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Telugu language

Telugu language
Telugu ?????? Spoken in Region

Total speakers Ranking Language family Writing system

It is one of the twenty-two official languages of the Republic of India.[7] It is widely spoken in Andhra Pradesh and also spoken in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Orissa, and PuduchIndia erry, with major populations in Bengaluru Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil and Chennai (Complete List); the dialects Nadu, Orissa, Chattisgarh, Puducherry, spoken in these places vary greatly from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands standard version of the language . It is also 74 million native,[1] 80 million total [2] spoken among a diaspora population in the USA, Malaysia, Mauritius, South Africa, Ire14 [3] land, Fiji, Réunion, Trinidad and the UK among other countries around the world. Dravidian
South-Central Telugu Telugu script

History

Official status Official language in Regulated by India

=
Origins=== Telugu originated from a hypothesized Proto-Dravidian language. Although Telugu belongs to the South-Central Dravidian language subfamily, it is a highly Sanskritized language. As Telugu savant C.P Brown states in page 35 of his book "A Grammar of the Telugu language": "if we ever make any real progress in the language the student will require the aid of the Sanskrit Dictionary, and cannot even talk or write Telugu with any ease or precision, unless he masters the first principles Sanskrit orthography." Inscriptions containing Telugu words dated back to 400 BCE were discovered in Bhattiprolu in Guntur district. English translation of one inscription as reads: “Gift of the slab by venerable Midikilayakha".[8]

No official regulation

Language codes ISO 639-1 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-3 te tel tel
This page contains Indic text. Without rendering support you may see irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts. More...

Telugu (??????) is a Dravidian language mostly spoken in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh, where it is the official language. It is also spoken in the states of Tamil Nadu and Haryana where it enjoys a secondary language status. It is also spoken in the states of Karnataka, Maharshtra and Jharkhand. Telugu language has a history of over 3000 years. Including non-native speakers it is the most spoken Dravidian language[4] and the most spoken language in India after Hindi and Bengali.[1] It was conferred the status of a Classical language by the Government of India.[5][6]

Etymology
The etymology of Telugu is not known for certain. It is explained as being derived from trilinga, as in Trilinga Desa, "the country of the three lingas". According to a Hindu legend, Trilinga Desa is the land in between three Shiva temples namely Kaleshwaram, Srisailam and Draksharamam. Trilinga Desa forms the traditional boundaries of the Telugu region.The people who lived in these regions were also referred to as Telaga Caste seems to have been derived from Trilinga

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Desam. Other forms of the word, such as Telunga, Telinga, Telangana and Tenunga were also seen. It is also said that Trilinga, in the form "Triliggon" occurs in Ptolemy as the name of a locality to the east of the Ganga river. Other scholars compare Trilinga with other local names mentioned by Pliny, such as Bolingae, Maccocalingae, and Modogalingam. The latter name is given as that of an island in the Ganges. A.D. Campbell, in the introduction to his Telugu grammar, suggested that Modogalingam may be explained as a Telugu translation of Trilingam, and compared the first part of the word modoga, with mUDuga, a poetical form for Telugu mUDu, three. Bishop Caldwell, on the other hand, explained Modogalingam as representing a Telugu mUDugalingam, the three Kalingas, a local name which occurs in Sanskrit inscriptions and one of the Puranas. Kalinga occurs in the Ashoka Inscriptions, and in the form Kling, it has become, in the Malay country, the common word for the people of Continental India. According to K.L. Ranjanam, the word is derived from talaing, who were chiefs who conquered the Andhra region. M.R. Shastri is of the opinion that it is from telunga, an amalgamation of the Gondi words telu, meaning "white", and the pluralization -unga, probably referring to white or fair-skinned people. According to G.J. Somayaji, ten- refers to "south" in Proto-Dravidian, and the word could be derived from tenungu meaning "people of the South". The ancient name for Telugu land seems to be telinga/telanga desa. It seems probable that the base of this word is teli, and that nga, or gu is the common Dravidian formative element. A base teli occurs in Telugu (teli meaning "bright" and teliyuTa meaning "to perceive"). However, this etymology is contested. Telugu pandits commonly state Tenugu to be the proper form of the word, and explain this as the ‘mellifluous language’ from tene or honey. However, this claim does not appear to be supported by scholarly opinion. The word Kalinga might be derived from the same base as Telugu kaluguTa, to live to exist, and would then simply mean "human".

