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Montgomery, Alabama

Montgomery, Alabama
City of Montgomery - Metro Time zone - Summer (DST) Area code(s) FIPS code GNIS feature ID Website 469,268 CST (UTC-6) CDT (UTC-5) 334 01-51000 0165344 http://www.montgomeryal.gov

Montgomery (pronounced /məntˈɡʌməriː/) is the capital, second most populous city,[2] and the fourth most populous metropolitan Flag Seal area[3] in the Southern U.S. state of Alabama, and is the county seat of Montgomery County.[2] It is located southeast of the center of the state, in the Gulf Coastal Plain. The city population was 201,568 as of the 2000 census.[4] Montgomery is the primary city of the Montgomery Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had a 2000 population of 346,528.[3] Location in Montgomery County and Alabama The city was incorporated in 1819, as a merger of two towns situated along the Alabama River. It became the state capital in 1846. In February 1861, Montgomery was selected as the first capital of the Confederate States of America, until the seat of government moved to Richmond, Virginia in May of that year[5]. During the mid-20th century, Mongtomery was a primary site in the Location of Alabama in the United States African-American Civil Rights Movement, inCoordinates: 32°21′42″N 86°16′45″W / 32.36167°N cluding the Montgomery Bus Boycott and the 86.27917°W / 32.36167; -86.27917Coordinates: [5] 32°21′42″N 86°16′45″W / 32.36167°N 86.27917°W Selma to Montgomery marches. Today, in addition to housing many / 32.36167; -86.27917 Alabama government agencies, Montgomery Country United States has a large military presence due to Maxwell State Alabama Air Force Base[6], public universities Montgomery County Alabama State University and Auburn December 3, 1819 Incorporated University-Montgomery, high-tech manufacturing including Hyundai Motor ManufacturGovernment ing Alabama[7], and cultural attractions like Todd Strange (R) - Mayor the Alabama Shakespeare Festival and MontArea gomery Museum of Fine Arts.[8] 156.19 sq mi (404.53 km2) - City
- Land - Water Elevation 155.38 sq mi (402.43 km2) 0.81 sq mi (2.09 km2) 240 ft (73 m)

History
Early settlement
Prior to European colonization, the left bank of the Alabama River was inhabited by the

Population (2006)[1] 201,998 - City 1,281.31/sq mi (499.34/km2) - Density

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Alibamu tribe of Native Americans. The Alibamu and the Coushatta who lived on the opposite side the river were adept mound builders.[9] Present-day Montgomery is built on the site of two Alibamu towns: Ikanatchati (or Ecunchatty or Econachatee), meaning "red earth"; and Towassa, built on a bluff called Chunnaanaauga Chatty.[10] The first Europeans to come through central Alabama were Hernando de Soto and his expedition, who came through Ikanatchati and camped for one week in Towassa in 1540. It is also likely that Tristán de Luna y Arellano and his colonists traveled through the Montgomery area on their way from Nanipacana to Coosa in northwest Georgia.[9] The next recorded European movements in the area happened well over a century later, when an expedition from Carolina went down the Alabama River in 1697. The first permanent European settler in the Montgomery area was James McQueen, a Scottish trader who came to the area in 1716.[9] In 1717, the French built Fort Toulouse to the northeast of Montgomery, serving primarily as a trading post with the Alibamu.[11] The British gained all the territory east of the Mississippi River following the French and Indian War in 1764. In 1767, Alabama’s area was divided between the Indian Reserve and West Florida. The boundary line (32° 28′ north latitude) ran just north of present-day Montgomery. The northern portion later became part of the Province and later U.S. State of Georgia. The Treaty of Paris in 1783 which ended the American Revolutionary War gave Georgia’s territory to the United States. The southern border of the territory was disputed between Spain (who had received West Florida from the British in a separate treaty) and the United States until 1795, when the Treaty of San Lorenzo gave the land north of the 31st parallel to the United States.[12] This part of West Florida, including the southern half of Montgomery, became part of the Mississippi Territory in 1797. Georgia’s western territory was integrated into Mississippi in 1804.[13] After McQueen’s arrival, European immigration to the area was slow in coming; Abraham Mordecai of Pennsylvania arrived in 1785 and later brought the first cotton gin to Alabama.[14] Following the end of the Creek War in August 1814, the Creek tribes were forced to give the majority of their lands to the U.S., including most of central and

Montgomery, Alabama
southern Alabama. With the hostile faction of Creeks that populated the Alabama River’s banks moved south, the area became open for white settlers.[15] Between 1814 and 1816, Arthur Moore built a cabin near the current location of Union Station.[9]

Founding and early years

Andrew Dexter, one of the founders of Montgomery In 1816, Montgomery County was formed, and its lands were sold off the next year at the federal land office in Milledgeville, Georgia. The first group of settlers to come to the Montgomery area was headed by General John Scott. The group founded Alabama Town about 2 miles (3 km) downstream from present-day downtown. In June 1818, county courts were moved from Fort Jackson to Alabama Town. Soon after, Andrew Dexter founded New Philadelphia, the present-day eastern part of downtown. Dexter envisioned his town would one day grow to prominence; he set aside a hilltop known as "Goat Hill" as the future location for the state capitol building. New Philadelphia soon prospered, and Scott and his associates built a new town adjacent, calling it East Alabama Town. The towns became rivals, but merged on December 3, 1819, and were incorporated as the city of Montgomery.[16] The new city was named for General Richard Montgomery,

