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Pope Pius XII

Pope Pius XII
Pius XII

Papacy began Papacy ended Predecessor Successor Birth name Born Died

March 2, 1939 October 9, 1958 Pius XI John XXIII Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli March 2, 1876(1876-03-02) Rome, Italy October 9, 1958 (aged 82) Castel Gandolfo, Italy

Other popes named Pius

notably the Reichskonkordat with Germany. His leadership of the Catholic Church during World War II remains the subject of continued historical controversy. After the war, Pius XII contributed to the rebuilding of Europe, and advocated peace and reconciliation, including lenient policies toward vanquished nations and the unification of Europe. The Church, flourishing in the West, experienced severe persecution and mass deportations of Catholic clergy in the East. In light of his protests, and his involvement in the Italian elections of 1948, he became known as a staunch but pragmatic opponent of communism. He signed thirty concordats and diplomatic treaties. Pius XII explicitly invoked ex cathedra papal infallibility with the dogma of the Assumption of Mary in his 1950 Apostolic constitution Munificentissimus Deus. His magisterium includes almost 1,000 addresses and radio broadcasts. His forty-one encyclicals include Mystici Corporis, the Church as the Body of Christ; Mediator Dei on liturgy reform; Humani Generis on the Church’s position on theology and evolution. He eliminated the Italian majority in the College of Cardinals with the Grand Consistory in 1946. His canonisation process is in progress.

Early life
Pacelli was born in Rome on March 2, 1876, into a pious, well-off aristocratic family with a history of ties to the papacy (the "Black Nobility"). His grandfather, Marcantonio Pacelli, was Under-Secretary in the Papal Ministry of Finances[2] and then Secretary of the Interior under Pope Pius IX from 1851 to 1870 and founded the Vatican’s newspaper, L’Osservatore Romano in 1861;[3] his cousin, Ernesto Pacelli, was a key financial advisor to Pope Leo XIII; his father, Filippo Pacelli, a Franciscan Tertiary,[4] was the dean of the Sacra Rota Romana; and his brother, Francesco Pacelli, became a lay canon lawyer and the legal advisor to Pius XI, in which role he negotiated the Lateran Treaty in 1929, bringing an end to the Roman Question.

The signature of Pius XII never changed[1] Pope Pius XII (Latin: Pius PP. XII), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th Pope, head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City, from March 2, 1939 until his death in 1958. Before election to the papacy, Pacelli served as secretary of the Department of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, papal nuncio and Cardinal Secretary of State, in which he worked to conclude treaties with European and Latin-American nations, most


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Pope Pius XII

Eugenio Pacelli in 1896 Gregorian University and the Appolinare Institute of Lateran University.[5] From 1895–1896, he studied philosophy at University of Rome La Sapienza.[5] In 1899, he received degrees in theology and in utroque iure (civil and canon law).[5] At the seminary, he received a special dispensation to live at home for health reasons.[5]

Church career
Eugenio at the age of six in 1882 Together with his brother Francisco and his two sisters Giuseppina and Elisabetta he grew up in the centre of Rome. At the age of twelve, Eugenio announced his intentions to enter the priesthood instead of becoming a lawyer. After completing state primary schools, Pacelli received his secondary, classical education at the Visconti Institute,[5] which was dominated by an anti-Catholic athmosphere popular at that time[6] In 1894, at the age of eighteen, he entered the Collegio Capranica Seminary to begin study for the priesthood and enrolled at the Pontifical

Priest and Monsignor
He was ordained a priest on Easter Sunday, April 2, 1899 by Bishop Francesco di Paola Cassetta — the vice-regent of Rome and a family friend — and received his first assignment as a curate at Chiesa Nuova, where he had served as an altar boy.[7] In 1901, he entered the Congregation for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, a sub-office of the Vatican Secretariat of State, where he became a minutante, at the recommendation of Cardinal Vannutelli, another family friend.[7] In 1904, Pacelli became a papal chamberlain and in 1905 a domestic prelate.[7] From 1904 until 1916, Monsignor Pacelli assisted Cardinal Pietro Gasparri in his codification of


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Pope Pius XII
— the apostolic nuncio to Vienna — in his negotiations with Franz Joseph I of Austria regarding Italy.[12]

Archbishop and Papal Nuncio

Pacelli on the day of his ordination, April 2, 1899 canon law with the Department of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs.[8] He was also chosen by Pope Leo XIII to deliver condolences on behalf of the Vatican to Edward VII of the United Kingdom after the death of Queen Victoria.[9] In 1908, he served as a Vatican representative on the International Eucharistic Congress in London,[9] where he met Winston Churchill.[10] In 1911, he represented the Holy See at the coronation of King George V.[8] In 1908 and 1911, Pacelli turned down professorships in canon law at a Roman university and The Catholic University of America, respectively. Pacelli became the undersecretary in 1911, adjunct-secretary in 1912 (a position he received under Pope Pius X and retained under Pope Benedict XV) and secretary of the Department of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs in 1914 — succeeding Gasparri, who was promoted to Cardinal Secretary of State.[8] As secretary, Pacelli concluded a concordat with Serbia four days before Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated in Sarajevo.[11] During World War I, Pacelli maintained the Vatican’s registry of prisoners of war. In 1915, he travelled to Vienna to assist Monsignor Scapinelli

Cardinal Secretary Rafael Merry del Val, Monsignori Eugenio Pacelli and Nicola Canali at the 1914 signing of the Serbian concordat underneath the picture of Pope Pius X Pope Benedict XV appointed Pacelli as papal nuncio to Bavaria on April 23, 1917, consecrating him as titular Bishop of Sardis and immediately elevating him to archbishop in the Sistine Chapel on May 13, 1917, the very day Our Lady of Fatima is believed to have first appeared to three shepherd children in Fatima, Portugal. After his consecration, Eugenio Pacelli left for Bavaria. The Vatican Peace Initiative As there was no nuncio to Prussia or Germany at the time, Pacelli was, for all practical purposes, the nuncio to all of the German Empire. Once in Munich, he conveyed the papal initiative to end the War to German authorities.[13] He met with King Ludwig III on May 29, and later with Kaiser Wilhelm II[14] and Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg, who replied positively to the Papal initiative. Pacelli saw “for the first time a real prospect for


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peace”.[15] However, Bethmann-Hollweg was forced to resign and the German High Command, hoping for a military victory, delayed the German reply until September 20. Pacelli was “extraordinarily disappointed and depressed”,[16] since the German note did not include the concessions promised earlier. For the remainder of the war, he concentrated on Benedict’s humanitarian efforts.[17] After the war, during the short-lived Bavarian Soviet Republic in 1919 Pacelli was one of the few foreign diplomats to remain in Munich. According to Pascalina Lehnert, who was personally there at the time, Pacelli calmly faced down a small group of Spartacist revolutionaries, who had entered the nunciature by force in order to take his car. Pacelli told them to leave the extraterritorial building, to which they responded, "only with your car". Pacelli, who had previously ordered to disconnect the starter, permitted the car to be towed away, after he was informed that the Bavarian government had promised to return the vehicle at once.[18] Several versions of this incident and alleged later incidents are much more colorful, but, according to the relator in the beatification process in the Vatican, "mostly based on imagination"[19] The popular view may also overlook his cordial relations with socialist politicians like Friedrich Ebert and Philipp Scheidemann, and his prolonged secret negotiations with the Soviet Union (see below). “Pacelli is simply too intelligent to be irritated by something like this” opined the Bavarian representative at the Vatican.[20]

