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Gospel_of_Matthew

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Gospel of Matthew

Gospel of Matthew
The Bible New Testament • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Matthew Mark Luke John Acts Romans 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians Galatians Ephesians Philippians Colossians 1 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy 2 Timothy Titus Philemon Hebrews James 1 Peter 2 Peter 1 John 2 John 3 John Jude Revelation agree Matthew did not write the Gospel which bears his name.[3] Most contemporary scholars describe the author as an anonymous Christian writing towards the end of the first century. [4] The consensus view of the contemporary New Testament scholars is that the Gospel was originally composed in Greek rather than being a translation from Aramaic or Hebrew.[5] A majority of scholars believe today that Matthew (and Luke) used Mark’s narrative of Jesus’ life and death, plus the hypothetical Q document’s record of Jesus’ sayings while the minority argue that Matthew was the first, Luke expanded on Matthew and Mark is the conflation of Matthew and Luke.[4][6] Of the four canonical gospels, Matthew is most closely aligned with first century Judaism. Matthew repeatedly stresses how Jesus fulfilled Jewish prophecies.[7] Most scholars hold that the author was a Jewish Christian rather than a Gentile. [8] The author arranged Jesus’ teaching into five sermons: Sermon on the Mount (ch 5-7), the Mission discourse (ch 10), a collection of parables (ch 13), instructions for the community (ch 18) and finally teaching concerning the future (ch 24-25, also probably including the woes against the scribes and Pharisees in ch 23). Like the two other synoptic Gospels but in contrast with John, in Matthew Jesus talks more about the Kingdom of Heaven than himself, and teaches primarily using short parables or short sayings rather than extended speeches (as in John). [9] Matthew’s birth narrative, with the homage of the Wise Men, the flight into Egypt and the massacre of the innocents, has no parallel in other gospels and is different from Luke’s corresponding account. The special commission given to Peter, found only in Matthew, has been highly influential.[10] Matthew is also the only Gospel to mention the church (ecclesia). Jesus cites its authority and calls on his disciples to practice forgiveness (ch. 18).[7] With its integration of Mark’s narrative with Jesus’ teachings and its emphasis on the church, Matthew was the most popular Gospel when they circulated separately.[7] Matthew has a rhythmical

The Gospel of Matthew (Gk. Κατὰ Ματθαῖον εὐαγγέλιον, Kata Matthaion Euangelion or τὸ εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ματθαῖον, To Euangelion kata Matthaion) is one of the four canonical gospels in the New Testament and is a synoptic gospel. It narrates an account of the life and ministry of Jesus of Nazareth. It describes his genealogy, his miraculous birth and childhood, his baptism and temptation, his ministry of healing and preaching in Galilee, his trip to Jerusalem marked by an incident in the Temple, and finally his crucifixion and resurrection. The resurrected Jesus commissions his Apostles to "go and make disciples of all nations." The Early Christian tradition attributes the Gospel to Matthew, one of Jesus’ disciples. [1][2] Beginning in the 18th century scholars have increasingly questioned that traditional view, and today most scholars

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and often poetical prose.[11] Of the Synoptics, it is the Gospel best suited for public reading, and it has probably always been the best-known of them.[10] Matthew includes a large amount of material containing teachings of Jesus; its Sermon on the Mount is widely respected and referred to, even by non-Christians. It is also distinguished by its widespread use of proof texts based on the Old Testament,anti-Jewish statements and harsh comments on Judgment.[12]

Gospel of Matthew
destruction of Jerusalem by Romans in 70 AD.[16] Some significant conservative scholars argue for a pre-70 date, generally considering the gospel to be written by the apostle Matthew.[17] In December 1994, Carsten Peter Thiede redated the Magdalen papyrus, which bears a fragment in Greek of the Gospel of Matthew, to the late 1st century on palaeographical grounds,[18] although Thiede’s redating has generally been viewed with skepticism by established Biblical scholars [19] In recent times, John Wenham, one of the biggest supporters of the Augustinian hypothesis, is among the more notable defenders of an early date for the Gospel of Matthew.

Composition

Authorship
The Early Christian tradition attributes the Gospel to Matthew, one of Jesus’ disciples. This tradition of authorship dates from the writings of Papias in the first half of the second century AD. [1][2] Beginning in the 18th century, however, critical scholars have increasingly questioned whether Matthew wrote the Gospel which bears his name.[3]. Many contemporary scholars describe the author as an anonymous Christian writer, who wrote the gospel towards the end of the first century. [4] According to Howard Clark Kee, it appears that Jesus’ teachings and sayings were handed down orally until they were eventually written down. This theory is partly based upon "the fact that other, later Christian writings include sayings attributed to Jesus that resemble those in the gospels, but for which there is no exact equivalent." [20] There are some indications that Matthew was written for a community of Jewish Christians. At Matthew 18 Jesus instructs his disciples to treat an offending member of the community as "a Gentile and tax collector". [21] At Matthew 17 Jesus and Peter discuss whether it is right to pay the Temple Tax. After suggesting that they should not have to pay it, Jesus miraculously provides a coin and instructs Peter to use it to pay the tax for both of them. [22] After the Jewish Revolt the Romans redirected the Temple Tax to pay for the cost of the war; this passage may be a reference to disputes within the Jewish Christian community over whether it was appropriate to continue to pay this tax. There are debates today as to whether or not Matthew is the true author of this book.

Saint Matthew, from the 9th-century Ebbo Gospels.

