Salvation by zzzmarcus

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Salvation (cat.)

General concepts Conditional salvation Universal reconciliation Special salvation Divine judgment • Particular judgment • Last Judgment (eschatology) • Transcendence (religion) • Immortality • Soteriology Particular concepts • One true faith • Christian conditionalism Punishment • Purgatory • Hell • Soul death • • • •

The purpose of salvation is debated (compare purpose of life), but in general most theologians agree that God devised and implemented His plan of salvation because He loves them regards human beings as His children. And because human existence on Earth is said to be "[given] to sin" (John 8:34), salvation also has connotations that deal with the liberation[1] of human beings from sin, and therefore also the inevitable suffering associated with the punishment of sin (i.e., "the wages of sin is death" (Romans 6:23). The theological study of salvation is called soteriology: it covers the means by which salvation is effected or achieved, and its results.[2] Salvation may also be called "deliverance", as in "being delivered" or saved, or "redemption," as in being redeemed or healed [of sin].

The word "salvation" in the Christian sense originates from O.Fr. salvaciun, from L.L. salvationem (nom. salvatio, a Church L. translation of Gk. soteria), noun of action from salvare "to save". In the general, non-religious sense, from c.1374.[3]

Notes • Needs Judaic and Islamic concepts, along with others.

Salvation has several generic aspects which represent substantial conceptual differences. Absolute salvation simply indicates those concepts which assert that all will be saved. Such are impossible to find in monotheism, but may be found in certain Dharmic religions, though (strictly speaking) "salvation" (ie. the saving of a complete being) is incompatible with belief in the reincarnation of a person’s "essence." Conditional salvation refers to the dominant concepts of salvation to which are attached certain conditions: Monotheists all believe in some form of conditional salvation, most in agreement that salvation is based on goodness, while punishment is given to evil. Universal salvation (or "reconciliation") indicates a concept of salvation in which God’s love and salvation for human beings is not

In religion, salvation is the concept that God "saves" humanity from death, as part of His plan to provide for them an eternal life (cf. afterlife). As commonly conceived, God has both the will and the means to realize human salvation, albeit through means regarded as mysterious and transcendent of current human understanding. According to most religious beliefs, salvation is prescribed only for those judged worthy of everlasting life—a conditional concept with general variants ranging from universal salvation (i.e., nearabsolute salvation) to quite narrow and particular concepts that tend to assert a "one true path [to salvation]."


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bound by human concepts such as belief, tradition, religion, and practice, but rather by love and goodness which are considered universal principles (cf. ethic of reciprocity). Special salvation (or particular salvation) refers to concepts which are narrow and exclusive, particularly based on doctrinal grounds. Proprietary salvation is a theological pun that characterizes certain particular doctrines and concepts as asserting ownership of God’s love and salvation.

certain concepts of conditionality may be quite widely accepted, while others are not. A particular example is the case of murder, where the deliberate act of destroying another being is widely thought to be anathema to both people in Heaven and (more particularly) to God. The all knowing creator of life is universally understood to be benevolent, and as such the destruction such that murder is and represents violates His law. Because of salvation, God is conceptualized as being against death itself —in such a way that only an omnipotent being can be. Hence even the concept of "universal" salvation does not mean "absolute" salvation, but rather salvation that give no consideration or regard to particular concepts, beliefs, religions or creeds. Even in the most liberal view, salvation is not absolute and irrevocable, but conditional with respect to the deeds, actions, or works of the individual (i.e., sin). For the vast majority of believers, beings of the most wanton and destructive disregard for life (i.e., murder) not only have no place in eternal life, but are deserving of, and receive, punishment and death. The concept of universal reconciliation appears to be widely accepted,[4], even while, on the other hand, more particular (and perhaps more accurately "proprietary") concepts of salvation exist and are promoted. These claim (to varying degree) that there is a "one true faith" and that others ("non-believers," "heretics" etc.) will receive different treatment from God in the afterlife. [5]

List of concepts
• Biological death - the end of the body, and the beginning of non-material life • Conditionalism - doctrines which assert conditions for salvation • Innocence - innocence of mortal sin • Universalism - in this context this refers to "universal salvation", the view that all can be saved, regardless of their belief • Special salvation - salvation conditional upon belief • Religious exclusivism • Dispensationalism - in soteriology, the theory that God has different plans of salvation for different groups of people at different times in history • Revelation - the imminent revealing of the truth by God • Dispensations - the fates of different groups of people at different times in history, as decided by God • Heaven - the place of everlasting life with God • Hell - the place of punishment, everlasting or temporary • ’True death’ - the destruction of the soul • Eschatology - concepts relating to endtime dispensation • Sin - unholy action • Mortal sin - universal concepts of sin which leads to death; ie. destroying other beings • Abstract sin - doctrinal concepts of sin which may or may not be related to God’s concepts of sin

