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Cigarette

Cigarette
Union wishes to ban by 2011 cigarettes that are not fire-safe[4].

History

Unlit filtered cigarettes See also: tobacco smoking, nicotine, drug addiction, and addiction A cigarette (French "small cigar", from cigar + -ette) is a product consumed through smoking and manufactured out of cured and finely cut tobacco leaves and reconstituted tobacco, often combined with other additives,[1] then rolled or stuffed into a paperwrapped cylinder (generally less than 120 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter). The cigarette is ignited at one end and allowed to smoulder for the purpose of inhalation of its smoke from the other (usually filtered) end, which is inserted in the mouth. They are sometimes smoked with a cigarette holder. The term cigarette, as commonly used, refers to a tobacco cigarette but can apply to similar devices containing other herbs, such as cannabis. Rates of cigarette smoking vary widely. While rates of smoking have leveled off or declined in the developed world, they continue to rise in developing nations. [2][3] A cigarette is distinguished from a cigar by its smaller size, use of processed leaf, and paper wrapping, which is usually white, though other colours are available. Cigars are typically composed entirely of whole-leaf tobacco. Cigarettes are the most frequent source of fires in private homes and the European

A reproduction of a carving from the temple at Palenque, Mexico, depicting a Mayan priest smoking from a smoking tube. The earliest forms of cigarettes have been attested in Central America around the 9th century in the form of reeds and smoking tubes. The Maya, and later the Aztecs, smoked tobacco and various psychoactive drugs in religious rituals and frequently depicted priests and deities smoking on pottery and temple engravings. The cigarette, and the cigar, were the most common method of smoking in the Caribbean, Mexico and Central and South America until recent times.[5]

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The South and Central American cigarette used various plant wrappers; when it was brought back to Spain, maize wrappers were introduced, and by the seventeenth century, fine paper. The resulting product was called papelate and is documented Goya’s paintings La Cometa, La Merienda en el Manzanares, and El juego de la pelota a pala (18th century).[6] By 1830, the cigarette had crossed into France, where it received the name cigarette; and in 1845, the French state tobacco monopoly began manufacturing them.[6] In the George Bizet opera Carmen, which was set in Spain in the 1830s, the title character Carmen was at first a worker in a cigarette factory. In the English-speaking world, the use of tobacco in cigarette form became increasingly popular during and after the Crimean War, when British soldiers began emulating their Ottoman Turkish and Russian comrades.[6] This was helped by the development of tobaccos that are suitable for cigarette use, and by the development of the Egyptian cigarette export industry. The widespread smoking of cigarettes in the Western world is largely a 20th Century phenomenon - at the start of the century the per capita annual consumption in the USA was 54 cigarettes (equivalent to less than 0.5% of the population smoking more than 100 cigarettes per year), and consumption there peaked at 4,259 per capita in 1965. At that time about 50% of men and 33% of women smoked (defined as smoking more than 100 cigarettes per year)[7]. By 2000, consumption had fallen to 2,092 per capita, corresponding to about 30% of men and 22% of women smoking more than 100 cigarettes per year, and by 2006 per capita consumption had declined to 1,691[8]; implying that about 21% of the population smoked 100 cigarettes or more per year. During World War I and World War II, cigarettes were rationed to soldiers. During the second half of the 20th century, the adverse health effects of cigarettes started to become widely known and text-only health warnings became commonplace on cigarette packets. The United States has not yet implemented graphical cigarette warning labels, which are considered a more effective method to communicate to the public the dangers of cigarette smoking.[9] Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, however, have both

Cigarette
textual warnings and graphic visual images displaying, among other things, the damaging effects tobacco use has on the human body. The cigarette has evolved much since its conception; for example, the thin bands that travel transverse to the "axis of smoking" (thus forming circles along the length of the cigarette) are alternate sections of thin and thick paper to facilitate effective burning when being drawn, and retard burning when at rest. Synthetic particulate filters remove some of the tar before it reaches the smoker.