Telugu language

400 BCE – 500 CE
Inscriptions containing Telugu words dated back to 400 BCE were discovered in Bhattiprolu in Guntur district. English translation of one inscription reads: “Gift of the slab by venerable Midikilayakha.[8]. The discovery of a Brahmi label inscription reading Thambhaya Dhaanam is engraved on the soapstone reliquary datable to 2nd century BCE on Paleographical ground proves the fact that Telugu language predates the known conception in Andhra Pradesh. Primary sources are Prakrit/Sanskrit inscriptions found in the region, in which Telugu places and personal names are found. From this we know that the language of the people was Telugu, while the rulers, who were of the Satavahana dynasty, spoke Prakrit.[9] Telugu words appear in the Maharashtri Prakrit anthology of poems (the Gathasaptashathi) collected by the first century BCE Satavahana King Hala. Telugu speakers were probably the oldest peoples inhabiting the land between the Krishna and Godavari rivers.

500 CE – 1100 CE
The first inscription that is entirely in Telugu corresponds to the second phase of Telugu history. This inscription dated 575 CE was found in the Kadapa and Kurnool district region and is attributed to the Renati Cholas. They broke with the prevailing fashion of using Sanskrit and introduced the tradition of writing royal proclamations in the local language. During the next fifty years, Telugu inscriptions appeared in the neighboring Anantapuram and all the surrounding regions. The first available Telugu inscription in the coastal Andhra Pradesh comes from about 633 CE. Around the same time, the Chalukya kings of Telangana also started using Telugu for inscriptions. Telugu was most exposed to the influence of Sanskrit, as opposed to Prakrit, during this period. This period mainly corresponded to the advent of literature in Telugu. This literature was initially found in inscriptions and poetry in the courts of the rulers, and later in written works such as Nannayya’s Mahabharatam (1022 CE).[9] During the time of Nannayya, the literary language diverged from the popular language. This was also a period of phonetic changes in the spoken language.

Stages
It is possible to broadly define four stages in the linguistic history of the Telugu language:

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Telugu language
introduction of mass media like movies, television, radio and newspapers. This form of the language is also taught in schools as a standard. In the current decade the Telugu language, like other Indian languages, has undergone globalization due to the increasing settlement of Telugu-speaking people abroad. Modern Telugu movies, although still retaining their dramatic quality, are linguistically separate from post-Independence films. At present, a committee of scholars have approved a classical language tag for Telugu based on its antiquity. The Indian government has also officially designated it as a classical language.[6]

1100 CE – 1400 CE
The third phase is marked by further stylization and sophistication of the literary language. Ketana (thirteenth century) in fact prohibited the use of spoken words in poetic works.[9] This period also saw the beginning of Muslim rule in the Telangana region. During this period the separation of Telugu script from the common Telugu-Kannada script took place.[10] Tikkana wrote his works in this script.

1400 CE – 1900 CE
During the fourth phase, Telugu underwent a great deal of change (as did other Indian languages), progressing from medieval to modern. The language of the Telangana region started to split into a distinct dialect due to Muslim influence: Sultanate rule under the Tughlaq dynasty had been established earlier in the northern Deccan during the fourteenth century. South of the Godavari river (Rayalaseema region), however, the Vijayanagara empire gained dominance from 1336 till the late 1600s, reaching its peak during the rule of Krishnadevaraya in the sixteenth century, when Telugu literature experienced what is considered to be its golden age.[9] Padakavithapithamaha, Annamayya, contributed many atcha (pristine) Telugu Padaalu to this great language. In the latter half of the seventeenth century, Muslim rule extended further south, culminating in the establishment of the princely state of Hyderabad by the Asaf Jah dynasty in 1724. This heralded an era of Persian/Arabic influence on the Telugu language, especially among the people of Hyderabad. The effect is also felt in the prose of the early 19th century, as in the Kaifiyats.[9]

Geographic distribution
Telugu is mainly spoken in the state of Andhra Pradesh and Yanam district of Pondicherry as well as in the neighboring states of Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa,Chhattisgarh, some parts of Jharkhand and the Kharagpur region of West Bengal in India. It is also spoken in Australia, New Zealand, Bahrain, Canada, Fiji, Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius, Ireland,South Africa, the United Arab Emirates,the United States and the United Kingdom where there is a considerable Telugu diaspora. Telugu is the third most spoken language in the Indian subcontinent after Hindi and Bengali.[1]

Telugu As Official Language Vinukonda History
Telugu was made the official language by the Vishnukundina kings who ruled from their capital Vinukonda.