Date of gospel
The date of the gospel is not precisely known. The majority of scholars date the gospel between the years 70 and 100.[13][14] The writings of Ignatius show "a strong case ... for [his] knowledge of four Pauline epistles and the Gospel of Matthew"[15], which gives a terminus ad quem of c. 110. The author of the Didache (c 100) probably knew it as well.[10] Anti-supernaturalists have argued that since Jesus refers to the destruction of Jerusalem (e.g. Matthew 22:7) this gospel must have been written after the siege and

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The first evidence for Mattean authorship was believed to be Papias, a second century Bishop of Hierapolis. His findings are stated in Eusebius H.E. 3.39, that says, ‘Matthew made and ordered arrangement of the oracles in the Hebrew (or: Aramaic) language, and each one translated (or: interpreted) it as he was able’” (Allison and Davies 2004, xi). Although because Matthew is not stated as the author in the actual book modern scholars have rejected the claims that Matthew wrote this gospel. On the other side, there are no known debates about the authenticity of the Gospel of Matthew in the early church (unlike, for example, the book of Hebrews) [23]. Many scholars have asked “why would an eyewitness rely so heavily on the work of someone who was not an eyewitness” (DeSilva 2004, 234)? However, it is seen that Matthew only used the 90 percent of Mark’s Gospel as a foundation and he “would try not to reinvent that part of the wheel that worked for him, giving his attention rather to combining Mark’s building blocks with his own enormous collection of Jesus’ teachings” (DeSilva 2004, 235). The Gospel “is clearly Jewish, in dialogue with contemporary Jewish thought, and skilled in traditional Jewish interpretation of the Old Testament” (Keener 1999, 40) therefore it can be presumed that because Matthew was a Jew he could have written this Gospel. There is, however, not enough evidence to accurately label the author as Matthew or anyone else.
[24]

Gospel of Matthew
according to Matthew” indicates someone else trying to explain, at the outset, whose version of the story this one is. Furthermore, the Gospel always talks in third person and lacks phrases like "I and Jesus”, etc. It furthermore talks about the disciple Matthew in Matthew 9:9, but there is no indication that he is the person writing the account: (Matthew 9:9 reads: "as Jesus went on from there, he saw a man named Matthew sitting at the tax collector’s booth. "Follow me," he told him, and Matthew got up and followed him") [26] Comparing the latter verse with Mark 2:13-14 that calls the tax collector by the name Levi, W. E. Mills et al. argue that this might be a conscious change on the part of the author, in turn indicating that the author belonged to a community whose foundation was indebted to the disciple Matthew.[1] Some support Matthew’s authorship by noting that the gospel reflects his occupation as a tax collector; the gospel attributed to him refers to money more often than any other, and does so using specific monetary terms [27]. A Roman tax collector such as Matthew would have been highly capable of writing accurate and detailed records. If Matthew did write the gospel bearing his name, then his humility is evident, as he refers to his feast for Jesus as a dinner (Matthew 9:9-10), while Luke calls it as a great banquet (Luke 5:29). Instead of attempting to conceal Matthew’s identity, which would be a sign of untrustworthiness, the author admits that Matthew was a tax collector, which was a highly unpopular job among first-century Jews, who often considered them as traitors and cronies of the Roman Empire. [28] Papias’ church history The first reference to a text written by the disciple Matthew comes from Papias (bishop of Hierapolis in Asia Minor during the first half of the second century) around 120-130 AD. Papias discusses the origin of the gospel of Mark, and further remarks that "Matthew composed the logia in the Hebrew tongue and each one interpreted them as he was able". According to Ehrman this is not a reference to the gospel we have since the Gospel of Matthew was originally written in Greek and not Hebrew.[5] The interpretation of the above quote from Papias depends on the meaning of the term logia. The term literally means "oracles", but the intended meaning by Papias has been controversial.

Matthew the Evangelist
Since the second century, the Christian tradition has attributed the Gospel to the disciple Matthew. [1] Arguments made to discount Matthew’s authorship include the contention that the text was originally composed in Greek, not Aramaic, the Gospel’s apparent heavy reliance on Mark (nearly universally agreed among scholars[20]), and the lack of characteristics usually attributed to an eyewitness account.[25] Bart D. Ehrman argues that the original manuscripts did not have names attached to them, a conclusion drawn from the fact that the surviving Greek manuscripts provide a wide variety of different titles for the Gospels. Had Matthew written the gospel, he would have called it by a title of the type "The Gospel of Jesus Christ" whereas the choice of the title “Gospel

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Traditionally this was taken as a reference to the gospel according to Matthew. Another view uses the fact that the early Church fathers also used "oracles" to refer to the words of the Old Testament, to argue that Matthew composed a list of prophecies or prooftexts from OT. Others say that this refers to a list of saying of Jesus (perhaps Q or something like Q, see below). Adopting the latter translation, Ehrman argues that Papias is not referring to our Matthew since it contains much more than sayings. [5][29] Irenaeus and the four gospels Apart from Papias’ comment, we do not hear about the author of the Gospel until Irenaeus around 185 AD who remarks that there are only four Gospels that had been inspired by God, and that they were written by Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. According to Ehrman, Irenaeus had reasons to convince his readers of the apostolic origin of the books: Irenaeus and many other Church leaders were involved in heated debate over correct doctrine. Irenaeus for example knew a large group of people who believed that there were two separate Gods, the God of the Old Testament and the God of the New Testament. Each group adhering to a certain doctrine had books in proof of their view. In order to support the authenticity of previously anonymous gospels, names were attached to them. The insistence on the disciple Matthew’s authorship therefore, in Erhman’s view, should be viewed as part of the campaign against heretics. [2]