Special salvation
Further information: Exclusivism and Conditional immortality The concept of special salvation refers to all theological doctrines that assert a one true faith, and that others will not be saved. This condemnatory concept is common and dominant in many theological doctrines, even if many adherents of such denominations don’t particularly subscribe to this view. Special salvation concepts may assert a kind of proprietary ownership that God’s love and salvation are special to them alone.

Christian salvation concepts are varied and complicated by certain theological concepts, traditional beliefs, and dogmas. Scripture is

Conditional salvation
Because "conditionalism" has a very wide range (from universalism to exclusivism)


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subject to individual and ecclesiastical interpretations. Therefore, Christian soteriology ranges from exclusive salvation to universal reconciliation concepts.

sins, your Father will not forgive your sins (Matthew 6:14-15). Confession and believing: "If you declare with your mouth, ’Jesus is Lord,’ and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. For it is with your heart that you believe and are justified, and it is with your mouth that you profess your faith and are saved" (Romans 10:9-10). "For whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be saved" (Romans 10:13). Baptism: "Whoever believes and is baptized will be saved, but whoever does not believe will be condemned" (Mark 16:16). "…all of us who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death. We were therefore buried with him through baptism into death in order that, just as Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, we too may live a new life" (Romans 6:3-5). Must be born again: "Jesus replied, ’Very truly I tell you, no one can see the kingdom of God without being born again…Very truly I tell you, no one can enter the kingdom of God without being born of water and the Spirit’" (John 3:3-5). What must we do to be saved?: "Peter replied, ’Repent and be baptized, every one of you, in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins. And you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit’" (Acts 2:38). Saved by God’s grace, not by works: "For it is by grace you have been saved, through faith—and this is not from yourselves, it is the gift of God—not by works, so that no one can boast" (Ephesians 2:8-9). "He saved us, not because of righteous things we had done, but because of his mercy. He saved us through the washing of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit whom he poured out on us generously through Jesus Christ our Savior, so that, having been justified by his grace, we might become heirs having the hope of eternal life (Titus 3:5-7). Salvation and works: "You see that people are justified by what they do and not by faith alone" (James 2:24). This verse and the surrounding passage is disputed, centering primarily on the meaning of the word justified.[6]


Salvation-related passages in the Christian Scriptures
The New International Version of the New Testament contains 138 verses that with the words "salvation" (45), "save" (41) or "saved" (52). The following are some of the New Testament passages most cited in this regard: • Belief in Jesus: "For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life" (John 3:16). "Salvation is found in no one else, for there is no other name given under heaven by which we must be saved" (Acts 4:12). • God’s love: "God demonstrates His own love for us in this: While we were still sinners, Christ died for us" (Romans 5:8). "But because of his great love for us, God, who is rich in mercy, made us alive with Christ even when we were dead in transgressions—it is by grace you have been saved" (Ephesians 2:4-5). "When the kindness and love of God our Savior appeared, he saved us, not because of righteous things we had done, but because of his mercy. He saved us through the washing of rebirth and renewal by the Holy Spirit, whom he poured out on us generously through Jesus Christ our Savior…" (Titus 3:4-6). • Sin separates humanity from God. "For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God" (Romans 3:23). "Therefore, just as sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, and in this way death came to all people, because all sinned—" (Romans 5:12). • God gives eternal life because Jesus Christ atoned for our sin: "For the wages of sin is death; but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord" (Romans 6:23). • Saved (from sin) by asking Him for forgiveness just as we forgive others: "if you forgive others when they sin against you, your heavenly Father will also forgive you. But if you do not forgive others their







