43, which continues northwards to Builth Wells. • Adjacent to the Fabian Way: Forming part of National Cycle Route 4 and extending as the Celtic Trail to Chepstow and (eventually) London. A new bridge was completed in November 2007 over the Fabian Way. It provides a new express bus-only lane incorporating a shareduse pedestrian and cycle way. The bus lane serves the Fabian Way Park and Ride facility. Swansea railway station is located 10 minutes from Swansea bus station by foot. Services calling at Swansea operate to Llanelli, Carmarthen, Milford Haven and

Swansea

Swansea railway station Haverfordwest, Shrewsbury to the north, and Cardiff Central (for connections to England and beyond), Newport and London Paddington to the east. There are also suburban stations in Gowerton, Llansamlet and in Pontarddulais which are served by Arriva Trains Wales. Swansea Airport is a minor airport situated in the Gower providing recreational flights only. Further development of the airport is strongly resisted by the local communities and environmental groups.[67] Swansea is served by Cardiff International Airport, 44 miles (71 km) east, in the Vale of Glamorgan, which provides scheduled domestic and international flights. It is approximately 40 minutes away by road or 70 minutes by rail. Pembrey Airport, 17 miles (27 km) to the west offers charter flights to a few European destinations. Swansea Marina to the south of the city centre has berths for 410 leisure boats.[68] An addition 200 berths for leisure boats are located near the mouth of the River Tawe.[69] Further leisure boating berths are being constructed at the Prince of Wales Dock in the Swansea Docks complex. The Swansea Docks complex is owned and operated by Associated British Ports and is used to handle a range of cargo ranging from agribulks and coal to timber and steel.[70] Swansea Docks consists of three floating docks and a ferry terminal.

Mumbles railway and tram
The Swansea and Mumbles Railway was built in 1804 to move limestone from the quarries of Mumbles to Swansea and to the markets beyond. It carried the world’s first fare-

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paying rail passengers on the day the British Parliament abolished the transportation of slaves from Africa. It later moved from horse power to steam locomotion, and finally converting to electric trams, before closing in January 1960, in favour of motor buses. [2]. At the time of the railway’s decommissioning, it had been the world’s longest serving railway and it still holds the record for the highest number of forms of traction of any railway in the world - horse-drawn, sail power, steam power, electric power, diesel and petrol. Trams4Swansea is a group led by Councillor Rob Speht trying to bring trams back to Swansea.[71]

Swansea
leisure pool, marina and maritime quarter featuring the newest and oldest museums in Wales - the National Waterfront Museum and Swansea Museum. Also situated in the maritime quarter is the Dylan Thomas Centre which celebrates the life and work of the author with its permanent exhibition ’Dylan Thomas - Man and Myth’. The centre is also the focal point for the annual Dylan Thomas Festival (27 October - 9 November). The SA1 Waterfront area is the latest development for living, dining and leisure. Swansea Bay, Mumbles and Gower are home to various parks and gardens and almost 20 nature reserves. Clyne Gardens is home to a collection of plants set in parkland and host to ’Clyne in Bloom’ in May. Singleton Park has acres of parkland, a botanical garden, a boating lake with pedal boats, and crazy golf. Plantasia is a tropical hothouse pyramid featuring three climatic zones, housing a variety of unusual plants, including several species which are extinct in the wild, and monkeys, reptiles, fish and a butterfly house. Other parks include Cwmdonkin Park, where Dylan Thomas played as a child, and Victoria Park which is close to the promenade on the seafront.

Leisure and tourism

Activities
Swansea has a range of activities including sailing, water skiing, surfing, and other watersports,[73] walking[74] and cycling.[75] Part of the Celtic Trail and the National Cycle Network, Swansea Bay provides a range of traffic-free cycle routes including along the seafront and through Clyne Valley Country Park.[76] The Cycling Touring Club CTC has a local group in the area.[77] Swansea Bay, Mumbles and Gower have a selection of golf courses.[78] Prior to closure in 2003, Swansea Leisure Centre was one of the top ten visitor attractions in the UK; it has been redeveloped as an indoor waterpark, rebranded the ’LC’,[79] and was officially opened by Queen Elizabeth II on 7 March 2008.[80] The Wales National Pool is based in Swansea.[81]

Another shot of the marina from Trawler Road The beaches at Langland, Caswell and Limeslade are used by swimmers and tourists with children, whereas Swansea Bay tends to attract water-sport enthusiasts. Coastal paths connect most of the Gower bays and Swansea Bay itself, and can attract hikers to the countryside views throughout the year. Although little known on the tourist map, areas north of Swansea offer various panoramas of mountain landscapes. The former fishing village of Mumbles (located on the western edge of Swansea Bay) has a Victorian pier and a number of restaurants, pubs and coffee shops. The promenade at Mumbles offers a panoramic view of Swansea Bay.