Gospel of Matthew
Church was founded by the disciple Matthew.
[32]

Sources
The Gospels of Mark, Matthew and Luke (known as Synoptic Gospels) include many of the same episodes, often in the same sequence, and often even in the same wording. The relationship of Matthew to the Gospels of Mark and Luke is an open question known as the synoptic problem. Out of a total of 1,071 verses, Matthew has 387 in common with Mark and the Gospel of Luke, 130 with Mark alone, 184 with Luke alone; only 370 being unique to itself. The great amount of overlap in sentence structure and word choice of the three Gospels has been explained by arguing that the Gospel writers either copied from each other, or they all copied from another common source. Although the author of Matthew wrote according to his own plans and aims and from his own point of view, most scholars agree he borrowed extensively from Mark, and possibly another source or sources as well. The most popular view in modern scholarship is the two-source hypothesis, which speculates that Matthew borrowed from both Mark and a hypothetical sayings collection, called Q (for the German Quelle, meaning "source"). A similar but less common view is the Farrer hypothesis, which theorizes that Matthew borrowed material only from Mark, and that Luke wrote last, using both earlier Synoptics. For most scholars, the Q collection accounts for what Matthew and Luke share — sometimes in exactly the same words — but are not found in Mark. Examples of such material are the Devil’s three temptations of Jesus, the Beatitudes, the Lord’s prayer and many individual sayings.[4][6][33] According to one source, Matthew contains around 612 verses of the 662 verses of Mark, and mostly in exactly the same order.[34] Matthew however quite frequently removes or modifies from Mark redundant phrases or unusual words and modifies the passages in Mark that might put Jesus in a negative light (i.e. removing the highly critical comment that Jesus "was out of his mind" in Mark 3:21, removing "do you not care" from Mark 4:38 etc) [35] In The Four Gospels: A Study of Origins (1924), Burnett Hillman Streeter argued that a third source, referred to as M and also

Contemporary scholarship
Modern scholars have made several suggestions as to the identity of the author: a converted Jewish rabbi or scribe, a Hellenised Jew, a Gentile convert who was deeply knowledgeable about the Jewish faith, or a member of a "school" of scribes within a JewishChristian community. [1][30] Most scholars hold that the author was a Jewish-Christian, rather than a Gentile. [8] Some scholars have suggested that the author, in Matthew 13:52, may be hinting that he is a learned scribe when says: "every scribe who has become a disciple of the kingdom of heaven is like a head of a household, who brings out of his treasure things new and old."[31] According to Browning, it is possible that the author came from a city whose

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hypothetical, lies behind the material in Matthew that has no parallel in Mark or Luke.[36] Throughout the remainder of the 20th century, there were various challenges and refinements of Streeter’s hypothesis. For example, in his 1953 book The Gospel Before Mark, Pierson Parker posited an early version of Matthew (proto-Matthew) as the primary source of both Matthew and Mark, and the Q source used by Matthew.[37] A minority of scholars subscribe to Early Christian tradition, which asserts Matthean priority, with Mark borrowing from Matthew (see: Augustinian hypothesis and Griesbach hypothesis). For example, in 1911, the Pontifical Biblical Commission[38] asserted that Matthew was the first gospel written, that it was written by the evangelist Matthew, and that it was written in Aramaic.[39]

Gospel of Matthew
the Hebrews and Gospel of the Nazora. In more recent times, an expanding circle of scholars has rejected that Jesus would have spoken Aramaic and are now convinced that his native language was Hebrew and that the Gospels of Matthew and Mark were originally written in Hebrew. [41] [42][43]

Characteristics
According to W. R. F. Browning (who adopts the more common view that the author of Matthew was a Jewish-Christian), due to author’s rabbinical background, he avoids using the holy word God in the expression "Kingdom of God", and instead prefers the term "Kingdom of Heaven". He also divides his work into great blocks each ending with the phrase: "When Jesus had finished these sayings ..." This narrative framework echoes that of the Hexateuch: "the birth narratives/Genesis; the baptism in the Jordon and Jesus’ temptations/Exodus; healing of a leper and an untouchable woman/Leviticus; callings of disciples/Numbers; the Passion and Death of Jesus/Deuteronomy; the Resurrection/Joshua (the entry into promised land)". [32] Graham N. Stanton discounts the suggestion that the "five" discourses are an imitation of the first five books of the Old Testament arguing that many Jewish and Greco-Roman writings have five divisions or section.[12]

Language
Most New Testament scholars believe that the Gospel of Matthew was originally composed in Greek.[5] There has, however, been extended discussion about the possibility of an earlier version in Aramaic. [40] There is a pervasive Jewish-Christian dimension in the Gospel of Matthew, suggesting that the author was of Jewish-Christian background and was writing for Christians of similar background: Christ’s fulfillment of Old Testament prophecies are emphasized. Jesus is represented as a new lawgiver whose miracles are a confirmation of his divine mission. Some scholars have suggested that Papias’ statement about Matthew’s collection of Jesus’ sayings is a reference to an earlier version of the Gospel in Aramaic that was used by the author of the Gospel of Matthew. [16]

Overview
Detailed Content of Matthew
1. Birth Stories Genealogy of Jesus (1:1–17) Nativity of Jesus (1:18–25) Biblical Magi (2:1–12) Flight into Egypt (2:13-23) Massacre of the Innocents (2:16–18) 2. Baptism and early ministry John the Baptist (3:1–12, 11:2-19, 14:1–12) Baptism of Jesus (3:13–17) Temptation of Jesus (4:1–11) Capernaum (4:12–17) Calling Simon, Andrew, James, John (4:18–22) Galilee preaching tour (4:23-25)