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• Judged by works: "And I saw the dead, great and small, standing before the throne, and books were opened. Another book was opened, which is the book of life. The dead were judged according to what they had done as recorded in the books. The sea gave up the dead that were in it, and death and Hades gave up the dead that were in them, and everyone was judged according to what they had done." (Revelation 20:12-13). All Protestants do not agree with this type of interpretation of this verse. Some believe there will be the judgment all unsaved people go through called the "white throne judgment" (Revelation 20:10-15), but for all those who are saved they will appear before the “judgment seat of Christ” (2 Cor. 5:9-10). In that judgment, believers will get rewards based on what they have done, whether they are good or bad. If they are not saved, Christ will proclaim, "Depart from me, I never knew ye," and they will be thrown into hell. They do not believe eternal life is a reward that is going to be given out in consequence of works done (1 Cor. 3:11-14). Others understand it in the same way as the "Saved by Works" verses, in the sense that those who will not have done good proved they were not saved, because their works did not correspond to their ’saved’ status. See also Romans 2:6. • Salvation as already achieved: "When the kindness of God our Saviour, and his love towards man, appeared, not by works done in righteousness, which we did ourselves, but according to his mercy he saved us, through the washing of regeneration and renewing of the Holy Spirit, which he poured out upon us richly, through Jesus Christ our Saviour; that, being justified by his grace, we might be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life" (Titus 3:4-7). • Salvation as an on-going process: "To us who are being saved, (the word of the cross) is the power of God" (1 Cor. 1:18). The original text of this passage in Greek has present-tense σῳζομένοις (being saved), not perfect-tense σεσῳσμένοις (having been saved) or past-tense (aoristtense) σῳθεῖσιν (saved); ambiguous translations such as "us which are saved" (KJV) obscure this.

• Salvation as yet to be obtained: "Since, therefore, we are now justified by (Christ’s) blood, much more shall we be saved by him from the wrath of God" (Romans 5:9). • • Salvation as... a narrower path than we may think: There are many interpretations of what is acceptable and what is not. "Wide is the gate, and broad the way, that leads to destruction, and many go in there: because strait is the gate and narrow is the way that leads to life, and few there be that find it...(Matthew 7:13,14).

Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism, the dominant Christian sect for most of Christian history, has always been a universal religion (i.e., inclusive of new believers), but has only recently (since John Paul II) subscribed to universalist concepts and principles of salvation. Instead of salvation being conditional upon sin, Roman Catholicism had long attached the belief in Jesus the Christ to the concept of salvation itself, and for non-Christians has asserted various "dispensations" ranging from "eternal hell" to ’salvation conditional upon conversion.’ Catholic controversies regarding universalists, such as Origen, are notable events in Church history, and have typically resulted in the proclamation of Catholicism being the "one true faith," along with dispensationalist concepts. Catholics believe that Jesus the Christ brought about redemption from sin and assert that salvation is possible only in the Roman Catholic Church.[7] This doctrine remains, but is not always articulated in such clear language. Modern teaching usually uses language similar to the following: Jesus was a divine sacrifice who brought about "redemption for all mankind" (cf. Redemptoris Missio). Roman Catholics believe[8] "Man stands in need of salvation from God,"[9] and "Divine help comes to him in Christ through the law that guides him and the grace that sustains him."[9] It was for our salvation that "God loved us and sent his Son to be the expiation for our sins; the Father has sent his Son as the Savior of the world, and he was revealed to take away sins."[10] "By his death (Jesus, the Son of God) has conquered death, and so


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opened the possibility of salvation to all men."[11] Jesus has provided the Church with "the fullness of the means of salvation which [the Father] has willed: correct and complete confession of faith, full sacramental life, and ordained ministry in apostolic succession".[12] Baptism is necessary for salvation,[13] and is sufficient for those who die as children and those permanently deprived of their use of reason.[14] The sacrament of Penance is necessary for salvation for those who have fallen after Baptism, just as Baptism is necessary for salvation for those who have not yet been reborn."[15] But these are not the only sacraments of importance for salvation: "The Church affirms that for believers the sacraments of the New Covenant are necessary for salvation."[16] This holds especially for the Eucharist". Every time this mystery is celebrated, the work of our redemption is carried on and we break the one bread that provides the medicine of immortality, the antidote for death, and the food that makes us live for ever in Jesus Christ."[17] At the same time, however, the Roman Catholic Church teaches that through the graces Jesus won for humanity by sacrificing himself on the cross, salvation is possible even for those outside the visible boundaries of the Church. Christians and even non-Christians, if in life they respond positively to the grace and truth that God reveals to them through the mercy of Christ may be saved. This may include awareness of an obligation to become part of the Catholic Church. In such cases, "they could not be saved who, knowing that the Catholic Church was founded as necessary by God through Christ, would refuse either to enter it, or to remain in it."[18] Catholics believe that people, even those who are not explicitly Christian, have the moral law written in their hearts, according to Jeremiah 31:33 (prophecy of new covenant): "I will write my law on their hearts." St. Justin wrote that those who have not accepted Christ but follow the moral law of their hearts (logos) follow God, because it is God who has written the moral law in each person’s heart. Though he may not explicitly recognize it, he has the spirit of Christ. St. Thomas Aquinas, the premier theologian in the Catholic Church, explains this paradox as follows. If a person lives according to the natural law written on his heart, God will send him a means of knowing the truth by either

