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David

David
David King of all Israel Royal House Father Mother House of David Jesse not named in the Bible; identified by the Talmud as Nitzevet daughter of Adael.

David (Hebrew: ‫ ,דִוָּד‬Modern Dawid Tiberian dɔwið "beloved", Arabic: ‫دواد‬‎ Dāwud) was the second king of the united Kingdom of Israel according to the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament. He is depicted as a righteous king, although not without fault, as well as an acclaimed warrior, musician and poet (he is traditionally credited with the authorship of many of the Psalms). The narrative depicts him throughout his life as conflicted between his ruthless ambition and lusts, and his desire to serve God. The biblical chronology sets his life c.1037 - 970 BC, his reign over Judah c.1007 - 1000 BC, and his reign over the united Kingdom of Israel c.1000 - 970 BC. The Book of Samuel is the primary source of information on his life and reign; there is little archaeological evidence to confirm the Bible’s picture of David (although the Tel Dan stele suggests that a king named David founded a Judaean royal dynasty by the 9th-century BC), but his story has been of immense importance to subsequent Jewish and Christian culture.
King David by Pedro Berruguete. Reign Born Birthplace Died Place of death Predecessor Successor Consort over Judah c.1007 - 1000 BC; over Judah and Israel c.1000 - 970 BC. c.970BC

Biblical narrative
David is chosen

God withdraws his favour from Saul, king of Israel, and sends the prophet Samuel to seek a new king for his people from the sons of c.1037BC Jesse of Bethlehem. Seven of Jesse’s sons Jerusalem pass before Samuel, but Samuel says "The LORD has not chosen these." He then asks "Are these all the sons you have?" and Jesse Saul answers, "There is still the youngest but he is Solomon tending the sheep." David is brought to Michal, Ahinoam, Abigail, Maachah, Samuel, and "the LORD said, "Rise and Haggith, Abital, Eglah and anoint him; he is the one.""[1]
Bethlehem Bathsheba.

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David
giant’s head and brings it to Saul, who asks who the young hero is; David replies, "I am the son of your servant Jesse of Bethlehem." 1 Samuel 17:58

David and Saul
Because of Saul’s earlier disobedience, God allows an injurious spirit to torment Israel’s first King. His attendants suggest he send for David, the son of Jesse, "a brave man and a warrior. He speaks well and is a fine-looking man. And Yahweh is with him." So Saul sends for David, and makes him one of his armorbearers, and David remains in the service of Saul, and "whenever the spirit from God came upon Saul, David would take his harp and play. Then relief would come to Saul; he would feel better, and the evil spirit would leave him."

The enmity of Saul
Saul makes David a commander over his armies and offers him his daughter Michal in marriage. (1 Samuel 18:17-19) David is successful in many battles, and the women say, "Saul has slain his thousands, and David his tens of thousands." His popularity awakened Saul’s fears - "What more can he have but the kingdom?" - and by various stratagems the jealous king seeks David’s death. But the plots all prove futile, and only endear David the more to the people, and especially to Saul’s son Jonathan, one of those who love David. Warned by Jonathan of Saul’s intention to kill him, David flees into the wilderness.[2] (The relationship between David and Jonathan, Saul’s rightful heir, is a central element in the story of David’s rise. Jonathan recognizes David as the rightful king, and 1 Samuel 18 - "Jonathan made a covenant with David, because he loved him as his own soul" - implies a close personal relationship between the two.[3] There is debate amongst scholars on whether this relationship might have been more than merely platonic and even romantic or sexual. Nevertheless, the Biblical narrative depicts their relationship favorably.)

David and Goliath

David in the wilderness
In the wilderness David gathers a band of followers and becomes the champion of the oppressed while evading the pursuit of Saul. He accepts Ziklag as a chief from the Philistine king Achish of Gath, but continues secretly to champion the Israelites. Achish marches against Saul, but David is excused from the war on the accusation of the Philistine nobles that his loyalty to their cause cannot be trusted!