Possible Aramaic or Hebrew gospel of Matthew
There are numerous testimonies, starting from Papias and Irenaeus, that Matthew originally wrote in Hebrew letters and in the "Hebrew dialect", which some think refers to Aramaic. The sixteenth century Erasmus was the first to express doubts on the subject of an original Aramaic or Hebrew version of the Gospel of Matthew: "It does not seem probable to me that Matthew wrote in Hebrew, since no one testifies that he has seen any trace of such a volume." Here Erasmus distinguishes between a Gospel of Matthew in Hebrew letters and the partly lost Gospel of

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3. Sermon on the Mount (5–7) 4. Healing and miracles Healing many (8:1-17) Son of Man (8:18-20,16:21-26,17:22-23,20:18-19) Let the dead bury the dead (8:21-22) Rebuking wind and waves (8:23–27) Two Gadarene Demoniacs (8:28–34) Healing a paralytic (9:1-8) Recruiting the tax collector (9:9–13) Question about fasting (9:14–17) Synagogue leader’s daughter (9:18-26) Healing three men (9:27-34) Good crop but few harvesters (9:35-38) 5. Instructions to the disciples as missionaries Commission of the Twelve (10:1–11:1) Coming Persecutions (10:16-23) Not Peace, but a Sword (10:34–39) 6. Responses to Jesus Cursing Chorazin, Bethsaida, Capernaum (11:20-24) Praising the Father (11:25-30) Sabbath observance (12:1–14) Chosen servant (12:15-21) Jesus and Beelzebul (12:22–29,46-50) Those not with me are against me (12:30) Unforgivable sin (12:31-32) Tree and its fruits (12:33-37) Sign of Jonah (12:38–42; 16:1–4) Return of the unclean spirit (12:43-45) Parables of the Kingdom Parables of the Sower Weeds Mustard Seed Yeast Hidden Treasure Pearl Net (13:1–52)

Gospel of Matthew
7. Conflicts, rejections, and conferences with disciples Hometown rejection (13:53–58) Feeding the 5000 (14:13–21) Walking on water (14:22–33) Fringe of his cloak heals (14:34-36) Clean and Unclean (15:1–20) Feeding the dogs (15:21-28) Feeding the 4000 (15:32–39) Beware of yeast (16:5-12) Peter’s confession (16:13–20) Return of the Son of Man (16:27-28,26:64) Transfiguration (17:1–13) Disciples’ exorcism failure (17:14-20) 8. Life in the Christian community Little children blessed (18:1–7; 19:13–15) If thy hand offend thee (18:8-9) Parables of the Lost Sheep, Unmerciful Servant (18:10–35) 9. Journey to Jerusalem Entering Judea (19:1-2) Teaching about divorce (19:3–12) Rich man’s salvation (19:16–27) Twelve thrones of judgment (19:28-30) Parable of the Workers in the Vineyard (20:1–15) The last will be first and the first last (20:16) On the road to Jerusalem (20:17) James and John’s request (20:20–28) 10. Jerusalem, cleansing of the temple, debates Entering Jerusalem (21:1–11) Temple incident (21:12–17,23-27) Cursing the fig tree (21:18–22) Parables of the Two Sons, Vineyard, Wedding Feast (21:28–22:14) Render unto Caesar (22:15–22) Resurrection of the dead (22:23-33) Great Commandment (22:34–40) Messiah, the son of David? (22:41-46)

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11. Confronting leaders and denouncing Pharisees Cursing Scribes and Pharisees (23:1-36) Lament over Jerusalem (23:37-39) 12. Judgment day The Coming Apocalypse (24) Parables of the Ten Virgins, Talents (25:1-30) Judgement of the Nations (25:31-46) 13. Trial, crucifixion, resurrection Plot to kill Jesus (26:1-5,14-16,27:3-10) A woman anoints Jesus (26:6–13) Last Supper (26:17–30) Peter’s denial (26:31-35,69–75) Arrest (26:36–56) Before the High Priest (26:57–68) Before Pilate (27:1–2,11-31) Blood curse (27:24-25) Crucifixion (27:32–56) Joseph of Arimathea (27:57–61) Empty tomb (27:62–28:15) Resurrection appearances (28:9–10) Great Commission (28:16–20)

Gospel of Matthew
4. The "Church Order" Discourse, concerning relationships among disciples (18–19:1). 5. The Eschatological Discourse, which includes the Olivet Discourse and Judgement of the Nations, concerning his Second Coming and the end of the age (24–25). 4. The sufferings, death and Resurrection of Jesus, the Great Commission (26-28).

Woodcut from Anton Koberger’s Bible (Nuremberg, 1483): The angelically-inspired Saint Matthew musters the Old Testament figures, led by Abraham and David

Genealogy and Infancy narrative
Matthew (like Luke) provides a genealogy and an infancy narrative of Jesus. Although the two accounts differ, both agree on Jesus being both Son of David, and Son of God, and on his virgin birth, and according to Howard W. Clarke, that Jesus’ status as the longawaited Messiah and as the Son of God was assured before his birth rather than being conferred later in his ministry or acquired after his death. [44]

For convenience, the book can be divided into its four structurally distinct sections: Two introductory sections; the main section, which can be further broken into five sections, each with a narrative component followed by a long discourse of Jesus; and finally, the Passion and Resurrection section. 1. Containing the genealogy, the birth, and the infancy of Jesus (Matthew 1; Matthew 2). 2. The discourses and actions of John the Baptist preparatory to Christ’s public ministry (Matthew 3; Matthew 4:11). 3. The discourses and actions of Christ in Galilee (4:12–26:1). 1. The Sermon on the Mount, concerning morality (Ch. 5–7) 2. The Missionary Discourse, concerning the mission Jesus gave his Twelve Apostles. (10–11:1) 3. The Parable Discourse, stories that teach about the Kingdom of Heaven (13).