1900 CE to date
The period of the late nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries saw the influence of the English language and modern communication/printing press as an effect of the British rule, especially in the areas that were part of the Madras Presidency. Literature from this time had a mix of classical and modern traditions and included works by scholars like Kandukuri Viresalingam and Panuganti Lakshminarasimha Rao.[9] Since the 1930s, what was considered an elite literary form of the Telugu language has now spread to the common people with the

Official status - After Independence
Telugu is one of the 22 official languages of India. It was declared the official language of Andhra Pradesh when the state was formed in October 1953 on linguistic basis.[11] Telugu also has official language status in the Yanam District of the Union Territory of Pondicherry. See also: States of India by Telugu speakers

Dialects
Waddar,[12] Chenchu,[13] Savara,[14] and Manna-Dora[15] are all closely related to Telugu.[16] Dialects of Telugu are Berad,

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Dasari, Dommara, Golari, Kamathi, Komtao, Konda-Reddi, Salewari, Telangana, Telugu, Vijayawada, Vadaga, Srikakula, Visakhapatnam, Toorpu (East) Godavari, Paschima (West) Godavari, Kandula, Rayalaseema, Nellooru, Prakasam, Guntooru, Tirupati, Vadari and Yanadi (Yenadi).[17] In Tamil Nadu the Telugu dialect is classified into Salem, Coimbatore, and Chennai Telugu dialects. It is also widely spoken in Virudhunagar, Tuticorin, Madurai and Thanjavur districts. Along with the most standard forms of Indian languages like Tamil, Kannada, Hindi, Bangla, Gujarati,Oriya and Marathi, Standard Telugu is often called a Shuddha Bhaasha ("pure language").

Telugu language
historical form of /r/?. The other is the retroflex lateral ? /ɭ/. The table below indicates the articulation of consonants in Telugu.

Phonology
Though the Telugu consonant set lists aspirated consonants (both voiced and unvoiced), they’re reserved mostly for transcribing Sanskrit borrowings. To most native speakers, the aspirated and unaspirated consonants are practically allophonic (like in Tamil). The distinction is made however, rather strictly, in written or literary Telugu.

Numerals

Sounds
Nineteenth-century Englishmen called Telugu the Italian of the East as all native words in Telugu end with a vowel sound, but it is believed that Italian explorer Niccolò Da Conti coined the phrase in the fifteenth century. Conti visited Vijayanagara empire during the reign of Vira Vijaya Bukka Raya in 1520s.

Grammar
In Telugu, Karta ???? (nominative case or the doer), Karma ???? (object of the verb) and Kriya ????? (action or the verb) follow a sequence. Telugu also has the Vibhakthi ??????? (preposition) tradition. Telugu Literal translation ?????? (Ramudu) ?????? (bantini) ????????(kottaadu) Rama ball hit

Achchulu (vowels)
Like other major Dravidian languages, the Telugu vowel set adds short /e/ and /o/ in addition to the long /eː/ and /oː/ of the Indo-Aryan languages.

Reformatted "Rama hit the ball"

Inflection

Telugu has its own grammar which mainly dictates ? ? any two ?? how words or two letters or ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?? a word and a letter should be united to form /a/ /ɑː/ /ɪ/ /iː/ /u/ /uː/ /ru/ /ruː/ /lu/ /luː/ /e/ /eː/ /ai/ /o/ /oː/These /um/ /aha/ a single word. /au/ rules are defined under various types of ???? (samdhi) and ?????? (samasamu). According to these rules any two words or two letters or a word and a letter to be united to form a single word should be satisfying certain criteria. Hence, Telugu words can often be broken down into words or letters which carry a complete meaning themselves. Vice-versa, many words and letters can be combined to make a complex word that can carry more complex meaning which can be equated to a complete phrase or even a sentence when translated to English. Ex: Nuvvostanante is formed from individual words Nuvvu,Vasta,Ante which can be loosely translated into English as "if you want to come". Reduplication, the repetition of words or syllables is done to create new or emphatic

Hallulu (consonants)
????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ??? ? The letters for the consonants correspond almost one-to-one to the set in Sanskrit. However, the pronunciation of these letters diverges from that of Sanskrit with respect to the aspirated series: in most varieties of spoken Telugu, aspiration is not phonemic. That is, the presence or absence of aspiration in spoken Telugu, does not generally distinguish one word from another. There are two exceptions to the general correspondence of Sanskrit and Telugu consonants in their written form. One is the

