Geography_of_Virginia by zzzmarcus

VIEWS: 238 PAGES: 30

									From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Commonwealth of Virginia - Lowest point Admission to Union Governor Lieutenant Governor Flag Seal Nickname(s): Old Dominion; Mother of Presidents Motto(s): Sic semper tyrannis (Latin)[1] before statehood, known as the Colony of Virginia U.S. Senators U.S. House delegation Time zone Abbreviations Website Atlantic Ocean[4] 0 ft (0 m) June 25, 1788 (10th) Timothy M. Kaine (D) Bill Bolling (R) Jim Webb (D) Mark Warner (D) 6 Democrats, 5 Republicans (list) Eastern: UTC-5/-4 VA US-VA

Official language(s) Spoken language(s) Demonym Capital Largest city Largest metro area Area - Total Width Length % water Latitude Longitude

English English 94.6%, Spanish 5.9% Virginian Richmond Virginia Beach Northern Virginia Ranked 35th in the US 42,774 sq mi (110,785 km²) 200 miles (320 km) 430 miles (690 km) 7.4 36° 32′ N to 39° 28′ N 75° 15′ W to 83° 41′ W Ranked 12th in the US 7,769,089 (2008 est.)[2] 193/sq mi (75/km²) Ranked 14th in the US $59,562[3] (9th) Mount Rogers[4] 5,729 ft (1,747 m) 950 ft (290 m)

Population - Total - Density - Median income Elevation - Highest point - Mean

The Commonwealth of Virginia ( /vərˈdʒɪnjə/ ) is an American state on the Atlantic Coast of the Southern United States. The state is known as the "Old Dominion" and sometimes as "Mother of Presidents", because it is the birthplace of eight U.S. presidents. The state is geographically shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, home to much of the state’s flora and fauna. The capital of the commonwealth is Richmond, Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The state population is over seven million.[5] The roots of Virginia trace back to the founding of the Virginia Colony in 1607 by the Virginia Company of London as the first permanent New World English colony. Slavery played a significant role in Virginia’s early economy and politics. Virginia became one of the Thirteen Colonies in the American Revolution and subsequently joined the Confederacy in the American Civil War, during which the state of West Virginia separated. Although traditionally conservative and historically part of the South, modern Virginia is a politically competitive state for both major national parties.[6] Virginia’s economy has several sectors: agriculture in areas such as the Shenandoah Valley; federal agencies in Northern Virginia, such as The Pentagon; and military bases in Hampton Roads, home to the region’s main seaport. The growth of the media and


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
technology sectors have made computer chips the state’s leading export, with the industry based on the strength of Virginia’s public schools and universities.[7]

from the two-county peninsula of Virginia’s Eastern Shore. Many of Virginia’s rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock, James, and York.[11] These shape three peninsulas into the Chesapeake.[12] Geographically and geologically, Virginia is divided into five regions from east to west: Tidewater, Piedmont, Blue Ridge Mountains, Ridge and Valley, and Cumberland Plateau.[13] The Tidewater is a coastal plain between the Atlantic coast and the fall line. It includes the Eastern Shore and major estuaries which enter the Chesapeake Bay. The Piedmont are a series of sedimentary and igneous rockbased foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic. The region includes the Southwest Mountains.[14] The Blue Ridge are a physiographic province of the chain of Appalachian Mountains. The mountains are the highest points in the state, including Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet (1,746 m).[4] The Ridge and Valley region is west of the mountains, and includes the Great Appalachian Valley. The region is carbonate rock based, and includes Massanutten Mountain.[15] The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, below the Allegheny Plateau. In this region rivers flow northwest, with a dendritic drainage system, into the Ohio River basin.[16] The Virginia seismic zone has not had a history of regular activity. Earthquakes are rarely above 4.5 on the Richter magnitude scale because Virginia is located centrally on the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 in Blacksburg.[17] Besides coal, resources such as slate, kyanite, and sand and gravel are mined, with an annual value over $2 billion.[18]


Map of Virginia’s major cities and roads Virginia has an area of 42,774 square miles (110,784 km2) making it the thirty-fifth largest state by area.[8] Virginia is bordered by Maryland and the District of Columbia to the north and east; the Atlantic Ocean to the east; by North Carolina and Tennessee to the south; by Kentucky to the west and by West Virginia to the north and west. Due to a peculiarity of Virginia’s original charter, its boundary with Maryland does not extend past the low-water mark of the southern shore of the Potomac River, so Maryland and the District of Columbia contain the whole width of the river rather than splitting it between them and Virginia.[9] The southern border is defined as the 36°30’ parallel north, though surveyor error has led to historic deviations.[10]

Geology and terrain

Climate chart for Virginia J F M A M J J A S O N D

3.1 3.1 3.7 3.3 4 Virginia is divided into five geographic regions. The Chesapeake Bay separates most of the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth

3.7 4.3 4.1 3.5 3.4 3.2 3.2

46 48 57 67 76 83 86 85 79 69 58 48 26 27 34 43 52 60 64 63 57 45 35 28 average temperatures in °F precipitation totals in inches source: University of Virginia data 1895-1998[19]


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Metric conversion J F M A M


island primarily caused by increased absorpJ J A S O N Dtion of solar radiation in more densely populated areas.[26] In the American Lung Association’s 2009 report, fifteen counties received failing grades for air quality, with Fairfax 79 79 94 84 102 94 109 104 89 86 81 81 County having the worst in the state due to [27][28] Haze in the 8 9 14 19 24 28 30 29 26 21 14 9 automobile pollution. -3 -3 1 6 11 16 18 17 14 7 2 -2mountains is caused in part by coal power plants.[29] average temperatures in °C • precipitation totals in mm Flora and fauna The climate of Virginia varies depending on Forests cover sixty-five percent of the location. Most of the state east of the Blue state.[30] Lower altitudes are more likely to Ridge Mountains, as well as the southern have small but dense stands of moisture-lovpart of the Shenandoah Valley, to the Atlantic ing hemlocks and mosses in abundance. Othcoast has a humid subtropical climate (Köper commonly found trees and plants include pen climate classification Cfa). This climate oak, hickory, chestnut, maple, tulip poplar, becomes increasingly warmer farther south mountain laurel, milkweed, daisies, and many and east in the state. In elevated / mountainspecies of ferns. Since the early 1990s, Gypsy ous, and upland areas west of the Blue Ridge, moth infestations have eroded the dominance the climate becomes a humid continental cliof the oak forests.[31] The deciduous and mate (Köppen climate classification dfa).[20] evergreen trees emit hydrocarbons which Seasonally, Virginia experiences extremes, give the mountains their distinct blue from average lows of 26 °F (−3.3 °C) in Januhaze.[32] ary in the coldest places to average highs of 86 °F (30 °C) in July. The moderating influence of the ocean from the east, powered by the Gulf Stream has a strong affect on the southeastern coastal areas of the state. It also creates the potential for hurricanes near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, making the coastal area vulnerable.[19] Although Gaston in 2004 inundated Richmond, and Isabel in 2003 caused flash flooding the mountains, hurricanes rarely threaten communities far inland.[21][22] Thunderstorms are a regular occurrence, White-tailed deer at Tanner Ridge Overlook and the state has an average of thirty-five to in Shenandoah National Park forty-five days of thunderstorm activity annually, with an average annual precipitation of Mammals include white-tailed deer, black 42.7 inches (108.5 cm).[19][23] Additionally, bear, beaver, bobcat, coyote, raccoon, skunk, the western part of the state experiences opossum, groundhog, gray fox, and eastern more thunderstorms.[23] Cold air masses arcottontail rabbit.[33] Birds include cardinals, riving over the mountains, especially in barred owls, Carolina chickadees, Red-tailed winter, can lead to significant snowfalls in Hawks, and wild turkeys. The Peregrine Falthose regions, such as the Blizzard of 1996. con was reintroduced into Shenandoah NaThe interaction of these elements with the tional Park in the mid-1990s.[34] Freshwater state’s topography creates distinct microclifish include walleye, brook trout, Roanoke mates in the Shenandoah Valley, the mounbass, and blue catfish.[35] Running brooks tainous southwest, and the coastal plains.[24] with rocky bottoms are often inhabited by a Virginia averages seven tornadoes annually, plentiful amount of crayfish. The Chesapeake though most are F2 and lower on the Fujita [25] Bay is home to many species, including blue scale. crabs, clams, oysters, and rockfish, also In recent years, the expansion of the known as striped bass.[36] southern suburbs of Washington into Northern Virginia has introduced an urban heat


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Virginia has many National Park Service units, including one national park, the Shenandoah National Park. Shenandoah was established in 1935 and encompasses the scenic Skyline Drive. Almost forty percent of the park’s area (79,579 acres/322 km²) has been designated as Wilderness and is protected as part of the National Wilderness Preservation System.[37] Thirty parks and trails, such as Great Falls Park and Prince William Forest Park, are managed in the National Park System.[38] Additionally, there are thirty-four Virginia state parks, run by the Department of Conservation and Recreation and the Department of Forestry.[39] The Chesapeake Bay, while not a national park, is protected by both state and federal legislation, and the jointly run Chesapeake Bay Program which conducts restoration on the bay and its watershed. The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge also extends into North Carolina.[40]

Jamestown 2007 marked Virginia’s quadricentennial year, celebrating four hundred years since the establishment of the Jamestown Colony. Over the centuries Virginia has been at the front of warfare from the American Revolution and the Civil War to the Cold War and the War on Terrorism.[41] The far-reaching social changes of the mid- to late-20th century were expressed by broadbased celebrations marking contributions of three cultures to the state: Native American, European and African.[42]

The first people arrived in Virginia about 5,000 years ago, and farming began there by 900. By 1500 the Virginia Algonquians had founded towns in the Tidewater region, which they referred to as Tsenacommacah. The other major groups in the area were the Siouan to the west, and the Iroquois, who included the Nottoway and Meherrin, to the north and south. After 1570, the Algonquians consolidated under Chief Powhatan in response to threats from these other groups on their trade network.[32] In 1607, the native Tidewater population was between 13,000 to 14,000.[43] Powhatan controlled more than thirty smaller tribes and over 150 settlements, which used a common Virginia Algonquian language.[44] In 1583, Queen Elizabeth I of England granted Sir Walter Raleigh a charter to explore and plant a colony to the north of Florida.[45] In 1584, Sir Walter Raleigh sent an expedition to the Atlantic coast of North America. The name "Virginia" may have been suggested by Raleigh or Elizabeth, perhaps noting her status as the "Virgin Queen," and may also be related to a native phrase, "Wingandacoa", or name, "Wingina".[46] Initially the name applied to the entire coastal region from South Carolina to Maine, plus the island of Bermuda. The London Company was incorporated as a joint stock company by the proprietary Charter of 1606, which granted land rights to this area.[47] The Company financed the first permanent English settlement in the New World. Jamestown, named for King James I, was founded in May 1607 by Captains Christopher Newport and John Smith. In 1609 many colonists died during the "starving time" after the loss of the Third Supply’s flagship, the Sea Venture.[48]