natural or supernatural means; that is, he will send a missionary to teach him the faith or even an angel, if necessary.[19] Catholic doctrine states that a person is not guilty of disbelief in Christ, and could be saved, if it is due to invincible (or inculpable) ignorance, or ignorance which could not be disposed of, even if the person were to try to educate himself or herself about the nature of God. Such ignorance may be a result of a non-Catholic or non-Christian upbringing, as well as a result of never having heard of Jesus. However, those who are saved even though they have not faith in Jesus are saved not because of their disbelief, but in spite of it, because of God’s mercy. The Church expressly teaches that "it is necessary to hold for certain that they who labor in ignorance of the true religion, if this ignorance is invincible, will not be held guilty of this in the eyes of God" (Singulari Quadam), that "outside of the Church, nobody can hope for life or salvation unless he is excused through ignorance beyond his control" (Singulari Quidem), that "they who labor in invincible ignorance of our most holy religion and who, zealously keeping the natural law and its precepts engraved in the hearts of all by God, and being ready to obey God, live an honest and upright life, can, by the operating power of divine light and grace, attain eternal life" (Quanto Conficiamur Moerore). Inculpable ignorance is not a means of salvation. But if by no fault of the individual ignorance cannot be overcome (if, that is, it is inculpable and invincible), it does not prevent the grace that comes from Christ, a grace that has a relationship with the Church, saving that person. Finally, a Catholic’s salvation also depends on the actions he freely chooses during his life. If he commits a very grave sin, fully conscious of its severity and with full intent, then he could not be saved without repenting for the action.

Eastern Christianity
Eastern Christianity was much less influenced by Augustine, and even less so by either Calvin or Arminius. Consequently, it doesn’t just have different answers, but asks different questions; it generally views salvation in less legalistic terms (grace, punishment, and so on) and in more medical terms


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(sickness, healing etc.), and with less exacting precision. Instead, it views salvation more along the lines of theosis, a seeking to become holy or draw closer to God, a concept that has been developed over the centuries by many different Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Eastern Catholic Christians. It also stresses Jesus’ teaching about forgiveness in Matthew 6:14-15: "For if ye forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you: But if ye forgive not men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses." See also Sermon on the Mount. The Longer Catechism of the Orthodox, Catholic, Eastern Church, known also as The Catechism of St. Philaret [20] includes the questions and answers: "155. To save men from what did (the Son of God) come upon earth? From sin, the curse, and death." "208. How does the death of Jesus Christ upon the cross deliver us from sin, the curse, and death? That we may the more readily believe this mystery, the Word of God teaches us of it, so much as we may be able to receive, by the comparison of Jesus Christ with Adam. Adam is by nature the head of all humanity, which is one with him by natural descent from him. Jesus Christ, in whom the Godhead is united with manhood, graciously made himself the new almighty Head of men, whom he unites to himself through faith. Therefore as in Adam we had fallen under sin, the curse, and death, so we are delivered from sin, the curse, and death in Jesus Christ. His voluntary suffering and death on the cross for us, being of infinite value and merit, as the death of one sinless, God and man in one person, is both a perfect satisfaction to the justice of God, which had condemned us for sin to death, and a fund of infinite merit, which has obtained him the right, without prejudice to justice, to give us sinners pardon of our sins, and grace to have victory over sin and death. Orthodox theology teaches prevenient grace, meaning that God makes the first movement toward man, and that salvation is impossible from our own will alone. However, man is endowed with free will, and an individual can either accept or reject the grace of God. Thus an individual must cooperate with God’s grace in order to be saved, though he can claim no credit of his own, as any progress he makes is possible only by the grace of God.


Broadly speaking, Protestants hold to the five solas of the Reformation, which declare salvation to be by faith alone through grace alone in Christ alone. Some Protestants understand this to mean that God saves solely by grace and that works follow as a necessary consequence of saving grace (see Lordship salvation), while others believe that salvation is rigidly by faith alone without any reference to works whatsoever (see Free Grace theology), while still others believe that salvation is by faith alone but that salvation can be forfeited if it is not accompanied by continued faith and the works that naturally follow from it.