Manufacturing

Diagram of a cigarette. 1. Filter made of 95% cellulose acetate. 2. Tipping paper to cover the filter. 3. Rolling paper to cover the tobacco. 4. Tobacco blend. Commercially manufactured cigarettes are seemingly simple objects consisting mainly of a tobacco blend, paper, PVA glue to bond the outer layer of paper together, and often also a cellulose acetate–based filter.[10] While the assembly of cigarettes is straightforward, much focus is given to the creation of each of the components, in particular the tobacco blend, which may contain over 100 ingredients,[11] many of them flavourants for the tobacco. A key ingredient that makes cigarettes more addictive is the inclusion of reconstituted tobacco, which has additives to make nicotine more volatile as the cigarette burns.[1]

Paper
The paper for holding the tobacco blend may vary in porosity to allow ventilation of the burning ember or contain materials that control the burning rate of the cigarette and stability of the produced ash. The papers used in tipping the cigarette (forming the mouthpiece) and surrounding the filter stabilise the mouthpiece from saliva and moderate the burning of the cigarette as well as the

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
delivery of smoke with the presence of one or two rows of small laser-drilled air holes.[12] According to Simon Chapman, a professor of public health at the University of Sydney, the burning agents in cigarette paper are responsible for fires and reducing them would be a simple and effective means of dramatically reducing the ignition propensity of cigarettes.[13] Since 1980s Philipp Morris and RJ Reynolds developed fire-safe cigarettes but did not market them. The burn rate of cigarette paper is regulated through the application of different forms of microcrystalline cellulose to the paper.[14] Cigarette paper has been specially engineered by creating bands of different porosity to create "fire-safe" cigarettes. These cigarettes have a reduced idle burning speed which allows them to self-extinguish.[15] This fire-safe paper is manufactured by mechanically altering the setting of the paper slurry.[16] New York was the first U.S. state to mandate that all cigarettes manufactured or sold within the state comply with a fire-safe standard. Canada has passed a similar nation-wide mandate based on the same standard. Many other U.S. states have passed or are considering fire-safe mandates. [15] European union wishes to ban in 2011 cigarettes that are not fire-safe. According to a study made by European Union in 16 European countries, 11000 fires were due to cigarettes between 2005 and 2007. They caused 520 deaths and 1600 people injured
[17]

Cigarette
consistent taste from batches of tobacco grown in different areas of a country that may change in flavour profile from year to year due to different environmental conditions.[18] Modern cigarettes produced after the 1950s, although composed mainly of shredded tobacco leaf, use a significant quantity of tobacco processing by-products in the blend. Each cigarette’s tobacco blend is made mainly from the leaves of flue-cured brightleaf, burley tobacco, and oriental tobacco. These leaves are selected, processed, and aged prior to blending and filling. The processing of brightleaf and burley tobaccos for tobacco leaf "strips" produces several byproducts such as leaf stems, tobacco dust, and tobacco leaf pieces ("small laminate").[18] To improve the economics of producing cigarettes, these by-products are processed separately into forms where they can then be possibly added back into the cigarette blend without an apparent or marked change in the cigarette’s quality. The most common tobacco by-products include: • Blended leaf (BL) sheet: a thin, dry sheet cast from a paste made with tobacco dust collected from tobacco stemming, finely milled burley-leaf stem, and pectin.[19] • Reconstituted leaf (RL) sheet: a paper-like material made from recycled tobacco fines, tobacco stems and "class tobacco", which consists of tobacco particles less than 30 mesh in size (~0.599 mm) that are collected at any stage of tobacco processing.[20] RL is made by extracting the soluble chemicals in the tobacco byproducts, processing the leftover tobacco fibres from the extraction into a paper, and then reapplying the extracted materials in concentrated form onto the paper in a fashion similar to what is done in paper sizing. At this stage ammonium additives are applied to make reconstituted tobacco an effective nicotine delivery system.[1] • Expanded (ES) or improved stems (IS): ES are rolled, flattened, and shredded leaf stems that are expanded by being soaked in water and rapidly heated. Improved stems follow the same process but are simply steamed after shredding. Both products are then dried. These two products look similar in appearance but are different in taste.[18]

Tobacco blend

The tobacco end of a cigarette The process of blending, like the blending of scotch and cognac, gives the end product a

