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Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria

Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria and of All Africa

Coptic Orthodox Cross Reads: Jesus Christ, the Son of God Founder Independence Recognition Primate Headquarters Territory Possessions The Apostle and Evangelist Mark Apostolic Era Orthodox H.H. Pope and Patriarch Shenouda III Alexandria and Cairo in Egypt Egypt, Nubia, Sudan, Western Pentapolis, Libya and All Africa Middle East, Canada, Great Britain, Western Europe, South America, Australia, New Zealand, Oceania, Southeast Asia and the Caribbean Islands Coptic, Greek, Arabic, Egyptian Arabic, English, French, German, Swahili, Afrikaans, and several other African languages ~15.4 million total (~11,000,000 in Egypt + 350,000 - 400,000 in East, Central and South Africa (Native Africans) + ~4,000,000 Abroad (Diaspora) Official Website of HH Pope Shenouda III Coptic Orthodox Church Network


Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: Ϯ??’?????? ’????’????? ’?????????? ti.eklyseya en.remenkimi en.orthodoxos ente alexandrias, literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church of Alexandria) is the official name for the largest Christian church in Egypt. The Church belongs to the Oriental Orthodox family of churches, which has been a distinct church body since the Council of Chalcedon in AD 451, when it took a different position over Christological theology from that of the Eastern Orthodox and Western churches, then still in union. The precise differences in theology that caused




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the split are still disputed, highly technical and mainly concerned with the Nature of Christ. The foundational roots of the Church are based in Egypt but it has a worldwide following. According to tradition the Coptic Orthodox Church is the Church of Alexandria which was established by Saint Mark the apostle and evangelist in the middle of the 1st century (approximately AD 42).[1] The head of the church and the See of Alexandria is the Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All Africa on the Holy See of Saint Mark, currently His Holiness Pope Shenouda III. About 90% of Egypt’s Christians belong to the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, though other churches also claim Patriarchates and Patriarchs of Alexandria; among them: • The Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria • The Coptic Catholic Church of Alexandria • The Greek Melkite Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch, Alexandria and Jerusalem

Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
Egyptians (as opposed to Greeks or Jews) embraced the Christian faith.[3] Christianity spread throughout Egypt within half a century of Saint Mark’s arrival in Alexandria as is clear from the New Testament writings found in Bahnasa, in Middle Egypt, which date around the year AD 200, and a fragment of the Gospel of John, written in Coptic, which was found in Upper Egypt and can be dated to the first half of the second century. In the second century, Christianity began to spread to the rural areas, and scriptures were translated into the local language, namely Coptic.

Contributions to Christianity
The Catechetical School of Alexandria
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Eastern Christianity

History of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
Apostolic foundation
Egypt is identified in the Bible as the place of refuge that the Holy Family sought in its flight[2] from Judea: "When he arose, he took the young Child and His mother by night and departed for Egypt, and was there until the death of Herod the Great, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord through the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt I called My Son" (Matthew 2:12-23). The Egyptian Church, which is now more than nineteen centuries old, regards itself as the subject of many prophecies in the Old Testament. Isaiah the prophet, in Chapter 19, Verse 19 says "In that day there will be an altar to the LORD in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar to the LORD at its border." The first Christians in Egypt were common people who spoke Egyptian Coptic [3], there were also Alexandrian Jews such as Theophilus, whom Saint Luke the Evangelist addresses in the introductory chapter of his gospel. When the church was founded by Saint Mark[4] during the reign of the Roman emperor Nero, a great multitude of native
Eastern Christianity Portal

History Byzantine Empire Crusades Ecumenical council Christianization of Bulgaria Christianization of Kievan Rus’ East-West Schism By region Asian - Copts Eastern Orthodox - Georgian - Ukrainian Traditions Assyrian Church of the East Eastern Orthodox Church Eastern Catholic Churches Oriental Orthodoxy Syriac Christianity Liturgy and Worship Sign of the cross Divine Liturgy Iconography Asceticism Omophorion