A 19th century depiction of Pocahontas, of the Powhatan tribe, an ancestor of many of the First Families of Virginia


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Williamsburg was the capital from 1699 to 1780. In 1619 the colony established the House of Burgesses as its elected governance, though in 1624 the colony was transferred from the bankrupt London Company to royal authority as a crown colony.[49] African workers were first imported in 1619, and slavery was codified in 1661.[50][51] After 1618 the headright system led to more indentured servants from Europe.[52] In this system, settlers received land for each servant they transported.[53] During this early period Virginia’s population grew with the introduction of settlers and servants into the burgeoning plantation economy. Colonists appropriated land from Native Americans by force and treaty, including the Treaty of 1677, which made the signatory tribes tributary states. The colonial capital was moved in 1699 to Williamsburg, where the College of William and Mary had been founded in 1693.[54] The House of Burgesses was temporarily dissolved in 1769 by the Royal governor Lord Botetourt, after Patrick Henry and Richard Henry Lee led speeches on the distresses of the British taxation without representation. In 1773, Henry and Lee formed a committee of correspondence, and in 1774 led delegates to the First Continental Congress.[55] On May 15, 1776, the Virginia Convention declared independence from the British Empire and adopted the George Mason’s Virginia Declaration of Rights, which influenced the Declaration of Independence.[56][57] Then on June 29, 1776, the convention enacted a constitution that formally declared Virginia as an independent commonwealth.[32] During the American Revolutionary War, the capital was moved to Richmond at the urging of Governor Thomas Jefferson, fearing Williamsburg’s location made it vulnerable to British attack.[58] In 1781, the combined action of Continental and French land and naval forces trapped the British on the Yorktown

1851 painting of Patrick Henry’s speech before the House of Burgesses on the Virginia Resolves against the Stamp Act of 1765 peninsula, where troops under George Washington and French Comte de Rochambeau defeated British General Cornwallis in the Battle of Yorktown. The British surrender on October 19, 1781 so shifted British public opinion that it led to the end of major hostilities and secured the independence of the colonies.[59]

Virginians were instrumental in writing the United States Constitution. James Madison drafted the Virginia Plan in 1787 and the Bill of Rights in 1789. Virginia ratified the Constitution on June 25, 1788. The three-fifths compromise ensured that Virginia initially had the largest bloc in the House of Representatives, which with the Virginia dynasty of presidents gave the commonwealth national importance. In 1790, both Virginia and Maryland ceded territory to form the new District of Columbia, though in 1847 the Virginian area was retroceded.[48] Virginia is sometimes called "Mother of States" because of its role in being carved into several mid-western states.[60] In addition to agriculture, slave labor was also increasingly used in mining, shipbuilding


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

rewrote the Constitution of Virginia to include a poll tax and other voter registration measures that effectively disfranchised most African Americans and many poor whites.[66] Despite underfunding for segregated schools and services and a lack of political representation, African Americans still created vibrant communities and made progress.

Modern times
Richmond was the capital of the Confederate States of America. and other industries.[61] After the Revolutionary War, the free black population also increased, creating thriving communities in Petersburg and Richmond. Numerous individual manumissions were inspired by Quaker abolitionists and the revolution’s principles.[62] Nat Turner’s slave rebellion in 1831 and John Brown’s Raid on Harpers Ferry in 1859 showed deep social discontent about slavery and its role in the plantation economy. By 1860, almost half a million people, roughly thirty-one percent of the total population of Virginia, were enslaved.[63] This division contributed to the start of the American Civil War.

The Virginia Civil Rights Memorial was erected in 2008 to commemorate the protests which led to school desegregation. Protests in Farmville started by Barbara Rose Johns in 1951 led to the lawsuit Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County by Richmond natives Spottswood Robinson and Oliver Hill. This case was decided with Brown v. Board of Education. However in 1958, under the policy of "massive resistance" spearheaded by the powerful segregationist Senator Harry F. Byrd, the state prohibited desegregated local schools from receiving funding.[67] The Civil Rights Movement gained many participants in the 1960s and achieved the moral force to gain national legislation for protection of suffrage and civil rights for African Americans. In 1964 the United States Supreme Court ordered Prince Edward County and others to integrate schools.[68] From 1969 to 1971, state legislators under Governor Mills Godwin rewrote the constitution, after goals such as the repeal of Jim Crow laws had been achieved. In 1989, Douglas Wilder became the first African American elected as governor in the United States.[32] New economic forces also changed the commonwealth. In 1926, Dr. W.A.R. Goodwin, rector of Williamsburg’s Bruton Parish Church, began restoration of colonial-era

The Civil War and aftermath
Virginia declared its secession from the United States on April 17, 1861 after the Battle of Fort Sumter. In June 1861, Virginia joined the rebel Confederate States of America, which chose Richmond as its capital. In 1863 forty-eight counties in the northwest of the state separated to form a new state of West Virginia. During the Civil War, Virginia saw more battles fought than anywhere else, including Bull Run, the Seven Days Battles, Chancellorsville, and the concluding Battle of Appomattox Courthouse. After the capture of Richmond, the capitol was briefly moved to Danville, Virginia. Virginia was formally restored to the Union in 1870, due to the work of the Committee of Nine. During the post-war Reconstruction era, Virginia adopted a constitution which provided for free public schools, and guaranteed political, civil, and voting rights.[64] The populist Readjuster Party ran a biracial coalition until the conservative white Democratic Party gained power after 1883.[65] It passed segregationist Jim Crow laws and in 1902


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
buildings in the historic district with financial backing of John D. Rockefeller Jr.. Their work led to the development of Colonial Williamsburg, the state’s most popular tourism site.[69] World War II and the Cold War led to massive expansion of national government programs housed in offices in northern Virginia near Washington, including The Pentagon, which was later targeted in the September 11, 2001 attacks. In that attack, one hundred and eighty-five people died. Different violence occurred in 2007 when a disturbed student at Virginia Tech murdered thirty-two and committed suicide.

metropolitan area, which is home to over 1.6 million people and the world’s largest naval base.[71][73] Although it is not incorporated as a city, Fairfax County is the most populous locality in Virginia, with over one million residents.[74] Fairfax has a major urban business and shopping center in Tysons Corner, Virginia’s largest office market.[75] Neighboring Loudoun County, with the county seat at Leesburg, is both the fastest-growing county in the United States and has the highest median household income as of 2007.[76][77] Arlington County, the smallest self-governing county in the United States by land area, is an urban community organized as a county.[78] Roanoke, with a population of 292,983, is the largest Metropolitan Statistical Area in western Virginia.[79] Suffolk, which includes a portion of the Great Dismal Swamp, is the largest city by area.[80]

Cities and towns

Historical populations Census Pop. %± 691,737 — 1790 807,557 16.7% 1800 1810 The population of the Richmond metropolitan area is over 1.2 million. Virginia is divided into independent cities and counties, which function in the same manner. According to the US Census Bureau, independent cities are county-equivalents.[70] As of 2006, thirty-nine of the forty-two independent cities in the United States are in Virginia. Incorporated towns are recognized as part of the ninety-five counties in Virginia, but are not independent. There are also hundreds of other unincorporated communities in Virginia. Virginia does not have any further political subdivisions, such as villages or townships. Virginia has eleven Metropolitan Statistical Areas; Northern Virginia, Hampton Roads, and Richmond-Petersburg are the three most populated. Richmond is the capital of Virginia, and its metropolitan area has a population of over 1.2 million people.[71] As of 2006, Virginia Beach is the most populous city in the commonwealth, with Norfolk and Chesapeake second and third, respectively.[72] Norfolk forms the urban core of this 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 877,683 938,261 1,044,054 1,025,227 1,119,348 1,219,630 1,225,163 1,512,565 1,655,980 1,854,184 2,061,612 2,309,187 2,421,851 2,677,773 3,318,680 3,966,949 4,648,494 5,346,818 6,187,358 7,078,515 8.7% 6.9% 11.3% −1.8% 9.2% 9.0% 0.5% 23.5% 9.5% 12.0% 11.2% 12.0% 4.9% 10.6% 23.9% 19.5% 17.2% 15.0% 15.7% 14.4%

Est. 2008 7,769,089 9.8% As of 2007, Virginia had an estimated population of 7,712,091 which is an increase of 69,213, or just under one percent, from the


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Most African-American Virginians are descendants of enslaved Africans who worked on tobacco, cotton, and hemp plantations. These men and women were brought from west central Africa, primarily from Angola and Igbo areas of the Niger Delta region.[86][87] The twentieth century Great Migration of blacks from the rural South to the North reduced Virginia’s black population; however, in the past forty years there has been a reverse migration of blacks returning to Virginia and the rest of the South.[88] The western mountains have many settlements founded by Scotch-Irish immigrants before the Revolution.[89] There are also sizable numbers of people of German descent in the northwestern mountains and Shenandoah Valley. People of English heritage settled throughout the state during the colonial period, and others of British and Irish heritage have migrated there through the decades for work.[90] Northern Virginia has the largest Vietnamese population on the East Coast, with about 48,745 Vietnamese statewide as of 2007.[91] Their major wave of immigration followed the Vietnam War.[92] Due to their ties to the U.S. Navy, Hampton Roads has a sizable Filipino population, numbering about 45,000 in the area.[93] Virginia also continues to be home to eight Native American tribes recognized by the state, though all lack federal recognition status. Most Native American groups are located in the Tidewater region.[94] Top Ancestries by County

Virginia population density map prior year and an increase of 633,067, or nine percent, since the year 2000. This includes an increase from net migration of 276,292 people into the commonwealth. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 151,748 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 124,544 people.[5] The center of population is located in Goochland County.[81] English was passed as the commonwealth’s official language by statutes in 1981 and again in 1996, though the status is not mandated by the Constitution of Virginia.[82] English is the only language spoken by 6,245,517 (86.7%) Virginians, though it is spoken very well by an additional 570,638 (7.9%) for a total of 94.6% of the Commonwealth which speaks English. Spanish has the most speakers of other languages, with 424,381 (5.9%). 226,911 (3.2%) speak Asian and Pacific Islander languages, including Vietnamese and Filipino.[83]

As of 2000, the five largest reported ancestry groups in Virginia are: African (19.6%), German (11.7%), unspecified American (11.4%), English (11.1%), and Irish (9.8%).[84] Because of more recent immigration in the late 20th century and early 21st century, there are rapidly growing populations of Hispanics, particularly Central Americans, and Asians. As of 2007, 6.5% of Virginians are Hispanic, 5.4% are Asian, and 0.9% are American Indian/Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander.[5] The Hispanic population of the state tripled from 1990 to 2006, with twothirds of Hispanics living in Northern Virginia. Hispanics in Virginia have higher median household incomes and educational attainment than the general United States or Virginia population.[85]

American German



African American

U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000 special tabulation. American Factfinder provides census data and maps.