Nightlife
Swansea has a range of public houses, bars, clubs, restaurants and two casinos.[82] [83] The majority of city centre bars are situated on Wind Street, with various chains represented including Revolution, Varsity, Yates’s and Walkabout. Most clubs, including Oceana,

Attractions
On the Waterfront, Swansea Bay has a five mile (8 km) sweep of coastline[72] which features a beach, promenade, children’s lido,

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are located on the Kingsway.[84] Some venues feature live music.[85] The Mumbles Mile, described by the BBC as "one of Wales’ bestknown pub crawls" has declined in recent years with a number of local pubs being converted into flats or restaurants.[86]

Swansea
(2006)[94] and was voted Britain’s best camping beach by The Independent thanks to its superb setting and quiet location (2007)[95]. Three Cliffs Bay also made the final of the ITV series Britain’s Favourite View - the only nomination in Wales and backed by singer Katherine Jenkins[96]. Nearby Brandy Cove came sixth in an online poll to find the UK’s top beach for the baby boomer generation (2006)[97]. Beaches which won 2006 Blue Flag Beach Awards are: Bracelet Bay, Caswell Bay, Langland Bay, Port Eynon Bay and Swansea Marina (one of the few Blue Flag Marinas in Wales). All of these beaches also won a Seaside Award 2006. Limeslade was awarded the Rural Seaside Award and the Green Coast Award. Other Green Coast Awards went to Pwll Du, Rhossili Bay and Tor Bay.

Beaches

References
Sunset over Swansea Bay. Oxwich Bay on the Gower peninsula was named the most beautiful beach in Britain by travel writers who visited more than 1,000 around the world in search of the perfect sands (2007). The Travel Magazine praised Oxwich for "magnificent and unspoilt" scenery and as a "great place for adults and children to explore".[87] It boasts over three miles (5 km) of soft, golden sands, making it the ideal family getaway. Not surprisingly, The Guardian named it one of Britain’s blueribband top 10 category beaches (2007).[88] The Independent newspaper hailed Rhossili Bay as "the British supermodel of beaches" (2006) and the best beach in Britain for breathtaking cliffs (2007)[89], whilst The Sunday Times listed it as one of the 25 best beaches in the world (2006)[90]. Thanks to its clear air and lovely golden sand, this romantic stretch of sand was voted the best place in the UK to watch the sun set (Country Living magazine 2005)[90] and one the top romantic spots in the country (The Guardian 2007)[91]. Nearby Llangennith Beach, with its soft sands, consistent beach break and great facilities, was listed as the best place to learn how to surf in Britain by The Observer (2006)[92] and one of the 10 ’classic surfing beaches by The Guardian (2007)[93] . Gower also claims Britain’s Best Beach, Three Cliffs Bay. The Gower landmark topped the BBC Holiday Hit Squad nationwide competition [1] [ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/ topic/576322/Swansea Swansea (Wales, United Kingdom) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia] [2] Hughes, S. (2000) Copperopolis: landscapes of the early industrial period in Swansea (Royal Commission on Ancient and Historical Monuments in Wales [3] Glanmor Williams, ed (2007-07-26). Swansea, An Illustrated History. Christopher Davies. ISBN 0-7154-0714-7. [4] ^ "Swansea" (in English). Classic Encyclopedia. 2007. http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/ Swansea. Retrieved on 2007-07-29. [5] "Swansea Timeline" (in English). Genuki. 2007. http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/ GLA/Swansea/Timeline.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-29. [6] ^ The Welsh Academy Encyclopedia of Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press 2008. [7] Rosser, C. and Harris, C.C. (1998) The Family and Social Change: A Study of Family and Kinship in a South Wales Town. Routledge [8] City and County of Swansea - Listed building index [9] "Swansea’s Three Nights Blitz". BBC. 2005-09-03. http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/ southwest/sites/local_history/pages/