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Whole tobacco can also be processed into a product called expanded tobacco. The tobacco is "puffed", or expanded, by saturating it with supercritical carbon dioxide and heating the CO2 saturated tobacco to quickly evaporate the CO2. This quick change of physical state by the CO2 causes the tobacco to expand in a similar fashion as polystyrene foam. This is used to produce light cigarettes ("Lights") by reducing the density of the tobacco and thus maintain the size of a cigarette while reducing the amount of tobacco used in each cigarette.[18] A recipe-specified combination of brightleaf, burley-leaf and oriental-leaf tobacco will be mixed with humectants such as propylene glycol or glycerol, as well as flavouring products and enhancers such as cocoa, licorice, tobacco extracts, and various sugars, which are known collectively as "casings". The leaf tobacco will then be shredded, along with a specified amount of small laminate, expanded tobacco, BL, RL, ES and IS. A perfume-like flavour/fragrance, called the "topping" or "toppings", which is most often formulated by flavor companies, will then be blended into the tobacco mixture to improve the consistency in flavour and taste of the cigarettes associated with a certain brand name.[18] As well, they replace lost flavours due to the repeated wetting and drying used in processing the tobacco. Finally the tobacco mixture will be filled into cigarettes tubes and packaged. In recent years, the manufacturers’ pursuit of maximum profits has led to the practice of using not just the leaves, but also recycled tobacco offal[1] and the plant stem.[21] The stem is first crushed and cut to resemble the leaf before being merged or blended into the cut leaf.[22]

Cigarette
tend to tax cigarettes least.[24] It has been shown that higher prices for cigarettes discourage smoking. Every 10 percent increase in the price of cigarettes reduced youth smoking by about seven percent and overall cigarette consumption by about four percent.[25] Thus increased cigarette taxes are proposed as a means to reduce smoking. Cigarette taxes range from $0.07 per pack in South Carolina to $4.25 per pack in New York City. In the UK, many people now illegally import cigarettes, or buy those illegally imported, due to the increasing tax. A packet is less than half the price in some other countries, making illegal importers a large profit, while still providing comparatively very cheap cigarettes. The average price for 20 legal cigarettes is £5.20, while imported packs are sold for less than £3; this is due to the fact that the large majority of the sale price of a legitimate pack is tax.

Sales

Taxation
Cigarettes are a significant source of tax revenue in many localities. This fact has historically been an impediment for health groups seeking to discourage cigarette smoking, since governments seek to maximize tax revenues. Furthermore, some countries have made cigarettes a state monopoly, which has the same effect on the attitude of government officials outside the health field.[23] In the United States, the states partially determine the rate of cigarette taxes, and states where tobacco is a significant farm product

A Woolworths supermarket cigarette counter in New South Wales, Australia. Other Australian states currently prohibit such large displays.

Cigarette advertising
Before the Second World War many manufacturers gave away collectible cards, one in each packet of cigarettes. This practice was discontinued to save paper during the war and was never generally reintroduced, though for a number of years Natural American Spirit cigarettes included "vignette" cards depicting endangered animals and American historical events; this series was discontinued in 2003. On April 1, 1970 President Richard Nixon signed the Public Health

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cigarette Smoking Act into law, banning cigarette advertisements on television in the United States starting on January 2, 1971. However, some tobacco companies attempted to circumvent the ban by marketing new brands of cigarettes as "little cigars"; examples included Tijuana Smalls, which came out almost immediately after the ban took effect, and Backwoods Smokes, which reached the market in the winter of 1973–1974 and whose ads used the slogan, "How can anything that looks so wild taste so mild." In many parts of the world tobacco advertising and even sponsorship of sporting events has been outlawed. The ban on tobacco advertising and sponsorship in the EU in 2005 has prompted Formula One Management to look for races in areas that allow the tobacco sponsored teams to display their livery. As of 2007, only the Scuderia Ferrari retains tobacco sponsorship, continuing their relationship with Marlboro until 2011. In some jurisdictions, such as the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta, the retail store display of cigarettes is completely prohibited if persons under the legal age of consumption have access to the premises.[26] In Ontario, Canada, the display of tobacco is prohibited for everyone, regardless of age, as of 2008. This includes non-cigarette products such as cigars and blunt wraps.[27]