Calvinists, who adhere to Lordship salvation, further understand the doctrines of salvation to include (but not limited to) the five points of Calvinism, all of which contrast sharply with Arminianism. In the Calvinist system, all people are born sinful (see original sin) and thus are in need of God to save them. God’s plan of salvation included the appointing of the elect before the foundation of the world, according to His sovereign good pleasure. The entire process of being born again (or regeneration) is performed solely by the Holy Spirit prior to the person exercising faith, and, indeed, the doctrine of total inability says that faith is impossible apart from such divine intervention. All the elect necessarily persevere in faith because God keeps them from falling away. Thus, the Calvinist system is called monergism because God alone acts to bring about salvation. Calvinists recognize three tenses of salvation as they are used in the Bible: a Christian has been saved (past), is being saved (present), and will be saved (future). These three steps have also been distinctly referred to as: regeneration, sanctification, and glorification. All three tenses are needed in order to be saved, all three are freely given of God through Jesus Christ, and all three together constitute the full biblical meaning of salvation. Calvinists confirm, according to Romans 8:30 & Philippians 1:6, that the presence of the first (i.e. if you have been saved) means that the other two will surely follow.

Churches of Christ
See also: Churches of Christ


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Churches of Christ believe that humans are lost in sin but can be redeemed because Jesus Christ, the Son of God, offered himself as the atoning sacrifice. The means of salvation that the members of the Churches of Christ experience rely heavily upon obedience to the gospel, especially distinctive in today’s world though not exclusive, the understanding that baptism saves (1 Peter 3:12). Churches of Christ reject original sin, salvation by faith alone, and the Calvinistic doctrine of "once saved always saved". Churches of Christ depend on Christ, His death, burial , and resurrection offering the only hope for mankind. A believer is one who has reached an understanding of the gospel, which leads to faith (Acts 16:31), repentance (Acts 2:38), a confession of that faith (Romans 10:9), and baptism by immersion (Acts 2:38; Col 2:12; Gal 3:26-27). Though the Churches of Christ reject salvation by works (Ephesians 2:16), they firmly believe one must never turn their back of God or his ways (Rev 3:16).


Universalists agree with both Calvinists and Arminians that men are born in sin and in need of salvation. They also believe that one is saved by Jesus Christ. However, they emphasize that judgment in hell upon sinners is of limited duration, and that God uses judgment to bring sinners to repentance.[21]

Emerging Church, Liberal Theology, and Liberation Theology
Within the emerging church and various branches of liberal or progressive Christianity, there are a number of different views on the meaning of salvation. This is largely related to post-modern views on Christianity as a dialogue rather than a set of doctrines. Salvation can mean a salvific personal and/or social deliverance from the effects of structural (social) or personal sins. In this context, salvation could mean anything from participation in a glorious afterlife – which is generally a less-commonly held belief in these circles – to a kind of liberation similar to that in Hinduism or Buddhism, to the repair of interpersonal relationships, to societal deliverance into a future perfect world (i.e., the New Jerusalem or the Reign of God), and even to such concepts as gay liberation, women’s liberation, the raising up of the oppressed and marginalized, or the equal distribution of goods. Any or all of these views are likely to be held and debated within the emerging church.

Like Calvinists, Arminians agree that all people are born sinful and are in need of salvation. However, they argue that each person can successfully resist God’s offer of salvation and that a person can lose his or her salvation if one does not maintain it by continued faith in Jesus. Arminians distinguish between loss of faith and sin and believe that sin alone cannot result in the loss of salvation. However, John Wesley taught that continued backsliding could inevitably lead to loss of faith, and consequently salvation, if left uncorrected. The Arminian emphasis on free will, or more properly, free choice is important in salvation. If one has free choice, each individual can choose to accept or reject the gift of salvation. The fact that an individual is baptized or associates with other Christians does not mean that he or she has accepted salvation. Those in the Reformed Protestant camp frequently attach the label Semipelagianism to Arminian ideas. Many Arminians disagree with this generalization and consider it a libel against Jacobus Arminius, John Wesley, and the many other Arminians who maintain original sin.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints
See also: Perfection (Latter Day Saints) and Plan of salvation The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints defines the term salvation in two distinct ways, based on the teachings of their modern-day prophet Joseph Smith, as recorded in the Doctrine and Covenants. The general Christian belief that salvation means returning to the presence of God and Jesus Christ is similar to the way the word is used in the Book of Mormon, wherein the prophet Amulek teaches that through the "great and last sacrifice" of the Son of God, "he shall bring salvation to all those who shall believe on his name; ... to bring about the bowels of mercy, which overpowereth justice, and bringeth about means unto men that they may