David hoists the severed head of Goliath by Gustave Dore The Israelites are facing the Philistines in the Valley of Elah. David is bringing food to his older brothers who are with King Saul, and hears Goliath challenging the Israelites to send their own champion to decide the outcome in single combat. He insists that he can defeat Goliath (who, according to Maimonides, was 6 cubits, or around 9 feet, tall), and Saul sends for him and reluctantly allows him to make the attempt. David is victorious, felling Goliath with a stone from his sling, at which the Philistines flee in terror and the Israelites win a great victory. David cuts off the

David made king
Saul and Jonathan are killed in battle with the Philistines. David mourns their death, then goes up to Hebron, where he is anointed king over Judah; in the north, Saul’s son IshBosheth is king over the tribes of Israel.[4] War ensues between Ish-Bosheth and David, until Ish-Bosheth is assassinated. The

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assassins bring forward the head of Ish-Bosheth to David hoping for reward, but David executes them for their crime against the Lord’s anointed.[5] Yet with the death of the son of Saul, the elders of Israel come to Hebron, and David, 30 years old, is anointed King over Israel and Judah.[6]

David

David’s reign
David conquers the Jebusite fortress of Jerusalem and makes it his capital, "and Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and cedar trees, also carpenters and masons who built David a house." [6] David brings the Ark of the Covenant to Jerusalem, intending to build a temple.[7] God, speaking to the prophet Nathan, forbids it, saying the temple must wait for a future generation. But God makes a covenant with David, promising that he will establish the house of David eternally: "Your throne shall be established forever."[8] David goes on to conquer Zobah and Aram (modern Syria), Edom and Moab (roughly modern Jordan), Philistine lands, as well as other territories, in many cases exterminating large portions of their citizenry. [9]

Bathsheba and Uriah the Hittite
David commits adultery with Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah the Hittite, while her husband is away at war. Bathsheba becomes pregnant and David sends for Uriah, who is with the Israelite army at the siege of Rabbah, so that he may lie with his wife and conceal the identity of the child’s father. Uriah refuses to do so while his companions are in the field of battle and David sends him back to Joab, the commander, with a message instructing him to abandon Uriah on the battlefield, "that he may be struck down, and die." David then marries Bathsheba and she bears his child, "but the thing that David had done displeased the Lord."[10] The prophet Nathan confronts David, saying: "Why have you despised the word of God, to do what is evil in his sight? You have smitten Uriah the Hittite with the sword, and have taken his wife to be your wife." David repents, but God "struck the child ... and it became sick ... [And] on the seventh day the child died." David then leaves his lamentations, dresses himself, and eats. His servants ask why he lamented when the baby was alive, but leaves off when it is dead, and David replies: "While the child was still alive,

David and Bathsheba, by Lucas Cranach, 1526. I fasted and wept; for I said, who knows whether Yahweh will be gracious to me, that the child may live? But now he is dead, why should I fast? Can I bring him back again? I shall go to him, but he will not return to me."[11]

David’s son Absalom rebels
In 2 Samuel 15 David’s son Absalom rebels. David flees the city taking all but 10 of his wives and concubines. Absalom captures the city, and to show his domination Absalom lay with the 10 remaining concubines in front of all Israel, proving Nathan’s words to be true. Absalom and David come to battle in the Wood of Ephraim. Absalom is caught by his hair in the branches of an oak and David’s general Joab kills him as he hangs there. When the news of the victory is brought to David he does not rejoice, but is instead shaken with grief: “O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! Would I had died instead of you, O Absalom, my son, my son!”

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David
death of Uriah was not to be considered murder, on the basis that Uriah had committed a capital offence by refusing to obey a direct command from the King.[12] According to midrashim[13], Adam gave up 70 years of his life for the life of David. Also, according to the Talmud Yerushalmi, David was born and died on the Jewish holiday of Shavuot (Feast of Weeks). His piety was said to be so great that his prayers could bring down things from Heaven.