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Swansea

swansea_blitz.shtml. Retrieved on swansea_tourist_information.htm. 2008-05-24. Retrieved on 2008-06-23. [10] "Tourism joins shopping at market" (in [25] "Wales In Bloom". Wales In Bloom. English). BBC News. 2003. http://www.walesinbloom.org.uk/homehttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/ e.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-23. south_west/3148686.stm. Retrieved on [26] "uk.weather.com Monthly Climate 2007-07-27. Statistics: Swansea united Kingdom" (in [11] "The Swansea Earthquake of 27 June English). uk.weather.com. 2007. 1906" (in English). British Geological http://uk.weather.com/weather/ Survey. 2007. climatology/UKXX0146. Retrieved on http://www.earthquakes.bgs.ac.uk/latest/ 2007-07-25. swansea_anniversary.htm. Retrieved on [27] "Swansea, Wales" (in English). MSN 2007-07-26. News & Weather. 2007. [12] London Gazette, issue no. 44986, 12 http://weather.uk.msn.com/ December 1969 local.aspx?wealocations=wc:UKXX0146. [13] Prince announces city status for Retrieved on 2007-07-25. Swansea,The Times 4 July 1969. [28] "Soggiest city in Britain pays high price [14] London Gazette, issue no. 48932, 25 for rain" (in English). icWales. 2007. March 1982 http://icwales.icnetwork.co.uk/0100news/ [15] Swansea Glamorgan through time | Local 0200wales/ history overview for the place tm_objectid=14140027&method=full&siteid=50082& [16] [http://www.archivesnetworkwales.info/ city-in-britain-pays-high-price-for-raincgi-bin/anw/ name_page.html. Retrieved on fulldesc_nofr?inst_id=34&coll_id=76539&expand= 2007-07-26. West Glamorgan Archive Service [29] "Census 2001: Key Statistics for urban Borough/County Borough/City of areas in England and Wales" (PDF). Swansea records ONS. 2004. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/ [17] Swansea CB Glamorgan through time | downloads/census2001/ Boundaries of Local Government District ks_ua_ew_part1.pdf. Retrieved on [18] The Welsh Academy Encyclopedia of 2008-05-24. Wales. Cardiff: University of Wales Press [30] Graham Pointer. "The UK’s major urban 2008 areas: Chapter 3" (PDF). ONS. [19] City and County of Swansea - History of http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/ the Mayoralty theme_compendia/fom2005/ [20] see Swansea City and County and 03_FOPM_UrbanAreas.pdf. Retrieved on National Council on Archives: Rules for 2008-05-24. the construction of place names [31] 2001 Census Socio Economic Profile [21] "Council leader resigns after defeat" (in [32] Swansea City and County: Population English). BBC News. 2004. "2004 Mid Year Estimates, Population http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/ Estimates Unit, ONS. Crown Copyright." 3806811.stm. Retrieved on 2007-07-29. (in English). City and County of Swansea. [22] ^ "Physical Description" (in English). 2007. http://www.swansea.gov.uk/ City and County of Swansea. 2006-08-21. index.cfm?articleid=140&articleaction=print http://www.swansea.gov.uk/ Swansea City and County: Population. index.cfm?articleid=139. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2007-07-26. 2007-07-26. [33] Wales’s Population A Demographic [23] ^ "Student information - Swansea Overview 2009 geography" (in English) (PDF). City and [34] "News Release: Urban Areas in Wales" County of Swansea. 2007. (in English) (PDF). National Statistics http://www.visitswanseabay.com/media/ Office. 2007. pdf/o/j/student_info_geography_1.pdf. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/pdfdir/ Retrieved on 2007-07-26. urbwales0704.pdf. Retrieved on [24] "Swansea - Tourist Information". iKnow 2007-07-26. Wales. http://www.iknow-wales.co.uk/ [35] "The Living Tradition Festival Listing, tourist_information/cardiff_south_wales/ 2007" (in English). The Living Tradition. swansea/ 2007. http://www.folkmusic.net/htmfiles/