Pope Pius XII
American diplomat Robert Murphy, then in Munich, writes that "all the foreign representatives at Munich, including Nuncio Pacelli, were convinced that Hitler’s political career had ended ignominiously in 1924. When I ventured to remind His Holiness of this bit of history (in 1945), he laughed and said: ’I know what you mean - papal infallibility, Don’t forget, I was only a monsignor then’."[22] The First Nuncio in Berlin Several years after he was appointed Nuncio to Germany, and after completion of a concordat with Bavaria, the nunciature was moved to Berlin. June 23, 1920 and 1925 respectively. Many of Pacelli’s Munich staff would stay with him for the rest of his life, including his advisor Robert Leiber and Sister Pascalina Lehnert — housekeeper, friend, and adviser to Pacelli for 41 years. In Berlin, Pacelli was doyen or Dean of the Diplomatic Corps and active in diplomatic and many social activities. There he met notables like Albert Einstein, Adolf von Harnack, Gustav Stresemann, Clemens August Graf von Galen, and Konrad Cardinal von Preysing, the later two he elevated to cardinal in 1946. He worked with the German priest Ludwig Kaas, who was known for his expertise in Church-state relations and was politically active in the Centre Party.[23] While in Germany, he enjoyed working as a pastor. He traveled to all regions, attended Katholikentag (national gatherings of the faithful), and delivered some 50 sermons and speeches to the German people. [24] Negotiations with the Soviet Union (1925-1927) In post-war Germany, Pacelli worked mainly on clarifying the relations between Church and State (see below). But in the absence of a papal nuncio in Moscow, Pacelli worked also on diplomatic arrangements between the Vatican and the Soviet Union. He negotiated food shipments for Russia, where the Church was persecuted. He met with Soviet representatives including Foreign Minister Georgi Chicherin, who rejected any kind of religious education, the ordination of priests and bishops, but offered agreements without the points vital to the Vatican.[25] “An enormously sophisticated conversation between two highly intelligent men like Pacelli and Chicherin, who seemed not to dislike each other”, wrote one participant.[26] Despite Vatican pessimism and a lack of visible

Eugenio Pacelli at the Imperial Headquarters with the peace proposal of Benedict XV to Emperor Wilhelm II On the night of Adolf Hitler’s Beer Hall Putsch, Franz Matt, the only member of the Bavarian cabinet not present at the Bürgerbräu Keller, was having dinner with Pacelli and Michael Cardinal von Faulhaber.[21] The


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progress, Pacelli continued the secret negotiations, until Pope Pius XI ordered them to be discontinued in 1927. Pacelli and the Weimar Republic

Pope Pius XII
the return of William, German Crown Prince from exile as destabilizing. After repeated German acts of sabotage against the French occupation forces in the Ruhr valley in 1923, German media reported a conflict between Pacelli and the German authorities. The Vatican denounced these acts against the French in the Ruhr. [31] When he returned to Rome in 1929, praise was heaped by Catholics and Protestants alike on Pacelli, who by now had become more popular than any German cardinal or bishop,[27] which he had largely excluded from his negotiations and dealings with the German government.

Cardinal Secretary of State and Camerlengo

Eugenio Pacelli in 1922 When he returned to Rome, praise was heaped by Catholics and Protestants alike on Pacelli, who by now had become more popular than any German cardinal or bishop[27]. Pacelli supported the Weimar Coalition with Social Democrats and liberal parties. Although he had cordial relations with representatives of the Centre Party such as Marx and Kaas, he did not involve the Centre in his dealings with the German government.[28] Pacelli supported German diplomatic activity aimed at rejection of punitive measures from victorious former enemies. He blocked French attempts for an ecclesiastical separation of the Saar region, supported the appointment of a papal administrator for Danzig and aided the reintegration of priests expelled from Poland.[29] Pacelli was critical of German policy regarding financial reparations, which he considered unimaginative and lacking a sense of reality.[30] He regretted

Eugenio Pacelli, nuncio in Bavaria visits a group of bishops. Pacelli was made a cardinal on 16 December, 1929 by Pope Pius XI, and within a few months, on 7 February 1930, Pius XI appointed him Cardinal Secretary of State. In 1935, Cardinal Pacelli was named Camerlengo. As Cardinal Secretary of State, Pacelli signed concordats with a number of countries and states, including Baden (1932),[32] Austria (1933), Germany (1933), Yugoslavia


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(1935) and Portugal (1940). The Lateran treaties with Italy (1929) were concluded before Pacelli became secretary of state. Such concordats allowed the Catholic Church to organize youth groups, make ecclesiastical appointments, run schools, hospitals, and charities, or even conduct religious services. They also ensured that canon law would be recognized within some spheres (e.g., church decrees of nullity in the area of marriage).[33] He made many diplomatic visits throughout Europe and the Americas, including an extensive visit to the United States in 1936 where he met with Charles Coughlin and Franklin D. Roosevelt, who appointed a personal envoy — who did not require Senate confirmation — to the Holy See in December 1939, re-establishing a diplomatic tradition that had been broken since 1870 when the pope lost temporal power.[34] Pacelli presided as Papal Legate over the International Eucharistic Congress in Buenos Aires, Argentina on October 10–14, 1934, and in Budapest on May 25–30, 1938.[35] Some historians have argued that Pacelli, as Cardinal Secretary of State, dissuaded Pope Pius XI — who was nearing death at the time[36] — from condemning Kristallnacht in November 1938,[37] when he was informed of it by the papal nuncio in Berlin.[38] Likewise the prepared encyclical Humani Generis Unitas ("On the Unity of Human Society"), which was ready in September 1938 but, according to the two publishers of the encyclical[39] and other sources, not forwarded to the Vatican by the Jesuit General Wlodimir Ledochowski.[40][41] It contained an open and clear condemnation of colonialism, racism and antisemitism.[40][42][43] Some historians have argued that Pacelli learned about its existence only after the death of Pius XI and did not promulgate it as Pope.[44] He did however use parts of it in his inaugural encyclical Summi Pontificatus, which he titled "On the Unity of Human Society."[45] His various positions on Church and policy issues during his tenure as Cardinal Secretary of State were made public by the Vatican in 1939. Most noteworthy among the fifty speeches is his review of church and state issues in Budapest 1938.[46]

Pope Pius XII

Reichskonkordat and Mit Brennender Sorge
See also: Reichskonkordat and Brennender Sorge Mit

The signing of the Reichskonkordat on July 20, 1933 in Rome. (From left to right: German prelate Ludwig Kaas, German ViceChancellor Franz von Papen, Giuseppe Cardinal Pizzardo, Cardinal Secretary of State Pacelli, Alfredo Cardinal Ottaviani, and German ambassador Rudolf Buttmann) The Reichskonkordat was an integral part of four concordats Pacelli concluded on behalf of the Vatican with German States. The state concordats were necessary, because the German federalist Weimar constitution gave the German states authority in the area of education and culture and thus diminished the authority of the churches in these areas;this diminution of church authority was a primary concern of the Vatican. As Bavarian Nuncio, Pacelli negotiated successfully with the Bavarian authorities in 1925. He expected the concordat with Catholic Bavaria to be the model for the rest of Germany.[47] Prussia showed interest in negotiations only after the Bavarian concordat. However, Pacelli obtained less favorable conditions for the Church in the Prussian concordat of 1929, which excluded educational issues. A concordat with the German state of Baden was completed by Pacelli in 1932, after he had moved to Rome. There he also negotiated a concordat with Austria in 1933.[48] A total of 16 concordats and treaties with European states had been concluded in the ten year period 1922-1932.[49] The Reichskonkordat, signed on July 20, 1933, between Germany and the Holy See, while thus a part of an overall Vatican policy, was controversial from its beginning. It remains the most important of Pacelli’s concordats. It is debated, not because of its