Genealogy
After giving a genealogy from Abraham to Jesus, Matthew gives the number of generations from Abraham to David, from David to the deportation to Babylon, and from the deportation to Jesus as fourteen each. (In fact, the total number of men in the list, including both Abraham and Jesus, is only 41.) Matthew traces the genealogy of Jesus through Joseph, not Mary. Matthew puts Joseph a descendant of David’s son Solomon while in Luke he is descended from another son of David, Nathan. [45] After David, the lists coincide again at Shealtiel and Zerubbabel (founder of the second temple) but then again part company until they reach Joseph

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through his father (Jacob according to Matthew; Heli in Luke).[45] These and other differences between Matthew’s and Luke’s genealogy have presented a problem for both ancient and modern readers of the Gospels. An early explanation given by Julius Africanus, was that supposedly on the authority of Jesus family, involving levirate marriage, Joseph’s official father was not his biological father (see Genealogy of Jesus). Some have suggested that Matthew wants to underscore the birth of a messianic child of royal lineage (mentioning Solomon) whereas Luke’s genealogy is priestly (mentioning Levi, but note that the Levi in question is not the ancestor of the Levites but rather the grandfather of Heli). [46][47] According to Scott Gregory Brown, the reason for the difference between the two genealogies is that it was not included in the written accounts that the writers of the two Gospels shared (i.e. Gospel of Mark and Q). [48] Two other common reasons are (1) Luke presents Mary’s genealogy, while Matthew relates Joseph’s; (2) Luke has Jesus’ actual human ancestry through Joseph, while Matthew gives his legal ancestry by which he was the legitimate successor to the throne of David.[49] According to Howard W. Clarke, the two accounts cannot be harmonized and today the genealogy accounts are generally taken to be "theological" constructs. Taken this way, writes Stanton, the genealogy foreshadows acceptance of Gentiles into the Kingdom of God: in reference to Jesus as "the Son of Abraham", the author has in mind the promise given to Abraham in Gen 22:18. Matthew holds that due to Israel’s failure to produce the "fruits of the kingdom" and her rejection of Jesus, God’s kingdom is now taken away from Israel and given to Gentiles. Another foreshadowing of the acceptance of Gentiles is the inclusion of four women in the genealogy (three of whom were Gentiles), something unexpected to a first century reader. According to Stanton, women are probably representing non-Jews to a first century reader. [50] According to Markus Bockmuehl et al., Matthew is mentioning this to prepare his reader for the apparent scandal surrounding Jesus’ birth by emphasizing the point that God’s purpose is sometimes worked out in unorthodox and surprising ways. [51]

Gospel of Matthew
Mary becomes pregnant "of the Holy Spirit", and so Joseph decides to break his relationship with her quietly. He however has a dream with the promise of the birth of Jesus. The gospel proceeds with visit of the Magi who acknowledge the infant Jesus as king. This is followed by Herod’s massacre of the innocents and the flight into Egypt, and an eventual return to Nazareth.[52] According to Mary Clayton, the chief aim of the infancy narrative is to convince readers of the divine nature of Jesus through his conception through the Holy Spirit and his virgin birth; the visit of Magi and flight into Egypt intended to show that Jesus’ kingship is not restricted to Jews but is rather universal. [52]

Baptism and Temptation
John baptizes Jesus, and the Holy Spirit descends upon him. The evangelist addresses the puzzling scene of Jesus, reputedly born sinless, being baptized. He omits reference to baptism being for forgiveness of sins and depicts John emphasizing his inferiority to Jesus. The descent of the Holy Spirit tells the reader that Jesus has become God’s anointed (Messiah or Christ).[7] Jesus prays and meditates in the wilderness for forty days, and then is tempted by the Devil. Jesus refutes the Devil with quotations from Jewish Law.[7]

Sermon on the Mount
Matthew’s principal contribution to Mark’s narrative is five collections of teaching material, and the first is the Sermon on the Mount. Jesus, presented as a greater Moses, completes and transcends Mosaic law. The Beatitudes bless the poor in spirit and the meek. In six expositions or antitheses (depending on how the sermon is interpreted, see Expounding of the Law), Jesus reinterprets the Law. He offers the Lord’s prayer as a simple alternative to ostentatious prayer.[7] The Lord’s prayer contains parallels to First Chronicles 29:10-18.[53] Critical scholars see the historical Jesus in his startling congratulations to the unfortunate and his call to return violence with forgiveness ("turn the other cheek", see also Evangelical counsels).[54] Matthew’s beatitudes differ from those found in Luke.[54] The paradoxical blessings in Luke to the poor and hungry are here blessings to the poor in spirit and those who

Infancy narrative
See also: Immanuel

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hunger for justice.[54] In addition, Matthew has more blessings than Luke, the extras apparently derived from Psalms and from numerous precedents for virtues being rewarded.[54]

Gospel of Matthew
such things as false Messiahs, earthquakes, and persecution of his disciples, but states that these are not signs of the end times. After the tribulation, the sun, moon, and stars will fail. The declaration that his generation would not pass away before all the prophecies are fulfilled indicates that the author thought himself to be living in the last days. This discourse might incorporate two different Parousia traditions, one with typical apocalyptic signs and the other emphasizing that the Master will return without warning.[7]