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who died in the American Revolutionary War attempting to capture Quebec City, Canada. Montgomery County had already been named for Major Lemuel P. Montgomery, who fell at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in the Creek War.[10] A legacy of the towns’ merger can be seen today in the alignment of downtown streets: streets to the east of Court Street are aligned in a north-south and east-west grid, while streets to the west are aligned parallel and perpendicular to the Alabama River.[17] Due in large part to the cotton trade, the newly united Montgomery grew quickly. In October 1821, the steamboat Harriet began running along the Alabama River to Mobile.[18] In 1822, the city became the county seat, and a new courthouse was built at the present location of Court Square, at the foot of Market Street (now Dexter Avenue).[19] In April 1825, Marquis de Lafayette visited Montgomery on his grand tour of the United States.[20] In 1832, the Montgomery Railroad opened, and grew to reach West Point, Georgia by 1851.[21] Due in large part to its transportation connections and central location in the state, the legislature decided to move the state capital from Tuscaloosa to Montgomery, on January 28, 1846.[22] The city paid for the construction of the Capitol building on Goat Hill, the site set aside by Andrew Dexter 29 years earlier. The new building was ready for the 1847-48 legislature session, but on December 14, 1849, the building burned to the ground. It was rebuilt using the same plans and completed in 1851.[23]

Montgomery, Alabama

Jefferson Davis was inaugurated president of the Confederacy on the steps of the State Capitol Montgomery was named the first capital of the nation, and Jefferson Davis was inaugurated as President on the steps of the State Capitol. The convention and subsequent Confederate government activities were based at the Exchange Hotel near Court Square. On April 11, the order to fire on Fort Sumter, the act which started the American Civil War, was sent from the Winter Building, which served as the telegraph office.[26] On May 29, 1861, the capital was moved to Richmond, Virginia, to be closer to the primary areas of battle. As a result, Montgomery remained virtually untouched by conflict during the war. On April 12, 1865, following the Battle of Selma, Major General James H. Wilson captured Montgomery for the Union.[27]

Montgomery in the Civil War
As state capital, Montgomery began to have a great influence over state politics, but would also play a prominent role on the national stage. Montgomery resident William Lowndes Yancey served in both houses of the Alabama State Legislature and in the U.S. House of Representatives, where he became an outspoken supporter of states’ rights. He traveled the country spreading his "fire-eater" stance of slavery and secession.[24] After Abraham Lincoln’s election in 1860, Yancey led charge for Alabama’s secession from the Union, which passed on January 11, 1861.[25] Beginning February 4, representatives from Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina met in Montgomery to form the Confederate States of America.

Reconstruction and modernization
In 1886 Montgomery became the first city in the United States to install city-wide electric street cars along a system that was nicknamed the Lightning Route.[28] The system made Montgomery one of the first cities to "depopulate" it’s residential areas at the city center through transportation-facilitated

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Montgomery, Alabama
In 1960, inspired by the Greensboro sitins, students from Alabama State College organized their own sit-in at the State Capitol’s lunch counter to protest segregation. After the involved students were expelled at the insistence of Governor John Malcolm Patterson, thousands of students marched on the capitol.[32] On May 20, 1961, the Freedom Riders, attempting to test desegregation laws on inter-state buses, arrived in Montgomery. After meeting with violence in Anniston and Birmingham, Governor Patterson pledged to protect the riders during their journey from Birmingham to Montgomery, but Montgomery city police did not continue to protect the riders. They were met by a mob who beat the riders and Justice Department officials who attempted to intervene. Police eventually intervened--and served the riders with injunctions for inciting violence. Days later, more riders departed Montgomery to continue the ride, only to be arrested upon reaching Jackson, Mississippi.[33] Martin Luther King would return to Montgomery in 1965. Local civil rights leaders in Selma had been protesting Jim Crow laws blocking Blacks from registering to vote. Following the shooting of a man after a civil rights rally, the leaders decided to march to Montgomery to petition Governor George Wallace to allow free voter registration. After meeting with resistance from state troopers, an incident that became known as "Bloody Sunday", Dr. King joined the effort. The march began on March 21, after Judge Frank M. Johnson authorized the march. By March 24, the marchers reached Montgomery, and the group camped and held a rally at the City of St. Jude that night. The next morning, the march reached the Capitol, and King gave a speech, How Long, Not Long, to the crowd of 25,000.[34]

The Wright Brothers opened a flying school in Montgomery in 1910. suburban development. Cloverdale and Highland Park saw much of their growth during the height of the Lightning Route. On March 19, 1910, Montgomery became the winter home of the Wright brothers’ Wright Flying School. The men frequented Montgomery and founded several airfields, one of which developed into Maxwell-Gunter Air Force Base after the Wrights began working with the government to produce planes for military use.[29]

Civil rights movement
Montgomery was thrust into the spotlight of the early African-American Civil Rights Movement. In December 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her bus seat to a white man, sparking the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The Montgomery Improvement Association was created by Martin Luther King, Jr., then the pastor of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, and E.D. Nixon, a lawyer and local civil rights advocate, to organize the boycott. Nixon, along with Fred Gray and Clifford Durr, argued the case of Browder v. Gayle before the U.S. District Court in Montgomery. In June 1956, Judge Frank M. Johnson ruled that Montgomery’s bus segregation was illegal. After the Supreme Court upheld the ruling in November, the city desegregated the bus system, and the boycott was ended.[30] King gained nationwide fame as a result of the Boycott. He remained in Montgomery until 1960, during which time he led the founding of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.[31]