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content, which is still valid today, but because of its timing. A national concordat with Germany was one of Pacelli’s main objectives as secretary of state, because he had hoped to strengthen the legal position of the Church. Pacelli, who knew German conditions well, emphasized (1) protection for Catholic associations (§31), (2) freedom for education and Catholic schools, and, (3) freedom for publications.[50] As nuncio during the 1920s, he had made unsuccessful attempts to obtain German agreement for such a treaty, and between 1930 and 1933 he attempted to initiate negotiations with representatives of successive German governments, but the opposition of Protestant and Socialist parties, the instability of national governments and the care of the individual states to guard their autonomy thwarted this aim. In particular, the questions of denominational schools and pastoral work in the armed forces prevented any agreement on the national level, despite talks in the winter of 1932.[51][52] Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor on 30 January 1933 and sought to gain international respectability and to remove internal opposition by representatives of the Church and the Catholic Centre Party. He sent his vice chancellor Franz von Papen, a Catholic nobleman and member of the Centre Party, to Rome to offer negotiations about a Reichskonkordat.[53] On behalf of Cardinal Pacelli, Prelate Ludwig Kaas, the outgoing chairman of the Centre Party, negotiated first drafts of the terms with Papen.[54] The concordat was finally signed, by Pacelli for the Vatican and von Papen for Germany, on 20 July and ratified on September 10, 1933.[55] Between 1933 and 1939, Pacelli issued 55 protests of violations of the Reichskonkordat. Most notably, early in 1937, Pacelli asked several German cardinals, including Michael Cardinal von Faulhaber to help him write a protest of Nazi violations of the Reichskonkordat; this was to become Pius XI’s 1937 encyclical Mit Brennender Sorge. The encyclical was written in German and not the usual Latin of official Roman Catholic Church documents. Secretly distributed by an army of motorcyclists and read from every German Catholic Church pulpit on Palm Sunday, it condemned the paganism of the national-socialism ideology.[56] Pope Pius XI credited its creation and writing to the Cardinal Secretary of State, Eugenio Cardinal

Pope Pius XII
Pacelli,[57] the future Pope Pius XII. It was the first official denunciation of Nazism made by any major organization and resulted in persecution of the Church by the infuriated Nazis who closed all the participating presses and "took numerous vindictive measures against the Church, including staging a long series of immorality trials of the Catholic clergy."[58] On June 10, 1941 he commented on the problems of the Reichskonkordat in a letter to the Bishop of Passau, in Bavaria: "The history of the Reichskonkordat shows, that the other side lacked the most basic prerequisites to accept minimal freedoms and rights of the Church, without which the Church simply cannot live and operate, formal agreements notwithstanding".[59]

Election and coronation
Papal styles of Pope Pius XII

Reference style Spoken style Religious style Posthumous style

His Holiness Your Holiness Holy Father Venerable

Pope Pius XI died on February 10, 1939. Several historians have interpreted the conclave to choose his successor as facing a choice between a diplomatic or a spiritual candidate, and they view Pacelli’s diplomatic experience, especially with Germany, as one of the deciding factors in his election on March 2, 1939, his 63rd birthday, after only one day of deliberation and three ballots.[60][61] He was the first cardinal secretary of state to be elected Pope since Clement IX in 1667.[62] He was also one of only three men known to have served as Camerlengo immediately prior to being elected as pope (the others being Pope Innocent VII and Pope Leo XIII). His coronation took place March 12, 1939. Pacelli took the same papal name as his predecessor, a title used exclusively by Italian Popes. He was quoted as saying, "I call


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Pope Pius XII
worldwide. The dogma was proclaimed in November 1950. 3. Increased archaeological excavations under St Peter’s Basilica in Rome, to determine, whether St. Peter was actually buried there, or whether the Church subjected itself for more than 1500 years to a pious hoax. This was a controversial point, because of the real possibility of a major embarrassment and technical concerns, to conduct excavations under the main altar, close to the Bernini columns of the papal altar and the main support of the Michelangelo’s cupola.[68] The first results regarding the tomb of St. Peter were published in 1950.[69]

Pope Pius XII greets pilgrims during an audience in St. Peter’s Basilica myself Pius; my whole life was under Popes with this name, but especially as a sign of gratitude towards Pius XI."[63] On December 15, 1937, during his last consistory, Pius XI strongly hinted to the cardinals that he expected Pacelli to be his successor, saying "He is in your midst."[64][65] He had previously been quoted as saying: "When today the Pope dies, you’ll get another one tomorrow, because the Church continues. It would be a much bigger tragedy, if Cardinal Pacelli dies, because there is only one. I pray every day, God may send another one into one of our seminaries, but as of today, there is only one in this world."[66] After his election, Pius XII listed three objectives as pontiff.[67] 1. A new translation of the psalms, daily recited by the religious and priests, in order for the clergy to better appreciate the beauty and richness of the Old Testament. This translation was completed in 1945. 2. A definition of the Dogma of the Assumption. This necessitated numerous studies into Church history and consultations with the episcopate

Pius XII ordered archaeological excavations under St Peter’s Basilica in Rome, to determine whether the tomb of St. Peter was there. At the conclusion of the Holy Year 1950 he confirmed that the tomb of St. Peter had been found underneath St. Peter Basilica[69]

After his election, he appointed Luigi Cardinal Maglione to be his successor as Secretary of State. Maglione, a seasoned Vatican diplomat, had reestablished diplomatic relations with Switzerland and was for many years nuncio in Paris, France. Yet, Maglione did not exercise the influence of his predecessor Pacelli, who as Pope continued his close relation with Monsignors Montini (later Pope


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Paul VI) and Domenico Tardini. After the death of Maglione in 1944, Pius left the position open and named Tardini head of its foreign section and Montini head of the internal section.[70] Tardini and Montini continued serving there until 1953, when Pius XII decided to appoint them cardinals,[71] an honor which both turned down.[72] They were then later appointed to be Pro-Secretary with the privilege to wear Episcopal Insignia.[73] Tardini continued to be a close co-worker of the Pope until the death of Pius XII, while Montini became archbishop of Milan, after the death of Alfredo Ildefonso Schuster. Pius XII slowly eroded the Italian monopoly on the Roman Curia; he employed German and Dutch Jesuit advisors, Robert Leiber, Augustin Bea, and Sebastian Tromp. He also supported the elevation of Americans such as Francis Spellman from a minor to a major role in the Church.[74] After World War II, Pius XII appointed more non-Italians than any Pope before him. Americans included Joseph P Hurley as regent of the nunciature in Belgrade, Gerald P. O’Hara Nuncio to Romania and Monsignor Aloisius Joseph Muench as nuncio to Germany. For the first time, numerous young European, Asian and "Americans were trained in various congregations and secretariats within the Vatican for eventual service throughout the world."[75]

Pope Pius XII
workers, Monsignore Domenico Tardini and Monsignore Montini would be elevated[78]& Pius XII informed the assembled cardinals that two persons were originally on the top of his list,[79] but they had turned down the offer, and were rewarded instead with other promotions.[80] The two consistories of 1946 and 1953 brought an end to over five hundred years of Italians constituting a majority of the College of Cardinals.[81] With few exceptions, Italian prelates accepted the changes positively; there was no protest movement or open opposition to the internationalization efforts.[82] Earlier, in 1945, Pius XII had dispensed with the complicated papal conclave procedures which attempted to ensure secrecy while preventing Cardinals from voting for themselves, compensating for this change by raising the requisite majority from two-thirds to two thirds plus one.