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have faith unto repentance. And thus mercy can satisfy the demands of justice, and encircles them in the arms of safety, while he that exercises no faith unto repentance is exposed to the whole law of the demands of justice;" (Alma 34:14-16)

knowledge deeply embedded in the very substance of our being. [23] In the Qur’an, God (Allah in Arabic), states (2:62): Surely, those who believe, those who are Jewish, the Christians, and the Sabians; anyone who (1) believes in God, and (2) believes in the Last Day, and (3) leads a righteous life, will receive their recompense from their Lord. They have nothing to fear, nor will they grieve. According to all the traditional schools of jurisprudence, faith (Iman) ensures salvation. There are however differing views concerning the formal constituents of the act of faith. "For the Asharis it is centred on internal taṣdīḳ[internal judgment of veracity], for the MāTurīdī-Ḥanafīs on the expressed profession of faith and the adherence of the heart, for the Muʿtazilīs on the performance of the ’prescribed duties’, for the Ḥanbalīs and the Wahhābīs on the profession of faith and the performance of the basic duties."[24] The common denominator of these various opinions is summed up in bearing witness that God is the Lord, L. Gardet states.[24] There are traditions in which Muhammad stated that "No one shall enter hell who has an atom of faith in his heart" or that "Hell will not welcome anyone who has in his heart an atom of faith" however these passages are interpreted in different ways. Those who consider performance as an integral part of faith such as Ḵh̲ārid̲j̲īs, consider anyone who does a grave sin to be out of faith, while the majority of Sunnis who view works as merely the perfecting the faith, hold that a believing sinner will be punished with a temporary stay in hell. Still there are disagreements over the possibility of a believing sinner being forgiven immediately (e.g. As̲h̲ʿarīs) and in full rather than undergoing temporary punishment. (e.g. MāTurīdīs)[24] Muslims also believe that those who have heard the messages of a prophet of God (Moses, Jesus or Muhammad) but chosen not to follow will receive eternal damnation in hell.

Death and the question of life after death are not central concerns in Judaism. Nevertheless, the Pharisees and their successors, Rabbinic Judaism, taught that "every Jew has a share in the world to come (the afterlife)" (TB Sanhedrin 90a), and also that "the righteous people of other (non-Jewish) nations...", those who follow the elementary morals embodied in the Seven Noahide Laws, "...have a share in the world to come" (Tos. Sanhedrin 13, TB ibid. 105a). Although a person who sins may be punished either in this world or the next, punishment in the next world is in most cases limited in duration to 12 months (Mish. Eiduyot 2:10). Complete loss of a share in the afterlife (or, alternatively, eternal punishment; TB Rosh Hashanah 17a) is imposed for only a small number of very serious sins, most of which have to do with heresy. Even then a person can regain his share in the world to come through repentance and atonement. E. P. Sanders describes this overall view of salvation as "covenantal nomism". A belief in the World to Come is important in Orthodox Judaism but its importance in other Jewish denominations vary. Most Jewish thinkers emphasize that Judaism concentrates on the here and now. [22] Further information: Christianity and Judaism and Jewish principles of faith

See also: Jannah Unlike Christianity, Islam does not conceive man as "a sinful being to whom the message of Heaven is sent to heal the wound of the original sin".[23] According to the Qur’an, God created man in the best stature, with an intelligence capable of knowing the One. Islam teaches that men and women carry within themselves a primordial nature (alfitrah) which they have forgotten and is now buried deep under layers of negligence. Salvation according to Islam is therefore remembrance, recollection, and confirmation of a

Eastern Religions
Adherents of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism do not believe in salvation in the sense understood by most Westerners. They do not focus on Hell or Heaven as the end of a soteriological choice, but on knowledge. They believe in reincarnation (Buddhism


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rebirth) after death. According to this belief, one’s actions or karma allow one to be reborn as a higher or lower being. If one is evil and has a multitude of bad actions, one is likely to be reborn as a lower being. If one has a multitude of good actions or karma, one is likely to be reborn as a higher being, perhaps a human with higher status or in a higher caste. Eventually, however, one is able to escape from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth, through the attainment of the highest spiritual state. This state is called moksha (or mukti) in Hinduism, Sac Khand in Sikhism, moksa or nirvana in Jainism and often called nirvāṇa in Buddhism. This state is not one of individual happiness but often a merging of oneself with collective existence. Sometimes, as with nirvāṇa, it is a liberation from conditioned existence.

recognizes several paths to achieve this goal, none of which is exclusive. The paths are the way of selfless work (Karma Yoga), of selfdissolving love (Bhakti Yoga), of absolute discernment & knowledge (Jnana Yoga) or of ’royal’ meditative immersion (Raja Yoga).