Present day
In recent years, Montgomery has continued to grow and diversify. In 1985, longtime resident and former Postmaster General Winton Blount donated 250 acres (1 km2) of land for the Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts and the Alabama Shakespeare Festival. ASF ranks as the fifth largest Shakespearean venue in the world.[35] 1996 saw the construction of Montgomery’s first skyscraper, the RSA Tower.[36] In 2001, Alabama Supreme Court Chief Justice Roy Moore erected a

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5,280-pound (2,395 kg) monument of the Ten Commandments in the Supreme Court building rotunda. The ensuing demonstrations by supporters and opponents alike brought national attention to Montgomery.[37] In 2005, Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama was founded, marking South Korean automaker Hyundai Motor Company’s first manufacturing plant in the United States.[7] The city government is active in restoring the downtown area, and in 2007 adopted a master plan, which included revitalization of Court Square and the riverfront.[38]

Montgomery, Alabama
where Martin Luther King, Jr. was pastor. Both the Capitol and Dexter Baptist Church are listed as National Historic Landmarks by the U.S. Department of the Interior.[41] One block south of the Capitol is the First White House of the Confederacy, the 1835 Italianate-style house in which President Jefferson Davis and family lived while the capitol of the Confederacy was in Montgomery. Montgomery’s third National Historic Landmark is Union Station. Train service to Montgomery ceased in 1985, but today Union Station is part of the Riverwalk park development, which also includes an amphitheater, a riverboat dock[42] and Riverwalk Stadium.[43] Three blocks east of the Convention Center, Old Alabama Town showcases more than 50 restored buildings from the 19th century. The Riverwalk is part of a larger plan to revamp the downtown area. The plan includes the utilization of urban forestry, infill development, and façade renovation to encourage business and residential growth.[38] A 112,000-square-foot (10,400 m2) Convention Center which was completed in 2007 is expected to further encourage growth in the downtown area.[44] South of downtown, across Interstate 85, lies Alabama State University. ASU’s campus was built in Colonial Revival architectural style from 1906 until the beginning of World War II.[45][46] Surrounding ASU are the Garden District, and Cloverdale Historic District. Houses in these areas date from around 1875 until 1949, and are in Late Victorian and Gothic Revival styles.[46] Huntingdon College is on the southwestern edge of Cloverdale. The campus was built in the 1900s in Tudor Revival and Gothic Revival styles.[47] ASU, the Garden District, Cloverdale, and Huntingdon are all listed as National Historic Districts.[46] Montgomery’s east side is the fastestgrowing part of the city.[48] The city’s two largest shopping malls,[49][50] as well as many big-box stores and residential developments are on the east side. The area is also home of the Wynton M. Blount Cultural Park, a 1-square-kilometer (250-acre) park which contains the Alabama Shakespeare Festival and Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts.[51] Prattville, 10 miles (16 km) to the northwest is the second largest city in the Montgomery Metropolitan Area. Other area towns are Pike Road to the southeast, Millbrook to

Geography

The Alabama River at Montgomery in 2004 Montgomery is located at 32°21′42″N 86°16′45″W / 32.36167°N 86.27917°W / 32.36167; -86.27917.[39] According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 156.2 square miles (405 km2), of which 155.4 square miles (402 km2) of it is land and 0.8 square miles (2.1 km2) of it (0.52%) is water. The city is built over rolling terrain at an elevation of about 220 feet (67 m) above sea level[40]

Cityscape
Downtown Montgomery lies along the southern bank of the Alabama River, about 6 miles (9.7 km) downstream from the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers. The most prominent feature of Montgomery’s skyline is the 23-story RSA Tower, built in 1996 by the Retirement Systems of Alabama.[36] Downtown also contains many state and local government buildings, including the Alabama State Capitol. The Capitol is located atop a hill at one end of Dexter Avenue, along which also lies the Dexter Avenue Baptist Church,

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the north, and Wetumpka to the northeast.[52]

Montgomery, Alabama
The population density was 1,297.3 people per square mile (500.9/km²). There were 86,787 housing units at an average density of 558.5/sq mi (215.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 49.63% Black, 47.67% White, 0.25% Native American, 1.06% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.37% from other races, and 0.98% from two or more races. 1.23% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 78,384 households out of which 32.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.4% were married couples living together, 19.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.8% were non-families. 30.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.06. In the city the population was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 12.1% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 11.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 88.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,627, and the median income for a family was $44,297. Males had a median income of $31,877 versus $25,014 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,385. About 13.9% of families and 17.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.7% of those under age 18 and 13.4% of those age 65 or over.