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Telugu language

Telugu Vyanjana Ucchārana Pattika[18] Prayatna Niyamāvali Kanthyamu Tālavyamu Mūrdhanyamu Dantyamu (jihvā (jihvā (jihvāgramu) (jihvāgramu) Mūlam) Madhyam) ka kha ga gha ca cha ja jha nja Ta Tha Da Dha Na ta tha da dha na

Dantōshtyam Ōsht (adh pa pha ba bha ma

Sparśam, Śvāsam, Alpaprānam Sparśam, Śvāsam, Mahāprānam Sparśam, Nādam, Alpaprānam Sparśam, Nādam, Mahāprānam

Sparśam, Nādam, nga Alpaprānam, Anunāsikam, Dravam, Avyāhatam Antastham, Nādam, Alpaprānam, Dravam, Avyāhatam -

ya

ra (Lunthitam) La (Pārśvikam) sha

la (Pārśvikam) va Ra(Kampitam)

-

Ūshmamu, Visarga Śvāsam,Mahāprānam, Avyāhatam Ūshmamu, ha Nādam,Mahāprānam, Avyāhatam 0 ? Case Adessive case Inessive case Locative case Superessive case 1 ? 2 ? 3 ? Usage adjacent location inside something location on the surface 4 ?

śa

sa

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5 ?

6 ?

7 ?

8 ?

9 ?

10 ??

English example near/at/by the house inside the house at/on/in the house on (top of) the house

Telugu example ????/???? /ɪŋʈɪprakːa/ ?????? /ɪŋʈloː/ ????????? /ɪŋʈɪd̪agːara/ ?????? /ɪŋʈɪpaj/

meanings (e.g., pakapaka ‘suddenly bursting out laughing,’ garagara ‘clean, neat, nice’). Telugu is often considered an agglutinative language, where certain syllables are added to the end of a noun in order to denote its case: Ablative Genitive

Instrumental

Ramunito

????????

????(Ramu ??(ni) + ??

Ramudinunchi ??????????? ??????(Ramudu) "from" + ?????(from) Rama Ramuni ?????? ????(Ramu) + "generic These agglutinations apply to all nouns gen??(ni) in the singular and plural. reference erally to" Rama) Here is how other cases are manifested in Telugu: ????(Ramu) + ??(ni) + ??(ki)

Dative

Ramuniki

????????

Location

specifically referring something

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Case Allative case Delative case Egressive case Usage movement to (the adjacency of) something movement from the surface marking the beginning of a movement or time English example to the house from (the top of) the house Telugu example

Telugu language

?????? /ɪŋʈɪkɪ/, ???????? /ɪŋʈɪvajpu/ ??????????? /ɪŋʈɪnɪɲcɪ/

beginning from ????????? /ɪŋʈɪnɪɲcɪ/ (?????????? the house /ɪŋʈɪkelːɪ/ in some dialects) out of the house ??????????? /ɪŋʈɪnɪɲcɪ/ (??????????? /ɪŋʈlakelːɪ/ in some dialects) ?????????? /ɪŋʈɪloːnɪkɪ/ (???????? /ɪŋʈloːkɪ/) ???????? /ɪŋʈɪpajkɪ/ ???????? /ɪŋʈɪvaraku/

Elative case out of something

Illative case movement into something into the house Sublative case movement onto the surface on(to) the house as far as the house

Terminative marking the end of a case movement or time Case Oblique case Case Benefactive case Causal case Comitative case Possessive case Usage

English example Telugu example concerning the house ??????????? /ɪŋʈɪgurɪɲcɪ/

all-round case; any situation except nominative Usage for, for the benefit of, intended for because, because of in company of something direct possession of something English example for the

Telugu example ???????? /ɪŋʈɪkoːsam/ (????????? /ɪŋʈɪkoraku/) ??????? /ɪŋʈɪvalana/ ?????? /ɪŋʈɪt̪oː/ ????????? /ɪŋʈɪjokːa/

because of the house with the house owned by the house

Motion Morphosyntactic alignment Relation Polyagglutination
While the examples given above are single agglutinations, Telugu allows for polyagglutination, a feature of being able to add multiple suffixes to words to denote more complex features: For example, one can affix both "?????; nunchi - from" and "??; lo - in" to a noun to denote from within. An example of this: "???????????; ramuloninchi - from within Ramu"

Here is an example of a triple agglutination: "???????????????; vāṭimadʰyalōninchi from in between them"

Vowel harmony
As in Turkish, Hungarian and Finnish, Telugu words have vowels in inflectional suffixes harmonised with the vowels of the preceding syllable.