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festivals_000.htm. Retrieved on technium_sustainable_technologies/ 2007-07-26. academic_expertise/en6579. Retrieved [36] "Brangwyn Hall & The Empire Panels" on 2007-07-27. ; "Knowledge Transfer (in English). BBC. 2006. from the Civil and Computational http://www.bbc.co.uk/wales/southwest/ Engineering Centre and Future sites/swansea/pages/brangwyn.shtml. Interaction Technologies" (in English). Retrieved on 2007-07-27. Swansea University. 2007. [37] South Wales Evening Post, 8 September http://www.swan.ac.uk/engineering/ 2004, and subsequent issues. Research/ [38] "Results of the 2001 Census of CivilandComputationalEngineeringCentre/ Population on the Language in Electoral KnowledgeTransfer/. Retrieved on Wards" (in English). Welsh Language 2007-07-27. Board. 2007. http://www.bwrdd-yr[53] "Award winners announced!" (in iaith.org.uk/download.php?id=2082.6. English). The Times Higher Education Retrieved on 2007-07-26. Supplement. 2005. [39] Food detective: Salt marsh lamb- Times http://www.thes.co.uk/Awards/2005/. Online Retrieved on 2007-07-27. [40] Swansea Jack - Swansea History Web [54] "List of Schools 2006/2007" (in English) [41] Tourism Swansea Bay - FAQ (PDF). City and County of Swansea. [42] Dylan Thomas and the Kardomah Set 2006. http://www.swansea.gov.uk/media/ Features, Books - The Independent 11 pdf/4/d/School_List_2006-2007.pdf. February 2006 Retrieved on 2007-07-27. [43] "Glamorgan First-Class Matches played [55] The NS and AdWeb Ltd - Swansea on St Helen’s, Swansea". Cricket Herald of Wales Archive. http://www.cricketarchive.com/ [56] Morgan, K. (2002) Rebirth of a Nation: A Glamorgan/Grounds/780_f.html. History of Modern Wales. Oxford: Oxford Retrieved on 2006-06-27. University Press, p.251. [44] "Two pieces of Welsh sporting history [57] BBC: Swansea Big Screen auctioned" (in English). icWales.co.uk. [58] "Minutes of the Meetings Held at 2006. http://icwales.icnetwork.co.uk/ Broadcasting House, Llandaff, Friday 9 homes/antiques/tm_headline=two-piecesDecember 2005" (in English). BBC. 2004. of-welsh-sporting-historyhttp://www.bbc.co.uk/foi/docs/ auctioned&method=full&objectid=18102661&siteid=50082-name_page.html. governance_of_the_bbc/ Retrieved on 2007-07-27. Govenors_Advisory_Bodies/ [45] ^ 2001 Census Key Statistics: Table BCW_meeting_summaries_Dec_2005.htm. KS07: Religion Retrieved on 2007-07-27. [46] A Social Audit of the Muslim Community [59] Only Two Can Play (1962) in Wales [60] Robin Turner (2004-09-22). "Ex-Doctor [47] BBC NEWS | Wales | South West Wales | ’may return as villain’". icWales.co.uk. New mosque ’would benefit all’ http://icwales.icnetwork.co.uk/news/ [48] "City Centre Strategic Framework" (in wales-news/ English). City and County of Swansea. tm_objectid=14669189&method=full&siteid=50082& 2007. http://www.swansea.gov.uk/ doctor-who-baker--may-return-as-villain-index.cfm?articleid=13786. Retrieved on name_page.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-27. 2008-05-24. [49] "Work Begins On Wales Tallest". [61] BBC News: City Launch for Swansea Skyscrapernews.com. 2006-06-26. Monopoly http://www.skyscrapernews.net/ [62] "Introduction to the Air Ambulances in news.php?ref=641. Retrieved on Wales". Wales Air Ambulance. 2008-05-24. http://www.walesairambulance.com/ [50] Jenkins, P (1992) A History of Modern index.php?p=information&sp=introduction. Wales 1536-1990. Harlow: Longman. Retrieved on 2008-06-27. [51] ^ Swansea Economic Profile October [63] "Police ’not soft’ on car crime" (in 2008 English). BBC News. 2002. [52] "Academic Expertise" (in English). WDA. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/in_depth/uk/ 2007. http://www.wda.co.uk/index.cfm/

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2002/cracking_crime/2262344.stm. Retrieved on 2007-07-26. [64] "British Hooligan Scene" (in English). view from the terrace. 1997. http://website.lineone.net/ ~view_from_the_terrace/britsce.html. Retrieved on 2007-07-27. [65] "Park and Ride". City and County of Swansea council. 2008-04-02. http://www.swansea.gov.uk/ index.cfm?articleid=22673. Retrieved on 2008-06-27. [66] The Wright Group [67] "Swansea Airport No Expansion". WildlifeWebSite.com. http://www.wildlifewebsite.com/sane/. Retrieved on 2008-07-03. [68] "Marina expansion plans get underway". City and County of Swansea. http://www.swansea.gov.uk/ index.cfm?articleid=11399. Retrieved on 2008-06-27. [69] "Swansea Marina: Development Projects". City and County of Swansea. http://www.swanseamarina.org.uk/ index.cfm?Articleid=9516. Retrieved on 2008-06-27. [70] "Port of Swansea". Associated British Ports. http://www.abports.co.uk/custinfo/ ports/swansea.htm. Retrieved on 2008-06-27. [71] Rob Speht (2007-09-03). "Trams4Swansea". Rob Speht. http://www.robspeht.net/ trams4swansea.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-24. [72] "Swansea Bay". Explore Gower. http://www.explore-gower.co.uk/Content/ pa=showpage/pid=57. Retrieved on 2008-06-27. [73] Visit Swansea Bay - Watersports [74] Visit Swansea Bay - Walking [75] Visit Swansea Bay - Cycling and Mountain Biking [76] Swansea Cycling Map [77] "CTC- (Cyclist Touring Club) Swansea and West Wales Member Group". beehive. http://beehive.thisissouthwales.co.uk/ default.asp?WCI=SiteHome&ID=11628. Retrieved on 2008-06-27. [78] Visit Swansea Bay - Golf [79] "Swansea Leisure Centre to shut" (in English). BBC News. 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/