Only twice in his pontificate did Pius XII hold a consistory to create new cardinals, in contrast to Pius XI, who had done so seventeen times in seventeen years. Pius XII chose not to name new cardinals during World War II, and the number of cardinals shrank to 38, with Cardinal Denis Dougherty being the only living U.S. cardinal. The first occasion on February 18, 1946 — which has become known as the "Grand Consistory" — yielded the elevation of a record thirty-two new cardinals, almost 50% of the College of Cardinals and reaching the canonical limit of seventy cardinals.[76] In the 1946 consistory Pius XII, while maintaining the maximum size of the College of Cardinals at 70, named cardinals from China, India, the Middle East and increased the number of Cardinals from the Americas, proportionally lessening the Italian influence[77] In his second consistory on January 12, 1953, it was expected that his closest co-

In 1958, Pope Pius XII speaks to children during an audience in St. Peter’s Basilica

Church reforms
Liturgy reforms
In his encyclical Mediator Dei, Pius XII links liturgy with the last will of Jesus Christ. "But it is His will, that the worship He instituted and practiced during His life on earth shall continue ever afterwards without intermission. For he has not left mankind an orphan. He still offers us the support of His powerful, unfailing intercession, acting as our "advocate with the Father." He aids us likewise through His Church, where He is present indefectibly as the ages run their course: through the Church which He constituted "the pillar of truth" and dispenser of grace, and which by His


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sacrifice on the cross, He founded, consecrated and confirmed forever."[83] The Church has, therefore, according to Pius XII, a common aim with Christ himself, teaching all men the truth, and, offering to God a pleasing and acceptable sacrifice. This way, the Church re-establishes the unity between the Creator and His creatures.[84] The sacrifice of the altar, being Christ’s own actions, convey and dispense divine grace from Christ to the members of the Mystical Body.[85] The numerous Liturgy reforms of Pius XII show two characteristics. Renewal and the rediscovery of old liturgical traditions, such as the reintroduction of the Easter Vigil, and, a more structured atmosphere within the Church buildings. The use of vernacular language, favoured by Pius XII, was hotly debated at his time. He increased non-Latin services, especially in countries with expanding Catholic mission activities. The location of the Blessed Sacrament within the Church was to be always at the main altar in the centre of the Church.[86] The Church should display religious objects, but not be overloaded with secondary objects or even Kitsch. Modern sacred art should be reverential and reflect the spirit of our time.[87] Priests are permitted to officiate marriages without Holy Mass. They also may also officiate confirmations in certain instances.[88]

Pope Pius XII

Jean Guitton: "With nuclear physicists he talked about nuclear physics, with midwives about birth, with jurists about jurisprudence, among children he was a child."[89] XII emphasised the need to systematically analyze the psychological condition of candidates to the priesthood to ensure that they are capable of a life of virginity and service.[90] Pius XII added one year to the theological formation of future priests. He also included a "pastoral year", an introduction into the practice of Parish work.[91] The call to constant interior reform and Christian heroism is a central part of the message of Pius XII to all Religious. This means to be above average, to be a living example of Christian virtue. As the secular world has fallen back into Hedonism, the Catholic alternative is the sanctification especially of Priests and Religious. The strict norms governing their lives are meant to make them models of Christian perfection for lay people, he writes in Menti Nostrae.[92] Bishops are encouraged to look at model saints like Boniface, and Pope Pius X.[93] Priests were encouraged to be living examples of the love of Christ and his sacrifice.[94]

Canon Law Reforms
Decentralized authority and increased the independence of the United Churches were aimed at in the Canon Law/Corpis Iuris Canonici (CIC) reform. In its new constitutions, Eastern Patriarchs were made almost independent from Rome (CIC Orientalis, 1957) Eastern marriage law (CIC Orientalis, 1949), civil law (CIC Orientalis, 1950), laws governing religious associations (CIC Orientalis, 1952) property law (CIC Orientalis ,1952) and other laws. These reforms and writings of Pius XII were intended to establish Eastern Orientals as equal parts of the mystical body of Christ, as explained in the encyclical Mystici Corporis.

Pius XII explained the Catholic faith in 41 encyclicals and almost 1000 messages and speeches during his long pontificate. Mediator Dei clarified membership and participation in the Church. The encyclical Divino Afflante Spiritu opened the doors for biblical research. But his magisterium was far larger

Priests and Religious
With the Apostolic constitution Sedis Sapientiae, Pius XII added social sciences, sociology, psychology and social psychology, to the pastoral training of future priests. Pius


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and is difficult to summarize. In numerous speeches Catholic teaching is related to various aspects of life, education, medicine, politics, war and peace, the life of saints, Mary, the mother of God, things eternal and contemporary. Theologically, Pius XII specified the nature of the teaching authority of the Church. He also gave a new freedom to engage in theological investigations.[95]

Pope Pius XII

Theological orientation
The encyclical, Divino Afflante Spiritu, published in 1943[96] emphasized the role of the bible. Pius XII freed biblical research from previous limitations. He encouraged Christian theologians to revisit original versions of the Bible in Greek and Hebrew. Noting improvements in archaeology, the encyclical reversed Pope Leo XIII’s encyclical, which had only advocated going back to the original texts to resolve ambiguity in the Latin Vulgate. The encyclical demands a much better understanding of ancient Jewish history and traditions. It requires bishops throughout the Church to initiate biblical studies for lay people. The Pontiff also requests a reorientation of Catholic teaching and education, relying much more on sacred scriptures in sermons and religious instruction.[97] The role of theology This theological investigative freedom does not, however, extend to all aspects of theology. According to Pius, theologians, employed by the Church, are assistants, to teach the official teachings of the Church and not their own private thoughts. They are free to engage in empirical research, which the Church generously supports, but in matters of morality and religion, they are subjected to the teaching office and authority of the Church, the Magisterium. "The most noble office of theology is to show how a doctrine defined by the Church is contained in the sources of revelation, … in that sense in which it has been defined by the Church."[98] The deposit of faith is authentically interpretated not to each of the faithful, not even to theologians, but only to the teaching authority of the Church.[99]

On November 1, 1950, Pius XII defined the dogma of the assumption (Titian’s Assunta (1516-18) pictured). 1917, the very day Our Lady of Fatima is believed to have first appeared. He consecrated the world to the Immaculate Heart of Mary in 1942, in accordance with the second "secret" of Our Lady of Fatima (His remains were to be buried in the crypt of Saint Peter Basilica on the feast day of Our Lady of Fatima, October 13, 1958). On November 1, 1950, Pope Pius XII defined the dogma of the assumption: "By the authority of our Lord Jesus Christ, of the Blessed Apostles Peter and Paul, and by our own authority, we pronounce, declare, and define it to be a divinely revealed dogma: that the Immaculate Mother of God, the ever

Mariology and the Dogma of the Assumption
As a young boy and in later life, Pacelli was an ardent follower of the Virgin Mary. He was consecrated as a bishop on May 13,