Liberation, called nirvāṇa in Buddhism, is seen as an end to suffering, rebirth, and ignorance. (It should be noted that Buddhism doesn’t have a concept of original sin, or innate personal corruption/pollution, as is found in Christianity.) The Four Noble Truths outline some of Buddhist soteriology: they describe suffering (dukkha) and its causes, the possibility of its cessation, and the way to its cessation, that is, the Noble Eightfold Path, which includes wisdom (pañña), morality (sīla), and concentration (samādhi). The means of achieving liberation are further developed in other Buddhist teachings. They are expressed in different terms by Theravāda, Mahayana, and Vajrayana Buddhists.

In Hinduism, salvation is the Atman’s liberation from Saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth and attainment of the highest spiritual state. It is the ultimate goal of Hinduism, where even hell and heaven are temporary. This is called moksha (Sanskrit: ?????, "liberation") or mukti (Sanskrit: ??????, "release"). Moksha is a final release from one’s worldly conception of self, the loosening of the shackles of experiential duality and a re-establishment in one’s own fundamental nature, though the nature is seen as ineffable and beyond sensation. The actual state is seen differently depending on school of thought. Brahman is the universal substrate and divine ground of all being. Thus monism is the basis of practically all philosophies in Hinduism, including major sects of Vaishnavism, Shaivism, and Shaktism. Even the Dvaita school of Vaishnavism, is wrongly assumed as ’dualist’ but it is actually a form of dualist monism. In contrast to the Smartha sect based on Advaita philosophy which regards identification of Atman with Brahman as the means to achieve liberation, practically all forms of Vaishnavism, Shaivism, and Shaktism view union via close association with God through loving devotion. Moksha is achieved when the individual Atman unites with the ground of all being the source of all phenomenal existence — Brahman through practice of Yoga. Hinduism

Mokṣa in Jainism means liberation, salvation or emancipation of soul. It is a blissful state of existence of a soul, completely free from the karmic bondage, free from saṃsāra, the cycle of birth and death. A liberated soul is said to have attained its true and pristine nature of infinite bliss, infinite knowledge and infinite perception. Such a soul is called siddha or paramatman and considered as supreme soul or God. In Jainism, it is the highest and the noblest objective that a soul should strive to achieve. It fact, it is the only objective that a person should have; other objectives are contrary to the true nature of soul. With right faith, knowledge and efforts all souls can attain this state. Samaṇ Suttaṁ [25] compiled by Jinendra Varni contains the following description of Nirvāṇa or mokṣa • Where there is neither pain nor pleasure, neither suffering nor obstacle, neither birth nor death, there emancipation.(617) • Where there are neither sense organs, nor surprise, nor sleep, nor thirst, nor hunger, there is emancipation.(618)


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• Where there is neither Karma, nor quasi-Karma nor the worry, nor any type of thinking which is technically called Artta, Raudra, Dharma and Sukla, there is Nirvāṇa. (619) According to Jainism, moksa or liberation can be attained only in the human birth. Even the demi-gods and heavenly beings have to re-incarnate as humans and practice right faith, knowledge and conduct to achieve liberation. According to Jainism, human birth is quite rare and invaluable and hence a man should make his choices wisely.

Islam(‫ .)ةرفغملا‬In Christianity redemption is synonymous with salvation. It can also refer to being forgiven from being evil. The Christian point of view states that if we died as we were born we would die in sin, therefore being condemned to eternal separation from God. True redemption only comes when we are given absolution for our sins; not being returned to some previous state of existence.