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Theology Hesychasm - Icon Apophaticism - Filioque clause Miaphysitism - Monophysitism Nestorianism - Theosis - Theoria Phronema - Philokalia Praxis - Theotokos Hypostasis - Ousia Essence-Energies distinction Metousiosis The Catechetical School of Alexandria is the oldest catechetical school in the world. St. Jerome records that the Christian School of Alexandria was founded by St. Mark himself.[5] Around AD 190 under the leadership of the scholar Pantanaeus, the school of Alexandria became an important institution of religious learning, where students were taught by scholars such as Athenagoras, Clement, Didymus, and the native Egyptian Origen, who was considered the father of theology and who was also active in the field of commentary and comparative Biblical studies. Origen wrote over 6,000 commentaries of the Bible in addition to his famous Hexapla. Many scholars such as Jerome visited the school of Alexandria to exchange ideas and to communicate directly with its scholars. The scope of this school was not limited to theological subjects; science, mathematics and humanities were also taught there. The question-and-answer method of commentary began there, and fifteen centuries before Braille, wood-carving techniques were in use there by blind scholars to read and write. The Theological college of the catechetical school of Alexandria was re-established in 1893. The new school currently has campuses in Alexandria, Cairo, New Jersey, and Los Angeles, where Coptic priests-to-be and other qualified men and women are taught among other subjects Christian theology, history, Coptic language and art - including chanting, music, iconography, and tapestry.

Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
Macarius the Great and Saint Pachomius the Cenobite in the 4th century. Christian Monasticism was born in Egypt and was instrumental in the formation of the Coptic Orthodox Church character of submission, simplicity and humility, thanks to the teachings and writings of the Great Fathers of Egypt’s Deserts. By the end of the fifth century, there were hundreds of monasteries, and thousands of cells and caves scattered throughout the Egyptian desert. A great number of these monasteries are still flourishing and have new vocations to this day. All Christian monasticism stems, either directly or indirectly, from the Egyptian example: Saint Basil the Great Archbishop of Ceasaria of Cappadocia, founder and organizer of the monastic movement in Asia Minor, visited Egypt around AD 357 and his rule is followed by the Eastern Orthodox Churches; Saint Jerome who translated the Bible into Latin, came to Egypt, while en route to Jerusalem, around AD 400 and left details of his experiences in his letters; Benedict founded the Benedictine Order in the sixth century on the model of Saint Pachomius, but in a stricter form. Countless pilgrims have visited the "Desert Fathers" to emulate their spiritual, disciplined lives.

Role and participation in the Ecumenical Councils
Council of Nicea
In the 4th century, an Alexandrian presbyter named Arius began a theological dispute about the nature of Christ that spread throughout the Christian world and is now known as Arianism (not to be confused with the racist Nazi ideology Aryanism). The Ecumenical Council of Nicea AD 325 was convened by Constantine under the presidency of Saint Hosius of Cordova and Saint Alexander of Alexandria to resolve the dispute and eventually led to the formulation of the Symbol of Faith, also known as the Nicene Creed. The Creed, which is now recited throughout the Christian world, was based largely on the teaching put forth by a man who eventually would become Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, the chief opponent of Arius.

The Cradle of Monasticism and its missionary work
Many Egyptian Christians went to the desert during the 3rd century, and remained there to pray and work and dedicate their lives to seclusion and worship of God. This was the beginning of the monastic movement, which was organized by Anthony the Great, Saint Paul, the world’s first anchorite, Saint

Council of Constantinople
In the year AD 381, Saint Timothy I of Alexandria presided over the second ecumenical


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council known as the Ecumenical Council of Constantinople, which completed the Nicene Creed with this confirmation of the divinity of the Holy Spirit: "We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life, who proceeds from the Father, who with the Father and the Son is worshipped and glorified who spoke by the Prophets and in One, Holy, Universal, and Apostolic church. We confess one Baptism for the remission of sins and we look for the resurrection of the dead and the life of the coming age, Amen."

Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
excommunicated anyone who followed the teachings of Nestorius. For example, "Anyone who dares to deny the Holy Virgin the title Theotokos is Anathema!" Nestorius however, still would not repent and so this led to the convening of the First Ecumenical Council of Ephesus (431), over which Cyril I of Alexandria presided. The First Ecumenical Council of Ephesus confirmed the teachings of Saint Athanasius and confirmed the title of Mary as "Mother of God". It also clearly stated that anyone who separated Christ into two hypostases was anathema, as Athanasius had said that there is "One Nature and One Hypostasis for God the Word Incarnate" (Mia Physis tou Theou Loghou Sesarkomeni). Also, the introduction to the creed was formulated as follows: "We magnify you O Mother of the True Light and we glorify you O saint and Mother of God (Theotokos) for you have borne unto us the Saviour of the world. Glory to you O our Master and King: Christ, the pride of the Apostles, the crown of the martyrs, the rejoicing of the righteous, firmness of the churches and the forgiveness of sins. We proclaim the Holy Trinity in One Godhead: we worship Him, we glorify Him, Lord have mercy, Lord have mercy, Lord bless us, Amen."