Religions and David
David in Judaism

David in Christianity

Abishag, Bathsheba, Solomon, and Nathan tend to aging David, c. 1435 David’s reign represents the formation of a coherent Jewish kingdom centered in Jerusalem and the institution of an eternal royal dynasty; the failure of this "eternal" Davidic dynasty after some four centuries led to the later elaboration of the concept of the Messiah, at first a human descendant of David who would occupy the throne of a restored kingdom, later an apocalyptic figure who would usher in the end of time. In modern Judaism David’s descent from a convert (Ruth) is taken as proof of the importance of converts within Judaism. David is also viewed as a tragic figure; his acquisition of Bathsheba, and the loss of his son are viewed as his central tragedies. Many legends have grown around the figure of David. According to one Rabbinic tradition, David was raised as the illegitimate son of his father Jesse and spent his early years herding his father’s sheep in the wilderness while his brothers were in school. Only at his anointing by Samuel - when the oil from Samuel’s flask turned to diamonds and pearls - was his true identity as Jesse’s son revealed. David’s adultery with Bathsheba was only an opportunity to demonstrate the power of repentance, and some Talmudic authors stated that it was not adultery at all, quoting a supposed Jewish practice of divorce on the eve of battle. Furthermore, according to David’s apologists, the

David and King Saul, by Rembrandt. David plays the lyre (depicted here as a harp) to the king "tormented by an evil spirit" Originally an earthly king ruling by divine appointment ("the anointed one", as the title Messiah had it), the "son of David" became in the last two pre-Christian centuries the apocalyptic and heavenly who would deliver Israel and usher in a new kingdom. This was the background to the concept of Messiahship in early Christianity, which interpreted the career of Jesus "by means of the titles and functions assigned to David in the mysticism of the Zion cult, in which he served as priest-king and in which he was the mediator between God and man."[14] The early Church believed that "the life of David [foreshadowed] the life of Christ; Bethlehem is the birthplace of both; the shepherd life of David points out Christ, the Good Shepherd; the five stones chosen to slay Goliath are typical of the five wounds; the betrayal by his trusted counsellor, Achitophel, and the passage over the Cedron remind us of Christ’s Sacred Passion. Many of the Davidic Psalms, as we learn from the New Testament, are clearly typical of the future Messias."[15]

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In the Middle Ages, "Charlemagne thought of himself, and was viewed by his court scholars, as a ’new David’. [This was] not in itself a new idea, but [one whose] content and significance were greatly enlarged by him."[16] The linking of David to earthly kingship was reflected in later Medieval cathedral windows all over Europe through the device of the Tree of Jesse its branches demonstrating how divine kingship descended from Jesse, through his son David, to Jesus. Western Rite churches (Roman Catholic, Lutheran) celebrate his feast day on 29 December, Eastern-rite on 19 December.[17] The Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Church celebrate the feast day of the "Holy Righteous Prophet and King David" on the Sunday of the Holy Forefathers (two Sundays before the Great Feast of the Nativity of the Lord), when he is commemorated together with other ancestors of Jesus. He is also commemorated on the Sunday after the Nativity, together with Joseph and James, the Brother of the Lord.

David
fasting to God was the fasting of (the Prophet) David who used to fast on alternate days. And the most beloved prayer to God was the prayer of David who used to sleep for (the first) half of the night and pray for 1/3 of it and (again) sleep for a sixth of it." David was also given the most beautiful voice of all mankind, just as Joseph was given the most beautiful appearance. In one hadith, Abu Hurairah narrates that Muhammad said, "The reciting of the Zabur (i.e. Psalms) was made easy for David. He used to order that his riding animals be saddled, and would finish reciting the Zabur before they were saddled." Other hadith relate that David’s reading of psalms was so entrancing that fish would leave the sea to listen when he recited, and that it was he who began the building of the Holy Temple, completed by his son Solomon, and which later became the site of Al-Aqsa Mosque.

Historicity of David
See The Bible and history and dating the Bible for a more complete description of the general issues surrounding the Bible as a historical source.