Religious affiliation


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Demographics of Virginia (csv) By race 2000 (total population) 2000 (Hispanic only) 2005 (total population) 2005 (Hispanic only) Growth 2000–05 (total population) Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) White 75.70% 4.17% 74.94% 5.44% 5.84% 3.87% 39.60% Black 20.54% 0.42% 20.65% 0.46% 7.49% 7.27% 18.30% AIAN* 0.76% 0.09% 0.74% 0.10% 4.61% 2.22% 22.10% Asian 4.32% 0.07% 5.20% 0.09% 28.64% 28.47% 38.58%


NHPI* 0.15% 0.02% 0.16% 0.03% 17.09% 15.73% 24.16%

* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander Christian Baptist Roman Catholic Methodist Lutheran Judaism Islam Buddism Hinduism Non-religious Data as of 2008[95][96] Virginia is predominantly Christian and Protestant, while Baptists are the largest single group with twenty-seven percent of the population as of 2008.[95] Baptist denominational groups in Virginia include the Baptist General Association of Virginia, with about 1,400 member churches, which supports both the Southern Baptist Convention and the moderate Cooperative Baptist Fellowship; and the Southern Baptist Conservatives of Virginia with over five-hundred affiliated churches, which supports the Southern Baptist Convention.[97][98] Roman Catholics are the second-largest religious group, and the group which grew the most in the 1990s.[99] The Roman Catholic Diocese of Arlington includes most of Northern Virginia’s Catholic churches, while the Diocese of Richmond covers the rest. The Virginia Conference is the regional body of the United Methodist Church. The Virginia Synod is responsible for the congregations of the Lutheran Church. The Episcopal Diocese of Virginia, Southern Virginia, and Southwestern Virginia support the various Episcopal churches. In November 76% 27% 11% 8% 2% 1% 0.5% 1% 1% 15% Christ Church in Alexandria was frequented by George Washington and Robert E. Lee. 2006, fifteen conservative Episcopal churches in the Diocese of Virginia voted to split from the diocese over the issue of sexuality and the ordination of openly gay bishops and clergy; these churches continue to claim affiliation with the larger Anglican Communion through other bodies outside the United States. Virginia law allows parishioners to determine their church’s affiliation. The resulting property law case is a test for Episcopal churches nationwide, as the diocese claims the church properties of those congregations that want to secede.[100] Presbyterians, Pentecostals, Congregationalists, and Episcopalians each composed between one and three percent of the population as of 2001.[101] Among other religions, adherents of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints constitute 1.1% of the population, with 188 congregations in Virginia as of 2008.[102] Fairfax Station is home to the Ekoji Buddhist Temple, of the Jodo Shinshu school, and the Hindu Durga Temple. While a small population in terms of the state overall,


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
organized Jewish sites date to 1789 with Congregation Beth Ahabah.[103] Muslims are a rapidly growing religious group throughout the state.[104] Megachurches in the state include Thomas Road Baptist Church, Immanuel Bible Church and McLean Bible Church, which operates the youth focused Frontline ministry.[105]

that 10% of all electricity it sends to Northern Virginia will be used by the region’s data centers alone.[113] Fairfax and Loudoun counties in Northern Virginia have the highest and second highest median household income, respectively, of all counties in the United States as of 2006.[114] In Southern Virginia from Hampton Roads to Richmond and to Lee County, the economy is based on military installations, and cattle, tobacco and peanut farming. About twenty percent of Virginian jobs are in agriculture, with 47,000 farms, averaging 181 acres (0.28 sq mi; 0.73 km2).[14] Tomatoes surpassed soy as the most profitable crop in Virginia in 2006, with peanuts and hay as other agricultural products.[115] Oysters are an important part of the Chesapeake Bay economy, but declining populations due to disease, pollution, and overfishing have diminished catches.[116] Wineries and vineyards in the Northern Neck and along the Blue Ridge Mountains also have begun to generate income and attract tourists.[117]


Tourism is an important sector of Virginia Beach’s economy. Virginia’s economy is very well balanced with many diverse sources of income, made up of 4.1 million civilian workers.[106] One-third of Virginia’s jobs are in the service sector.[8] In 2006, Forbes Magazine named Virginia the best state in the nation for business.[107] The Gross Domestic Product of Virginia was $383 billion in 2007.[108] As of 2000, Virginia had the highest number of counties in the top one-hundred wealthiest jurisdictions in the United States based upon median income.[109] Virginia has eighteen total Fortune 500 companies, ranking the state tenth nationwide.[110] Virginia has the highest concentration of technology workers of any state.[111] Computer chips became the state’s highest-grossing export in 2006, surpassing its traditional top exports of coal and tobacco, combined.[7] Northern Virginia, once considered the state’s dairy capital, now hosts software, communication technology, and consulting companies. The Dulles Technology Corridor near Dulles International Airport has a high concentration of Internet, communications and software engineering firms.[112] Northern Virginia’s data centers currently carry more than 50% of the nation’s Internet traffic, and by 2012 Dominion Power expects

The Pentagon, the Department of Defense headquarters, is the world’s largest office building.[118] Many of Northern Virginia’s well-educated population work directly for Federal agencies. Many others work for government contractors, including defense and security contractors.[119] Well-known government agencies headquartered in Northern Virginia include the Central Intelligence Agency and the Department of Defense, as well as the National Science Foundation, the United States Geological Survey and the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The Hampton Roads area has the largest concentration of military bases and facilities of any metropolitan area in the world. The largest of the bases is Naval Station Norfolk.[73] Virginia has more veterans than any other state, with over 800,000, and is second only to


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Alaska in per capita defense spending.[120][121] Virginia collects personal income tax in five income brackets, ranging from 3.0% to 5.75%. The sales and use tax rate is 5%. The tax rate on food is 2.5%. There is an additional 1% local tax, for a total of a 5% combined sales tax on most Virginia purchases and a combined tax rate of 2.5% on food.[122] Virginia’s property tax is set and collected at the local government level and varies throughout the commonwealth. Real estate is taxed at the local level based on one-hundred percent of fair market value. Tangible personal property also is taxed at the local level and is based on a percentage or percentages of original cost.[123]

Besides the general cuisine of the Southern United States, Virginia maintains its own particular traditions. Virginia wine is made in many parts of the state.[117] Smithfield ham, sometimes called Virginia ham, is a type of country ham which is protected by state law, and can only be produced in the town of Smithfield.[129] Virginia furniture and architecture are typical of American colonial architecture. Thomas Jefferson and many of the state’s early leaders favored the Neoclassical architecture style, leading to its use for important state buildings. The Pennsylvania Dutch and their style can also be found in parts of the state.[90]

Fine and performing arts
See also: Music of Virginia


Colonial Virginian culture, language, and style is reenacted in Williamsburg. Virginia’s historic culture was popularized and spread across America and the South by Washington, Jefferson, and Lee, and their homes represent Virginia as the birthplace of America and of the South.[124] Modern Virginia culture has many heritages, and is largely part of the culture of the Southern United States.[125] The Smithsonian Institution divides Virginia into nine cultural regions.[126] The Piedmont region is one of the most famous for its dialect’s strong influence on Southern American English. Various accents are also present including the Tidewater accent, the Old Virginia accent, and the anachronistic Elizabethan of Tangier Island, as well as a more homogenized American English in urban areas with a great deal of transplants.[127][128] Claudia Emerson of Fredericksburg is the current Poet Laureate of Virginia.

The Meadow Pavilion is one of the theaters at Wolf Trap National Park for the Performing Arts. The Virginia Foundation for the Humanities works to improve commonwealth’s civic, cultural, and intellectual life.[130] The Virginia Museum of Fine Arts is a state-funded museum with the largest collection of Fabergé eggs outside of Russia.[131] The Chrysler Museum of Art is home to many pieces, stemming from the Chrysler family collection, including the final sculpture of Gian Lorenzo Bernini.[132] Other museums include the popular Science Museum of Virginia, the Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center of the National Air and Space Museum, the Frontier Culture Museum, and the Mariners’ Museum.[40] Besides these sites, many open air museums and battlefields are located in the state, such as Colonial Williamsburg, Richmond National Battlefield, and Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park.[133] Wolf Trap National Park for the Performing Arts is located in Vienna and is the only


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
national park intended for use as a performing arts center. Wolf Trap hosts the Wolf Trap Opera Company, which produces an opera festival every summer.[134] The Harrison Opera House in Norfolk is home to the official Virginia Opera. The Virginia Symphony Orchestra is based in Hampton Roads. The American Shakespeare Center is located in Staunton, and home to resident and touring theater troupes. Other notable theaters include the Ferguson Center for the Arts, the Barter Theatre, and the Landmark Theater. Virginia has launched many award-winning traditional music artists as well as internationally successful popular music acts. Notable performance venues include The Birchmere, Nissan Pavilion, the Norva Theatre, the Patriot Center, and the Verizon Wireless Virginia Beach Amphitheater.[133]

annually in Winchester that includes parades and bluegrass concerts.[135] From 2005 to 2007, Richmond was host of the National Folk Festival. The Northern Virginia Fine Arts Festival is held on a May weekend in Reston.[138] Two important film festivals, the Virginia Film Festival and the VCU French Film Festival, are held annually in Charlottesville and Richmond, respectively.[135] Annual fan conventions in the commonwealth include Anime USA, the national anime convention held in Crystal City, Anime Mid-Atlantic held in various cities, Magfest music and gaming festival, and RavenCon science fiction convention in Richmond.[139] The Old Time Fiddlers’ Convention in Galax, begun in 1935, is one of the oldest and largest such events worldwide.[135]



The annual Chincoteague Pony Swim features over two-hundred wild ponies swimming across the Assateague Channel into Chincoteague. Many counties and localities host county fairs and festivals. The Virginia State Fair is held at the Richmond International Raceway every September. The September Neptune Festival in Virginia Beach celebrates the city, the waterfront, and regional artists. Norfolk’s Harborfest, in June, features boat racing and air shows.[135] Fairfax County also sponsors Celebrate Fairfax! with popular and traditional music performances.[136] The Virginia Lake Festival is held during the third weekend in July in Clarksville.[137] Other food festivals are held around the state. On the Eastern Shore island of Chincoteague the annual Pony Swim & Auction of feral Chincoteague ponies at the end of July is a unique local tradition expanded into a week-long carnival. The Shenandoah Apple Blossom Festival is a six-day festival held

McLean is home to the headquarters of USA Today, the nation’s most circulated newspaper. The Hampton Roads area is the forty-second largest media market in the United States as ranked by Nielsen Media Research, while the Richmond-Petersburg area is sixtieth and Roanoke-Lynchburg is sixty-eighth.[140] There are twenty-one television stations in Virginia, representing each major U.S. network, part of forty-two stations which serve Virginia viewers.[141] Over eight-hundred FCC-licensed FM radio stations broadcast in Virginia, with over three-hundred such AM stations.[142][143] The nationally available Public Broadcasting Service, abbreviated as PBS, is headquartered in Arlington. The locally focused Commonwealth Public Broadcasting Corporation, a non-profit corporation which owns public TV and radio stations, has offices around the state.[144]