Climate
Montgomery’s climate is humid subtropical (Köppen climate classification Cfa). The area experiences short, warm springs and hot, typically humid summers lasting from midMay to well into September. Autumns are usually during October and November and are mild – from the mid-60s to 70s (degrees Fahrenheit). Winters last from December until February; their severity/coldness varies from year to year, but they are usually moderate, with temperatures rarely dipping below 20 °F (−7 °C). The highest recorded temperature in Montgomery was 107 °F (42 °C), on August 7, 1881.[53] The record low temperature of 0 °F (−18 °C) was reached on January 21, 1985.[54]

Demographics
Historical populations Year 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 Pop. 2,179 8,728 8,843 10,588 16,713 21,883 30,346 38,136 43,464 66,079 78,084 %± — 300.6% 1.3% 19.7% 57.8% 30.9% 38.7% 25.7% 14.0% 52.0% 18.2%

106,525 36.4% 134,393 26.2% 133,386 −0.7% 177,857 33.3% 187,106 5.2% 201,568 7.7%

Economy
Montgomery’s central location in Alabama’s Black Belt makes it a processing hub for crops such as cotton, peanuts, and soybeans. In 1840 Montgomery County led the state in cotton production[58], and by 1911, the city processed 160,000-200,000 bales of cotton annually.[59] Montgomery has long had large metal fabrication and lumber production sectors.[59] Due to its location along the Alabama River and extensive rail connections, Montgomery has and continues to be a regional distribution hub for a wide range of industries.[6] Today, the city’s Gross Metropolitan Product is $12.15 billion,

2007 (est.) 204,086 1.2% Source: U.S. Census Bureau[56] As of the census[57] of 2000, there were 201,568 people, 78,384 households, and 51,084 families residing in the city. The 2006 Census Bureau estimate places the population at 201,998.[1]

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representing 8.7% of the Gross State Product of Alabama.[60] According to Bureau of Labor Statistics data from October 2008, the largest sectors of non-agricultural employment were: Government, 24.3%; Trade, Transportation, and Utilities, 17.3% (including 11.0% in retail trade); Professional and Business Services, 11.9%; Manufacturing, 10.9%; Education and Health Services, 10.0% (including 8.5% in Health Care & Social Assistance); Leisure and Hospitality, 9.2%; Financial Activities, 6.0%, Natural Resources, Mining and Construction, 5.1%; Information, 1.4%; and Other services 4.0%. Unemployment for the same period was 5.7%, 2.5% higher than October 2007.[61] The city also draws in workers from the surrounding area; Montgomery’s daytime population rises 17.4% to 239,101.[62] As of August 2008, Montgomery’s largest employers were Maxwell-Gunter Air Force Base (12,280 employees), the State of Alabama (9,500), Montgomery Public Schools (4,524), Baptist Health (4,300), Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama (3,171), Alfa Insurance (2,568), the City of Montgomery (2,500), 754th Electronics Systems Group (1,943), Jackson Hospital & Clinic (1,300), and Rheem Water Heaters (1,150).[63] One Fortune 1000 company, Colonial Bancgroup, is headquartered in Montgomery.[64] According to Pennsylvania State University’s "Living Wage Calculator", the living wage for the city is $8.02 per hour (or $16,691 per year) for an individual and $25.80 per hour ($53,662 per year) for a family of four.[65] These are slightly higher than the state averages of $7.45 per hour for an individual and $25.36 for a family of four.[66]

Montgomery, Alabama
2009 special election, Todd Strange was elected mayor by a 53% margin against 5 other candidates. The city is served by a nine-member city council, which is composed of nine districts of equal size. The city council is responsible for establishing the city of Montgomery’s policies.

Culture
The Wynton M. Blount Cultural Park in east Montgomery is home to the Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts. The Museum’s permanent collections include American art and sculpture, Southern art, master prints from European masters, and collections of porcelain and glass works.[68] The Society of Arts and Crafts operates a co-op gallery for local artists.[69] Montgomery Zoo, one of only two AZA-accredited zoos in Alabama, has over 500 animals in 40 acres (0.16 km2) of barrier-free habitats.[70] The Hank Williams Museum contains one of the largest collections of Williams memorabilia in the world.[71]

Law and government
Montgomery operates under a Mayor-council government system. Mayor Bobby Bright was elected to the United States Congress from Alabama’s 2nd congressional district in November 2008. City council president Charles Jinright was the acting mayor until a special election was held on March 10, 2009, to select a permanent successor.[67] Bright was elected mayor in the 1999, having unseated longtime Republican Mayor Emory Folmar. Bright was re-elected in a landslide against challenger Scott Simmons in the 2003 and 2007 municipal elections. After the

The Alabama Shakespeare Festival’s Carolyn Blount Theatre. Blount Park is also contains the Alabama Shakespeare Festival’s Carolyn Blount Theatre. The Shakespeare Festival presents year-round performances of both classic plays and performances of local interest, in addition to works of William Shakespeare.[72] The 1200-seat Davis Theatre for the Performing Arts, on the Troy University at Montgomery campus, opened in 1930 and was renovated in 1983. It houses the Montgomery Symphony Orchestra, Alabama Dance Theatre and Montgomery Ballet, as well as other theatrical productions.[73] The

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Symphony has been performing in Montgomery since 1979.[74] The Capri Theatre in Cloverdale was built in 1941, and today shows independent films.[75] Jubilee CityFest is an annual music festival featuring a variety of performers.[76] There is a rich history of musical performers with roots in Montgomery. Jazz singer and pianist Nat King Cole,[77] country singer Hank Williams,[78] blues singer Big Mama Thornton,[79] Melvin Franklin of The Temptations,[80] and guitarist Tommy Shaw of Styx[81] are among the many musicians to get their start in Montgomery. Author and artist Zelda Sayre was born in Montgomery. In 1918, she met F. Scott Fitzgerald, who was a soldier stationed at an Army post nearby. The house where they lived is today used as the F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald Museum.[82][83] Poet Sidney Lanier lived in Montgomery and Prattville immediately after the Civil War, while writing his novel Tiger Lilies.[84]