Cigarette

Purchase restrictions
Beginning on April 1, 1998, the sale of cigarettes and other tobacco products to people under 18 has been prohibited by law in all fifty states of the United States. The legal age of purchase has been additionally raised to 19 in Alabama, Alaska, New Jersey, Utah, and Nassau, Suffolk, and Onondaga Counties in New York.[28] The intended effect of this is to prevent upper class high school students from purchasing cigarettes for their younger peers. Legislation was pending as of 2004 in some other states. In Massachusetts[29] and Virginia, parents and guardians are allowed to give cigarettes to minors, but sales to minors are prohibited. Similar laws exist in many other countries. In Canada, most of the provinces require smokers to be 19 years of age to purchase cigarettes (except for Quebec, Saskatchewan, Manitoba and Alberta, where the age is 18). However, the minimum age only concerns the purchase of tobacco, not use. Alberta, however, does have a law which prohibits the possession or use of tobacco products by all persons under 18, punishable by a $100 fine. Australia, New Zealand and Pakistan have a nationwide ban on the selling of all tobacco products to people under the age of 18.

Tabak-Trafik in Vienna. Since January 1, 2007, all cigarette machines in Austria must attempt to verify a customer’s age by requiring the insertion of a debit card or mobile phone verification. Typical pictogram indicating that smoking is permitted Since 1 October 2007, it has been illegal for retailers to sell tobacco in all forms to people under the age of 18 in three of the UK’s four constituent countries (England, Wales and Scotland) (rising from 16). It is also illegal to sell lighters, rolling papers and all other tobacco-associated items to people

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Smoking prevalence by gender Percent smoking Region Africa United States Eastern Mediterranean Europe Southeast Asia Western Pacific Men 29 35 35 46 44 60 Women 4 22 4 26 4 8

Cigarette

Leading consumers of cigarettes in 1998[34] Country China USA Japan Russia Indonesia Population (millions) 1248 270 126 146 200 Cigarettes consumed (billions) 1643 451 328 258 215 Cigarettes consumed (per capita) 1320 1670 2600 1760 1070 purchase age from 16 to 18 on the 1 September 2007. Some police departments in the United States occasionally send an underaged teenager into a store where cigarettes are sold, and have the teen attempt to purchase cigarettes, with their own or no ID. If the vendor then completes the sale, the store is issued a fine.[32] Similar enforcement practices are regularly performed by Trading Standards Officers in the UK and the Gardaí Siochana, the police force of the Republic of Ireland.[33]

under 18. It is not illegal for people under 18 to buy or smoke tobacco, just as it was not previously for people under 16; it is only illegal for the said retailer to sell the item. The age increase from 16 to 18 came into force in Northern Ireland on 1 September 2008. In the Republic of Ireland, bans on the sale of the smaller ten-packs and confectionery that resembles tobacco products came into force on May 31, 2007 in a bid to cut underaged smoking. The UK Department of Health plans to follow suit with the ten-pack ban. Most countries in the world have a legal smoking age of 18. Five exceptions are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Portugal, and the Netherlands, where the age is 16. Since January 1, 2007, all cigarette machines in public places in Germany must attempt to verify a customer’s age by requiring the insertion of a debit card. Turkey, which has one of the highest percentage of smokers in its population,[30] has a legal age of 18. Another curiosity is Japan, one of the highest tobacco-consuming nations, which requires purchasers to be 20 years of age (suffrage in Japan is 20 years old).[31]. Beginning in July 2008, Japan will enforce this age limit at cigarette vending machines through use of the taspo smart card. In other countries, such as Egypt, it is legal to use and purchase tobacco products regardless of age. Germany raised the

Consumption
Approximately 5.5 trillion cigarettes are produced globally each year and are smoked by over 1.1 billion people or greater than onesixth of the world population. While smoking rates have leveled off or declined in developed nations, they continue to rise in developing parts of the world. Smoking rates in the United States have dropped by half from 1965 to 2006 falling from 42% to 20.8% of adults.[2] In the developing world, tobacco consumption is rising by 3.4% per year.[3]
Source: World Health Organization estimates, 2000

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Smoking prevalence in the U.S. (2006)[35] Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 State KY WV OK MS AK IN AR LA MO AL TN OH MI % 28.6 25.7 25.1 25.1 24.2 24.1 23.7 23.4 23.3 23.3 22.6 22.5 22.4 Rank 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 State SC NV NC DE WY PA IA FL ME WI IL SD NM % 22.3 22.2 22.1 21.7 21.6 21.5 21.5 21.0 20.9 20.8 20.5 20.4 20.2 Rank 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 State KS GA ND VA RI MT NH NE OR NY MN TX NJ % 20.0 20.0 19.6 19.3 19.3 19.0 18.7 18.6 18.5 18.3 18.3 18.1 18.1 Rank 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51