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Major newspapers in the commonwealth include the Richmond Times-Dispatch, The Virginian-Pilot, based in Norfolk, The Roanoke Times and the Daily Press based in Newport News. The Times-Dispatch has a daily subscription of 186,441, slightly more than the Pilot at 183,024, fiftieth and fifty-second in the nation respectively, while the Roanoke Times has about 90,557 daily subscribers.[145][146] Several Washington, D.C. papers are based in Northern Virginia, such as The Washington Examiner and The Politico. The nation’s widest circulated paper, USA Today, is headquartered in McLean.[147] The Arlington based Freedom Forum is an organization dedicated to free press and journalistic free speech.[148] Besides traditional forms of media, Virginia is home to telecommunication companies such as Sprint Nextel and XO Communications.

regulation of 294 state accredited and 141 non-accredited private schools.[153] Public K-12 schools in Virginia are generally operated by the counties and cities, and not by the state. As of Fall 2007, a total of 1,232,436 students were enrolled in 1,863 local and regional schools in the commonwealth, including three charter schools, and an additional 104 alternative and special education centers across 134 school divisions.[154][155] Besides the general public schools in Virginia, there are Governor’s Schools and selective magnet schools. The Governor’s Schools are a collection of more than forty regional selective magnet high schools and summer programs intended for gifted students.[156]


The University of Virginia, a World Heritage Site, was founded by President Thomas Jefferson.[157] Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology, which requires an application, is ranked as the best public high school in the nation according to U.S. News & World Report. Other Virginia public high schools rated in the top one-hundred include McLean, Langley, and Woodson in Fairfax, George Mason in Falls Church, Clarke County, and H-B Woodlawn and Yorktown in Arlington.[158][159] Northern Virginia schools also pay the test fees for students to take Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate exams, and Alexandria and Arlington lead the nation in college course tests.[160] As of 2008, there are 161 colleges and universities in Virginia.[161] In the U.S. News and World Report ranking of public colleges, the University of Virginia is second, and the College of William and Mary is sixth.[162][163] James Madison University has been the number one public master’s university in The South since 1993.[164] The Virginia Military Institute is the oldest state military college

Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology has been ranked as the top public high school in the United States. Virginia’s educational system consistently ranks in the top ten states on the U.S. Department of Education’s National Assessment of Educational Progress, with Virginia students outperforming the average in all subject areas and grade levels tested.[149] The 2009 Quality Counts report ranked Virginia’s K-12 education fourth best in the country.[150] All school divisions must adhere to educational standards set forth by the Virginia Department of Education, which maintains an assessment and accreditation regime known as the Standards of Learning to ensure accountability.[151] In 2008, eighty-one percent of high school students graduated on-time after four years.[152] The Virginia Council for Private Education oversees the


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
and a top ranked public liberal arts college.[165][166] Virginia Commonwealth University is the largest university in Virginia with over 30,000 students, followed closely by George Mason University.[167] Virginia Tech and Virginia State University are the state’s land-grant universities. Virginia also operates twenty-three community colleges on forty campuses serving over 240,000 students.[168] There are 114 private institutions.[161]

best in the South according to U.S.News & World Report.[174] Sentara Norfolk General Hospital, part of the Hampton Roads based Sentara Health System, is also nationally ranked, and was the site of the first successful in-vitro fertilization birth.[175][176] Virginia does have a high number of primary care physicians, with 124 per 10,000, which is the thirteenth highest nationally.[169] Virginia is one of five states to receive a perfect score in disaster preparedness according to a 2008 report by the Trust for America’s Health. It met or exceeded in criteria such as detecting pathogens and distributing vaccines and medical supplies.[177]



Bon Secours St. Mary’s Hospital in Richmond Virginia has a mixed health record, and is ranked as the twentieth overall healthiest state according to the 2008 United Health Foundation’s Health Rankings. Virginia ranks twenty-first among the states in the rate of premature deaths, 7,104 per 100,000. There are also racial health disparities, with African Americans experiencing sixty-three percent more premature deaths than whites. Additionally, 14.1% of Virginians lack any health insurance.[169] According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 2007 survey, 25.3% of Virginians are obese and another 36.6% are overweight, and only 78.4% of residents exercise regularly.[170][171] Additionally, thirty percent of Virginia’s ten- to seventeen-year-olds overweight or obese.[172] There are eighty-five hospitals in Virginia listed with the United States Department of Health and Human Services.[173] Notable examples include Inova Fairfax Hospital, the largest hospital in the Washington Metropolitan Area, and the Medical College of Virginia, the medical school of Virginia Commonwealth University. The University of Virginia Medical Center, part of the University of Virginia Health System, has the eighth ranked endocrinology specialty in the nation, and the

Virginia is home to many shortline railroads such as the Buckingham Branch Railroad. As of 2007, the Virginia state government owns and operates 84.6% of roads in the state, instead of the local city or county authority. 57,867 miles (93,128 km) of the total 68,428 miles (110,124 km) are run by the Virginia Department of Transportation, making it the third largest state highway system in the United States.[178] Virginia’s road system is ranked as the sixteenth best in the nation.[179] While the Washington Metropolitan Area has the second worst traffic in the nation, Virginia as a whole has the twenty-first lowest congestion and the average commute time is 26.9 minutes.[180][181] With low disbursements for both roads and bridges, and a low road fatality rate, Virginia has a good system with a tight budget.[179] Virginia has Amtrak passenger rail service along several corridors, and Virginia Railway Express maintains two commuter lines into Washington, D.C. from Fredericksburg and


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Manassas. The Washington Metro rapid transit system currently serves Northern Virginia as far west as Fairfax County, although expansion plans call for Metro to reach Dulles Airport in Loudoun County by 2015.[182] Commuter buses include the Fairfax Connector and the Shenandoah Valley Commuter Bus. The Virginia Department of Transportation operates several free ferries throughout Virginia, the most notable being the Jamestown-Scotland ferry which crosses the James River in Surry County.[183] Virginia has five major airports: Washington Dulles International, Reagan Washington National, Richmond International, Norfolk International and Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport. Sixty-six public airports serve the state’s aviation needs.[184] The Virginia Port Authority’s main seaports are those in Hampton Roads, which carried 17,726,251 short tons (16,080,984 t) of bulk cargo in 2007, the sixth most of United States ports.[185] Northern Virginia company Space Adventures is currently the only company in the world offering space tourism.[186]

nation, by the Pew Center on the States, an honor it shares with two others.[187] Virginia functions under the 1971 Constitution of Virginia, the commonwealth’s seventh constitution, which provides for a strong legislature and a unified judicial system. Similar to the federal structure, the government is divided in three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislative branch is the General Assembly, a bicameral body whose one-hundred member House of Delegates and forty member Senate write the laws for the commonwealth. The Assembly is stronger than the executive, as incumbent governors cannot run for re-election, and the General Assembly selects judges and justices.[188] The current governor is Tim Kaine. Other members of the executive branch include the Lieutenant Governor and the Attorney General. The Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General can run for reelection.The judicial branch consists of the Supreme Court of Virginia, the Court of Appeals of Virginia, the General District Courts and the Circuit Courts.[189] The Code of Virginia is the statutory law, and consists of the codified legislation of the General Assembly. The Virginia State Police is the largest law enforcement agency in Virginia. The Virginia Capitol Police are the oldest police department in the United States.[190] The Virginia National Guard consists of 7,500 soldiers in the Virginia Army National Guard and 1,200 airmen in the Virginia Air National Guard.[191] The "total crime risk" is twenty-nine percent lower than the national average.[192] However in 2006, Virginia saw 341 race related hate crimes, the sixth-highest total nationwide.[193] Since the 1982 resumption of capital punishment in Virginia, 103 people have been executed, second most in the nation.[194]

Law and government

The Virginia State Capitol, designed by Thomas Jefferson and begun by Governor Patrick Henry in 1785, is home to the Virginia General Assembly. In colonial Virginia, free men elected the lower house of the legislature, called the House of Burgesses, which together with the Governor’s Council, made the "General Assembly." Founded in 1619, the Virginia General Assembly is still in existence as the oldest legislature in the Western Hemisphere.[50] The modern government is ranked with an "A-", the highest grade in the

In the last century Virginia has shifted from a largely rural, politically Southern and conservative state to a more urbanized, pluralistic, and politically moderate environment. Since the 1970s, Virginia has moved away from a racially divided single-party state.[195] African Americans were effectively disfranchised until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s.[196] Enfranchisement and immigration of other groups, especially Hispanics, have placed growing importance on


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

considered a "swing state" for future presidential elections.[6]

See also: List of professional sports teams in Virginia Senator Jim Webb speaks at a Richmond rally with President Barack Obama, former Governor Douglas Wilder, Senator Mark Warner, Governor Tim Kaine and others. minority voting.[197] Regional differences play a large part in Virginia politics.[198] Rural southern and western areas moved to support the Republican Party in response to their "southern strategy" while politically moderate urban and growing suburban areas, including Northern Virginia, are the Democratic Party base.[199][200] Portions of Southwest Virginia influenced by unionized coal mines, college towns such as Charlottesville and Blacksburg, and southeastern counties in the Black Belt Region have remained more likely to vote Democratic.[201][202] Political party strength in Virginia has also been in flux. While Virginia’s Governor Tim Kaine is a Democrat, Lieutenant Governor Bill Bolling is a Republican, and Republican Robert McDonnell became Attorney General by 360 votes following a legally mandated recount of ballots for that race in 2005.[203] In the 2007 state elections, the Democrats regained control of the State Senate, and narrowed the Republican majority in the House of Delegates to eight votes.[204] Elections in 2009 will choose the next state executives and the House of Delegates. State election seasons traditionally start with the annual Shad Planking event in Wakefield.[205] In federal elections since 2006, Democrats have taken an edge. In the 2006 Senate election, Democrat Jim Webb was elected on a populist platform over the incumbent Republican following a very close race.[206] Former Governor Mark Warner, also a Democrat, replaced retiring Senator John Warner beginning in the 111th Congress.[207] Of the state’s eleven seats in the U.S. House of Representatives, Democrats hold six and Republicans hold five.[208] Virginia voted for Democrat Barack Obama in 2008, after backing Republican candidates for the previous ten presidential elections.[209] Virginia may be

The Virginia Tech Hokies football team has the third longest bowl game streak in the nation.[210] Virginia is the most populous U.S. state without a major professional sports league franchise.[211] The reasons for this include the lack of any dominant city or market within the state and the proximity of teams in Washington, D.C. Virginia is home to many minor league clubs, especially in baseball and soccer. Additionally, the Washington Redskins have Redskins Park, their headquarters and training facility, in Ashburn and the Washington Capitals train at Kettler Capitals Iceplex in Ballston.[212] Virginia has many professional caliber golf courses including the Greg Norman course at Lansdowne Resort and Kingsmill Resort, home of the Michelob ULTRA Open. Virginia is home to two NASCAR tracks currently on the Sprint Cup schedule, Martinsville Speedway and Richmond International Raceway. Current Virginia drivers in the series include brothers Jeff Burton and Ward Burton, Ricky Rudd, Denny Hamlin, and Elliot Sadler.[213] The Washington Nationals and Baltimore Orioles also have followings due to their proximity to the state, and both are broadcast in the state on MASN.[214] When the New York Mets ended their long affiliation with the Norfolk Tides in 2007, the Orioles