David in Mormonism
The Doctrine and Covenants of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints cites David as one directed by God to practise polygamy, but who sinned in committing adultery with Bathsheba and having Uriah killed.[18] This clarifies the LDS doctrine that polygamy is only allowed as directed by the Lord, otherwise it is a grievous sin.[19]

Archaeological evidence

David in Islam
David (Arabic Dawood) is one of the prophets of Islam, to whom the Zabur (Psalms) were revealed by God. The Islamic tradition includes many elements from the Jewish history of David, such as his battle with the giant Goliath, but rejects the Biblical portrayal of David as an adulterer and murderer - the rejection is based on the concept of ismah, or the infallibility of the prophets (according to Shia Islam). According to some Islamic traditions David was not from Judah but from Levi and Aron.[20] David also appears in various ahadith (oral traditions derived from those who knew the Prophet Muhammad). In Sahih al-Bukhari and in Abd-Allah ibn Amr he is named as the person whose way of fasting and praying is the most perfect: "God’s Apostle (Muhammad) said to me, "The most beloved

The Tel Dan Stele An inscription found at Tel Dan dated c.850-835 BC, as well as the Mesha Stele from Moab have been interpreted as containing the phrase ’House of David’ (‫ .)דודתיב‬Kenneth Kitchen has proposed that an inscription of c. 945 BC by the Egyptian Pharaoh Shoshenq I mentions "the highlands of David," but this has not been widely accepted.[21] "If the reading of ‫[ דוד תיב‬House of

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David] on the Tel Dan stele is correct, ... then we have solid evidence that a 9th-century BC Aramean king considered the founder of the Judean dynasty to be somebody named ‫"דוד‬ (David).[22] The Tel Dan stele is largely accepted as supporting the historical existence of a Judean royal dynasty tracing its descent from an individual named David[23]. The interpretation of the archeological evidence on the extent and nature of Judah and Jerusalem in the 10th century BC is a matter of fierce debate. Israel Finkelstein and Ze’ev Herzog of Tel Aviv University do not believe the archeological record supports the view that Israel at that time was a major state, but rather was a small tribal kingdom, although both Finkelstein and Silberman do accept that David and Solomon were real kings of Judah about the 10th century BCE[24]. Finkelstein says in his The Bible Unearthed (2001): "[O]n the basis of archaeological surveys, Judah remained relatively empty of permanent population, quite isolated and very marginal right up to and past the presumed time of David and Solomon, with no major urban centers and with no pronounced hierarchy of hamlets, villages and towns."[25] According to Ze’ev Herzog "the united monarchy of David and Solomon, which is described by the Bible as a regional power, was at most a small tribal kingdom".[26] On the other is William Dever, in his What Did the Biblical Writers Know and When Did They Know It?, holds that the archaeological and anthropological evidence supports the broad biblical account of a Judean state in the 10th century BC.[27] The Bronze and Iron Age remains of the City of David[28] were investigated extensively in the 1970s and 1980s under the direction of Yigael Shiloh of Hebrew University, but failed to discover significant evidence of occupation during the 10th century BC [29] In 2005 Eilat Mazar found a Large Stone Structure which she claimed was David’s Palace[30], but the site is contaminated and impossible to date accurately.[31] Elsewhere in the territory of biblical Judah and Israel, no royal inscriptions exist from the 10th century BCE, nor evidence of a royal bureaucracy (the equivalents of the LMLK seal[32] attached to oil jars associated with the Judean royal bureaucracy of the late 8th century BC), nor the inscribed potshards which would provide evidence of widespread

David
literacy. Surveys of surface finds aimed at tracing settlement patterns and population changes have shown that between the 16th and 8th centuries BC, a period which includes the biblical kingdoms of David and Solomon, the entire population of the hill country of Judah was no more than about 5,000 persons, most of them wandering pastoralists, with the entire urbanised area consisting of about twenty small villages.[33]

Historicity of the Biblical account

Russian icon of St. David, the Prophet and King, 18th century (Iconostasis of Kizhi monastery, Karelia, Russia). The biblical evidence for David comes from the book of Samuel (two books in the Christian tradition), and the book of Chronicles (also two books in the Christian tradition). (Although almost half of the Psalms are headed "A Psalm of David", the headings are later additions, and no psalm can be attributed to David with certainty).[34] Chronicles, however, merely retells Samuel from a different theological vantage point, and contains little if any information not available there, and the biblical evidence for David is therefore dependent almost exclusively on the material contained in the chapters from 1 Samuel 16 to 1 Kings 2. The question of David’s historicity therefore becomes the question of the date, textual integrity, authorship and reliability of 1st