Instructions to the Twelve Disciples
Matthew names the Twelve Disciples. Jesus sends them to preach to the Jews, perform miracles, and prophesy the imminent coming of the Kingdom.[7] Jesus commands them to travel lightly, without even a staff or sandals. He tells them they will face persecution. Scholars are divided over whether the rules originated with Jesus or with apostolic practice.[54]

Parables and vision of the Second Coming
The parables of the foolish virgins and of the talents emphasize constant readiness and Jesus’ unexpected return. In a prophetic vision, Jesus judges the world. The godly ("sheep") are those who helped those in need, while the wicked ("goats") are those who did not.[7]

Parables on the Kingdom
Jesus tells the parable of the sower, paralleling Mark. Like Mark and Luke, Matthew portrays Jesus as using parables in order to prevent the unworthy from receiving his message. The parables of the wheat and the tares and of the net, unique to Matthew, portray God’s sure judgment as indefinitely delayed. The parables of the mustard seed and of the pearl "of very special value" emphasize the secret nature and incomprehensible worth of the Kingdom.[7]

Final Days and Resurrection
Matthew generally follows Mark’s sequence of events. Jesus triumphantly enters Jerusalem and drives the money changers from the temple. He identifies Judas as his traitor. Jesus prays to be spared the coming agony, and a mob takes him by force to the Sanhedrin. To the trial, Matthew adds the detail that Pilate’s wife, tormented by a dream, tells him to have nothing to do with "that righteous man", and Pilate washes his hands of him. To Mark’s account of Jesus’ death, Matthew adds the occurrence of an earthquake, and saints arising from their tombs and appearing to many people in Jerusalem (Matthew 27:51-53). He also provides two stories of the Jewish leaders conspiring to undermine belief in the resurrection (Matthew 28:11-15), and he describes Mark’s "young man" at Jesus’ tomb as being a radiant angel (Matthew 28:3). Matthew does not relate any of Jesus’ post-resurrection appearances to the disciples in Judea, nor his Ascension. He appears to the Eleven in Galilee and commissions them to preach to the world: "Go therefore and make disciples of all nations baptizing them in the name (singular) of the Father of the Son and of the Holy Spirit"... and that name is Jesus (Matthew 28:19).

Instructions to the Church
Matthew is the only Gospel to discuss the ecclesia (Greek: assembly), or church. In Matthew, Jesus establishes his church on Peter, giving Peter and the Church the power to bind and loose (or forbid and allow). The instructions for the church emphasize ecclesiastical responsibility and humility. He calls on his disciples to practice forgiveness, but he also gives them the authority to excommunicate the unrepentant.[7] Peter’s special commission has been highly influential[10] (see Saint Peter).

Fifth discourse
Jesus heaps the "seven woes" on the scribes and Pharisees. This hostility is thought to represent the attitude of the first-century church.[7]

Signs of the Times
Matthew expands Marks’ account of the Parousia, or Second Coming. Matthew mentions

Themes in Matthew
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Gospel of Matthew
Gospel may be expressed in the motto "I am not come to destroy [the Law and the Prophets], but to fulfill" (5:17). See also Expounding of the Law. It was the contention of Marcion that Christ had come to destroy the law.[55] See Biblical law in Christianity for the modern debate. This Gospel sets forth a view of Jesus as Messiah and portrays him as an heir to King David’s throne, the rightful King of the Jews. Matthew’s genealogy, the wise men of the east, the massacre of the innocents, and the flight into Egypt affirm Jesus’ kingship and liken him to Moses. Matthew regards Jesus as a greater Moses. He arranges Jesus’ sermons into five discourses, probably parallel to the five Books of Moses, the Jewish Torah. Matthew affirms Jesus’ authority to give the eternal law of Moses a new meaning.[7] While addressing Jewish concerns, Matthew also addresses the universal nature of the church in the Great Commission (which is directed at "all nations"). See Interpretations of the Sermon on the Mount and Christian view of the Law.

Kingdom of Heaven
Of note is the phrase "Kingdom of Heaven" (ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν) used often in the gospel of Matthew, as opposed to the phrase "Kingdom of God" used in other synoptic gospels such as Luke. The phrase "Kingdom of Heaven" is used 32 times in 31 verses in the Gospel of Matthew. It is speculated that this indicates that this particular Gospel was written to a primarily Jewish audience, such as the Jewish Christians, as many Jewish people of the time felt the name of God was too holy to be written. Matthew’s abundance of Old Testament references also supports this theory. The theme "Kingdom of Heaven" as discussed in Matthew seems to be at odds with what was a circulating Jewish expectation—that the Messiah would overthrow Roman rulership and establish a new reign as the new King of the Jews. Christian scholars, including N. T. Wright (The Challenge of Jesus) have long discussed the ways in which certain 1st-century Jews (including Zealots) misunderstood the sayings of Jesus—that while Jesus had been discussing a spiritual kingdom, certain Jews expected a physical kingdom. See also Jewish Messiah.