Montgomery, Alabama
defunct Montgomery Bears indoor football team. Montgomery is also the site of sporting events hosted by the area’s colleges and universities. The Alabama State University Hornets play in NCAA Division I competition in the Southwestern Athletic Conference. The football team plays at the Cramton Bowl and the basketball team play at the Joe L. Reed Acadome. Auburn University Montgomery also fields teams in NAIA competition. The Blue-Gray Football Classic was an annual college football all-star game held from 1938 until 2001.[88] Several successful professional athletes hail from Montgomery, including Pro Football Hall of Famer Bart Starr[89] and two-time Olympic gold medalist in track and field Alonzo Babers.[90]

Education
The city of Montgomery and Montgomery County are served by the Montgomery Public Schools system. As of 2007, there were 32,520 students enrolled in the system, and 2,382 teachers employed. The system manages 32 elementary schools, 10 middle schools, and 4 high schools (G.W. Carver, Jeff Davis, Robert E. Lee, and Sidney Lanier) as well as 9 magnet schools, 1 alternative school, and 2 special education centers.[91] Montgomery is also home to 28 private schools.[92] Montgomery has been the home of Alabama State University, a historically black university, since the Lincoln Normal University for Teachers relocated from Marion in 1887. Today, ASU enrolls over 5,600 students from 42 U.S. states and 7 countries.[93] Auburn Montgomery in the eastern part of the city operates as a satellite campus of Auburn University, and has an enrollment of 5,123.[94] Montgomery also is home to several private colleges: Faulkner University which has an enrollment of 3,500, is a Church of Christ-affiliated school[95] and Huntingdon College is affiliated with the United Methodist Church.[96] Maxwell Air Force Base is the headquarters for Air University, the United States Air Force’s center for professional military education. Branches of Air University based in Montgomery include the Squadron Officer School, the Air Command and Staff College,

Sports
Montgomery is home of the Montgomery Biscuits baseball team. The Biscuits play in the Class AA Southern League. They are affiliated with the Tampa Bay Rays, and play at Montgomery Riverwalk Stadium.[85] Riverwalk Stadium was the host of the NCAA Division II National Baseball Championship from 2004 until 2007. The championship had previously been played at Paterson Field in Montgomery from 1985 until 2003.[86]

The Montgomery Biscuits play in Riverwalk Stadium. The Navistar LPGA Classic women’s golf event is held at the Robert Trent Jones Golf Trail at Capitol Hill in nearby Prattville.[87] Garrett Coliseum was the home of the now-

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the Air War College, and the Community College of the Air Force.[97]

Montgomery, Alabama
city. It is planned to connect Interstate 85 near Mt. Meigs to U.S. Highway 80 southwest of the city.[100] Montgomery Area Transit System (MATS) provides public transportation with buses serving the city. The system has 32 buses providing an average of 4500 passenger trips daily.[101] MATS ridership has shown steady growth since the system was revamped in 2000; the system served over 1 million passenger trips in 2007.[102] Greyhound Lines operates a terminal in Montgomery for intra-city bus travel.[103] Montgomery Regional Airport, also known as Dannelly Field, is the major airport serving Montgomery. It serves primarily as an Air National Guard base and for general aviation, but commercial airlines fly to regional connections to Atlanta, Charlotte, and Memphis.[104] Passenger rail service began to Montgomery in 1898, with the opening of Union Station. Service continued until 1979, when Amtrak terminated its Floridian route.[105] Amtrak returned from 1989 until 1995 with the Gulf Breeze, an extension of the Crescent line.[106]

Media
The morning newspaper, the Montgomery Advertiser, began publication as the The Planter’s Gazette in 1829. It is the principal newspaper of central Alabama and is affiliated with the Gannett Corporation. In 1970, then publisher Harold E. Martin won the Pulitzer Prize for special reporting while at the Advertiser. The Alabama Journal was a local afternoon paper from 1899 until April 16, 1993 when it published its last issue before merging with the morning Advertiser. Montgomery is served by seven local television stations: WNCF 32 (ABC), WSFA 12 (NBC), WCOV 20 (Fox), WBMM 22 (CW), WAIQ 26 (PBS), WMCF 45 (TBN), WFRZ 34 (Religious and Educational). In addition, WAKA 8 (CBS) and WBIH 29 (independent) are located in Selma, and WRJM 67 (MyNetworkTV) is licensed to Troy. Montgomery is part of the Montgomery-Selma Designated Market Area, which is ranked 118th nationally by Nielsen Media Research.[98] The Montgomery area is served by nine AM radio stations: WMSP, WMGY, WNZZ, WTBF, WACV, WAPZ, WIQR, WLWI, and WXVI; and nineteen FM stations: WJSP, WAPR, WELL, WLBF, WTSU, WVAS, WLWI, WXFX, WQKS, WWMG, WVRV, WJWZ, WBAM, WALX, WHHY, WMXS, WHLW, WZHT, and WJAM. Montgomery is ranked 153rd largest by Arbitron.[99]