Inclusive and exclusive pronouns
Telugu, in common with other Dravidian languages, distinguishes between inclusive and exclusive we. The bifurcation of the First Person Plural pronoun (we in English) into inclusive (????; manamu) and exclusive (????; mēmu) versions can also be found in Tamil

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and Malayalam, although it is not used in modern Kannada.

Telugu language
and used by the government and Hindu religious institutions. However, everyday Telugu varies depending upon region and social status. There is a large and growing middle class whose Telugu is substantially interspersed with English. Popular Telugu, especially in urban Hyderabad, spoken by the masses and seen in movies that are directed towards the masses, includes both English and Hindi/Urdu influences.

Gender
Telugu pronouns follow the systems for gender and respect also found in other Indian languages. The second person plural ???? /miːru/ is used in addressing someone with respect, and there are also respectful third personal pronouns (??? /ɑːjana/ m. and ???? /ɑːvɪɽa/ f.) pertaining to both genders. A specialty of the Telugu language, however, is that the third person non-respectful feminine (??? /ad̪ɪ/) is used to refer to animals and objects, and there is no special neuter gender that is used.

Writing system

Vocabulary
Like all Dravidian languages, Telugu has a base of words which are essentially Dravidian in origin. Words that describe objects/actions associated with common or everyday life: like ??; tala (head), ????; puli (tiger), ???; ūru (town/city) have cognates in other Dravidian languages and are indigenous to the Dravidian language family. Though Telugu is highly influenced by Sanskrit it also contains lesser extent of Arabic and Persian words such as maidanam (maydan in Arabic), kalam (qalam in Arabic), Bazaar (originally Persian word) etc. However, Telugu is also largely Sanskritized, that is, it has a wide variety of words of Sanskrit/Prakrit origin. The Indo-Aryan influence can be attributed historically to the rule of the Satavahana kings, who used Prakrit as the official language of courts and government, and to the influence of literary Sanskrit during the 11th – 14th centuries CE. Today, Telugu is generally considered the Dravidian language with the most Indo-Aryan influence. The vocabulary of Telugu especially in the Hyderabad region has a trove of Persian-Arabic borrowings, which have been modified to fit Telugu phonology. This was due to centuries of Muslim rule in these regions: the erstwhile kingdoms of Golkonda and Hyderabad. (e.g. ?????, /kaburu/ for Urdu /xabar/, ‫ ربخ‬or ?????, /ɟavɑːbu/ for Urdu /ɟawɑːb/, ‫)باوج‬ Modern Telugu vocabulary can be said to constitute a diglossia, because the formal, standardized version of the language, heavily influenced by Sanskrit, is taught in schools The name Telugu written in the Telugu script The earliest evidence for Brahmi script in South India comes from Bhattiprolu in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh.[19] Bhattiprolu was a great centre of Buddhism since 4th century BCE (Pre-Mauryan time) from where Buddhism spread to east Asia. A variant of Asokan Brahmi script, called Bhattiprolu Script, the progenitor of Old Telugu script, was found on the Buddha’s relic casket.[20] The famous Muslim historian and scholar of 10th century, Al-Biruni referred to Telugu language and script as "Andhri".[21] Telugu script is written from left to right and consists of sequences of simple and/or complex characters. The script is syllabic in nature - the basic units of writing are syllables. Since the number of possible syllables is very large, syllables are composed of more basic units such as vowels (“achchu” or “swar”) and consonants (“hallu” or “vyanjan”). Consonants in consonant clusters take shapes which are very different from the shapes they take elsewhere. Consonants are presumed to be pure consonants, that is, without any vowel sound in them. However, it is traditional to write and read consonants with an implied ’a’ vowel sound. When consonants combine with other vowel signs, the vowel part is indicated orthographically using signs known as vowel “maatras”. The shapes of vowel “maatras” are also very

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different from the shapes of the corresponding vowels. The overall pattern consists of sixty symbols, of which 16 are vowels, three vowel modifiers, and forty-one consonants. Spaces are used between words as word separators. The sentence ends with either a single bar | (“purna virama”) or a double bar || (“deergha virama”). Traditionally, in handwriting, Telugu words were not separated by spaces. Modern punctuation (commas, semicolon, etc.) were introduced with the advent of print.[22] There is a set of symbols for numerals, though Arabic numbers are typically used. Telugu is assigned Unicode codepoints: 0C00-0C7F (3072-3199).[23]