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
adopted the minor league club as their top level (AAA) minor league affiliate.[215] Additionally, the Nationals, Orioles, Pittsburgh Pirates, Boston Red Sox, Seattle Mariners, Chicago White Sox, and Atlanta Braves also have Single-A and Rookie-level farm teams in Virginia. From 1966 until 2008, Atlanta’s AAA franchise was the Richmond Braves.[216] However, the capital is now one of the largest markets in the country without any form of professional baseball. Virginia does not allow state appropriated funds to be used for either operational or capital expenses for intercollegiate athletics.[217] Despite this, both the University of Virginia Cavaliers and Virginia Tech Hokies have been able to field competitive teams in the Atlantic Coast Conference and maintain modern facilities. Their rivalry is followed statewide. Several other universities compete in NCAA Division I, particularly in the Colonial Athletic Association. Three historically black schools compete in the Division II Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association, and two others compete in Division I MEAC. Several smaller schools compete in the Old Dominion Athletic Conference and the USA South Athletic Conference of NCAA Division III. The NCAA currently holds its Division III championships in football, men’s basketball, volleyball and softball in Salem.[218]

loyal to the crown during the English Civil War, and the present moniker, "Old Dominion" is a reference to that title.[219] The other nickname, "Mother of Presidents," is also historic, as eight Virginians have served as President of the United States, including four of the first five: George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, William Henry Harrison, John Tyler, Zachary Taylor, and Woodrow Wilson. Additionally, Sam Houston, president of the Republic of Texas, Jefferson Davis, the only president of the Confederacy, and Joseph Jenkins Roberts, the first president of Liberia were from Virginia. The state’s motto translates from Latin as "Thus Always To Tyrants," and is used on the state seal. While the seal was designed in 1776, and the flag was first used in the 1830s, both were made official in 1930.[1] The majority of the other symbols were made official in the late 20th century.[220] The Virginia reel is among the square dances classified as the state dance.[13] Virginia currently has no state song. In 1940, Virginia made "Carry Me Back to Old Virginny" the state song, but it was retired in 1997 and reclassified as the state song emeritus.[221] Various alternatives, including a version of "Oh Shenandoah," have met with resistance in the Virginia House of Delegates.[222] • Bat: Virginia Big-Eared Bat • Beverage: Milk • Boat: Chesapeake Bay deadrise • Bird: Cardinal • Dance: Virginia reel • Dog: American Foxhound • Fish: Brook trout • Flower/Tree: Dogwood • Fossil: Chesapecten jeffersonius • Insect: Tiger swallowtail • Motto: Sic semper tyrannis • Nickname: The Old Dominion • Shell: Eastern oyster • Slogan: Virginia is for Lovers • Tartan: Virginia Quadricentennial Tartan

State symbols

The Virginia welcome sign on State Route 32 employs the state bird, the cardinal, and the state tree and flower, the dogwood. The state nickname is the oldest symbol, though it has never been made official by law. Virginia was given the title, "Dominion", by King Charles II of England at the time of The Restoration, because it had remained

See also
• Index of Virginia-related articles

[1] ^ "Factpack" (PDF). Virginia General Assembly. January 11, 2007.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia









[9] Center. University of Mississippi. 2003. class_media/4_5_pdfs/factpack-1.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-10-14. National/SandBar/2.4supreme.htm. "Virginia - Population Finder - American Retrieved on 2007-11-24. FactFinder". United States Census [10] Lilly, Lambert; Francis Lister Hawks Department. 2008. (1858). History of North Carolina. E.J. Hale & Son. pp. 92. SAFFPopulation?_event=Search&_name=&_state=04000US51. Retrieved on 2009-03-14. books?id=MzgTAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA92. "Median household income in the past 12 Retrieved on 2008-10-02. months (in 2007 inflation-adjusted [11] "Rivers and Watersheds". The Geology of dollars)". American Community Survey. Virginia. College of William and Mary. United States Census Bureau. 2007. February 23, 2007. geology/virginia/rivers/rivers.html. GRTTable?_bm=y&-_box_head_nbr=R1901&Retrieved on 2008-04-11. ds_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_&-_lang=en&[12] Burnham, Bill; Mary Burnham (2004). format=US-30&-CONTEXT=grt. Hiking Virginia: A Guide to Virginia’s Retrieved on 2008-09-02. Greatest Hiking Adventures. Globe ^ "Elevations and Distances in the Pequot. pp. 7. ISBN 0762727470. United States". U.S Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. books?id=VkKEooYDuToC. Retrieved on pubs/booklets/elvadist/ 2008-11-07. elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved on [13] ^ The Encyclopedia of Virginia. 1 (4 ed.). 2006-11-09. St. Clair Shores, MI: Somerset ^ "Virginia — ACS Demographic and Publishers, Inc.. 1999. pp. 2–15. ISBN Housing Estimates: 2007". United States 0403097533. Census Bureau. 2007. [14] ^ "Virginia’s Agricultural Resources". Natural Resource Education Guide. ADPTable?_bm=y&Virginia Department of Environmental geo_id=04000US51&Quality. January 21, 2008. qr_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_DP5& ds_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_&-_lang=en&guide/agriculture.html. Retrieved on redoLog=true. Retrieved on 2008-11-30. 2008-02-08. ^ Balz, Dan (October 12, 2007). [15] "Physiographic Regions of Virginia". The "Painting America Purple". The Geology of Virginia. College of William Washington Post. and Mary. February 16, 2007. 2007/10/12/ provinces/phys_regions.html. Retrieved the_purpling_of_america.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-07. on 2007-11-24. [16] Keith, Arthur (1907). "The Appalachian ^ Richards, Gregory (February 24, Mountains and Valleys". Science 2007). "Computer chips now lead (American Association for the Virginia exports". The Virginian-Pilot. Advancement of Science) 25 (648): 866. Archived from the original on 2007-03-10. books?id=y5UCAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA866. 20070310155937/ Retrieved on 2008-10-02. [17] "Largest Earthquake in Virginia". United story.cfm?story=120082&ran=25886. States Geological Survey. January 25, Retrieved on 2008-09-29. 2008. ^ "Virginia facts". National Geographic. regional/states/events/1897_05_31.php. April 2, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-04-12. [18] "Economic Resources". The Geology of places/states/state_virginia.html. Virginia. College of William and Mary. Retrieved on 2008-04-12. January 22, 2007. "Supreme Court Rules for Virginia in geology/virginia/provinces/ Potomac Conflict". The Sea Grant Law


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
economic_resources.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-11. [19] ^ Hayden, Bruce P.; Patrick J. Michaels (January 20, 2000). "Virginia’s Climate". Department of Environmental Sciences. University of Virginia. description.htm. Retrieved on 2008-10-20. [20] Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of Köppen–Geiger Climate Classification". Meteorol. Z. 259-263. kottek_et_al_2006_A1.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-12-19. [21] "Gaston impact". NOAA. September 3, 2004. wx_events/hur/GASTON/gaston.htm. Retrieved on 2007-12-06. [22] "Crews Fight to Restore Power After Isabel". Associated Press (Fox News). September 21, 2003. 0,2933,97848,00.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-23. [23] ^ "Natural Hazards : Thunderstorms". Virginia Business Emergency Survival Toolkit. 2007. hazthreats/natural/thunderstorms/ index.cfm. Retrieved on 2007-11-29. [24] "The Natural Communities of Virginia". Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. 2006. natural_heritage/ncoverview.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-04-12. [25] Ricketts, Lauryn (February 7, 2008). "Tornadoes DO happen in Virginia!". TV3 Winchester. laurynrickettsblog/15421801.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-13. [26] "Advisory 01/07: The Hot Get Hotter? Urban Warming and Air Quality". University of Virginia Climatology Office. 20020922182906/ ad01-07.htm. Retrieved on 2007-07-30. [27] "Virginia". State of the Air: 2009. American Lung Association. April 29, 2009. states/virginia/. Retrieved on 2009-04-29.

[28] "Fairfax County Residents Can Play Their Part to Reduce Air Pollution". Fairfax County, Virginia. May 26, 2004. 04145.htm. Retrieved on 2008-09-29. [29] Fahrenthold, David A. (June 25, 2008). "Debating Coal’s Cost in Rural Va.". The Washington Post. content/story/2008/06/25/ ST2008062500042.html. Retrieved on 2008-11-15. [30] "Virginia’s Forest Resources". Natural Resource Education Guide. Virginia Department of Environmental Quality. January 21, 2008. guide/forests.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-08. [31] "Shenandoah National Park — Forests". National Park Service. July 25, 2006. forests.htm. Retrieved on 2007-09-10. [32] ^ Heinemann, Ronald L.; John G. Kolp, Anthony S. Parent Jr., William G. Shade (2007). Old Dominon, New Commonwealth. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. pp. 3–11, 125, 359–366. ISBN 978-0-8139-2609-4. [33] "Species Information: Mammals". Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. 2008. information/?t=2. Retrieved on 2008-11-15. [34] "Shenandoah National Park — Birds". National Park Service. July 25, 2006. birds.htm. Retrieved on 2007-09-01. [35] "Virginia Fishes". Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries. 2008. fish/. Retrieved on 2008-11-15. [36] "Bay Biology". Chesapeake Bay Program. January 5, 2006. baybio1.cfm. Retrieved on 2008-02-04. [37] Carroll, Steven; Mark Miller (2002). Wild Virginia: A Guide to Thirty Roadless Recreation Areas Including Shenandoah National Park. Globe Pequot. pp. 158. ISBN 0762723157. books?id=ymATg0mq8jkC&pg=PA158. Retrieved on 2008-11-07.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