Cigarette

State AZ VT DC CO MA MD HI WA CT ID CA UT

% 18.1 18.0 17.9 17.9 17.8 17.8 17.5 17.1 17.0 16.8 14.9 9.8

Graphics on cigarette packets
Some countries require cigarette packs to contain warnings about health. The United States was one of the first. Other countries include Canada, most of Europe, Australia and in Asia (e.g. Hong Kong)

Smoking bans
Many governments impose restrictions on smoking tobacco, especially in public areas. The primary justification has been the negative health effects of secondhand smoke.[36] Laws vary by country and locality. See: • Smoking bans • Smoking bans by country A discarded cigarette butt, lying on dirty snow. Cigarette butts may be a subject of studies over popularity of brands producing cigarettes.

Cigarette butt
See also: Cigarette filter The common name for the remains of a cigarette after smoking is a "(cigarette) butt". The butt typically comprises about 30% of the cigarette’s original length. It consists of a tissue tube which holds a filter and some remains of tobacco mixed with ash. In extreme cases the filter is slightly burned. Cigarette butts are one source of tobacco for minors and low income people. The shape of a butt hinges on the manner of stubbing out. The intensely pressed butt possesses irregular shape at the end and wrinkled tissue.

Cigarette litter
Cigarette filters are made from cellulose acetate and are biodegradable[37][38], however depending on environmental conditions they can be resistant to degradation. Accordingly, the duration of the degradation process is cited as taking as little as 1 month to 3 years[37] to as long as 10–15 years.[38] This variance in rate and resistance to biodegradation in many conditions is a factor in littering[39] and environmental damage.[40] It is estimated that 4.5 trillion cigarette butts

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Barclay Basic Belair Benson & Hedges Camel Capri Carlton Chesterfield Davidoff Djarum Doral Eclipse Export A GPC Kamel Kool L&M Lucky Strike Marlboro Merit Misty Monarch More Now Pall Mall Parliament Salem Tareyton Vantage Viceroy Virginia Slims Winston

Cigarette

A cigarette disposal canister, encouraging the public to dispose of their cigarettes properly. become litter every year.[38] In the 2006 International Coastal Cleanup, cigarettes and cigarette butts constituted 24.7% of the total collected pieces of garbage, over twice as many as any other category.[41] Cigarette butts contain the chemicals filtered from cigarettes and can leach into waterways and water supplies.[42] Cellulose acetate and carbon particles breathed in from cigarette filters is suspected of causing lung damage.[43][44] Smouldering cigarette butts have also been blamed for triggering fires from residential fires[45] to major wildfires and bushfires which have caused major property damage and also death[46][47][48] as well as disruption to services by triggering alarms and warning systems.[49] Many governments have sanctioned stiff penalties for littering of cigarette butts, Washington State imposes a penalty of $1024.[50]

References
[1] ^ http://www.jeffreywigand.com/ WHOFinal.pdf Wigand, MA. ADDITIVES, CIGARETTE DESIGN and TOBACCO PRODUCT REGULATION, A REPORT TO: WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION, TOBACCO FREE INITIATIVE, TOBACCO PRODUCT REGULATION GROUP, KOBE, JAPAN, 28 JUNE-2 JULY 2006 [2] ^ Cigarette Smoking Among Adults United States, 2006 [3] ^ WHO/WPRO-Smoking Statistics [4] http://www.lexpansion.com/economie/ actualite-high-tech/les-cigarettes-antiincendie-seront-obligatoiresen-2011_160019.html According to a study made by European union in 16 European countries, 11000 fires were due to cigarettes between 2005 and 2007. They caused 520 deaths and 1600 people injured. See also http://www.dw-