Telugu language
anupallavi (a rhyming section that follows the pallavi) and charanam (a sung stanza which serves as a refrain for several passages in the composition). The texts of his kritis are almost all in Sanskrit, in Telugu (the contemporary language of the court). This use of a living language, as opposed to Sanskrit, the language of ritual, is in keeping with the bhakti ideal of the immediacy of devotion. Sri Syama Sastri, the oldest of the trinity, was taught Telugu and Sanskrit by his father, who was the pujari (Hindu priest) at the Meenakshi temple in Madurai. Syama Sastri’s texts were largely composed in Telugu, widening their popular appeal. Some of his most famous compositions include the nine krithis, Navaratnamaalikā, in praise of the goddess Meenakshi at Madurai, and his eighteen krithi in praise of Kamakshi. As well as composing krithi, he is credited with turning the svarajati, originally used for dance, into a purely musical form.

Carnatic music
Though Carnatic music (Karnataka sangitha) has a profound cultural influence on all of the South Indian States and their respective languages, most of the songs (Kirtanas) are in the Telugu language. This is because the existing tradition is to a great extent an outgrowth of the musical life of the principality of Thanjavur in the Kaveri delta. Thanjavur was the heart of the Chola dynasty (from the 9th century to the 13th), but in the second quarter of the sixteenth century a Telugu Nayak viceroy (Raghunatha Nayaka) was appointed by the emperor of Vijayanagara, thus establishing a court whose language was Telugu. Telugu Nayaka rulers acted as the governors in the present day Tamil Nadu area with headquarters at Thanjavur (1530-1674 CE) and Madurai(1530-1781 CE). After the collapse of Vijayanagar, Thanjavur and Madurai Nayaks became independent and ruled for the next 150 years until they were replaced by Marathas. This was the period when several Telugu families migrated from Andhra and settled down in Thanjavur and Madurai. Most of the great composers of Carnatic music belonged to these families. Telugu, a language ending with vowels, giving it a mellifluous quality, was also considered suitable for musical expression. Of the trinity of Carnatic music composers, Tyagaraja’s and Syama Sastri’s compositions were largely in Telugu, while Muttuswami Dikshitar is noted for his Sanskrit texts. Tyagaraja is remembered both for his devotion and the bhava of his krithi, a song form consisting of pallavi, (the first section of a song)

Literature
Telugu literature is generally divided into six periods: pre-1020 CE 1020–1400 1400–1510 1510–1600 1600–1820 1820 to date pre-Nannayya period Age of the Puranas Age of Srinatha Age of the Prabandhas Southern period Modern period

In the earliest period there were only inscriptions from 575 CE onwards. Nannaya’s (1022-1063) translation of the Sanskrit Mahabharata into Telugu is the piece of Telugu literature as yet discovered. After the death of Nannaya, there was a kind of social and religious revolution in the Telugu country.[24] Tikkana (thirteenth century) and Yerrapregada (fourteenth century) continued the translation of the Mahabharata started by Nannaya. Telugu poetry also flourished in this period, especially in the time of Srinatha. During this period, some Telugu poets translated Sanskrit poems and dramas, while others attempted original narrative poems. The popular Telugu literary form called the Prabandha evolved during this period. Srinatha (1365-1441) was the foremost poet, who popularised this style of composition (a story in verse having a tight metrical