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Virgin Mary, having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory."[100] The dogma of the bodily assumption of the Virgin Mary, is the crowning of the theology of Pius XII. In this dogmatic statement, the phrase "having completed the course of her earthly life," leaves open the question of whether the Virgin Mary died before her Assumption, or, whether she was assumed before death; both possibilities are allowed. Mary’s Assumption was a divine gift to Mary as Mother of God. As Mary completed her race as a shining example to the human race, the perspective of the gift of assumption is offered to the whole human race. The dogma was preceded by the 1946 encyclical Deiparae Virginis Mariae, which requested all Catholic bishops to express their opinion on a possible dogmatization. On September 8, 1953, the encyclical Fulgens corona announced a Marian year for 1954, the centennial of the Dogma of the Immaculate Conception.[101] In the encyclical Ad caeli reginam he promulagated the feast, Queenship of Mary.[102] Mystici Corporis summarizes his mariology.[103]

Pope Pius XII
persons, medical lies in face of grave illness, and the rights of family members to make decisions against expert medical advice. Pope Pius XII often reconsidered previously accepted truth, thus he was first to determine that the use of pain medicine in terminally ill patients is justified, even if this may shorten the life of the patient, as long as life shortening is not the objective itself.[105] Family and sexuality Pope Pius XII developed an extensive theology of the family, taking issue with family roles, sharing of household duties, education of children, conflict resolution, financial dilemmas, psychological problems, illness, taking care of older generations, unemployment, marital holiness and virtue, common prayer, religious discussions and more. Within the overall divine purpose of family life, he fully accepted the rhythm method as a moral form of family planning, although only limited circumstances, within the context of family.[106] Theology and science To Pius XII, science and religion were heavenly sisters, different manifestations of divine exactness, who could not possibly contradict each other over the long term[107] Regarding their relation, his advisor Professor Robert Leiber wrote: "Pius XII was very careful not to close any doors prematurely. He was energetic on this point and regretted that in the case of Galileo."[108] Evolution In 1950, Pius XII promulgated Humani Generis which acknowledged that evolution might accurately describe the biological origins of human life, but at the same time criticized those who use it as a religion, who "imprudently and indiscreetly hold that evolution... explains the origin of all things". Catholics must believe, that the human soul was created immediately by God. Since the soul is a spiritual substance it is not brought into being through transformation of matter, but directly by God, whence the special uniqueness of each person.."[109] fifty years later, Pope John Paul II, stating that scientic evidence now seemed to favour the evolutionary theory, upheld the distinction of Pius XII regarding the human soul."Even if the human body originates from pre-existent living matter, the spiritual soul is spontaneously created by God." [110]

Social teachings

Coronation of the Salus Populi Romani by Pope Pius XII in 1954 Medical theology Pius XII delivered numerous speeches to medical professionals and researchers.[104] He addressed doctors, nurses, midwives, to detail all aspects of rights and dignity of patients, medical responsibilities, moral implications of psychological illnesses and the uses of psycho pharmaca. He also took on issues like the uses of medicine in terminally ill


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Pope Pius XII
never published or appeared only once issued in the Vatican daily, Osservatore Romano.

On May 29, 1954, three years after his beatification, Pope Pius XII canonized Pope Pius X. It was the first canonization of a Pope since 1712

Gemma Galgani was canonized in 1940 by Pius XII Several encyclicals addressed the Oriental Churches. Orientalis Ecclesiae was issued in 1944 on the 15th centenary of the death of Cyril of Alexandria, a saint common to Orthodox and Latin Churches. Pius XII asks for prayer for better understanding and unification of the Churches. Orientales Omnes, issued in 1945 on the 350th anniversary of the reunion, is a call to continued unity of the Ruthenian Church, threatened in its very existence by the authorities of the Soviet Union. Sempiternus Rex was issued in 1951 on the 1500th anniversary of the Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon. It included a call to oriental communities adhering to monophysitism to return to the Catholic Church. Orientales Ecclesias was issued in 1952 and addressed to the Oriental Churches, protesting the continued Stalinist persecution of the Church. Several Apostolic LetterS were sent to the bishops in the East. On May 13, 1956, Pope Pius addressed all bishops of the Eastern Rite. Mary, the mother of God

Encyclicals, writings and speeches
Pius XII issued 41 encyclicals during his pontificate, - more than all his successors in the past fifty years taken together - along with many other writings and speeches. The pontificate of Pius XII was the first in Vatican history, which published papal speeches and addresses in vernacular language on a systematic basis. Until then, papal documents were issued mainly in Latin in Acta Apostolicae Sedis since 1909. Because of the novelty of it all, and a feared occupation of the Vatican by the German Wehrmacht, not all documents exist today. In 1944, a number of papal documents were burned or “walled in”,[111] to avoid detection by the advancing German army. Insisting that all publications must be reviewed by him on a prior basis to avoid any misunderstanding, several speeches by Pius XII, who did not find sufficient time, were


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was the subject of encyclical letters to the people of Russia in Fulgens Corona and a papal letter to the people of Russia.[112][113][114][115][116][117][118]

Pope Pius XII
female order, Mary Euphrasia Pelletier, and a young housekeeper said to have stigmata, Gemma Galgani. Pelletier had a reputation for opening new ways for Catholic charities, helping people in difficulties with the law, who had been neglected by the system and the Church. Galgani was a rather young woman in her twenties whose virtue became model by her canonization. [121]

Feasts and devotions

World War II
The Cardinal Secretary of State, Eugenio Pacelli (later to become Pope Pius XII) signed a Concordat (a pact) between Germany and the Vatican at a formal ceremony in Rome on 20 July 1933. Pius XII’s pontificate began on the eve of World War II. In the 1937 encyclical Mit brennender Sorge, drafted by Pope Pius XII when he was still a cardinal,[57] Pope Pius XI denounced Nazism and breaches of the Reichskonkordat. Read from the pulpits of all German Catholic churches, it has been described as the first official denunciation of Nazism made by any major organization.[58] Nazi persecution of the Church in Germany then began by "outright repression" and "staged prosecutions of monks for homosexuality, with the maximum of publicity."[122] When Dutch bishops protested against the deportation of Jews, the Nazis responded with even more severe measures.[58] In Poland, the Nazis murdered over 2500 monks and priests while even more were sent to concentration camps.[122] The Priester-Block (priests barracks) in Dachau lists 2600 Roman Catholic priests.[56] During the war, the Pope followed a policy of neutrality mirroring that of Pope Benedict XV during World War I. In 1939, Pius XII turned the Vatican into a center of aid which he organized from various parts of the world [123] At the request of the Pope, an information office for prisoners of war and refugees operated in the Vatican under Giovanni Battista Montini, which in the years of its existence from 1939 until 1947 received almost ten million (9,891,497) information requests and produced over eleven million (11,293,511) answers about missing persons.[124] In April 1939, after the submission of Charles Maurras and the intervention of the Carmel of Lisieux, Pius XII ended his predecessor’s ban on Action Française, an organization described by some authors as virulently antisemitic and anti-Communist.[125][126]

Secondo Pia’s negative of the image on the Shroud of Turin. In 1958, Pope Pius XII declared the Feast of the Holy Face of Jesus as Shrove Tuesday (the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday) for all Roman Catholics. The first medal of the Holy Face of Jesus, produced by Sister Maria Pierina De Micheli based on the image on the Shroud of Turin had been offered to Pius XII who approved of the medal and the devotion based on it. The general devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus had been approved by Pope Leo XIII in 1885 before the image on the Turin Shroud had been photographed.[119][120]

Canonizations and beatifications
Pope Pius XII canonized numerous saints, including Pope Pius X and Maria Goretti. He beatified Pope Innocent XI. The first canonizations were two women, the founder of a


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In 1939, the Pope employed Jewish cartographer Roberto Almagia to work on old maps in the Vatican library. Almagia had been at the University of Rome since 1915 but was dismissed after Mussolini’s anti-Jewish legislation of 1938. The Pope’s appointment of two Jews to the Vatican Academy of Science as well as the hiring of Almagia were reported by the New York Times in the editions of November 11, 1939, and January 10, 1940.[127]

Pope Pius XII
partition of Poland under the Nazi-Soviet Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. “ The blood of countless human be” ings, even noncombatants, raises a piteous dirge over a nation such as Our dear Poland, which, for its fidelity to the Church, for its services in the defense of Christian civilization, written in indelible characters in the annals of history, has a right to the generous and brotherly sympathy of the whole world, while it awaits, relying on the powerful intercession of Mary, Help of Christians, the hour of a resurrection in harmony with the principles of justice and true peace.
- Summi Pontificatus, 106.