Council of Ephesus

Coptic Icon in the Coptic Altar of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem Another theological dispute in the 5th century occurred over the teachings of Nestorius, the Patriarch of Constantinople who taught that God the Word was not hypostatically joined with human nature, but rather dwelt in the man Jesus. As a consequence of this, he denied the title "Mother of God" (Theotokos) to the Virgin Mary, declaring her instead to be "Mother of Christ" Christotokos. When reports of this reached the Apostolic Throne of Saint Mark, Pope Saint Cyril I of Alexandria acted quickly to correct this breach with orthodoxy, requesting that Nestorius repent. When he would not, the Synod of Alexandria met in an emergency session and a unanimous agreement was reached. Pope Cyril I of Alexandria, supported by the entire See, sent a letter to Nestorius known as "The Third Epistle of Saint Cyril to Nestorius." This epistle drew heavily on the established Patristic Constitutions and contained the most famous article of Alexandrian Orthodoxy: "The Twelve Anathemas of Saint Cyril." In these anathemas, Cyril

Council of Chalcedon
When in AD 451, Emperor Marcianus attempted to heal divisions in the Church, the response of Pope Dioscorus – the Pope of Alexandria who was later exiled – was that the emperor should not intervene in the affairs of the Church. It was at Chalcedon that the emperor, through the Imperial delegates, enforced harsh disciplinary measures against Pope Dioscorus in response to his boldness. The Council of Chalcedon , from the perspective of the Alexandrine Christology, has deviated from the approved Cyrillian terminology and declared that Christ was one hypostasis in two natures. However, in the Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed, "Christ was conceived of the Holy Spirit and of the Virgin Mary," thus the foundation of the definition according to the Non-Chalcedonian adherents, according to the Christology of Cyril of Alexandria is valid. It is important to note the change in the Non-Chalcedonian definition here, as the Nicene creed clearly uses the terms "of", rather than "in".


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Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
known as the Greek Orthodox Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All Africa.[7] Almost the entire Egyptian population rejected the terms of the Council of Chalcedon and remained faithful to the native Egyptian Church (now known as the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria). Those who supported the Chalcedonian definition remained in communion with the other leading churches of Rome and Constantinople. The non-Chalcedonian party became what is today called the Oriental Orthodox Church. The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria regards itself as having been misunderstood at the Council of Chalcedon. There was an opinion in the Church that viewed that perhaps the Council understood the Church of Alexandria correctly, but wanted to curtail the existing power of the Alexandrine Hierarch, especially after the events that happened several years before at Constantinople from Pope Theophilus of Alexandria towards Patriarch John Chrysostom and the unfortunate turnouts of the Second Council of Ephesus in AD 449, where Eutichus misled Pope Dioscoros and the Council in confessing the Orthodox Faith in writing and then renouncing it after the Council, which in turn, had upset Rome, especially that the Tome which was sent was not read during the Council sessions. To make thing even worse, the Tome of Pope Leo of Rome was, according to the Alexandria School of Theology, particularly in regards to the definition of Christology, considered influenced by Nestorian heretical teachings. So, due to the above mentioned, especially in the consecutive sequences of events, the Hierarchs of Alexandria were considered holding too much of power from one hand, and on the other hand, due to the conflict of the Schools of Theology, an inpass was to be and there was a scape goat, i.e. Pope Disocoros. It is important to note that the Tome of Leo has been widely accused (surprisingly by Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox scholars) in the past 50 years as a much less than perfect orthodox theological doctrine. It is also to be noted that by anathemizing Pope Leo, because of the tone and content of his Tome, as per Alexandrine Theology perception, Pope Discoros was found guilty of doing so, without due process, in other words, the Tome of Leo was not a subject of heresy in the first place, but it was a question

St. Mark Coptic Cathedral in Alexandria In terms of Christology, the Oriental Orthodox (Non-Chalcedonians) understanding is that Christ is "One Nature--the Logos Incarnate," of the full humanity and full divinity. The Chalcedonians’ understanding is that Christ is in two natures, full humanity and full divinity. Just as humans are of their mothers and fathers and not in their mothers and fathers, so too is the nature of Christ according to Oriental Orthodoxy. If Christ is in full humanity and in full divinity, then He is separate in two persons as the Nestorians teach.[6] This is the doctrinal perception that makes the apparent difference which separated the Oriental Orthodox from the Eastern Orthodox. The Council’s findings were rejected by many of the Christians on the fringes of the Byzantine Empire, including Egyptians, Syrians, Armenians, and others. From that point onward, Alexandria would have two patriarchs: the non-Chalcedonian native Egyptian one, now known as the Coptic Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All Africa on the Holy Apostolic See of St. Mark and the "Melkite" or Imperial Patriarch, now