Comparison with other canonical Gospels
According to Amy-Jill Levine, in Matthew (and the two other synoptic Gospels), Jesus talks more about the Kingdom of God than about himself, unlike John in which Jesus identifies himself as the true vine; the bread of life; the way, the truth and the life. Another difference is that while in Matthew and the two other synoptic gospels, Jesus teaches primarily using short parables or short sayings, in John he teaches using extended speeches. Levine states that each of the three synoptic gospels offer a distinct portraits of Jesus. For example, "Matthew has Jesus’ earthly mission restricted to the ’lost sheep of the house of Israel’ (Matt 15:24, see also 10:5-6) and emphasizing obedience to and preservation of biblical law. Mark however opens this mission to Gentiles and suggests abrogation of the dietary regulations mandated by the Torah."[9] In terms of chronology Matthew agrees with the other gospels that Jesus’ public ministry began with an encounter with John the Baptist. Then Matthew (and the two other synoptic Gospels) mention teaching and healing activities of Jesus in Galilee. This is

Jewish elements
While Paul’s epistles and the other Gospels emphasize Jesus’ international scope, Matthew addresses the concerns of a Jewish audience.[7] The cast of thought and the forms of expression employed by the writer show that this Gospel was written by a Jewish Christian of Iudaea Province. The one aim pervading the book is to show that Jesus of Nazareth was the promised Messiah — he "of whom Moses in the law and the prophets did write" — and that in him the ancient prophecies had their fulfillment. This book is full of allusions to passages of the Old Testament which the book interprets as predicting and foreshadowing Jesus’ life and mission. This Gospel contains no fewer than sixty-five references to the Old Testament, forty-three of these being direct verbal citations, thus greatly outnumbering those found in the other Gospels. Matthew uses Old Testament quotations out of context (as is common in Jewish writings such as the Talmud), as individual lines or even letters of Scripture were said to have inspired meanings different from the original ones.[7] The main feature of this

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followed by a trip to Jerusalem marked by an incident in the Temple. Jesus is crucified on the day of the Passover holiday. John by contrast puts the Temple incident very early in Jesus’ ministry and depicts several trips to Jerusalem. The crucifixion is also placed the day before the Passover holiday, when the lambs for the Passover meal were being sacrificed in Temple. [9]

Gospel of Matthew
Matthew’s genealogy of Christ[56] was often treated in a decorative manner, as it began not only a new book of the Bible, but was the first verse in the Gospels.

See also
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Textual variants in the Gospel of Matthew List of Gospels List of omitted Bible verses Gospel of the Ebionites Gospel of the Hebrews Gospel of the Nazoraeans Great Commission Il vangelo secondo Matteo, a film by Pier Paolo Pasolini Joseph Smith—Matthew Olivet discourse Papyrus 64 Sermon on the Mount Matthew 16:2b-3 Woes of the Pharisees

Details related only by Matthew
Certain details of Jesus’s life, of his infancy in particular, are only related by Matthew. For example, only Matthew mentions "Joseph’s perplexity on learning that Mary is pregnant, the homage of the Wise Men, the flight into Egypt to escape Herod’s soldiers, the massacre of the innocents, and the return of the holy family from Egypt"[40], the description of Pilate washing his hand, or Jesus’ permission of divorce in case of unchastity and/or unlawful marriage. [4]

In art

Notes
[1] ^ Watson E. Mills, Richard F. Wilson, Roger Aubrey Bullard(2003), p.942 [2] ^ Bart Erhman, Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium, Oxford University Press, p.44 [3] ^ Bart Erhman (2004), p. 92 [4] ^ Amy-Jill Levine (2001), p.372-373 [5] ^ Bart Ehrman, Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium, Oxford University Press, p.43 [6] ^ Howard Clark Kee (1997), p. 448 [7] ^ Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985. [8] ^ For a review of the debate see: Paul Foster, Why Did Matthew Get the Shema Wrong? A Study of Matthew 22:37, Journal of Biblical Literature, Vol. 122, No. 2 (Summer, 2003), pp. 309-333 [9] ^ Amy-Jill Levine (2001), p.373 [10] ^ "Matthew, Gospel acc. to St." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005 [11] Graham N. Stanton (1989), p.59 [12] ^ Graham N. Stanton (1989), p.60 [13] Brown 1997, p. 172 [14] Ehrman 2004, p. 110 and Harris 1985 both specify a range c. 80-85; However, Gundry 1982, Hagner 1993, and Blomberg 1992 argue for a date before 70AD.

The Chi Rho monogram from the Book of Kells is the most lavish such monogram In Insular Gospel Books (copies of the Gospels produced in Ireland and Britain under Celtic Christianity), the first verse of

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[15] Foster, P. "The Epistles of Ignatius of Antioch and the Writings that later formed the NT," in Gregory & Tuckett, (2005), The Reception of the NT in the Apostolic Fathers OUP, p.186 ISBN 978-0199267828 [16] ^ D. Moody Smith, Matthew the evangelist, Encyclopedia of Religion, vol. 9, p.5780 [17] Brown 1997, pp. 216-7; Also Carson 1992, p.66 [18] Thiede 1995 [19] i.e. Philip Comfort and David Barret (2001) Text of the Earliest NT Greek Manuscripts. [20] ^ Howard Clark Kee (1997), p. 447 [21] White, p. 246 [22] White, p. 246 [23] Carson 1992, pp. 66-67 [24] White, L. Michael (2004). From Jesus to Christianity. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco. pp. pp. 246-267. ISBN 0–06–052655–6. http://books.google.com/ books?id=w4ehxXoIxCUC. [25] Ridderbos, Herman N. Matthew: Bible student’s commentary. Zondervan, 1987. p. 7; from earlychristianwritings.com [26] Bart Erhman, Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium, Oxford University Press, p.42, 248-249 [27] Werner G. Marx, "Money Matters in Matthew," Bibliotheca Sacra 136:542 (April-June 1979):148- 57 [28] Thomas L. Constable, "Notes on Matthew" 3 - 5 [29] Geoffrey William Bromiley, The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Publisher, p.281 [30] Donald Harman Akenson, Surpassing Wonder: The Invention of the Bible and the Talmuds, 2001, University of Chicago Press, p.260 [31] Anthony J. Saldarini (2003), p.1000 [32] ^ W. R. F. Browning, Gospel of Matthew, A dictionary of the Bible, Oxford University Press, p.245-246 [33] Bart Erhman, Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium, Oxford University Press, p.80-81 [34] Graham N. Stanton (1989), p.63-64 [35] Graham N. Stanton (1989), p.36 [36] Streeter, Burnett H. The Four Gospels. A Study of Origins Treating the Manuscript