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and 2nd Samuel. Since Martin Noth put forward his analysis of the Deuteronomistic History biblical scholars have accepted that these two books form part of a continuous history of Israel, compiled no earlier than the late 7th century BC, but incorporating earlier works and fragments. Samuel’s account of David "seems to have undergone two separate acts of editorial slanting. The original writers show a strong bias against Saul, and in favour of David and Solomon. Many years later, the Deuteronomists edited the material in a manner that conveyed their religious message, inserting reports and anecdotes that strengthened their monotheistic doctrine. Some of the materials in Samuel I and II , notably the lists of officers, officials, and districts are believed to be very early, possibly even dating to the time of David or Solomon. These documents were probably in the hands of the Deuteronomists when they started to compile the material three centuries later."[35] Beyond this, the full range of possible interpretations is available, from the "maximalist" position of the late John Bright, whose "History of Israel", dating largely from the 1950s, takes Samuel at face value, to the recent "minimalist" scholars such Thomas L. Thompson, who measures Samuel against the archaeological evidence and concludes that "an independent history of Judea during the Iron I and Iron II periods [i.e., the period of David] has little room for historicizing readings of the stories of I-II Samuel and I Kings."[36] Within this gamut some interesting studies of David have been written. Baruch Halpern has pictured David as a lifelong vassal of Achish, the Philistine king of Gath;[37] Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman have identified as the oldest and most reliable section of Samuel those chapters which describe David as the charismatic leader of a band of outlaws who captures Jerusalem and makes it his capital.[38]

David

The Death of Absalom (engraving from the Doré Bible). → Jesse → David. This genealogy is only available from post-exilic biblical sources included in the later books of Chronicles and Ruth. Without these sources, all that would be know of David’s ancestry was that he was the son of Jesse. The "tenth generation" formula is part of a larger pattern of tens within the Pentateuch/Deuteronomistic history: there are twenty generations of patriarchs (two sets of ten) from Adam to Abraham before David, and twenty kings of Judah after him, with the three Patriarchs Abraham-Isaac-Jacob between. The schematic character of the genealogy, and the fact that it runs from the Creation (Adam) to the destruction of Jerusalem, suggests that it was an exilic or postexilic invention. The New Testament traces the genealogy of Jesus back to David and Adam, with three blocks of fourteen "generations" each being similarly schematic. In the ancient world each letter of the alphabet had a numerical value, the value for the name "David" being fourteen: the fourteen "generations" thus underscored Christ’s Davidic descent and his identity as the expected Messiah.

David’s legacy
Genealogy
According to Ruth 4:18-22, David is the tenth generation descendant from Judah, the fourth son of the patriarch Jacob (Israel). The genealogical line runs as follows: Judah → Pharez → Hezron → Ram → Amminadab → Nahshon → Salmon → Boaz (the husband of Ruth) → Obed

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David
David also had at least one daughter, Tamar by Maachah, who was raped by Amnon, her half-brother. Her rape leads to Amnon’s death. (2 Samuel 13:1-29) Absalom, Amnon’s half-brother and Tamar’s full-brother, waits two years, then avenges his sister by sending his servants to kill Amnon at a feast to which he had invited all the king’s sons. (2 Samuel 13)

David’s family
David was born in Bethlehem, in the territory of the Tribe of Judah. His father was named Jesse. His mother is not named in the Bible, but the Talmud identifies her as Nitzevet daughter of Adael. [39]. David had eight brothers and was the youngest of them all. He had eight wives: Michal, the second daughter of King Saul; Ahinoam the Jezreelite; Abigail the Carmelite, previously wife of the evil Nabal; Maachah, daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur; Haggith; Abital; Eglah; and Bathsheba, previously the wife of Uriah the Hittite.