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of questioning the reasons behind not having it either acknowledged or read at the Second Council of Ephesus in AD 449. It is important to note that Pope Dioscorus of Alexandria was never labeled as heretic by the council’s canons. Copts also believe that the Pope of Alexandria was forcibly prevented from attending the third congregation of the council from which he was ousted, apparently the result of a conspiracy tailored by the Roman delegates.[8] Before the current positive era of Eastern and Oriental Orthodox dialogues, Chalcedonians sometimes used to call the non-Chalcedonians "monophysites", though the Coptic Orthodox Church in reality regards monophysitism as a heresy. The Chalcedonian doctrine in turn came to be known as "dyophysite". A term that comes closer to Coptic Orthodoxy is miaphysite, which refers to a conjoined nature for Christ, both human and divine, united indivisibly in the Incarnate Logos. The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria believes that Christ is perfect in His divinity, and He is perfect in His humanity, but His divinity and His humanity were united in one nature called "the nature of the incarnate word", which was reiterated by Saint Cyril of Alexandria. Copts, thus, believe in two natures "human" and "divine" that are united in one hypostasis "without mingling, without confusion, and without alteration". These two natures "did not separate for a moment or the twinkling of an eye" (Coptic Liturgy of Saint Basil of Caesarea).

Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria

The Muslim conquest of Egypt
The Muslim conquest of Egypt took place in AD 639. Despite the political upheaval, Egypt remained a mainly Christian land. However, the gradual conversions to Islam over the centuries changed Egypt from a Christian to a largely Muslim country by the end of the 12th century.[9] This process was sped along by persecutions during and following the reign of the Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah (reigned AD 996–1021) and the Crusades, and also by the acceptance of Arabic as a liturgical language by the Pope of Alexandria Gabriel ibn-Turaik.[10] During Islamic rule, the Copts needed to pay a special tax called the jizya in order to be defended by Muslim armies, as nonMuslims were not allowed to serve in the army. This tax was abolished in 1855.

From the 19th century to the 1952 revolution
The position of the Copts began to improve early in the 19th century under the stability and tolerance of Muhammad Ali’s dynasty. The Coptic community ceased to be regarded by the state as an administrative unit and, by 1855, the main mark of Copts’ inferiority, the Jizya tax, was lifted. Shortly thereafter, Christians started to serve in the Egyptian army. The 1919 revolution in Egypt, the first grassroots display of Egyptian identity in centuries, stands as a witness to the homogeneity of Egypt’s modern society with both its Muslim and Christian components.

From Chalcedon to the Arab conquest of Egypt
Copts suffered under the rule of the Byzantine Eastern Roman Empire. The Melkite Patriarchs, appointed by the emperors as both spiritual leaders and civil governors, massacred the Egyptian population whom they considered heretics. Many Egyptians were tortured and martyred to accept the terms of Chalcedon, but Egyptians remained loyal to the faith of their fathers and to the Cyrillian view of Christology. One of the most renowned Egyptian saints of that period is Saint Samuel the Confessor.

Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church
In 1959, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church was granted its own Patriarch by Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All Africa Cyril VI.

The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria today
Part of the series on

Copts ?????’????? ’?’??????’????

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Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
There are about 10 to 15 million Coptic Orthodox Christians in the world: they are found primarily in Egypt under the jurisdiction of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (roughly 8-15 million).[11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21] There are also significant numbers in the diaspora in countries such as the United States of America, Canada, Australia, France, Germany, and Sudan. The number of Coptic Orthodox Christians in the diaspora is roughly 2 million.[22] In addition, there are between 350,000 and 400,000 native African adherents in East, Central and South Africa. Although under the jurisdiction of the Coptic Orthodox Church, these adherents are not considered Copts, since they are not ethnic Egyptians. Some accounts regard members of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (roughly 45 million),[23] the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church (roughly 2.5 million), as members of the Coptic Orthodox Church. This is however a misnomer, since both the Ethiopian and the Eritrean Churches, although daughter churches of the Church of Alexandria, are currently autocephalous churches. In 1959, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church was granted its first own Patriarch by Pope Cyril VI. Furthermore, the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church similarly became independent of the Ethiopian Tewahedo Church in 1994, when four bishops were consecrated by Pope Shenouda III of Alexandria to form the basis of a local Holy Synod of the Eritrean Church. In 1998, the Eritrean Church gained its autocephelacy from the Coptic Orthodox Church when its first Patriarch was enthroned by Pope Shenouda III of Alexandria. These three churches remain in full communion with each other and with the other Oriental Orthodox churches. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church and the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church do acknowledge the Honorary Supremacy of the Coptic Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria, since the Church of Alexandria is technically their Mother Church. Upon their selection, both Patriarchs (Ethiopian & Eritrean) must receive the approval and communion from the Holy Synod of the Apostolic See of Alexandria before their enthronement. In addition to the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria whose adherents make up around 90% of Egypt’s total Christian population.[12][19] The country also includes