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scheme). Srinatha’s Sringara Naishadham is particularly well-known. The Ramayana poets may also be referred in this context. The earliest Ramayana in Telugu is generally known as the Ranganatha Ramayana, authored by the chief Gonabudda Reddy. The works of Potana (1450-1510), Jakkana (second half of the fourteenth century) and Gaurana (first half of the fifteenth century) formed a canon of religious poetry during this period. Padakavitha Pithamaha, Annamayya, contributed many original Telugu Patalu to the language. The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries CE is regarded as the "golden age" of Telugu literature. Krishnadevaraya’s Amuktamalayada, and Peddana’s Manucharitra are regarded as Mahakavyas. Telugu literature flourished in the south in the traditional "samsthanas" (centres) of Southern literature, such as Madurai and Tanjore. This age is often referred to as the Southern Period. There were also an increasing number of poets in this period among the ruling class, women and non-Brahmins who popularised indigenous (desi) meters. With the conquest of the Deccan by the Mughals in 1687, Telugu literature entered a lull. Tyagaraja’s compositions are some of the known works from this period. Then emerged a period of transition (1850-1910), followed by a long period of Renaissance. Europeans like C.P. Brown played an important role in the development of Telugu language and literature. In common with the rest of India, Telugu literature of this period was increasingly influenced by European literary forms like the novel, short story, prose and drama. Paravastu Chinnayya Soori (1807-1861) is a well-known Telugu writer who dedicated his entire life to the progress and promotion of Telugu language and literature. Sri Chinnayasoori wrote the Bala Vyakaranam in a new style after doing extensive research on Andhra grammar. Other well-known writings by Chinnayasoori are Neetichandrika, Sootandhra Vyaakaranamu, Andhra Dhatumoola, and Neeti Sangrahamu. Kandukuri Veeresalingam (1848-1919) is generally considered to be the father of modern Telugu literature.[25] His novel Rajasekhara Charitamu was inspired by the Vicar of Wakefield. His work marked the beginning of a dynamic of socially conscious Telugu literature and its transition to the modern period, which is also part of the wider

Telugu language
literary renaissance that took place in Indian culture during this period. Other prominent literary figures from this period are Rayaprolu Subba Rao, Gurajada Appa Rao, Viswanatha Satyanarayana, Katuri Venkateswara Rao, Jashuva, Devulapalli Venkata Krishna Sastry, and Sri Sri Puttaparty Narayana Charyulu. Viswanatha Satyanarayana won India’s national literary honour, the Jnanpith Award for his Telugu language book Ramayana Kalpavrikshamu.[26] C. Narayana Reddy also received the award for his contributions to Telugu literature.[27] Kanyasulkam, the first social play in Telugu by Gurajada Appa Rao, was followed by the progressive movement, the free verse movement and the Digambara style of Telugu verse. Other modern Telugu novelists include Unnava Lakshminarayana (Maalapalli), Viswanatha Satyanarayana (Veyi Padagalu), Bulusu Venkateswarulu (Senior) (Bharatiya Tatva Sastram), Bulusu Venkateswarulu (Junior) (YogaVasishtam, Prācīna Bhāratavarṣa maharṣulacaritralu.), Kodavatiganti Kutumba Rao and Buchi Babu.[9] Dr.Gunturu Seshendra Sarma, a well known Telugu poet, has been a recepient of the Sahitya Akademi Award. He is best known for his work, Na Desham, Na Prajalu (My country, My people) which was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature 2004. His works have been translated into many languages. He wrote under the pen name "Seshen".

Quotes on Telugu
• "...Among these five languages, the Telinga appears to be most polished, and though confessedly a difficult language, it must be numbered among those which are the most worthy of cultivation; its varierty of inflection being such as to give it a capacity of expressing ideas with high degree of facilty, justness and elegance..." — by Rev. W.Carey (April 9, 1814).[28] • "...But those who may at first question the utility of so many letters in the Teloogoo, will perhaps relinquish most of their objections, when they find that the variety of sound in this language is greater, and better represented than English..." — A.D Campbell (1949)[29]

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• "Desa bhashalandu Telugu Lessa" ("Among the nation’s languages, Telugu is the best") - Sri Krishnadeva Raya [30] • "...Tamil has usually been considered to be the Dravidian language which has preserved the most traces of the original form of speech from which all other Dravidian dialects are derived. Some points will be drawn to attention to in the ensuing pages where this does not appear to be the case, and in many peculiarities the other Dravidian languages such as Telugu have preserved older forms and represent a more ancient state of development. " - George Abraham Grierson, Linguistic Survey of India [31]