See also
• • • • • • • • • • • Antinomianism Atonement Born again Christianity Divine filiation Legalism (theology) New Birth Plan of salvation as used by Mormons (LDS) Predestination Prevenient grace Sin Total depravity

Salvation in Sikhism means ending the cycle of death and rebirth and thus merging oneself with the Infinite Formless God.According to Guru Nanak,the founder of Sikhism,the goal of the human is to have union with God and for this the Sikhs are to conquer their ego and thus realizing their true nature which is the same as God.There are five spiritual stages through which the Sikhs go through reaching the final stage of having union with God. 1. Dharam Khand: The realm of Righteous action. 2. Gian Khand: The realm of Knowledge. 3. Saram Khand: The realm of Spiritual endeavor. 4. Karam Khand: The realm of Grace. 5. Sach Khand: The realm of Truth. According to Sikhism, moksa or liberation can be attained only in the human birth. Even the demi-gods and heavenly beings have to re-incarnate as humans and practice right faith, knowledge and conduct to achieve liberation. According to Sikhism, human birth is quite rare and invaluable and hence a man should make his choices wisely.

[1] Salvation, Catholic Encyclopedia [2] S0573100.html [3] index.php?term=salvation [4] TIME: Christians: No One Path to Salvation [5] Inclusionism deemed heresy [6] Most Protestants argue the word rendered justified is not used as "to make righteous" but to be "shown already righteous" (as the word is used in Matthew 11:19), meaning that a person’s good behaviour proves they have been saved, as God is sanctifying them, making them a better person, after having saved them. Thus most Protestants distinguish sharply between (and some separate entirely) sanctification and justification. Catholics see justification and sanctification as being integrated together. The Council of Trent, while anathematizing any who would say that a person can, before God, be justified by works done in human strength alone, without the divine grace merited by Jesus Christ (canon 1 of its Decree on justification), declared that the justice granted to Christians is

Redemption is a religious concept referring to forgiveness or absolution for past sins and protection from eternal damnation, generally through sacrifice. Redemption is common in many world religions and all Abrahamic Religions, especially in Christianity and


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preserved and increased by good works, and accordingly these are more than just the fruit and sign of justification obtained (canon 24). [7] "The most Holy Roman Church firmly believes, professes and preaches that none of those existing outside the Catholic Church, not only pagans, but also Jews and heretics and schismatics, can have a share in life eternal; but that they will go into the eternal fire which was prepared for the devil and his angels, unless before death they are joined with Her; and that so important is the unity of this ecclesiastical body that only those remaining within this unity can profit by the sacraments of the Church unto salvation, and they alone can receive an eternal recompense for their fasts, their almsgivings, their other works of Christian piety and the duties of a Christian soldier. No one, let his almsgiving be as great as it may, no one, even if he pour out his blood for the Name of Christ, can be saved, unless he remain within the bosom and the unity of the Catholic Church." Pope Eugene IV, Papal Bull Cantate Domino; cf. Session 11 of the Council of Florence [8] In his Apostolic Letter Fidei Depositum of 11 October 1992, Pope John Paul II declared: "The Catechism of the Catholic Church, which I approved June 25th last and the publication of which I today order by virtue of my Apostolic Authority, is a statement of the Church’s faith and of catholic doctrine, attested to or illumined by Sacred Scripture, the Apostolic Tradition, and the Church’s Magisterium. I declare it to be a sure norm for teaching the faith."Fidei Depositum, 3 [9] ^ CCC 1949 [10] CCC 456-457 [11] CCC 1019 [12] CCC 830 [13] CCC 1256-1257, 1277 [14]


"Salvation". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/Salvation. [15] CCC 980 [16] CCC 1129 [17] CCC 1405 [18] Lumen gentium, 14 [19] Questions and Answers on Salvation, Question 41d, Fr. Michael Müller, C.Ss.R. [20] "The Longer Catechism of the Orthodox, Catholic, Eastern Church". Orthodox_Catechism_of_Philaret.htm. Retrieved on 14 FEB 2009. [21] "Merciful Truth". Retrieved on 14 FEB 2009. [22] Jewish Encyclopedia: Salvation [23] ^ Seyyed Hossein Nasr, William Chittick (2007), The Essential. World Wisdom, Inc. ISBN 1-933316-38-1, p.45 [24] ^ Encyclopedia of Islam, Iman article [25] Varni, Jinendra; Ed. Prof. Sagarmal Jain, Translated Justice T.K. Tukol and Dr. K.K. Dixit (1993). Samaṇ Suttaṁ. New Delhi: Bhagwan Mahavir memorial Samiti.

External links
• "The Scripture Way to Salvation", a sermon by John Wesley (Protestant Christian - Methodist/Wesleyan perspective) • "God’s Plan of Salvation" (conservative Evangelical perspective) • Salvation in Islam • Immortality Or Resurrection? Chapter VI Hell: Eternal Torment or Annihilation? by Samuele Bacchiocchi, Ph. D., Andrews University

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