A modern Coptic monastery.

Culture Architecture · Art · Calendar Coptology · Cross · Fasting Flag · History · Literature Music · Monasticism · Persecution Regions Egypt · United States · Canada · Africa · Asia · Australia · Europe · South America Religions Coptic Orthodox Church · Coptic Catholic Church · Coptic Evangelical Church · Other Protestants Language Egyptian language · Coptic language Arabic Language Writing Systems Hieroglyphs · Hieratic · Demotic · Coptic

The current Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria and the Patriarch of All Africa on the Holy See of Saint Mark is Pope Shenouda III.


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Christian minorities that belong other Christian denominations, which are: • The Coptic Evangelical Church (a Protestant church) has between around 140,000 members out of 200,000[20] Protestants in Egypt. • The Coptic Catholic Church (an Eastern Catholic Church) has around 162,000 members in Egypt[24][25] and roughly 50,000 adherents abroad. It is headed by the Coptic Catholic Patriarch of Alexandria. • The Greek Orthodox Church of Alexandria (an Eastern Orthodox Church) has around 350,000[20] adherents in Egypt, out of whom approximately 45,000 are of Greek descent. The Church has another 1.5 million adherents in Africa, out of whom approximately 175,000 to 200,000 of Greek descent and the rest are native African converts (1.3 million). There are also between 10,000 and 15,000 expatriates in Europe, North and South America. The current Greek Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria is Pope Theodoros II.[26] • The Melkite Greek Catholic Church (an Eastern Catholic Church) has around 7,000[20] members in Egypt. The eparchy of Egypt is looked after by a Protosyncellus, and has between 15,000 and 20,000 ex-patriates in Europe, North and South America, and Australia. • The Armenian Apostolic Church (an Oriental Orthodox Church) has around 7,000[20] adherents in Egypt. Most of them follow the Holy See of Echmiadzin in Armenia, rather than the Holy See of Cilicia in Lebanon. • The Roman Catholic Church has has around 500,000 adherents in Egypt. See Wiki link [4] Most are citizens born in Egypt but of foreign descent, like Italians, Maltese and French, or members of the foreign Diplomatic Corps in Egypt. There are very few native Christian Egyptians who adhere to the Roman Catholic Church, and those who do (several hundreds) do so mainly through marriage. • The Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East (a Protestant Church known in Egypt as the Anglican Church) has between 10,000 and 15,000 members in Egypt.

Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
• The Maronite Church (an Eastern Catholic Church) has has around 5,000[20] adherents in Egypt. • The Armenian Catholic Church (an Eastern Catholic Church) has around 1,200[20] adherents in Egypt. • The Chaldean Catholic Church (an Eastern Catholic Church) has around 500[20] members in Egypt. • The Syriac Catholic Church (an Eastern Catholic Church) has has around 2,000[20] adherents in Egypt. • The Syriac Orthodox Church (an Oriental Orthodox Church) has a very small population in Egypt, numbering between 450 and 500. Most are students of the Catechetical School of Alexandria, or foreign students studying in Egyptian Universities. Since the 1980s theologians from the Oriental (Non-Chalcedonian) Orthodox and Eastern (Chalcedonian) Orthodox churches have been meeting in a bid to resolve theological differences, and have concluded that many of the differences are caused by the two groups using different terminology to describe the same thing (see Agreed Official Statements on Christology with the Eastern Orthodox Churches). In the summer of 2001, the Coptic Orthodox and Greek Orthodox Patriarchates of Alexandria agreed[27] to mutually recognize baptisms performed in each other’s churches, making re-baptisms unnecessary, and to recognize the sacrament of marriage as celebrated by the other. Previously, if a Coptic Orthodox and Greek Orthodox wanted to marry, the marriage had to be performed twice, once in each church, for it to be recognized by both. Now it can be done in only one church and be recognized by both. According to Christian Tradition and Canon Law, the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria only ordains men, and if they wish to be married, they must be married before they are ordained. In this respect they follow the same practices as does the Eastern Orthodox Church. Traditionally, the Coptic language was used in church services, and the scriptures were written in the Coptic alphabet. However, due to the Arabisation of Egypt, service in churches started to witness increased use of Arabic, while preaching is done entirely in Arabic. Native languages are