At the outset of World War II, a French nun made this picture of Pope Pius XII. During the Soviet Union’s acts of aggression against Finland, the Winter War, Pius XII condemned the Soviet attack on 26 December 1939 in a speech at the Vatican. Later he donated a signed and sealed prayer on behalf of Finland.[128] On 18 January 1940, after over 15,000 Polish civilians had been killed, Pius XII said in a radio broadcast, "The horror and inexcusable excesses committed on a helpless and a homeless people have been established by the unimpeachable testimony of eye-witnesses."[129] In his first encyclical Summi Pontificatus (October 20, 1939), Pius XII publicly condemned the invasion, occupation and

Time magazine reports that France and Britain were favourably surprised by the encyclical.[130] After Germany invaded the Low Countries during 1940, Pius XII sent expressions of sympathy to the Queen of the Netherlands, the King of Belgium, and the Grand Duchess of Luxembourg. When Mussolini learned of the warnings and the telegrams of sympathy, he took them as a personal affront and had his ambassador to the Vatican file an official protest, charging that Pius XII had taken sides against Italy’s ally Germany. Mussolini’s foreign minister claimed that Pius XII was "ready to let himself be deported to a concentration camp, rather than do anything against his conscience."[131] In the spring of 1940, a group of German generals seeking to overthrow Hitler and make peace with the British approached Pope Pius XII, who acted as a negotiator between the British and the abortive plot.[132] In April 1941, Pius XII granted a private audience to Ante Pavelić, the leader of the newly proclaimed Croatian state (rather than the diplomatic audience Pavelić had wanted).[133] Pius was criticised for his reception of Pavelić: an unattributed British Foreign Office memo on the subject described Pius as "the greatest moral coward of our age."[134] The Vatican did not officially recognise Pavelić’s regime. Pius XII did not publicly condemn the expulsions and forced conversions to Catholicism perpetrated on Serbs by Pavelić;[135] however, the Holy See did expressly repudiate the forced conversions in a memorandum dated January 25,


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1942, from the Vatican Secretiat of State to the Yugoslavian Legation.[136] In 1941, Pius XII interpreted Divini Redemptoris, an encyclical of Pope Pius XI, which forbade Catholics to help communists, as not applying to military assistance to the Soviet Union. This interpretation assuaged American Catholics who had previously opposed Lend-Lease arrangements with the Soviet Union.[137] In March 1942, Pius XII established diplomatic relations with the Japanese Empire and received ambassador Ken Harada, who remained in that position until the end of the war.[138] In May 1942, Kazimierz Papée, Polish ambassador to the Vatican, complained that Pius had failed to condemn the recent wave of atrocities in Poland; when Cardinal Secretary of State Maglione replied that the Vatican could not document individual atrocities, Papée declared, "when something becomes notorious, proof is not required."[139] Pius XII’s famous Christmas broadcasts on the Vatican Radio delivered in 1941 and 1942 (the latter of which at 26 pages and over 5000 words took more than 45 minutes to deliver) remain a "lightning rod" in debates about Pope Pius XII during the war, particularly the Holocaust.[140] In his 1941 Christmas broadcast he was calling for a new world order marked by Christian peace. The majority of the 1942 speech spoke generally about human rights and civil society; at the very end of the speech, Pius seems to turn to current events, albeit not specifically, referring to "all who during the war have lost their Fatherland and who, although personally blameless, have simply on account of their nationality [other translations give: ’ethnicity’] and origin [other translations give: ’race’], been killed or reduced to utter destitution."[141] New York Times editorials called Pius XII "a lonely voice in the silence and darkness enveloping Europe this Christmas" in 1941[142] and "lonely voice crying out of the silence of a continent" in 1942.[143] On December 27, 1942 the department Prague of the RSHA reported the following about the Christmas broadcast and gives an impression of how Nazi Germany’s officials interpreted it: “ The Pope has repudiated the National-Socialist New European Order.... He is virtually accusing the German people of injustice toward ”

Pope Pius XII
the Jews and makes himself the mouthpiece of the Jewish war criminals.
- RSHA officials from Prague (Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia) in a note to Heinrich Himmler at the Reichssicherheitshauptamt, Berlin.[144]

In 1943, plans were formulated by Hitler to occupy the Vatican and arrest Pius and the cardinals of the Roman Curia.[145][146][147] According to Rev. Peter Gumpel, a historian in charge of Pius’ canonization process, the Pope told leading bishops that should he be arrested by Nazi forces, his resignation would take immediate effect and that the Holy See would move to another country, specifically Portugal, where the College of Cardinals would elect a new pope.[148] Some historians argue that the reason Hitler wanted to capture the Pope was because he was concerned Pius would continue speaking against the way the Nazis treated the Jews.[148][149] However, the plan was never brought to fruition, and was reportedly foiled by Nazi general Karl Wolff. As the war was approaching its end in 1945, Pius advocated a lenient policy by the Allied leaders in an effort to prevent what he perceived to be the mistakes made at the end of World War I.[150]

The Holocaust
Lloyd P. Gartner, in his History of the Jews in Modern Times, wrote that from the windows of the Vatican, Pius XII "could see Jews being rounded up and taken away, but Pope Pius XII did not intervene. On the other hand, he instructed the Vatican premises and Catholic monasteries and convents in Rome to shelter all Jews who came for refuge, and 4,715 Jews did so."[151] In 1938 the newly-elected Pope Pius XII appointed several prominent Jewish scholars to posts at the Vatican after they had been dismissed from Italian universities under Fascist leader Benito Mussolini’s racial laws.[152] Pius later engineered an agreement — formally approved on June 23, 1939 — with Brazilian President Getúlio Vargas to issue 3,000 visas to "non-Aryan Catholics". However, over the next eighteen months Brazil’s Conselho de Imigração e Colonização (CIC) continued to tighten the restrictions on their issuance — including requiring a