List of Brands of Cigarettes
• Alpine

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cigarette

world.de/dw/article/ http://www.patentstorm.us/patents/ 0,2144,3540489,00.html in English 5342484-fulltext.html. [5] Robicsek, Francis Smoke; Ritual [17] http://www.lexpansion.com/economie/ Smoking in Central America pp. 30-37 actualite-high-tech/les-cigarettes-anti[6] ^ Goodman, Jordan Elliot (1993). incendie-seront-obligatoiresTobacco in history: the cultures of en-2011_160019.html dependence. New York: Routledge. p. 97. [18] ^ David E. Merrill, (1994), "How ISBN 0-415-04963-6. cigarettes are made". Video presentation [7] "Tobacco Use, United States 1990-1999". at Philip Morris USA, Richmond offices. Retrieved October 31, 2006 Oncology (Williston Park) 13 (12). [19] ""PCL Sheet Tobacco Cigarettes"". December 1999. http://g2public.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/ [8] Tobacco Outlook Report, Economic batco/html/13000/13099/. , Retrieved Research Service, U.S. Dept. of November 2, 2006 Agriculture [20] Grant Gellatly, "" Method and apparatus [9] Hammond D, Fong GT, McNeill A, for coating reconstituted tobacco"". Borland R, Cummings KM (June 2006). http://www.freepatentsonline.com/ "Effectiveness of cigarette warning 4706692.html. , Retrieved November 2, labels in informing smokers about the 2006 risks of smoking: findings from the [21] http://uk.geocities.com/ International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four synergy.editorial@btinternet.com/ Country Survey". Tob Control 15 Suppl polonium210radiationpoisoning.htm 3: iii19–25. doi:10.1136/tc.2005.012294. [22] STS PMID 16754942. [23] U.S. Aided Cigarette Firms in Conquests http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/cgi/ Across Asia content/full/15/suppl_3/iii19. [24] STATE EXCISE TAX RATES ON [10] Clean Virginia Waterways, Cigarette Butt CIGARETTES (January 1, 2007) Litter - Cigarette Filters, Longwood [25] Higher Cigarett Taxes. University, Retrieved October 31, 2006 [26] "Banning the butt: Global anti-smoking [11] Philip Morris USA, Product Information efforts". CBC News. 2008-02-07. Cigarette ingredients, Retrieved March http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/ 5, 2007 smoking/smokingbans.html. Retrieved on [12] JTI, ""Composite List of Ingredients in 2008-05-23. "On Jan. 19, 2005, the Non-Tobacco Materials"". Supreme Court of Canada rules the http://www.jti.com/english/ province [Saskatchewan] could reinstate corp_responsibility/ingredients/ the "shower curtain law" that requires ingredients_links/ store owners to keep tobacco products comp_tab_nonmat.aspx. www.jti.com, out of sight." Retrieved November 2, 2006 [27] "Ontario set to ban cigarette display [13] "European Union Pushes for Selfcases". CTV News. 2008-04-20. Extinguishing Cigarettes". Deutsche http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/ Welle. http://www.dw-world.de/dw/ story/CTVNews/20080420/ article/0,2144,3540489,00.html. ont_cigs_080420. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2009-01-01. 2009-01-31. "The new ban prevents all [14] "" Smoking article wrapper for tobacco products from being displayed in controlling burn rate and method for any way and prohibits customers from making same"". even touching them before they’re paid http://www.freepatentsonline.com/ for." 5263999.html. [28] News 10 Now (19 December 2006), [15] ^ ""What is a fire-safe cigarette?"". "Lawmakers raise minimum age on http://firesafecigarettes.org/ purchasing tobacco itemDetail.asp?categoryID=48&itemID=1190&URL=About%20fire- products". Retrieved December 19, 2006 safe%20cigarettes/ [29] Massachusetts General Laws, Chapter What%20is%20a%20fire270 (Crimes Against Public Health), safe%20cigarette?. Section 6 (Tobacco; sale or gift to [16] ""Method and apparatus for making minors) [1] banded smoking article wrappers"".