[38] "Virginia". National Park Service. 2008. Colonization of North America, Retrieved 1492-1783. New York: The Macmillan on 2008-11-29. Company. pp. 116. OCLC 423777. [39] "Park Locations". Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. November books?id=7a0MAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA116. 9, 2007. Retrieved on 2008-10-14. state_parks/state_park.shtml. Retrieved [48] ^ Wallenstein, Peter (2007). Cradle of on 2008-01-26. America: Four Centuries of Virginia [40] ^ Smith, Julian (2008). Moon Virginia: History. University Press of Kansas. Including Washington, D.C.. Avalon pp. 22. ISBN 978-0-7006-1507-0. Travel. pp. 22–25, 152–153, 356. ISBN 1598800116. books?id=WWOFAAAAMAAJ&q=Wingina. books?id=WNEYCRIIQy4C&pg=PA152. [49] Gordon, John Steele (2004). An Empire Retrieved on 2008-11-02. of Wealth: The Epic History of American [41] "Virginia Military Dead Database Economic Power. HarperCollins. pp. 17. Introduction". Library of Virginia. ISBN 0060093625. Government of Virginia. 2009. books?id=rmsUs_KDgHAC&pg=PA17. mil/VMD/vmdintro.htm. Retrieved on [50] ^ Helderman, Rosalind S.; Chris L. 2009-04-26. Jenkins (May 7, 2006). "Latest Budget [42] Barisic, Sonja (May 11, 2007). "Virginia Standoff Met With Shrugs". The plans weekend commemorating 400th Washington Post. anniversary of Jamestown settlement". The San Diego Union-Tribune. content/article/2006/05/06/ AR2006050601099_pf.html. Retrieved on nation/ 2007-11-24. 20070511-0218-jamestownanniversary.html.[51] "Indentured Servants in the U.S.". Retrieved on 2008-10-02. History Detectives. Public Broadcasting [43] Cotton, Lee (July 1999). "Powhatan Service. 2007. Indian Lifeways". National Park Service. historydetectives/investigations/ 212_indenturedfeature.html. Retrieved powhatan-indian-lifeways.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-19. on 2008-06-26. [52] "Unthinking Decision? Why Did Slavery [44] "Native Peoples in Early Colonial Emerge in Virginia?". Digital History Virginia". University of Richmond. Reader. Virginia Tech. 2008. academics/education/projects/webunits/ us/mod02_slavery/context.html. vahistory/tribes.html. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2008-05-19. 2007-11-07. [53] "Genealogy". Virginia Historical Society. [45] Harris, Andrew (September 20, 2005). May 15, 2007. "The First Virginia". Folger Shakespeare Library. genealogy.htm. Retrieved on folger_institute/jamestown/c_harris.htm. 2008-04-12. Retrieved on 2007-11-28. [54] Kukla, Jon (October 14, 2007). "‘Mr. [46] Virginia is the oldest surviving English Jefferson’s Women’". The New York place-name in the U.S. not wholly Times. borrowed from a Native American word, 14/books/chapters/10141stand the fourth oldest surviving English kukla.html?pagewanted=3. Retrieved on place name, though it is Latin in form. 2008-06-26. Three placenames from the Roanoke [55] "Signers of the Declaration (Richard Colony are older. See Stewart, George Henry Lee)". National Park Service. April (1945). Names on the Land: A Historical 13, 2006. Account of Place-Naming in the United history/online_books/declaration/ States. New York: Random House. p. 22. bio26.htm. Retrieved on 2008-02-02. [47] Bolton, Herbert Eugene; Thomas [56] "Declaration of Independence". United Maitland Marshall (1921). The States Library of Congress. June 19,


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
2006. jefferson/jeffdec.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-12. [57] Schwartz, Stephan A. (May 2000). "George Mason : Forgotten Founder, He Conceived the Bill of Rights". Smithsonian (31.2): 142. [58] Cooper, Jean L. (2007). A Guide to Historic Charlottesville and Albemarle County, Virginia. The History Press. pp. 58. ISBN 1-596-29173-7. [59] "The Story of Virginia; Becoming Americans". Virginia Historical Society. May 20, 2008. vacc.htm. Retrieved on 2007-12-07. [60] "Fun Facts for the Charlotte Region". United States Census Bureau. April 26, 2004. www/charfun.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-12. [61] Davis, David Brion (2006). Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World. Oxford University Press. pp. 125, 208–210. ISBN 0-19-514073-7. [62] Morgan, Philip D. (1998). Slave Counterpoint. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. pp. 490. ISBN 0807847178. [63] "Census Data for Year 1860". Historical Census Browser. University of Virginia. 2007. collections/stats/histcensus/php/ start.php?year=V1860. Retrieved on 2007-11-25. [64] Morgan, Lynda (1992). Emancipation in Virginia’s Tobacco Belt, 1850-1870. University of Georgia Press. pp. 160–166. ISBN 0-8203-1415-3. [65] Dailey, Jane Elizabeth; Glenda Elizabeth Gilmore, Bryant Simon (2000). Jumpin’ Jim Crow: Southern Politics from Civil War to Civil Rights. Princeton University Press. pp. 90-96. ISBN 0691001936. books?id=yFvjsEYP7hAC&pg=PA90. [66] "Virginia’s Constitutional Convention of 1901–1902". Virginia Historical Society. May 20, 2008. 21601.htm. Retrieved on 2007-12-10. [67] "The Civil Rights Movement in Virginia: Massive Resistance". Virginia Historical Society. May 19, 2008.

massiveresistance.htm. Retrieved on 2007-12-10. [68] "Closing Prince Edward County’s Schools". Virginia Historical Society. January 11, 2007. pec.htm. Retrieved on 2008-04-12. [69] "Colonial Williamsburg". Virginia is for Lovers. August 13, 2007. features.asp?FeatureID=165. Retrieved on 2007-11-24. [70] "County & County Equivalent Areas". United States Census Bureau. April 19, 2005. cob/co_metadata.html. Retrieved on 2007-12-08. [71] ^ Davis, Marc (January 31, 2008). "Chesapeake, Suffolk on track to pass neighbors in terms of population". The Virginian-Pilot. 2008/01/chesapeake-suffolk-track-passneighbors-terms-population. Retrieved on 2008-10-20. [72] "Virginia by Place". United States Census Bureau. 2006. GCTTable?-ds_name=PEP_2006_EST&mt_name=PEP_2006_EST_GCTT1R_ST9S&geo_id=04000US51. Retrieved on 2008-10-20. [73] ^ "NNSY History". United States Navy. August 27, 2007. HISTORY.HTM. Retrieved on 2008-10-20. [74] "Fairfax County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. August 31, 2007. 51/51059.html. Retrieved on 2007-12-08. [75] "Doing Business in Fairfax County". Fairfax County Economic Development Authority. June 26, 2007. re_tysons.htm. Retrieved on 2007-12-08. [76] Davenport, Coral (January 23, 2006). "In a fast-growing county, sprawl teaches hard lessons". Christian Science Monitor. p02s02-ussc.html. Retrieved on 2007-12-08. [77] Bishaw, Alemayehu; Jessica Semega (August 2008). "Income, Earnings, and Poverty Data From the 2007 American Community Survey" (PDF). United States


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Census Bureau. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN prod/2008pubs/acs-09.pdf. Retrieved on 0807829730. 2008-12-02. [87] Chambers, Douglas B. (2005). Murder At [78] Battiata, Mary (November 27, 2005). Montpelier: Igbo Africans In Virginia. "Silent Streams". The Washington Post. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 1578067065. content/article/2005/11/22/ [88] Frey, William H. (May 2004). "The New AR2005112202165_pf.html. Retrieved on Great Migration: Black Americans’ 2008-04-12. Return to the South, 1965-2000"" (PDF). [79] "Annual Estimates of the Population of The Living Cities Census Series Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical (Brookings Institution): 1–3. Areas" (CSV). United States Census Bureau. July 1, 2005. 20040524_Frey.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-09-10. tables/2005/cbsa-07-fmt.csv. Retrieved [89] "Scots-Irish Sites in Virginia". Virginia Is on 2008-02-19. For Lovers. January 3, 2008. [80] "All About Suffolk". Suffolk. February 12, 2007. features.asp?featureid=225. Retrieved community/history.html. Retrieved on on 2008-02-02. 2008-02-19. [90] ^ Keller, Christian B. (2001). [81] "Population and Population Centers by "Pennsylvania and Virginia Germans State" (TXT). United States Census during the Civil War". Virginia Magazine Bureau. 2000. of History and Biography (Virginia geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt. Historical Society) 109: 37–86. Retrieved on 2007-11-07. [82] Joseph, John Earl (2006). Language and Abstract_1091_Keller.htm. Retrieved on Politics. Edinburgh University Press. 2008-04-12. pp. 63. ISBN 0748624538. [91] "Virginia - Selected Population Profile in the United States (Vietnamese alone)". books?id=pJu5veUAo7kC&pg=PA63&lpg=PA63.United States Census Bureau. 2007. Retrieved on 2008-10-20. [83] "Virginia Selected Social Characteristics IPTable?_bm=y&-context=ip&in the United States". United States reg=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_S0201:029;ACS_2007_3YR Census Bureau. 2007. qr_name=ACS_2007_3YR_G00_S0201TPR& tree_id=3307&-geo_id=04000US51. ADPTable?_bm=y&Retrieved on 2009-02-12. qr_name=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_DP2&[92] Wood, Joseph (January 1997). geo_id=04000US51. Retrieved on "Vietnamese American Place Making in 2009-01-11. Northern Virginia". Geographical Review [84] "Virginia — QT-P13. Ancestry: 2000". 87 (1): 58–72. doi:10.2307/215658. United States Census Bureau. 2000. sici?sici=0016-7428%28199701%2987%3A1%3C58% QTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=04000US51&Retrieved on 2007-11-29. qr_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U_QTP13&[93] Firestone, Nora (June 12, 2008). "Locals ds_name=DEC_2000_SF3_U. Retrieved celebrate Philippine Independence Day". on 2007-12-05. The Virginian-Pilot. [85] Davis, Marc (February 27, 2008)."State’s Hispanic population nearly celebrate-philippine-independence-day. triples since 1990". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved on 2008-09-30.[94] Schulte, Brigid (November 23, 2007). "As hispanic-population-nearlyYear’s End Nears, Disappointment". The triples-1990-0. Retrieved on 2008-09-10. Washington Post. [86] Hall, Gwendolyn Midlo (2005). Slavery and African Ethnicities in the Americas: content/article/2007/11/22/ Restoring the Links. Chapel Hill: AR2007112201416_pf.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-25.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[95] ^ "American Religious Identification Survey". Institute for the Study of Secularism in Society and Culture. 2008. Retrieved on 2008-04-21. [96] "U.S. Religion Map and Religious Populations" (PDF). The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. September 11, 2008. report-religious-landscape-study-full.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-09-29. [97] Vegh, Steven G. (November 10, 2006). "2nd Georgia church joins moderate Va. Baptist association". The Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved on 2007-12-18. [98] "SBCV passes 500 mark". Baptist Press. November 20, 2007. bpnews.asp?id=26884. Retrieved on 2007-12-18. [99] "State Membership Report (1990-2000 Change)". Association of Religion Data Archives. 2000. mapsReports/reports/state/ 51_compare_Adherents.asp. Retrieved on 2008-09-29. [100] oorstein, Michelle (November 14, B 2007). "Trial Begins in Clash Over Va. Church Property". The Washington Post. content/article/2007/11/13/ AR2007111302078.html. Retrieved on 2007-11-19. [101] UNY "Key Findings". American C Religious Identification Survey. 2001. research_briefs/aris/key_findings.htm CUNY. Retrieved on 2008-10-20. [102]USA-Virginia". Country Profiles. The " Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 2008. ldsnewsroom/eng/contact-us/usavirginia. Retrieved on 2009-04-27. [103] litzky, Kerry, The American Synagogue, O Westport, CT, Greenwood Press, 1996, pp.359 [104] lfaham, Sarah (September 11, 2008). A "Muslims’ visibility in region growing". Richmond Times-Dispatch (Charlottesville Daily Progress). state_regional/article/ muslims_visibility_in_region_growing/ 27575/. Retrieved on 2009-05-02.