Gospel of Matthew
Tradition, Sources, Authorship, & Dates. London: MacMillian and Co., Ltd., 1924. [37] Pierson Parker. The Gospel Before Mark. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1953. [38] Commissio Pontificia de re biblicâ, established 1902 [39] Synoptics entry in Catholic Encyclopedia. [40] ^ Gospel According to Matthew., Encyclopædia Britannica. [41] Jesus Rabbi & Lord by Robert L. Lindsey, Cornerstone, Oak Creek, WI, 1990 [42] Understanding the Difficult Words of Jesus by David Biven and Roy Blizzard, Destiny Image, Shippensburg, PA, 1995 [43] Jewish Sources in Early Christianity by David Flusser, Adama Books, NY, 1987 [44] Howard W. Clarke (2003), p. 1: According to Clarke, this is because some Pauline epistles give the impression that Jesus’ divinity was confirmed only by his death, resurrection and ascension. [45] ^ Bart D. Ehrman (2004), p.121 [46] Howard W. Clarke (2003), p. 1 [47] David D. Kupp (1996), p.170 [48] Scott Gregory Brown (2005), p.87 [49] Craig Blomberg, vol. 22, Matthew, electronic ed., Logos Library System; The New American Commentary (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2001, c1992), p.53. [50] Graham N. Stanton (1989), p.67 [51] Markus Bockmuehl, Donald A. Hagner (2005), p. 191 [52] ^ Mary Clayton (1998), p.6-7 [53] Clontz, T.E. and J., "The Comprehensive New Testament with complete textual variant mapping and references for the Dead Sea Scrolls, Philo, Josephus, Nag Hammadi Library, Pseudepigrapha, Apocrypha, Plato, Egyptian Book of the Dead, Talmud, Old Testament, Patristic Writings, Dhammapada, Tacitus, Epic of Gilgamesh", Cornerstone Publications, 2008, p. 451, ISBN 978-0-977873-71-5 [54] ^ Funk, Robert W., Roy W. Hoover, and the Jesus Seminar. The five gospels. HarperSanFrancisco. 1993. [55] Epiphanius:Panarion: No.42 [56] Matthew 1:18

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Gospel of Matthew Synoptic Gospel Preceded by Malachi
New Testament

Gospel of Matthew

Books of the Bible

Succeeded by Mark

References
• Markus Bockmuehl, Donald A. Hagner, The Written Gospel, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 0521832853. • Brown, Raymond E. (October 3, 1997). Introduction to the New Testament. Anchor Bible. ISBN 0-385-24767-2. • Scott Gregory Brown, Mark’s Other Gospel: Rethinking Morton Smith’s Controversial Discovery, Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2005, ISBN 0889204616. • Howard W. Clarke, The Gospel of Matthew and Its Readers, Indiana University Press, 2003. • Mary Clayton, The Apocryphal Gospels of Mary in Anglo-Saxon England, Cambridge University Press, 1998, ISBN 0521581680. • D.A Carson, Douglas J. Moo, and Leon Morris: An introduction to the New Testament • Blomberg, Craig: Matthew The New American Commentary • Davies, W. D., and Dale C. Allison: A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Gospel According to Saint Matthew. • Hagner, Donald Alfred: Matthew 1-13 Word Biblical Commentary. • Gundry, Robert Horton: Matthew, a Commentary on His Literary and Theological Art. • Bart D. Ehrman, The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings. New York: Oxford, (2004), ISBN 0-19-515462-2. • Michael Green: The Message of Matthew. The Kingdom of Heaven. Bible Speaks Today. InterVarsity Press, Downers Grove 2001 ISBN 0-8308-1243-1.

• Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible, Palo Alto: Mayfield, 1985. • Howard Clark Kee, part 3, The Cambridge Companion to the Bible, Cambridge University Press, 1997. • David D. Kupp, Matthew’s Emmanuel: Divine Presence and God’s People in the First, Cambridge University Press, 1996, ISBN 0521570077. • Amy-Jill Levine, chapter 10, The Oxford History of the Biblical World, Oxford University Press, 2001. • Watson E. Mills, Richard F. Wilson, Roger Aubrey Bullard, Mercer Commentary on the New Testament, Mercer University Press, 2003. • Anthony J. Saldarini, Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible, Editors: James D. G. Dunn, John William Rogerson, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003, ISBN 0802837115. • Graham N. Stanton, The Gospels and Jesus, Oxford University Press, 1989. • {{cite journal|last=Thiede|first=Carsten Peter|year=1995|title=Papyrus Magdalen Greek

External links
• A list of online translations of the Gospel of Matthew: Matthew 1-28 • A textual commentary on the Gospel of Matthew Detailed text-critical discussion of the 300 most important variants of the Greek text (PDF, 438 pages). • Early Christian Writings Gospel of Matthew: introductions and e-texts.

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