Sister city
Montgomery has one sister city: • Pietrasanta, Italy[107]

References
[1] ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places in Alabama, Listed Alphabetically: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006" (CSV). 2007 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. June 28, 2007. http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/ tables/SUB-EST2006-04-01.csv. Retrieved on June 28 2007. [2] ^ ""Alabama - City Population - Cities, Towns, & Provinces - Statistics & Map"", "www.citypopulation.de", http://www.citypopulation.de/USAAlabama.html, retrieved on 2008-05-05 [3] ^ Population in Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas, U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 and 1990 Census, December 30, 2003, http://www.census.gov/population/ cen2000/phc-t29/tab01a.csv, retrieved on 2008-09-20

Transportation
Two interstate highways run through Montgomery. Interstate 65 is the primary north–south freeway through the city leading between Birmingham and Huntsville to the north and Mobile to the south. Montgomery is the southern terminus of Interstate 85, another north–south freeway (though running east–west in the city), which leads northeast to Atlanta. The major surface street thoroughfare is a loop consisting of State Route 152 in the north, U.S. Highway 231 and U.S. Highway 80 in the east, U.S. Highway 82 in the south, and U.S. Highway 31 along the west of the city. The Alabama Department of Transportation is planning the Outer Montgomery Loop to ease traffic congestion in the

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Montgomery, Alabama

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/ face/Article.jsp?id=h-1364, retrieved on 2009-05-02 [30] Hare, Ken, "Montgomery Bus Boycott: The story of Rosa Parks and the Civil Rights Movement", Montgomery Advertiser, http://www.montgomeryboycott.com/ article_overview.htm, retrieved on 2009-05-02 [31] Montgomery Improvement Association, Stanford University Martin Luther King, Jr. Research and Education Institute, http://mlk-kpp01.stanford.edu/index.php/ kingpapers/article/ montgomery_improvement_association/, retrieved on 2009-05-02 [32] Jeffries, Hasan Kwame (June 17, 2008), "Modern Civil Rights Movement in Alabama", Encyclopedia of Alabama, http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/ face/Article.jsp?id=h-1580, retrieved on 2009-03-28 [33] Civil Rights Movement Timeline 1961: Freedom Rides, Civil Rights Movement Veterans, http://www.crmvet.org/tim/ timhis61.htm#1961frides, retrieved on 2009-03-28 [34] Thornton III, J. Mills (March 14, 2007), "Selma to Montgomery March", Encyclopedia of Alabama, http://www.encyclopediaofalabama.org/ face/Article.jsp?id=h-1114, retrieved on 2009-05-16 [35] Alabama Shakespeare Festival Presents Theater at its Best, Auburn University Elderhostel, http://www.auburn.edu/ outreach/elderhostel/Archives/ asf_050808.pdf, retrieved on 2009-01-11 [36] ^ RSA Towers, Montgomery, Emporis, Inc., http://www.emporis.com/en/wm/bu/ ?id=rsatowers-montgomery-al-usa, retrieved on 2008-08-23 [37] Kleffman, Todd (2003-08-17), "Thousands rally for Commandments", Montgomery Advertiser [38] ^ Montgomery Downtown Plan and SmartCode, Dover, Kohl, and Partners, http://www.doverkohl.com/ project.aspx?id=16&type=2, retrieved on 2008-08-23 [39] "US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2005-05-03. http://www.census.gov/geo/ www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-31.

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[40] "AirNav: KMGM - Montgomery Regional Airport (Dannelly Field)". http://www.airnav.com/airport/KMGM. Retrieved on August 17 2008. [41] National Park Service (November 2007) (PDF), National Historic Landmarks Survey: List of National Historic Landmarks by State, http://www.cr.nps.gov/nhl/designations/ Lists/LIST07.pdf, retrieved on 2008-08-23 [42] Nolin, Jill (23 August 2008) ( – Scholar search), Harriott II’s coming, Montgomery Advertiser, http://www.montgomeryadvertiser.com/ apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080823/ NEWS01/ 808230357&referrer=FRONTPAGECAROUSEL, retrieved on 2008-08-23 [43] City of Montgomery: Riverfront Facilities, City of Montgomery, http://www.montgomeryal.gov/ index.aspx?page=63, retrieved on 2008-08-23 [44] Meetings & Groups: New Convention Center, Montgomery Convention and Visitor Bureau, http://www.visitingmontgomery.com/ convention_center.cfm, retrieved on 2008-09-21 [45] "History". Alabama State University. http://www.alasu.edu/About/ default.aspx?id=11. Retrieved on 2008-08-23. [46] ^ National Register of Historical Places ALABAMA (AL), Montgomery County, nationalregisterofhistoricalplaces.com, http://www.nationalregisterofhistoricplaces.com/ al/Montgomery/districts.html, retrieved on 2008-08-23 [47] The Campus, Huntingdon College, http://www.huntingdon.edu/about_hc/ campus, retrieved on 2008-08-23 [48] Montgomery Housing Market Ranks 5th in the U.S., Alabama Real EstateRama, http://alabama.realestaterama.com/ montgomery-housing-market-ranks-5thin-the-us/, retrieved on 2008-08-26 [49] Welcome to Eastdale Mall, Montgomery, Alabama, http://www.shopmalls.com/ mall.cfm?mall=1, retrieved on 2008-09-01 [50] The Shoppes at EastChase, http://www.theshoppesateastchase.com/, retrieved on 2008-09-01