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south_west/3265851.stm. Retrieved on 2007-07-26. [80] "Swansea’s New Leisure Centre" (in English). City and County of Swansea. 2007. http://www.swansea.gov.uk/ index.cfm?articleid=10883. Retrieved on 2007-12-06. [81] "National Pool ’not just for elite’" (in English). BBC News. 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/ wales/south_west/3913383.stm. Retrieved on 2007-07-27. [82] Aspers Swansea Casino [83] [1] [84] Swansea - Oceana - Ur Music Network [85] Visit Swansea Bay - Nightlife [86] BBC News | Wales | Closures shrink famous pub crawl [87] "And the most beautiful beach in Britain is...". The Travel Magazine. 2007-02-27. http://www.thetravelmagazine.net/i-941-and-the-most-beautiful-beach.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-27. [88] "10 sandy beaches". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/travel/2007/ jul/14/beach.uk. Retrieved on 2008-06-27. [89] "The 50 Best: UK beaches (26-50)". The Independent. 2006-06-26. http://www.independent.co.uk/travel/ the-50-best-ukbeaches-2650-480373.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-27. [90] ^ "Hillend Camping Park". Hillend Camping. http://www.hillendcamping.co.uk/ camping.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-27. [91] "10 Romantic Settings". The Guardian. 2007-07-14. http://www.guardian.co.uk/ travel/2007/jul/14/beach.cornwall. Retrieved on 2008-06-27. [92] "Learning to surf". The Observer. 2006-08-13. http://www.guardian.co.uk/ travel/2006/aug/13/ surfing.watersports.unitedkingdom. Retrieved on 2008-06-27. [93] "Top 10 UK surf spots". The Guardian. 2007-10-11. http://www.guardian.co.uk/ travel/2007/oct/11/surfing.top10. Retrieved on 2008-06-27. [94] Turner, Robin (2006-09-26). "We love... Three Cliffs Bay". WalesOnline. http://www.walesonline.co.uk/news/ wales-news/ tm_objectid=17818375&method=full&siteid=50082&

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Swansea

cliffs-bay-name_page.html. Retrieved on • Swansea City • Trams4Swansea 2008-06-27. Centre Campaign [95] "The 50 Best: Camping sites". The (website run by Independent. 2006-06-26. council) http://www.independent.co.uk/travel/ • Official tourist the-50-best-campingwebsite for sites-125-480374.html. Retrieved on Swansea 2008-06-27. • BBC Swansea [96] "Gower Peninsula". ITV. 2007-08-06. website http://www.itv.com/Entertainment/ • Swansea reality/BritainFavouriteView/Weekone/ Festival of TheGowerPeninsula/default.html. Music and the Retrieved on 2008-06-27. Arts [97] "Welsh beaches a mecca for the • Live, Work, over-50s". WalesOnline. 2006-08-17. Visit, Invest & http://www.walesonline.co.uk/news/ Study In wales-news/ Swansea tm_objectid=17575780&method=full&siteid=50082&headline=dynamic• Swansea travel baby-boomers-vote-four-wales-beachesguide from into-the-uk-s-top-six-leaving--elderly-Wikitravel bournemouth-behind---name_page.html. • Swansea.com Retrieved on 2008-06-27. information

External links
City and County of Swansea: • Swansea at the Open Directory Project • Swansea Mosque & Islamic Community Centre • City and County of Swansea Council History: • Classic Encyclopedia: Gower • Classic Encyclopedia: Swansea • Genuki: Swansea, its Port and Trade and their Development • Genuki: Swansea Timeline • Aerial photograph of Swansea in 1998

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guide to the city Science Direct - Cities: Swansea Evening Post Swansea website Swansea pictorial and information site City of Swansea Pipe Band

Coordinates: 51°37′N 3°57′W / 51.617°N 3.95°W / 51.617; -3.95

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swansea" Categories: Cities in Wales, Coastal settlements, Glamorgan, Ports and harbours of Wales, Principal areas of Wales, Seaside resorts in Wales, Port cities and towns in the United Kingdom, Settlements established in the 12th century, Swansea Bay, Swansea This page was last modified on 18 May 2009, at 23:35 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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