Claimed descendants of David
The following are some of the more notable persons who have claimed descent from the Biblical David, or had it claimed on their behalf: • Jesus of Nazareth • Judah Loew, Yehuda Loew ben Bezalel (c. 1525, Prague; 22 August 1609 Prague), also known as "The Maharal of Prague". • The Abravanel family • The Baal Shem Tov, and through him every Hassidic Rebbe descended from him • Eliezer Silver • Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, whose family is descended from Judah Loew. • Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia • The Royal House of Georgia

Representation in art and literature
Samuel anoints David, Dura Europos, Syria, Date: 3rd c. CE The Book of Chronicles lists David’s sons by various wives and concubines. In Hebron he had six sons (1 Chronicles 3:1-3): Amnon, by Ahinoam; Daniel, by Abigail; Absalom, by Maachah; Adonijah, by Haggith; Shephatiah, by Abital; and Ithream, by Eglah. By Bathsheba, his sons were: Shammua; Shobab; Nathan; and Solomon. His sons born in Jerusalem by other mothers included: Ibhar; Elishua; Eliphelet; Nogah; Nepheg; Japhia; Elishama; and Eliada. (2 Samuel 5:14-16) According to 2 Chronicles 11:18, Jerimoth, who is not mentioned in any of the genealogies, is mentioned as another of David’s sons. According to 2 Samuel 9:11, David adopted Johnathan’s son Mephibosheth as his own.

The Star of David

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David
the contemporary political situation, including events such as the Monmouth Rebellion (1685), the Popish Plot (1678) and the Exclusion Crisis. Elmer Davis’s 1928 novel Giant Killer retells and embellishes the Biblical story of David, casting David as primarily a poet who managed always to find others to do the "dirty work" of heroism and kingship. In the novel, Elhanan in fact killed Goliath but David claimed the credit; and Joab, David’s cousin and general, took it upon himself to make many of the difficult decisions of war and statecraft when David vacillated or wrote poetry instead. Gladys Schmitt wrote a novel titled "David the King" in 1946 which proceeds as a richly embellished biography of David’s entire life. The book took a risk, especially for its time, in portraying David’s relationship with Jonathan as overtly homoerotic, but was ultimately panned by critics as a bland rendition of the title character. In Thomas Burnett Swann’s Biblical fantasy novel How are the Mighty Fallen (1974) David and Jonathan are explicitly stated to be lovers. Moreover, Jonathan is a member of a winged semi-human race (possibly nephilim), one of several such races co-existing with humanity but often persecuted by it. Joseph Heller, the author of Catch-22, also wrote a novel based on David, God Knows. Told from the perspective of an aging David, the humanity — rather than the heroism — of various biblical characters are emphasized. The portrayal of David as a man of flaws such as greed, lust, selfishness, and his alienation from God, the falling apart of his family is a distinctly 20th century interpretation of the events told in the Bible. Juan Bosch, Dominican political leader and writer, wrote "David: Biography of a King" (1966) a realistic approach to David’s life and political career. Allan Massie wrote "King David" (1995), a novel about David’s career which portrays the king’s relationship to Jonathan and others as openly homosexual. Madeleine L’Engle’s novel Certain Women explores family, the Christian faith, and the nature of God through the story of King David’s family and an analogous modern family’s saga.[40]

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• David, Michelangelo, 1500-1504.

Art
Famous sculptures of David include (in chronological order) those by: • Donatello (c. 1430 - 1440), David (Donatello) • Andrea del Verrocchio (1476), David (Verrocchio) • Michelangelo (1504), David (Michaelangelo) • Gian Lorenzo Bernini (1624), David (Bernini) • Antonin Mercié (1873)

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Literature
• Dryden’s long poem Absalom and Achitophel is an allegory that uses the story of the rebellion of Absalom against King David as the basis for his satire of

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• Sir Arthur Conan Doyle used the story of David and Bathsheba as the main structure for the Sherlock Holmes story The Crooked Man. The betrayal of the Crooked Man is parelleled with David’s betrayal of Uriah the Hittite, carried out in order to win Bathsheba.

David

Musical Theatre
• King David, a modern oratorio, with a book and lyrics by Tim Rice and music by Alan Menken.