[105]Megachurch Search Results". Hartford " Institute for Religion Research. 2008. Retrieved on 2008-11-07. [106]Virginia State Energy Profiles". Energy " Information Administration. United States Department of Energy. June 26, 2008. state_energy_profiles.cfm?sid=VA. Retrieved on 2008-06-27. [107]Virginia Rated Top State for Business" " (PDF). Virginia Economic Development Partnership. 2006. Retrieved on 2008-03-11. [108]Gross Domestic Product by State". " Bureau of Economic Analysis. June 5, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-09-27. [109]Per capita personal income". Regional " Economic Information System. Bureau of Economic Analysis. April 2007. drill.cfm?table=CA1-3&catable=CA1-3&lc=30&year Retrieved on 2007-11-24. [110]Fortune 500 2009: States: Virginia". " Money. May 4, 2009. fortune/fortune500/2009/states/VA.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-12. [111] azmierczak, Matthew (2007-04-24). K "D.C. Capital Region Is A Growing HighTech Hub". American Electronics Association. PressRoom/ prjj_cs2007_dccapitalregion.asp. Retrieved on 2007-10-07. [112]D.C. Dotcom". Time. 2000-08-06. " article/0,9171,52073-1,00.html. Retrieved on 2007-09-27. [113] arber, Kent (March 24, 2009). "The G Internet’s Hidden Energy Hogs: Data Servers". U.S. News & World Report. energy/2009/03/24/the-internets-hiddenenergy-hogs-data-servers.html. Retrieved on 2007-3-25. [114] my, Goldstein; Dan Keating (August 30, A 2006). "D.C. Suburbs Top List Of Richest Counties". The Washington Post. content/article/2006/08/29/


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
AR2006082901543.html. Retrieved on 2007-11-24. [115] cNatt, Linda (October 17, 2007). M "Tomato moves into the top moneymaking spot in Virginia". The VirginianPilot. 354831. Retrieved on 2007-10-18. [116]NOAA Working to Restore Oysters in " the Chesapeake Bay". NOAA. March 31, 2005. stories/mag165.htm. Retrieved on 2008-02-14. [117] "Assessment of the Profitability and ^ Viability of Virginia Wineries" (PDF). MKF Research LLC. Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. June 2007. vawinery.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-06-26. [118] ogel, Steve (May 27, 2007). "How the V Pentagon Got Its Shape". The Washington Post. content/article/2007/05/23/ AR2007052301296.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-21. [119] ox, Justin (February 8, 2007). "The F Federal Job Machine". Time. article/0,9171,1587284-2,00.html. Retrieved on 2007-11-07. [120]Virginia Finally Comes Into Play". CBS " News. October 17, 2008. 10/17/eveningnews/main4530304.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-10-20. [121]Federal Domestic Spending Up 9 " Percent in 2001". United States Census Bureau (United States Census Bureau). 2002. governments/000498.html. Retrieved on 2007-10-07. [122]State Sales Tax Rates". Federation of " Tax Administrators. sales.html. Retrieved on 2007-09-24. [123]Virginia Tax Facts" (PDF). Virginia " Department of Taxation. February 2008. taxfacts.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-04-12. [124] cGraw, Eliza (June 24, 2005). Two M Covenants: Representations of Southern Jewishness. Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 0-8071-3043-5.

Virginia excerpt.html. Retrieved on 2007-11-29. [125] ischer, David Hackett; James C. Kelly F (2000). Bound Away: Virginia and the Westward Movement. University Press of Virginia. ISBN 0813917743. [126]Roots of Virginia Culture" (PDF). " Smithsonian Folklife Festival 2007. Smithsonian Institution. July 5, 2007. 2007Festival/VA_Signs/ SFF07_VA_Intro_Map.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-09-29. [127] lay III, Edwin S.; Patricia Bangs (May 9, C 2005). "Virginia’s Many Voices". Fairfax County, Virginia. niceandcurious/manyvoices.htm. Retrieved on 2007-11-28. [128] iller, John J. (August 2, 2005). "Exotic M Tangier". National Review. ?q=YjU1OTc0Y2ViOWQ1MjJmMTA5NTQ1ODJlZTUyN Retrieved on 2008-10-09. [129]Code of Virginia > 3.1-867". LIS. July " 14, 2007. legp504.exe?000+cod+3.1-867. Retrieved on 2007-11-28. [130]Mission & History". Virginia Foundation " for the Humanities. 2007. Retrieved on 2007-12-09. [131]Art on View". Virginia Museum of Fine " Arts. December 6, 2007. exhibitions.html. Retrieved on 2007-12-08. [132]Collections — Bust of the Savior". " Chrysler Museum of Art. 2006. Retrieved on 2007-12-08. [133] Howard, Blair; Mary K. Burnham, Bill ^ Burnham (2006). The Virginia Handbook. Hunter Publishing, Inc. pp. 29, 88, 121, 152, 165, 193, 206, 292, 363, 432. ISBN 1588435121. books?id=bX0t5dMokXYC. Retrieved on 2008-12-02. [134] cott, David L.; Kay W. Scott (2004). S Guide to the National Park Areas. Globe Pequot. pp. 307–308. ISBN 0762729880. books?id=Z8DCRmgPOewC&pg=PA307. Retrieved on 2008-11-07. [135] Goodwin, Bill (2004). Frommer’s ^ Virginia. Frommer’s. pp. 23–25. ISBN


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


076457132X. Circulation_Analysis.pdf. Retrieved on books?id=INVEYnDx0qQC&pg=PA23. 2008-09-29. Retrieved on 2008-11-07. [147] illian, Erin (November 5, 2007). K [136] eyer, Marianne (June 7, 2007). "Live!". M "Washington Post circulation decline The Washington Post. continues, USA Today circulation increases". Washington Business Journal. content/article/2007/06/06/ AR2007060601032.html. Retrieved on stories/2007/11/05/daily9.html. Retrieved 2008-11-07. on 2008-10-03. [137]Virginia Lake Festival". Virginia " [148]Who We Are". Freedom Forum. " Tourism Corporation. 2008. November 26, 2007. description.asp?attrID=39216. Retrieved document.asp?documentID=4020. on 2008-09-08. Retrieved on 2008-10-20. [138] amsot, Bob (May 15, 2008). "Arts in S [149]State Education Data Profiles". National " Brief". The Washington Post. Assessment of Educational Progress. 2005. content/article/2008/05/14/ stateprofiles/ AR2008051401471.html. Retrieved on sresult.asp?mode=full&displaycat=7&s1=51. 2008-09-30. Retrieved on 2007-12-25. . [139]Conventions/Events". Northern Virginia " [150]Quality Counts 2009" (PDF). Education " Anime Association. 2008. Week. January 8, 2009. Retrieved on 2008-12-02. qc09presspacket.pdf. Retrieved on [140]210 Designated Market Areas - 03-04". " 2009-01-13. Nielsen Media. [151]Virginia School Report Card". Virginia " web/20060517010320/ Department of Education. 2007. DMAs.html. Retrieved on 2006-11-26. index.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-02-02. [141]U.S. Television Stations in Virginia". " [152] lod, Maria (October 9, 2008). "81% Got G Global Computing. 2007. Diplomas On Time This Year". The Washington Post. GetTV_Map1.cfm?PageNum_q_GetTV_Map=1&stateid=VA. Retrieved on 2008-02-06. content/story/2008/10/08/ [142]AM Query". Federal Communications " ST2008100801695.html. Retrieved on Commission. September 18, 2008. 2008-10-20. [153]Virginia Council for Private Education". " amq?state=VA. October 14, 2008. [143]FM Query". Federal Communications " Retrieved on 2008-10-21. Commission. September 18, 2008. [154]2007-2008 Fall Membership". Virginia " Department of Education. November 19, fmq?state=VA. 2007. [144]About Us". The Community Idea " dbpubs/Fall_Membership/2007/ Stations. 2008. readme.htm. Retrieved on 2008-10-08. [155]Local and Regional Schools and " cpbc.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-24. Centers". Virginia Department of [145]2007 Top 100 Daily Newspapers in the " Education. November 19, 2007. U.S. by Circulation" (PDF). BurrellesLuce. 2007-03-31. Publications/schcnt_07.htm. Retrieved on 2007-11-30. 2007_Top_100List.pdf. Retrieved on [156]Virginia Governor’s School Program". " 2007-05-30. Virginia Department of Education. [146]Circulation Analysis" (PDF). The " October 6, 2006. Roanoke Times. January 28, 2008. Instruction/Govschools/. Retrieved on 2007-11-30.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


[157]Monticello and the University of " Virginia. 2007. Virginia in Charlottesville". UNESCO. enrollment/E2_Report.asp. Retrieved on October 15, 2008. 2007-07-30. en/list/442. Retrieved on 2008-10-14. [168]Fast Facts". Virginia’s Community " [158] nderson, Nick (December 5, 2008). A Colleges. 2007. "Thomas Jefferson High School Named WhoWeAre/FastFacts/tabid/79/ Top in Nation". The Washington Post. Default.aspx. Retrieved on 2007-11-30. [169] "Virginia". America’s Health Rankings ^ content/article/2008/12/05/ 2008. United Health Foundation. AR2008120501597.html. Retrieved on November 21, 2008. 2008-12-05. [159]The Top of the Class". Newsweek. 2007. " 2008/states/va.html. Retrieved on 2008-12-05. Retrieved on 2009-01-09. [170]Virginia - 2007 Overweight and Obesity " [160] athews, Jay (December 13, 2007). M (BMI)". Centers for Disease Control and "Alexandria, Arlington Schools Lead Prevention. September 17, 2008. Nation in AP, IB Testing". The Washington Post. display.asp?cat=OB&yr=2007&qkey=4409&state=V Retrieved on 2008-09-28. content/story/2007/12/12/ [171]Virginia - 2007 Exercise". Centers for " ST2007121201576.html. Retrieved on Disease Control and Prevention. 2007-12-13. September 17, 2008. [161] "College Navigator — Search Results". ^ National Center for Education Statistics. display.asp?cat=EX&yr=2007&qkey=4347&state=V United States Department of Education. Retrieved on 2008-09-28. 2008. [172]Measuring Virginia’s Obesity Rates". " collegenavigator/?s=VA. Retrieved on Virginia Performs. 2009. 2008-10-21. [162]Top Public National Universities 2009". " indicators/healthFamily/obesity.php. U.S. News and World Report. 2008. Retrieved on 2009-03-25. "Hospital Compare". United States [173] college/national-top-public. Retrieved on Department of Health and Human 2008-09-29. Services. September 8, 2008. [163]History & Traditions". College of " William and Mary. 2008. Hospital/Search/ SelectHospitals.asp?rdoSearchOption=gs&Continue= Retrieved on 2008-10-22. Retrieved on 2008-09-29. [164]JMU Holds Top Public Regional Rank " [174]University of Virginia Medical Center, " for 14th Year in ’U.S. News’ Survey". Charlottesville". Best Hospitals. Public Affairs (James Madison U.S.News & World Report. 2007. University). August 17, 2007. hospitals/6344000. Retrieved on news/general8824.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-02-06. 2008-04-11. [175]Sentara Norfolk General Hospital" [165] onley, Jay (August 12, 2007). "’Just like C Sentara Heart Hospital, Norfolk, Va.". the guys’: A decade of women at VMI". Best Hospitals. U.S.News & World The Roanoke Times. Report. 2007. listings/hospitals/6340620. Retrieved on wb/127669. Retrieved on 2008-10-22. 2008-02-06. [166] onley, Jay (August 22, 2008). "HVMI C [176] zabo, Liz (May 12, 2004). "America’s S retains U.S. News’ rank as No. 3". The first ’test-tube baby’". USA Today. Roanoke Times. 2004-05-12-testtube-baby-usat_x.htm. wb/174003. Retrieved on 2008-09-30. Retrieved on 2008-02-06. [167]2006-2007 Fall Headcount Enrollment". " [177] alker, Keith (December 9, 2008). "Va. W State Council of Higher Education for gets high disaster preparedness marks".