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Montgomery, Alabama

[51] Montgomery Convention and Visitor [62] Montgomery, Alabama (AL) Detailed Bureau, Profile, city-data.com, http://www.cityhttp://www.visitingmontgomery.com/ data.com/city/Montgomerydetails.cfm?site_id=829067BAAlabama.html, retrieved on 2008-01-05 D303-48F9-A9738BD2084BA92E, [63] Economic Base - Largest Employers, retrieved on 2008-09-01 Montgomery Area Chamber of [52] Montgomery, AL, Google Maps, Commerce, August 2008, http://maps.google.com/ http://www.montgomerychamber.com/ maps?q=alabama+map&sourceid=navclientPage.aspx?pid=316, retrieved on ff&ie=UTF-8&rlz=1B3GGGL_enUS177US232&um=1&sa=X&oi=geocode_result&resnum=1&ct=ima 2009-01-05 retrieved on 2008-09-01 [64] Fortune 500 2008: States - Alabama, [53] "Daily Averages for Montgomery, AL Fortune/CNN, http://money.cnn.com/ (36104)". The Weather Channel magazines/fortune/fortune500/2008/ Interactive, Inc.. states/AL.html, retrieved on 2009-01-10 http://www.weather.com/outlook/health/ [65] Living Wage Calculation for Montgomery allergies/wxclimatology/daily/ city, Montgomery County, Alabama, 36104?climoMonth=7. Retrieved on Pennsylvania State University, August 17 2008. http://www.livingwage.geog.psu.edu/ [54] "Daily Averages for Montgomery, AL places/0110151000, retrieved on (36104)". The Weather Channel 2008-01-08 Interactive, Inc.. [66] Living Wage Calculation for Alabama, http://www.weather.com/outlook/health/ Pennsylvania State University, allergies/wxclimatology/daily/ http://www.livingwage.geog.psu.edu/ 36104?climoMonth=1. Retrieved on states/01, retrieved on 2008-01-08 August 17 2008. [67] Council Resolution on 2009 Special [55] Average Weather for Montgomery, AL, Election, City of Montgomery, January 8, The Weather Channel, 2009, http://www.montgomeryal.gov/ http://www.weather.com/outlook/health/ index.aspx?page=952, retrieved on allergies/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/ 2009-01-11 USAL0375, retrieved on 2008-12-28 [68] ( – Scholar search) Museum Collections, [56] Deceannials - Census of Population and Montgomery Museum of Fine Arts, Housing, U.S. Census Bureau, http://www.mmfa.org/collections.cfm, http://www.census.gov/prod/www/abs/ retrieved on 2008-09-06 decennial/, retrieved on 2008-08-17 [69] About SAC’s Gallery - About the Society [57] "American FactFinder". United States of Arts & Crafts, Census Bureau. http://www.sacsgallery.org/ http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved on aboutsociety.html, retrieved on 2008-01-31. 2008-09-14 [58] Charles C. Mitchell, History of Alabama [70] About the Zoo-Mann Museum, City of Cotton, http://www.extension.org/pages/ Montgomery, Alabama, History_of_Alabama_Cotton, retrieved on http://www.montgomeryal.gov/ 2009-01-10 index.aspx?page=117, retrieved on [59] ^ "Montgomery", Encyclopædia 2008-09-06 [71] The Hank Williams Museum, Britannica, 18 (Eleventh ed.), 1911, http://www.thehankwilliamsmuseum.com/ p. 784 mtour.htm, retrieved on 2008-09-14 [60] The Role of Metro Areas in the U.S. [72] About Us, Alabama Shakespeare economy, U.S. Conference of Mayors, Festival, http://www.asf.net/aboutus/ March 1, 2006, http://usmayors.org/ index.aspx, retrieved on 2008-09-06 metroeconomies/Top100_2006.pdf, [73] A Bit of History, Troy University, retrieved on 2009-01-05 http://montgomery.troy.edu/davis/ [61] Montgomery, AL Economy at a Glance, brochurepage2.htm, retrieved on Bureau of Labor Statistics, December 19, 2008-09-14 2008, http://www.bls.gov/eag/ [74] Welcome to the Montgomery Symphony eag.al_montgomery_msa.htm, retrieved Orchestra, on 2009-01-05 http://www.montgomerysymphony.org/