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
used, in conjunction with Coptic and Arabic, during services outside of Egypt. Coptic Orthodox Christians celebrate Christmas on the 7th of January (Gregorian Calendar), which coincides with the 25th of December according to the Julian Calendar. The Coptic Orthodox Church uses the Julian Calendar as its Ecclesiastical Calendar. It is known as the Coptic calendar or the Alexandrian Calendar. This calendar is in turn based on the old Egyptian calendar of Ancient Egypt. The Coptic Orthodox Church is thus considered an Old Calendrist Church. Christmas according to the Coptic calendar was adopted as an official national holiday in Egypt since 2002.

Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
is, in Egypt, Pentapolis, Libya, Nubia, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea and all Africa. The Successor of St. Mark the Evangelist, Holy Apostle and Martyr, on the Holy Apostolic Throne of the Great City of Alexandria. Pope of Alexandria, being the Diocesan Bishop of the Great and Ancient Metropolis of Alexandria, that is in Alexandria and the metropolitan province of Greater Cairo. Elder Metropolitan Archbishop of the Egyptian Province. Primate of Egypt, Pentapolis, Libya, Nubia and Sudan. Patriarch of All Africa. Father of Fathers. Shepherd of Shepherds. Hierarch of all Hierarchs.



• • • • • •

Coptic Orthodox churches around the world
There are several Coptic Orthodox churches and institutions in Egypt and abroad: • : see Coptic Orthodox Church in Africa • : see Coptic Orthodox Church in Asia • : see Coptic Orthodox Church in Australia • : see Coptic Orthodox Church in Europe • : see Coptic Orthodox Church in North America • : see Coptic Orthodox Church in the United States • : see Coptic Orthodox Church in Canada • : see Coptic Orthodox Church in Mexico • see Coptic Orthodox Church in South America

Honorary titles of the Pope of Alexandria
• The Dean of the Great Catechetical School of Theology of Alexandria. • The Ecumenical (Universal) Judge (Arbitrator) of the Holy Apostolic and Catholic (Universal) Church. • The Thirteenth among the Holy Apostles. • The Pillar and Defender of the Holy, Catholic (Universal), Apostolic Church and of the Orthodox Doctrine.

Historical evolution of the ecclesiastical title
The Bishop of Alexandria was first known just as the Bishop of Alexandria. It continued to be so, until the Church grew within and all over the Egyptian Province, and many Bishops were consecrated for the newly founded parishes all over the towns and cities. The Bishop of Alexandria, being the successor of the first Bishop in Egypt consecrated by Saint Mark, was honored by the other Bishops, as first among equals "Primus inter Pares,". This was in addition to the appropriate honorary dignity, which was due by virtue of being the Senior Bishop of the main Metropolis of the Province, Alexandria, which also the Capital and the main Port of the Province. This honor was bestowed by making the Senior Bishop an “Archbishop,” thus presiding in dignity of honor over all the Alexandrine and Egyptian Bishops.

Official titles of the Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All Africa
The episcopal titles of the Pope of Alexandria
• The leader of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, is known as Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of all Africa on the Holy See of St. Mark the Apostle. • His full title is Pope and Lord Archbishop of the Great City of Alexandria and Patriarch of All Africa on the Holy Orthodox and Apostolic Throne of Saint Mark the Evangelist and Holy Apostle that


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The appellation of “Pope” has been attributed to the Bishop of Alexandria since the Episcopate of Heraclas, the thirteenth Bishop of Alexandria. All the clergy of Alexandria and Lower Egypt honored him with the appellation “Papas,” which means “Our Father,” as the Senior and Elder Bishop among all bishops, within the Egyptian Province, who are under his jurisdiction. This is because Alexandria was the Capital of the Province, and the preaching center and the place of martyrdom of Saint Mark the Evangelist and Apostle. The title “Patriarch” means the Head or the Leader of a Tribe or a Community. Ecclesiastically it means the Head of the Fathers (Bishops) and their congregation of faithful. This title is historically known as “Patriarch of Alexandria and all Africa on the Holy Apostolic Throne of Saint Mark the Evangelist,” that is “of Alexandria and of all Africa.” The title of “Patriarch” was first used around the time of the Third Ecumenical Council of Ephesus, convened in AD 431, and ratified at Chalcedon in AD 451. It is to be noted that only the Patriarch of Alexandria has the double title of Pope and Patriarch among the Eastern Orthodox and the Oriental Orthodox Thrones.

Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
In addition to the above, the countries of Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe, the Congo, Cameroon, Nigeria, Ghana, Botswana, Malawi, Angola, Namibia and South Africa are under the jurisdiction and the evangelization of the Throne of Alexandria. It is still expanding in the vast continent of Africa.

Administrative divisions of the Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria
• 11 Metropolises with 9 Metropolitans, while 2 Metropolises remain vacant. • 55 Dioceses in Egypt and outside Egypt with 51 Diocesan Bishops plus 2 Bishops shepherding a particular flock {the Eritreans} in the United States of America and the United Kingdom, while 2 Dioceses remain vacant. • 9 Auxiliary Bishops (1 in a Diocese in France, 2 in Dioceses in Egypt and 6 assistants to H.H. the Pope in the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Cairo, which is directly under the responsibility of H.H. the Pope) • 6 Patriarchal Exarchs (2 in the Archdiocese of North America, 1 in the United Kingdom, 1 in Sweden and 2 in East and South Africa) • 9 Bishop Abbots of Patriarchal Monasteries, plus 3 Monasteries awaiting the nomination of its Bishop Abbot. • 6 General Bishops, including 3 Bishops heading Patriarchal Institutions, 2 Bishops Secretaries of H.H. the Pope and 1 General Bishop without portfolio. • 1 Chorbishop.

Jurisdiction of the Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria outside Egypt
Besides Egypt, the Church of Alexandria has jurisdiction over Pentapolis, Libya, Nubia, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea and all Africa. Both the Patriarchate of Addis Ababa & all Ethiopia and the Patriarchate of Asmara & all Eritrea do acknowledge the supremacy of honor & dignity of the Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria on the basis that both Patriarchates were established by the Throne of Alexandria and that they have their roots in the Apostolic Church of Alexandria, and acknowledge that Saint Mark the Apostle is the founder of their Churches through the heritage and Apostolic evangelization of the Fathers of Alexandria. In other words, the Patriarchate of Addis Ababa & all Ethiopia and the Patriarchate of Asmara & all Eritrea are daughter Churches of the Holy Apostolic Patriarchate of Alexandria.

The Holy Synod of the Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria
The Holy Synod of the Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria is headed by the Patriarch of Alexandria and the members are the Metropolitans, Bishops, Chorbishops and Patriarchal Vicars of the Church of Alexandria. For the list of the members of the Holy Synod and their official titles see main article The Holy Synod of the Coptic Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
• Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria • List of Coptic Orthodox Popes of Alexandria • Pope Shenouda III of Alexandria • Patriarch of Alexandria • The Holy Synod of the Coptic Orthodox Church • Coptic Orthodox Church in Africa • Coptic Orthodox Church in Australia • Coptic Orthodox Church in North America • Coptic Orthodox Church in the United States • Coptic Orthodox Church in Canada • Coptic Orthodox Church in Mexico • Coptic Orthodox Church in Europe • Coptic Orthodox Church in South America • General Congregation Council • Copts • Coptic Saints • The Catechetical School of Alexandria • Coptic Orthodox churches • Institute of Coptic Studies • Coptic Orphans • Oriental Orthodoxy • Christianity in Africa • Eastern Orthodox Church of Alexandria • Coptic Catholic Church • Holy Family in Egypt • Zabbaleen

A Coptic Orthodox Church in Amman, Jordan

• Saint Mark’s Coptic Orthodox Cathedral • Saint Mark’s Coptic Orthodox Cathedral (Alexandria) • Saint Mark’s Coptic Orthodox Cathedral (Azbakeya)

[1] Eusebius of Caesarea, the author of Ecclesiastical History in the fourth century, states that st. Mark came to Egypt in the first or third year of the reign of Emperor Claudius, i.e. 41 or 43 A.D. "Two Thousand years of Coptic Christianity" Otto F.A. Meinardus p28. [2] Holy Family in Egypt [3] ^ missionbios.html Early church missionary] [4] New world encyclopedia [5] Coptic Church .net [6] Split of the Byzantine and Oriental Churches. [7] Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Alexandria. [8] Romanides, John S. Leo of Rome’s Support of Theodoret.