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baptismal certificate dated before 1933, a substantial monetary transfer to the Banco do Brasil, and approval by the Brazilian Propaganda Office in Berlin — culminating in the cancellation of the program fourteen months later, after fewer than 1,000 visas had been issued, amid suspicions of "improper conduct" (i.e. continuing to practice Judaism) among those who had received visas.[38][153] Cardinal Secretary of State Luigi Maglione received a request from Chief Rabbi of Palestine Isaac Herzog in the Spring of 1940 to intercede on behalf of Lithuanian Jews about to be deported to Germany.[38] Pius called Ribbentrop on March 11, repeatedly protesting against the treatment of Jews.[126] In his 1940 encyclical Summi Pontificatus, Pius rejected anti-semitism, stating that in the Catholic Church there is "neither Gentile nor Jew, circumcision nor uncircumcision."[154] In 1940 Pius asked members of the clergy, on Vatican letterhead, to do whatever they could on behalf of interred Jews.[155] In 1941, Cardinal Theodor Innitzer of Vienna informed Pius of Jewish deportations in Vienna.[141] Later that year, when asked by French Marshal Philippe Pétain if the Vatican objected to anti-Jewish laws, Pius responded that the church condemned antisemitism, but would not comment on specific rules.[141] Similarly, when Philippe Pétain’s puppet government adopted the "Jewish statutes," the Vichy ambassador to the Vatican, Léon Bérard (a French politician), was told that the legislation did not conflict with Catholic teachings.[156] Valerio Valeri, the nuncio to France was "embarrassed" when he learned of this publicly from Pétain[157] and personally checked the information with Cardinal Secretary of State Maglione[158] who confirmed the Vatican’s position.[159] Yet in June 1942 Pius personally protested against the mass deportations of Jews from France, ordering the papal nuncio to protest to Marshal Pétain against "the inhuman arrests and deportations of Jews".[160] In September 1941 Pius objected to a Slovakian Jewish Code,[161] which, unlike the earlier Vichy codes, prohibited intermarriage between Jews and non-Jews.[162] In October 1941 Harold Tittman, a U.S. delegate to the Vatican, asked the pope to condemn the atrocities against Jews; Pius replied that the Vatican wished to remain "neutral,"[163] reiterating the neutrality policy which Pius invoked as early as September 1940.[156]

Pope Pius XII
In 1942, the Slovakian charge d’affaires, told Pius that Slovakian Jews were being sent to concentration camps.[141] On March 11, 1942, several days before the first transport was due to leave, the chargé d’affaires in Bratislava reported to the Vatican: "I have been assured that this atrocious plan is the handwork of... Prime Minister (Tuka), who confirmed the plan... he dared to tell me - he who makes such a show of his Catholicism that he saw nothing inhuman or un-Christian in it... the deportation of 80,000 persons to Poland, is equivalent to condemning a great number of them to certain death." The Vatican protested to the Slovak government that it "deplore(s) these... measures which gravely hurt the natural human rights of persons, merely because of their race."[164] On September 18, 1942, Pius received a letter from Monsignor Montini (future Pope Paul VI), saying, "the massacres of the Jews reach frightening proportions and [141] Later that month, Myron Taylor, forms." U.S. representative to the Vatican, warned Pius that the Vatican’s "moral prestige" was being injured by silence on European atrocities — a warning which was echoed simultaneously by representatives from Great Britain, Brazil, Uruguay, Belgium, and Poland[165] — the Cardinal Secretary of State replied that the rumors about genocide could not be verified.[166] In December 1942, when Tittman asked Cardinal Secretary of State Maglione if Pius would issue a proclamation similar to the Allied declaration "German Policy of Extermination of the Jewish Race", Maglione replied that the Vatican was "unable to denounce publicly particular atrocities."[167] Pius XII directly explained to Tittman that he could not name the Nazis without at the same time mentioning the Bolsheviks.[168] Pius XII also never publicly condemned the Nazi massacre of 1.8 - 1.9 million mainly Catholic Polish gentiles (including 2,935 members of the Catholic Clergy),[169][170] nor did he ever publicly condemn the Soviet Union for the deaths of 1,000,000 mainly Catholic Polish gentile citizens including an untold number of clergy.[171] In late 1942, Pius XII advised German and Hungarian bishops that speaking out against the massacres in the eastern front would be politically advantageous.[172] In his 1942 Christmas Eve message, he expressed strong concern for "those hundreds of thousands, who ... sometimes only by reason of their nationality or


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race, are marked down for death or progressive extinction.[173] On April 7, 1943, Msgr. Tardini, one of Pius’s closest advisors, told Pius that it would be politically advantageous after the war to take steps to help Slovakian Jews.[174] In January 1943, Pius declined to publicly denounce the Nazi violence against Jews, following requests to do so from Władysław Raczkiewicz, president of the Polish government-in-exile, and Bishop Konrad von Preysing of Berlin.[175] On September 26, 1943, following the German occupation of northern Italy, Nazi officials gave Jewish leaders in Rome 36 hours to produce 50 kilograms of gold (or the equivalent) threatening to take 300 hostages. Then Chief Rabbi of Rome, Israel Zolli recounts in his memoir, that he was selected to go to the Vatican and seek help.[176] The Vatican offered to loan 15 kilos, but the offer proved unnecessary when the Jews received an extension.[177] Soon afterward, when deportations from Italy were imminent, 477 Jews were hidden in the Vatican itself and another 4,238 were protected in Roman monasteries and convents.[178] 80% of Roman Jews were saved from deportation.[179] On April 30, 1943, Pius wrote to Bishop Von Preysing of Berlin to say: "We give to the pastors who are working on the local level the duty of determining if and to what degree the danger of reprisals and of various forms of oppression occasioned by episcopal declarations... ad maiora mala vitanda (to avoid worse)... seem to advise caution. Here lies one of the reasons, why We impose self-restraint on Ourselves in our speeches; the experience, that we made in 1942 with papal addresses, which We authorized to be forwarded to the Believers, justifies our opinion, as far as We see.... The Holy See has done whatever was in its power, with charitable, financial and moral assistance. To say nothing of the substantial sums which we spent in American money for the fares of immigrants."[180] On October 28, 1943, Ernst von Weizsäcker, the German Ambassador to the Vatican, telegrammed Berlin that "...the Pope has not yet let himself be persuaded to make an official condemnation of the deportation of the Roman Jews.... Since it is currently thought that the Germans will take no further steps against the Jews in Rome, the question of our

Pope Pius XII

Statue of Pope Pius XII in Fatima, Portugal relations with the Vatican may be considered closed."[181] In March 1944, through the papal nuncio in Budapest, Angelo Rotta, the pope urged the Hungarian government to moderate its treatment of the Jews.[182] The pope also ordered Rotta and other papal legates to hide and shelter Jews.[183] These protests, along with others from the King of Sweden, the International Red Cross, the United States, and Britain led to the cessation of deportations on 8 July, 1944.[184] Also in 1944, Pius appealed to 13 Latin American governments to accept "emergency passports", although it also took the intervention of the U.S. State Department for those countries to honor the documents.[185] From 1941 to 1944, Pope Pius and the Catholic Church were responsible for saving more Jews from Nazi persecution than any other person or institution. Some Israeli scholars estimate that as many as 860,000 European Jews were saved from death through concealment in Church facilities, issuance of fake Baptismal certificates, public appeals and other methods. In one instance, Pius lent the Roman Jewish community part payment of a ransom demanded by the Nazis


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to save several hundred Roman Jews. Prior to becomong Pope, Pius negotiated a Concordat between the Vatican and Germany, which provided that Jews who had converted to Christianity would not be subject to persecution in Germany as Jews. This provision enabled local priests to save tens of thousands of Jews from deporation by issuing fake Baptism certificates. The World Jewish Congress, American Jewish community, Chief Rabbis of Jerusalem, Rome and Budapest, Golda Meir and many other prominent Jewish representatives praised Pius for his relief efforts and public denunciation of racial persecution. In August 2006 extracts from the 60-year-old diary of a nun of the Convent of Santi Quattro Coronati[186] were published in the Italian press, stating that Pope Pius XII ordered Rome’s convents and monasteries to hide Jews during the Second World War.[187]