Telugu language

Bureau. http://pib.nic.in/release/ release.asp?relid=44340. Retrieved on 2008-10-31. [6] ^ "Telugu gets classical status". Times of India. 2008-10-01. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ Hyderabad/Telugu_gets_classical_status/ articleshow/3660521.cms. Retrieved on 2008-11-01. [7] "Image of Indian languages and total speakers". http://www.ciil.org/Main/ Languages/indian.htm. Retrieved on 2007-02-13. [8] ^ "Telugu is 2,400 years old, says ASI". The Hindu. 2007-12-20. http://www.hindu.com/2007/12/20/ stories/2007122054820600.htm. Retrieved on 2008-11-01. [9] ^ APonline - History and Culture• Telugu Wikipedia Languages • Telugu Literature [10] Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju (2003). The • Telugu cinema Dravidian Languages. Cambridge • List of Telugu language television University Press. pp. 78–79. ISBN channels 0521771110. • Languages of India [11] APonline — History and Culture — • List of official languages of India History-Post-Independence Era • List of Indian languages by total speakers [12] 1.9 million speakers as of 2001. • Andhra Pradesh "Waddar". Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/ show_language.asp?code=wbq. Retrieved on 2007-12-06. [1] ^ "Scheduled Languages in Descending [13] 29,000 speakers as of 1981. "Chenchu". Order of Speakers’ Strength". 2001 Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/ Census. Office of the Registrar General show_language.asp?code=cde. Retrieved and Census Commissioner, India. on 2007-12-06. http://web.archive.org/web/ [14] 20,000 speakers as of 2000. "Savara". 20071130133941/ Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/ show_language.asp?code=svr. Retrieved Census_Data_2001/Census_Data_Online/ on 2007-12-06. Language/Statement4.htm. Retrieved on [15] 19,000 speakers as of 1981. "Manna2008-11-01. Dora". Ethnologue. [2] "Top 30 language spoken in the world by http://www.ethnologue.com/ Number of Speakers". Vistawide. show_language.asp?code=mju. Retrieved http://www.vistawide.com/languages/ on 2007-12-06. top_30_languages.htm. Retrieved on [16] "Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu". 2009-01-28. Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/ [3] http://encarta.msn.com/ show_family.asp?subid=91839. media_701500404/ Retrieved on 2007-12-06. Languages_Spoken_by_More_Than_10_Million_People.htmlEthnologue. [17] "Telugu". [4] "Dravidian Language Family". National http://www.ethnologue.com/ Virtual Translation Center. 2007. show_language.asp?code=tel. Retrieved http://www.nvtc.gov/lotw/months/april/ on 2007-12-06. DravidianLanguageFamily.htm. [18] Telugulo Chandovisheshaalu, Page 127. Retrieved on 2007-11-13. [19] Ananda Buddha Vihara [5] "Declaration of Telugu and Kannada as [20] The Hindu : Andhra Pradesh / Hyderabad classical languages". Press Information News : Epigraphist extraordinaire

See also

References

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[21] Ancient India: English translation of Kitab-ul Hind by Al-Biruni, National Book Trust, New Delhi [22] Brown, Charles Philip (1857). A Grammar of the Telugu Language. London: W. H. Allen & Co.. pp. 5. ISBN 812060041X. [23] United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names; United Nations Statistical Division (2007). Technical Reference Manual for the Standardization of Geographical Names. United Nations Publications. pp. 110. ISBN 9211615003. [24] Chenchiah, P.; Rao, Raja Bhujanga (1988). A History of Telugu Literature. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 8120603133. [25] Sarma, Challa Radhakrishna (1975). Landmarks in Telugu Literature. Lakshminarayana Granthamala. pp. 30. [26] Datta, Amaresh; Lal, Mohan (1991). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 3294. [27] George, K.M. (1992). Modern Indian Literature, an Anthology. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 1121. ISBN 8172013248. [28] Carey, William (1914). A Grammar of the Telinga Language. Serampore: MissionPress.

Telugu language
[29] Campbell, A.D. (1849). A Grammar of the Teloogoo Language (3rd edition ed.). Madras, India: College of Fort St. George. [30] http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Cities/ Hyderabad/ Brown_father_of_modern_day_Telugu_language_/ articleshow/3664150.cms [31] Linguistic Survey of India, Vol IV, Page.283

External links
• • • • Telugu Network Telugu Language & Literature Ethnologue report for Telugu Brown, Charles Philip. A Telugu-English Dictionary. New ed., thoroughly rev. and brought up to date ... 2nd ed. Madras: Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1903. Gwynn, J. P. L. (John Peter Lucius). A Telugu-English Dictionary. Delhi; New York: Oxford University Press, 1991. Useful Telugu phrases in English and other Indian languages. Lekhini - Romanised to Unicode Telugu transliterator English to Telugu online dictionary

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Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telugu_language" Categories: Telugu language, Agglutinative languages, Dravidian languages, Vowel harmony languages, Languages used in Tamil Nadu, Languages of India, Classical languages of India This page was last modified on 22 May 2009, at 00:37 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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