Television
• In 2009, NBC introduced the series Kings, which was explicitly designed as a modern retelling of the David story.

Film
• Gregory Peck, played King David in the 1951 film David and Bathsheba, directed by Henry King. Susan Hayward played Bathsheba and Raymond Massey played the prophet Nathan. • Finlay Currie, played an aged King David in the 1959 film Solomon and Sheba, directed by King Vidor. Yul Brynner played Solomon and Gina Lollobrigida played the Queen of Sheba. • Richard Gere portrayed King David in the 1985 film King David directed by Bruce Beresford.

See also
• • • • King David’s Palace site King David’s Tomb Tel Arad David and Jonathan

Further reading
• For a more complete summary of all the episodes in the Saul/David story in Samuel (but excluding Chronicles), see synopsis

Music
• Josquin des Pres’s Absalon fili mi is a polyphonic lamentation from David’s perspective on the death of his son. • Arthur Honegger’s oratorio, Le Roi David (’King David’), with a libretto by Rene Morax, was composed in 1921 and instantly became a staple of the choral repertoire; it is still widely performed. • Leonard Cohen’s song "Hallelujah" has references to David ("there was a secret chord that David played and it pleased the Lord", "The baffled king composing Hallelujah") and Bathsheba ("you saw her bathing on the roof") in its opening verses. • "Mad About You", a song on Sting’s 1991 album The Soul Cages explores David’s obsession with Bathsheba from David’s perspective. • Dead by the Pixies is a retelling of David’s adultery and repentance. • Herbert Howells (1892-1983) composed an artsong for voice and piano called "King David". • Eric Whitacre wrote a song, "When David Heard," based on 2 Samuel, chronicling the death of David’s son, Absalom and David’s grief over losing his son.

Notes
[1] http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/ ?book_id=9&chapter=16&version=31 [2] 1 Samuel 18 and subsequent chapters of 1 Samuel. [3] http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/ ?search=1%20Samuel%2018%20;&version=47; [4] 2 Samuel 2:1-10 [5] 2 Samuel 4 [6] ^ 2 Samuel 5 [7] 2 Samuel 6 [8] 2 Samuel 7 [9] 2 Samuel 8 and subsequent chapters. [10] 2 Samuel 11 [11] 2 Samuel 12 [12] Jewish Encyclopedia, "David" [13] Zohar Bereishis 91b [14] "David" article from Encyclopedia Britannica Online [15] John Corbett (1911) King David The Catholic Encyclopedia (New York: Robert Appleton Company) [16] Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, [17] Saint of the Day for December 29 at St. Patrick Catholic Church, Washington, D.C. [18] Doctrine and Covenants 132:1, 38-39 (see highlighted portions). [19] Book of Mormon, Jacob 2:28-30.

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[20] Behar al Anvar V:13 P:440, Tafseer AlQomi V:1 P:82, The story of Prophets of Jazayeri Page 331 [21] See, for example, The Tel Dan Inscription: A Reappraisal and a New Interpretation [Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2003], pp. 193-194. See also King David: A Biography (Steven McKenzie, Associate Professor Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee): McKenzie discusses the background to his 2002 book of the same title (ISBN 978-0195132731). On the Shoshenq inscription, see K. A. Kitchen, "A Possible Mention of David in the Late Tenth Century B.C., and Deity *Dod as Dead as the Dodo?" Journal for the Study of the Old Testament 76 (1997): 29–44, especially 39–41. [22] Picking Abraham and Choosing David, Christopher Heard, Associate Professor of Religion at Pepperdine University. See also Israeli journalist Daniel Gavron’s King David and Jerusalem - Myth and Reality for a useful overview. [23] Dever, William G., "What did the Bible writers know and when did they know it?" William B. Eerdmans Publ. Co., Cambridge UK, 2001 [24] David and Solomon: In Search of the Bible’s Sacred Kings and the Roots of the Western Tradition pp20 [25] Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology’s New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of its Sacred Texts, p.132. See this summary of Finkelstein and Silberman’s book. [26] mideastfacts.org - Deconstructing the walls of Jericho [27] Dever, What Did the Biblical Writers Know...? [28] The original urban core of Jerusalem, identified with the reigns of David and Solomon. [29] See David Ussishkin, "Solomon’s Jerusalem: The Text and the Facts on the Ground," in: A.G. Vaughn and A.E. Killebrew (eds.), Jerusalem in Bible and Archaeology: The First Temple Period, (Society of Biblical Literature, Symposium Series, No. 18), Atlanta, 2003, pp. 103-115. See also Cahill, J., David’s Jerusalem, Fiction or Reality? The Archaeological Evidence Proves It, and Steiner, M., David’s Jerusalem,