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[30] "Total adult smokers by country". NationMaster.com. http://www.nationmaster.com/graph/ hea_tob_tot_adu_smo-health-tobaccototal-adult-smokers. Retrieved on 2008-06-04. [31] CIA - The World Factbook - Japan [32] http://www.abc.state.va.us/licensing/ downloads/underagebuyer.pdf [33] BBC News, "Retailers sell tobacco to youths", September 2005. Retrieved 9 November 2006. [34] Cigarette numbers from WHO[2], population from: China: China Population Information and Research Center (estimate?)[3], USA: US Census estimate[4], Japan: National Statistics Center intercensal estimate[5], Russia: Population Reference Bureau[6], Indonesia: average of 1995 and 2000 figures from Statistics Indonesia[7], all accessed on 2 August 2008. Per capita consumption given to 3 significant figures. [35] "State-specific prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults and quitting among persons aged 18-35 years--United States, 2006". MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) 56 (38): 993–6. September 2007. PMID 17898692. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/ mmwrhtml/mm5638a2.htm. [36] WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control; First international treaty on public health, adopted by 192 countries and signed by 168. Its Article 8.1 states "Parties recognize that scientific evidence has unequivocally established that exposure to tobacco causes death, disease and disability." [37] ^ http://www.bat.com/group/sites/ UK__3MNFEN.nsf/vwPagesWebLive/ 4572237B0C2D456CC1257314004EF667 British American Tobacco Cigarette Design [38] ^ http://www.chicagotribune.com/ features/lifestyle/chi-cigarette-buttsnumbers-0618jun18,0,2241103.story How the butts stack up [39] http://www.ceredigion.gov.uk/ index.cfm?articleid=5364 Ceredigion County Council [40] http://www.longwood.edu/cleanva/ ciglitterarticle.htm Bulletin of the

Cigarette
American Littoral Society, Volume 25, Number 2, August 2000 [41] http://www.oceanconservancy.org/site/ DocServer/ Final_ICC_report_2007_release.pdf?docID=2841 International Coastal Cleanup 2006 Report, page 8 [42] "CigaretteLitter.org". CigaretteLitter.org. http://www.cigarettelitter.org. Retrieved on 2007-05-28. [43] http://www.newscientist.com/article/ dn2027.html New Scientist [44] Pauly JL, Mepani AB, Lesses JD, Cummings KM, Streck RJ (March 2002). "Cigarettes with defective filters marketed for 40 years: what Philip Morris never told smokers". Tob Control 11 Suppl 1: I51–61. doi:10.1136/ tc.11.suppl_1.i51. PMID 11893815. PMC: 1766058. http://tobaccocontrol.bmj.com/ cgi/ pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11893815. "Table 1 Chronology of events related to the marketing of cigarettes filters in the USA, and filter fibre and carbon particle "fall-out" assays of Phillip Morris, Inc Date Milestones and documents". [45] http://news.smh.com.au/national/ cigarette-butt-causes-1m-housefire-20080914-4g27.html [46] http://www.cigarettelitter.org/ index.asp?PageName=Fires [47] http://www.news.com.au/story/ 0,27574,25027063-1243,00.html [48] http://www.nswfb.nsw.gov.au/ page.php?id=327 [49] http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/ 2009/01/15/2466967.htm [50] "Accidents, fires: Price of littering goes beyond fines.". State of Washington Department of Ecology. 2004-06-01. http://www.ecy.wa.gov/news/2004news/ 2004-097.html. • Bogden JD, Kemp FW, Buse M, et al (January 1981). "Composition of tobaccos from countries with high and low incidences of lung cancer. I. Selenium, polonium-210, Alternaria, tar, and nicotine". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 66 (1): 27–31. PMID 6935462. • Hecht SS (July 1999). "Tobacco smoke carcinogens and lung cancer". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91 (14): 1194–210. PMID 10413421. http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
cgi/ pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10413421. • Zhou, Xun Yu; Gilman, Sander L. (2004). Smoke: a global history of smoking. London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 1-86189-200-4. • Smoking culture • Tobacco Smoking

Cigarette

External links
• Doll R, Peto R, Boreham J, Sutherland I (June 2004). "Mortality in relation to smoking: 50 years’ observations on male British doctors". BMJ 328 (7455): 1519. doi:10.1136/bmj.38142.554479.AE. PMID 15213107. • US Center for Disease Control - Smoking and Health Database • GLOBALink • INGCAT - International Non Governmental Coalition Against Tobacco • National Clearinghouse on Tobacco and Health - Canada • Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco • Bibliography on History of Cigarette Smoking • Inquirer.net, Herbal ‘cigarette’ may help smokers quit

See also
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Beedi Cigar Cigarette filter Cigarette holder Cigarette taxes in the United States Cigarillo Electronic cigarette Health effects of tobacco smoking Herbal cigarette History of commercial tobacco in the United States Kretek List of additives in cigarettes Shag (tobacco) Smoke constituents

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