• • • • • • • • • • Monastery of Saint Anthony Monastery of Saint Macarius the Great Monastery of Saint Mina Paromeos Monastery Monastery of Saint Paul the Anchorite Monastery of Saint Pishoy Red Monastery Syrian Monastery White Monastery Monastery of Abu Fanah

See also
• List of Orthodox Churches


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[9] Kamil, Jill (1997). Coptic Egypt: History and Guide. Cairo: American University in Cairo. [10] Kamil, op cit. [11] "Egypt from “The World Factbook”". American Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). September 4, 2008. the-world-factbook/geos/eg.html. [12] ^ "Egypt from “U.S. Department of State/Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs”". United States Department of State. September 30, 2008. 5309.htm. [13] "”The Copts and Their Political Implications in Egypt”". Washington Institute for Near East Policy. October 25, 2005. templateC05.php?CID=2386. [14] IPS News (retrieved 09-27-2008) [15] [1]. The Washington Post. "Estimates of the size of Egypt’s Christian population vary from the low government figures of 6 to 7 million to the 12 million reported by some Christian leaders. The actual numbers may be in the 9 to 9.5 million range, out of an Egyptian population of more than 60 million." Retrieved 10-10-2008 [16] [2]. The New York Times. Retrieved 10-10-2008. [17] [3] The Christian Post. Accessed 28 September 2008. [18] NLG Solutions <Online>. Egypt. Accessed 28 September 2008. [19] ^ "Egypt from “Foreign and Commonwealth Office”". Foreign and Commonwealth Office -UK Ministry of Foreign Affairs. August 15, 2008. country-profiles/middle-east-north-africa/ egypt. [20] ^ "Egypt Religions & Peoples from “LOOKLEX Encyclopedia”". LookLex Ltd.. September 30, 2008. [21] "Egypt from “msn encarta”". Encarta. September 30, 2008. encyclopedia_761557408_3/Egypt.html. [22] Los Angeles Times, EGYPT: Coptic diaspora spreads the word, June 24 2008 [23] WCC official visit to Ethiopia World Council of Churches - News Release. 21

Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria
September 2005. Retrieved 25 November 2006. [24] Roberson-eastcath-statistics/eastcatholicstat07.pdf [25] CNEWA – The Coptic Catholic Church [26] Pope Theodoros II [27] Official Statements on Christology.

External links
• The Official Site of the Coptic Orthodox Pope • The Official Site for the Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Midlands & Affiliated Areas, U.K. • A simple, summarised investigation of Coptic Othodoxy • Comprehensive collection of Coptic hymns, articles, and information on the Coptic Orthodox Church • More Information on the Coptic Church, its Beliefs, Practices, and Liturgical Life • Downloadable Coptic hymns, chants, songs, liturgies, live webcasts, and forum • St. Mina (Menas) Coptic Orthodox Monastery in Mariut, near Alexandria, Egypt • Coptic Church History at • CoptNet - The Christian Coptic Orthodox Church Of Egypt • History of the Patriarchs of the Coptic Church of Alexandria - to 849 A.D. • Agpeya: Coptic Book of Hours - also see Canonical hours • Severus of Al’Ashmunein (=Hermopolis), History of the Patriarchs of the Coptic church of Alexandria • (French) • (French)

• The Chronicle of John, Bishop of Nikiu: Translated from Zotenberg’s Ethiopic Text. R. H. Charles (translator). Evolution Publishing. 2007-02-28. ISBN 978-1-889758-87-9. • Meinardus, Otto (2002-10-01). Two Thousand Years of Coptic Christianity. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press. ISBN 9774247574. p-2287-two-thousand-years-of-copticchristianity.aspx.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Partrick, Theodore (June 1996). Traditional Egyptian Christianity: A History of the Coptic Orthodox Church. Greensboro, NC: Fisher Park Press. ISBN 0965239608. • Butcher, E. L. (1897) (in Arabic). Story of the Church of Egypt (text file ed.). London: Smith, Elder & Co.. ISBN 0837076102. • Iskandar, Adel; Hakem Rustom (January 2006). "From Paris to Cairo: Resistance of the Unacculturated". The Ambassadors Online Magazine. archives/issue19/opinions2.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-09.

Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria

Autocephalous and Autonomous Churches of Oriental Orthodoxy
Autocephalous Churches Alexandria | Antioch | Armenia | Eritrea | Ethiopia | India Autonomous Churches Alexandria: British Orthodox Church | French Orthodox Church Antioch: Malankara Syriac Orthodox Church Armenia: Cilicia | Constantinople | Jerusalem

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