David
Fiction or Reality? It’s Not There: Archaeology Proves a Negative, both in Biblical Archaeology Review 24/4, 1998 (the two scholars argue opposite sides of the case for a Jerusalem in keeping with the biblical portrayal). [30] See Eilat Mazar, "Did I find David’s Temple?" in Biblical Archeology Review, Jan/Feb 2006 [31] The oldest pottery from the site is dated to the 12th-11th centuries BCE, leading Amihai Mazar to speculate that it represents a pre-Davidic Jebusite fortress, while at the other end of the chronological range there is the 7thcentury bulla found in the structure. [32] LMLK:"Belonging to the king", or "for the king". [33] On settlement patterns in ancient Judah, see A. Ofer, "’All the Hill Country of Judah’: From a Settlement Fringe to a Prosperous Monarchy," in I. Finkelstein and N. Na’aman, eds., From Nomadism to Monarchy (Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society, 1994), pp. 92-121; "The Judean Hills in the Biblical Period," Qadmoniot 115 (1998), 40-52 (Hebrew); "The Monarchic Period in the Judaean Highland," in A. Mazar, ed., Studies in the Archaeology of the Iron Age in Israel and Jordan (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 2001), pp. 14-37. [34] Steven McKenzie, Associate Professor Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee. [35] "King David and Jerusalem: Myth and Reality", Israel Review of Arts and Letters, 2003, Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. [36] "A View from Copenhagen", Thomas L. Thompson, Professor of Old Testament, Copenhagen University. [37] Baruch Halpern, "David’s Secret Demons", 2001.Review of Baruch Halpern’s "David’s Secret Demons". [38] Finkelstein and Silberman, "David and Solomon", 2006. See review"Archaeology" magazine. [39] Talmud Tractate Bava Batra 91a [40] Madeleine L’Engle, Certain Women, ISBN 9780374120252

References
• Kirsch, Jonathan (2000) King David: the real life of the man who ruled Israel. Ballantine. ISBN 0-345-43275-4.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
David of the United Kingdom of Israel & Judah House of David Cadet branch of the Tribe of Judah Regnal titles New title Rebellion from Israel Preceded by Saul King of Judah : 1007 BC – 1005 BC King of the united kingdom of Israel and Judah : 1005 BC – 967 BC Succeeded by Solomon

David

• See also the entry "David" in Easton’s Bible Dictionary. • Dever, William G. (2001) What did the Bible writers know and when did they know it? William B. Eerdmans Publ. Co., Cambridge UK.

External links
• Etymology of "David" • Complete Bible Genealogy David’s family tree • King David Tomb - Mount Zion - Jerusalem - Videos, Presentations, Photos King David’s Tomb in Jerusalem

• The Eternal House Of David Family Reunion • Poet Robert Pinsky Takes on King David on ThoughtCast • Double Identity: Orpheus as David. Orpheus as Christ? Biblical Archaeology Review • Sunday after the Nativity: Commemoration of the Holy Righteous David the King, Joseph the Betrothed, and James the Brother of the Lord Orthodox icon and synaxarion

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David" Categories: Prophets of the Hebrew Bible, David, Kings of ancient Israel, Kings of ancient Judah, Hebrew Bible people, History of Jerusalem, Shepherds, Old Testament saints, Jewish royalty, Biblical murderers, Burials in Jerusalem, Culture heroes, 10th-century BC Biblical rulers, 11th-century BC Biblical rulers This page was last modified on 22 May 2009, at 17:26 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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