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Inside NoVA. Efficiency". The Washington Post. local/article/ content/story/2008/03/03/ va._gets_high_disaster_preparedness_marks/ ST2008030303550.html. Retrieved on 25973/. Retrieved on 2008-12-10. 2008-03-11. [178]Virginia’s Highway System". Virginia " [188] trum, Albert L. (June 1977). S Department of Transportation. June 28, "Commentaries on the Constitution of 2007. Virginia by A. E. Dick Howard". The vdot_hgwy_sys.asp. Retrieved on American Political Science Review 71 2009-05-02. (2): 714–715. [179] Hartgen, David T.; Ravi K. Karanam ^ sici?sici=0003-0554%28197706%2971%3A2%3C714 and Adrian T. Moore (July 2008). "17th Retrieved on 2007-12-08. Annual Report on the Performance of [189]Virginia Courts". Virginia Judicial " State Highway Systems (1984–2006)" System. 2008. (PDF). Reason Foundation. courts.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-04. 9bbbda199a9e7c16b2d877e42fdc5b53.pdf. [190] uckols, Christina (February 5, 2007). N Retrieved on 2009-05-02. "Country’s Oldest Department to Get [180] ummolo, Jonathan (September 19, M First Female Chief". The Virginian-Pilot. 2007). "A Ranking Writ In Brake Lights: D.C. 2nd in Traffic". The Washington Funding-and-Management-News/ Post. Countrys-Oldest-Department-to-Getwp-dyn/content/article/2007/09/18/ First-Female-Chief/4$34731. Retrieved AR2007091800777.html. Retrieved on on 2009-01-09. 2008-03-29. [191] istman, Jr., John W.; Lt. Col. Chester C. L [181]Measuring Traffic Congestion in " Carter, III (August 20, 2007). "Serving Virginia". Virginia Performs. April 9, Commonwealth and Country". Virginia 2009. Army National Guard. indicators/transportation/ trafficCongestion.php. Retrieved on VirginiaGuard/history/overview.html. 2009-04-30. Retrieved on 2008-02-11. [182]Timeline". Dulles Corridor Metrorail " [192]Quick Facts for Virginia". " Project. 2007. LocalExplorer. The Washington Post. 2006. timeline.cfm. Retrieved on 2007-12-08. ac2/wp-dyn/local-explorer/quick[183]Ferry Information". Virginia Department " facts?search=VA. Retrieved on of Transportation. December 4, 2007. 2008-04-12. [193]Agency Hate Crime Reporting by State, " ferry.asp. Retrieved on 2008-02-14. 2006". Federal Bureau of Investigation. [184]Airports". Virginia Department of " November 2007. Aviation. 2006. hc2006/table12.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-29. airports.htm. Retrieved on 2008-04-12. [194] rulliard, Karin (July 11, 2008). "Virginia B [185]Port/Maritime". Virginia Performs. " Executes Convicted Killer". The 2009. Washington Post. indicators/economy/ports.php. Retrieved on 2009-05-02. content/article/2008/07/10/ [186] art, Kim (2007-04-21). "Travel agency H AR2008071001343.html. Retrieved on launches tourists on out-of-this-world 2008-07-11. adventures". Seattle Times. [195] weeney, James R. (1999). ""Sheep S without a Shepherd": The New Deal businesstechnology/ Faction in the Virginia Democratic 2003675354_spacetours21.html?syndication=rss. Party". Presidential Studies Quarterly Retrieved on 2008-05-26. 29: 438. doi:10.1111/1741-5705.00043. [187] omashekhar, Sandhya (March 4, 2008). S "Government Takes Top Honors in


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


googleScholar.qst?docId=5001263885. AR2005122101889.html. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2008-03-31. 2007-12-03. [196] urchett, Michael H. (Summer 1997). B [204] raig, Tim; Anita Kumar (November 8, C "Promise and prejudice: Wise County, 2007). "Kaine Hails ’Balance’ in New Virginia and the Great Migration, Political Landscape". The Washington 1910-1920". The Journal of Negro Post. wp-dyn/content/article/2007/11/07/ History 82 (3): 312. doi:10.2307/ AR2007110700553_2.html. Retrieved on 2717675. 2007-11-07. sici?sici=0022-2992%28199722%2982%3A3%3C312%3APAPWCV%3E2.0.CO%3B2-0. [205] urray, Mark (April 16, 2009). "Shad M Retrieved on 2008-03-31. Planking kicks Virginia race into gear". [197] isman, Dale (October 25, 2006). "Webb, E MSNBC. Allen court Hispanic, white-collar voters 30248457/. Retrieved on 2009-05-07. in N. Va.". The Virginian-Pilot. [206] age, Susan (November 26, 2006). P "Election ’06: Lessons learned by Retrieved on 2008-03-29. dissecting votes". USA Today. [198] urque, Bill; Ovetta Wiggins and Nikita T Stewart (February 13, 2008). "In washington/2006-11-26-electionVirginia, Results Signal A State in Play lessons_x.htm. Retrieved on 2007-12-12. for November". The Washington Post. [207] umar, Anita (November 5, 2008). K "Warner Rolls Past His Fellow Former content/article/2008/02/12/ Governor". The Washington Post. AR2008021203200_pf.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-29. content/article/2008/11/04/ [199] iller, Gary; Norman Schofield (May M AR2008110404091.html. Retrieved on 2003). "Activists and Partisan 2008-11-05. Realignment in the United States". The [208] omashekhar, Sandhya (November 6, S American Political Science Review 97 2008). "Handful of Ballots to Decide (2): 245–260. Virginia’s 5th District Race". sici?sici=0003-0554(200305)97%3A2%3C245%3AAAPRIT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Y. The Washington Post. Retrieved on 2007-12-23. [200] raig, Tim (December 11, 2007). C content/article/2008/11/05/ "Tensions Could Hurt Majority in Va. AR2008110504341.html. Retrieved on Senate". The Washington Post. 2008-11-07. [209] ewis, Bob (November 5, 2008). "Obama L content/story/2007/12/10/ first Democrat to take Virginia in 44 ST2007121001571.html. Retrieved on years". Associated Press (Fox News). 2007-12-23. [201] ssociated Press (2006). "State Political A 2008Nov05/ Profile: Virginia". The Washington Post. 0,4670,ElectionVirginia,00.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-09. elections/keyraces/56/state-profile/. [210]Current Consecutive Bowl " Retrieved on 2007-12-23. Appearances". College Football Data [202] lemons, Michael L.; Charles E. Jones C Warehouse. 2009. (July 2000). "African American Legislative Politics in Virginia". Journal bowls/current_consecutive.php. of Black Studies 30 (6, Special Issue: Retrieved on 2000-01-16. African American State Legislative [211] inium, Harry (July 19, 2001). "Region M Politics): 744–767. Works to Attract Franchise Area Makes sici?sici=0021-9347%28200007%2930%3A6%3C744%3AAALPIV%3E2.0.CO%3B2-0. “Short List” for Existing Team’s Move" Retrieved on 2008-02-02. (PDF). The Virginian-Pilot. Archived from [203] orello, Carol (December 22, 2005). M the original on 2008-02-26. "McDonnell Clinches Attorney General Race". Washington Post. 20080226215152/ content/article/2005/12/21/ pdf/


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Preceded by New Hampshire List of U.S. states by date of statehood Ratified Constitution on June 25, 1788 (10th) Succeeded by New York


Professional+Sports+in+Hampton+Roads.pdf. world. C. Scribner & Co.. pp. 256. OCLC Retrieved on 2007-12-09. 318971. [212] ernandes, Deirdre (January 4, 2008). F [220]Capitol Classroom". Virginia General " "Beach officials hope to lure Redskins’ Assembly. December 13, 2007. training camp to Sportsplex". The Virginian-Pilot. 9_12_emb_symb.html. Retrieved on 2008/01/beach-officials-hope-lure2008-04-12. redskins%E2%80%99-training-camp[221]Carry Me Back to Old Virginny". " sportsplex. Retrieved on 2008-04-12. Virginia Historical Society. January 11, [213]NASCAR in Virginia". Virginia is for " 2007. Lovers. September 6, 2007. cmb.htm. Retrieved on 2008-04-12. [222] luss, Michael (March 2, 2006). S features.asp?featureid=201. Retrieved "Proposed state song doesn’t bring down on 2007-12-11. the House". The Roanoke Times. [214]Find MASN on your TV". MASN. " September 7, 2007. wb/wb/xp-54991. Retrieved on masn.html. Retrieved on 2007-12-11. [215] orawski, Brian (September 27, 2006). B "Business of Baseball Report". The General Orioles Warehouse. • Virginia at the Open Directory Project Government article/business-of-baseball-report120/. • State Government website Retrieved on 2008-04-12. • Virginia General Assembly [216] erman, Zach (September 2, 2008). B • Virginia’s Judicial system "Richmond Will Be Home of the Braves • Constitution of Virginia No More". The Washington Post. Tourism and recreation • Virginia Tourism Website content/article/2008/09/01/ • Virginia State Parks AR2008090103069.html. Retrieved on • Virginia Main Street Communities Travel 2008-09-20. • WikiTravel guide [217]Athletics Task Force Report " Culture and history Recommends Restructuring Of Sports • Virginia Historical Society Program, Finances, Academic Support". • Virginia’s First People University of Virginia. April 6, 2001. Maps and Demographics • USGS geographic resources of Virginia releases2001/athletics-april-6-2001.html. • Virginia State Climatology Office Retrieved on 2007-12-09. • Virginia State Fact Sheet [218] rady, Erik (December 14, 2006). B "Virginia town is big game central". USA Today. college/football/2006-12-13-focussalem_x.htm. Retrieved on 2008-02-06. [219] e Vere, Maximilian S. (1872). D Americanisms; the English of the New

External links

Retrieved from "" Categories: Virginia, Confederate states (1861-1865), Southern United States, Former British colonies, States of the United States, States and territories established in 1788, States and territories established in 1607


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


This page was last modified on 22 May 2009, at 12:12 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers


To top