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Montgomery, Alabama

about_MSO.htm, retrieved on records/baseball/baseball_records_book/ 2008-09-02 2008/2008_baseball_records.pdf, [75] Capri Theatre Montgomery, AL, Capri retrieved on 2008-09-02 Community Film Society, [87] "LPGA.com", http://lpga.com/ http://www.capritheatre.org/, retrieved tournament_microsite.aspx?id=13688, on 2008-09-14 retrieved on 2008-09-02 [76] Jubilee CityFest, [88] Blue-Gray All-Star Classic Games, http://www.jubileecityfest.com/, College Football Data Warehouse, retrieved on 2008-09-02 http://cfbdatawarehouse.com/data/bowls/ [77] Nat King Cole (1919 - 1965), Find A bowl_results.php?bowlid=35, retrieved Grave Memorial, on 2008-09-02 http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/ [89] Bart Starr, Pro Football Hall of Fame, fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=1336, retrieved http://www.profootballhof.com/hof/ on 2008-09-01 member.jsp?PLAYER_ID=200, retrieved [78] American Masters. Hank Williams, Public on 2008-09-02 Broadcasting Service, [90] Alonzo Babers Biography and Statistics, http://www.pbs.org/wnet/ Sports-Reference.com, americanmasters/database/ http://www.sports-reference.com/ williams_h.html, retrieved on olympics/athletes/ba/alonzo2008-09-01 babers-1.html, retrieved on 2008-09-02 [79] Big Mama Thornton Biography, Musician [91] ""Montgomery Public Schools"". Guide, http://www.musicianguide.com/ http://www.mps.k12.al.us/parents/ biographies/1608000152/Big-Mamaquickfaq.aspx. Retrieved on 2008-05-18. Thornton.html, retrieved on 2008-09-01 [92] ""Schools K-12 - Montgomery, AL Private [80] Melvin Franklin (1942 - 1995), Find A Schools"". http://www.schoolsk-12.com/ Grave Memorial, Alabama/Montgomery/Privatehttp://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/ schools.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-21. fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=4526, retrieved [93] ""About ASU"". http://www.alasu.edu/ on 2008-09-01 about/. Retrieved on 2008-06-21. [81] Alabama Music Hall of Fame Tommy [94] ""Auburn Montgomery-AUM:"". Shaw, http://www.alamhof.org/ http://www.aum.edu/Administration/ tommyshaw.html, retrieved on University_Relations/About_AUM/ 2008-09-01 index.aspx?id=2796. Retrieved on [82] Milford, Nancy (1970), Zelda: A 2008-06-21. Biography, New York: Harper & Row, [95] ""Faulkner University - Discover p. 24 Faulnker". http://www.faulkner.edu/ [83] F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald Museum, discover/. Retrieved on 2008-06-21. Montgomery Convention Center and [96] ""About HC"". Visitor Bureau, http://www.huntingdon.edu/about_hc. http://www.visitingmontgomery.com/ Retrieved on 2008-06-21. details.cfm?site_id=12DFB018-5C1D-4A35-94525180CD41666E, [97] ""USAF Air University"". retrieved on 2008-09-14 http://www.maxwell.af.mil/au/facts.asp. [84] Henry, Susan Copeland, Sidney Lanier Retrieved on 2008-06-21. (1842-1881), New Georgia Encyclopedia, [98] ""Local Television Market Universe Georgia Humanities Council and the Estimates"". "www.nielsenmedia.com". University of Georgia Press, http://www.nielsenmedia.com/nc/ http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/ nmr_static/docs/ Article.jsp?id=h-533&sug=y, retrieved 2007-2008_DMA_Ranks.xls. Retrieved on on 2008-09-14 2007-11-17. [85] "Montgomery Biscuits", [99] ""Arbitron Radio Market Rankings: Fall http://www.biscuitsbaseball.com/, 2007 "" (PDF). "www.arbitron.com". retrieved on 2008-04-05 http://www.arbitron.com/downloads/ [86] (PDF) Official 2008 NCAA Baseball redbook_fa07.pdf. Retrieved on Records Book, National Collegiate 2007-11-17. Athletic Association, January 2008, [100]"Senator Richard C. Shelby"". " p. 224, http://www.ncaa.org/library/ http://shelby.senate.gov/news/

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
record.cfm?id=258851. Retrieved on 2008-06-28. [101]"Montgomery Area Transit System"". " http://www.montgomerytransit.com/. Retrieved on 2008-06-28. [102]"Chart FY 08.pdf"" (PDF). " http://www.montgomerytransit.com/ Chart%20FY%2008.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-06-28. [103]"Greyhound.com : Locations: " Montgomery, Alabama". http://www.greyhound.com/home/ TicketCenter/en/ terminal.asp?city=420783. Retrieved on 2008-06-28. [104]"Canceled flights: Continental drops " Montgomery routes"". http://www.montgomeryadvertiser.com/ apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080613/ NEWS/806130371. Retrieved on 2008-06-28. [105]Floridian". http://www.saveamtrak.org/ " floridian.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-28. [106]Gulf Breeze". " http://www.everything2.com/

Montgomery, Alabama
index.pl?node_id=1260931. Retrieved on 2008-06-28. [107]Montgomery, "Sister City" celebration " starting Wednesday", Montgomery Advertiser, April 26, 2009, http://www.montgomeryadvertiser.com/ article/20090426/NEWS/90425012, retrieved on 2009-05-02

Further reading
• L. P. Powell (editor), in Historic Towns of the Southern States, (New York, 1900) • Jeffry C. Benton (editor) A Sense of Place, Montgomery’s Architectural History ( )

External links
• City of Montgomery, Alabama • TheRiverRegionOnline Website • Institute of Southern Jewish Life, History of Montgomery • Montgomery travel guide from Wikitravel • Montgomery article in the Encyclopedia of Alabama

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montgomery,_Alabama" Categories: Settlements established in 1816, Capitals of former nations, Montgomery, Alabama, Montgomery metropolitan area, Wright brothers, Cities in Alabama, County seats in Alabama This page was last modified on 18 May 2009, at 04:03 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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