Pope Pius XII
Church affairs: in 1950, the hierarchy of Western Africa became independent; in 1951, Southern Africa; and in 1953, British Eastern Africa. Finland, Burma and French Africa became independent dioceses in 1955. Persecutions in Eastern Europe and China While the Church thrived in the West and most of the developing world, it faced most serious persecutions in the East. The Communist regimes in Albania, Bulgaria, and Romania practically eradicated the Roman Catholic Church in their countries. Church policies toward Poland Pope Pius and Russia The difficult relations of the Vatican with the Soviet Union, alias Russia, originated in the revolution in 1917 and continued through the pontificate of Pius XII. They affected relations with the Orthodox Church as well. The Catholic Oriental Churches were eliminated in most parts of the Soviet Union during the Stalinist era. Persecutions of the Church continued during the pontificate of Pope Pius XII. The Vatican and the Church in China The relations of the Holy See with China from 1939-1958. began hopefully with the long withheld recognition of Chinese rites by the Vatican in 1939, the elevation of he first Chinese cardinal in 1946, and the establishment of a local Chinese hierarchy. It ended with the persecution and virtual elimination of the Catholic Church in the early Fifties, and the establishment of a Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association in 1957 Jewish orphans controversy In 2005, Corriere della Sera published a document dated 20 November, 1946 on the subject of Jewish children baptized in war-time France. The document ordered that baptized children, if orphaned, should be kept in Catholic custody and stated that the decision "has been approved by the Holy Father". Nuncio Angelo Roncalli (who would become Pope John XXIII, and be recognized by Yad Vashem as Righteous Among the Nations) ignored this directive.[190] Abe Foxman, the national director of the Anti-Defamation League (ADL), who had himself been baptized as a child and had undergone a custody battle afterwards, called for an immediate freeze on Pius’s beatification process until the relevant Vatican Secret Archives and baptismal records were opened.[191] Two Italian scholars, Matteo Luigi Napolitano and Andrea

Post-World War II

Pius XII with his closest co-worker: Monsignore Domenico Tardini on September 30, 1958 After World War II Pope Pius XII focused on material aid to war-torn Europe, an internal internationalization of the Roman Catholic Church, and the development of its worldwide diplomatic relations. His encyclicals, Evangelii Praecones and Fidei Donum, issued on June 2, 1951 and April 21, 1957, respectively, increased the local decision-making of Catholic missions, many of which became independent dioceses. Pius XII demanded recognition of local cultures as fully equal to European culture.[188][189] Continuing the line of his predecessors, Pius XII supported the establishment of local administration in


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Tornielli, confirmed that the memorandum was genuine although the reporting by the Corriere della Sera was misleading, as the document had originated in the French Catholic Church archives rather than the Vatican archives and strictly concerned itself with children without living blood relatives that were supposed to be handed over to Jewish organisations.[192]

Pope Pius XII
which he considered abdication. Afterwards, changes in his work habit became noticeable. The Pope avoided long ceremonies, canonizations and consistories and displayed hesitancy in personnel matters. During the last years of the pontificate, Pius XII procrastinated personnel decisions within his Vatican, and found it increasingly difficult to chastise subordinates and appointees such as Riccardo Galeazzi-Lisi, who, after numerous indiscretions was excluded from Papal service for the last years, but, keeping his title, was able to enter the papal apartments to make photos of the dying Pope, which he sold to French magazines.[193] Pius XII often elevated young priests as bishops, such as Julius Döpfner (35 years) and Karol Wojtyla (38 years), one of his last appointees in 1958. He took a firm stand against pastoral experiments, such as "worker-priests", who worked full times in factories and joined political parties and unions. He continued to defend the theological tradition of Thomism as worthy of continued reform, and as superior to modern trends such as phenomenology or existentialism.[194] Illness and death

Later life, death, and legacy
Late years of Pope Pius XII

The Pope of Mary: A Madonna and Child, added by John XXIII, hangs over the tomb of Pius XII. Since his 1954 illness, Pope Pius addressed lay people and groups about an unprecedented range of topics. Frequently, he spoke to members of scientific congresses, explaining Christian teachings in light of most recent scientific results. Sometimes he answered specific moral questions, which were addressed to him. To professional associations he explained specific occupational ethics in

Statue of Pius XII in Braga, Portugal The last years of the pontificate of Pius XII began in late 1954 with a long illness, during


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light of Church teachings.[195] Pius granted the Honor of Being the "Catholic University of The Philippines" to the University of Santo Tomas in Manila, the oldest existing in Asia. Before 1955, Pacelli worked for many years with Giovanni Battista Montini. The Pope did not have a full time assistant. Robert Leiber helped him occasionally with his speeches and publications. Augustin Bea was his personal confessor. Madre Pascalina Lehnert was for forty years his housekeeper and assistant. Domenico Tardini was probably closest to him. Pius XII died on October 9, 1958 of acute heart failure brought on by a sudden myocardial infarction in Castel Gandolfo, the Papal summer residence. His doctor Gaspanini said afterwards: "The Holy Father did not die because of any specific illness. He was completely exhausted. He was overworked beyond limit. His heart was healthy, his lungs were good. He could have lived another 20 years, had he spared himself."[196] The Testament of Pope Pius XII was published immediately after his death. Pope Pius XII’s cause of canonization was opened on November 18, 1965 by Pope Paul VI. In March 2007, the congregation recommended that Pius XII should be declared Venerable.[197] Funeral His funeral procession into Rome was the largest congregation of Romans as of that date. Romans mourned "their" Pope, who was born in their city, especially as hero in time of war.[198] Cardinal Angelo Roncalli (John XXIII) wrote is his diary on October 11, that probably no Roman emperor had enjoyed such a triumph, which he viewed as a reflection of the spiritual majesty and religious dignity of Pius XII. [199] Botched embalming Galeazzi-Lisi reported that Pius XII’s body was embalmed in the room where he died using a novel process invented by Dr. Oreste Nuzzi.[200] Unlike all popes before him, Pope Pius XII did not want the vital organs removed from his body, demanding instead, that it be kept in the same condition, in which God created it.[201] This novelty According to GaleazziLisi, this was the reason why he and Professor Oreste Nuzzi, an embalmer from Naples,

Pope Pius XII
used a novel embalming approach invented by Nuzzi.[201] In a controversial press conference, Galeazzi-Lisi described in great detail the embalming the body of the late Pontiff. He claimed to have used the same system of oils and resins, with which the body of Jesus Christ was preserved. [202] Galeazzi-Lisi asserted that the new process would "preserve the body indefinitely in its natural state"[200] However, whatever chance the new embalming process of efficaciously preserving the body was obliterated by intense heat in Castel Gandolfo during the embalming process. As a result, the body decomposed rapidly and the viewing of the faithful had to be terminated abruptly. Galeazzi-Lisi reported that heat in the halls, where the body of the late Pope lay in state, caused chemical reactions which required it to be treated twice after the original preparation.[201] Swiss Guards stationed around Pius XII’s body were reported to become ill during their vigil.[200] Galeazzi-Lisi asserted that the embalming system would work to its full extent once the body has been closed in the coffin. However, the embalming performed by Galeazzi-Lisi and Nuzzi was deemed to be a complete failure. Although he was never convicted of any crime, Galeazzi-Lisi was subsequently banned from the Vatican City for life. Galeazzi-Lisi After the death of Pius XII, Galeazzi-Lisi gave an article and photographs of the dead Pope to a French magazine, Paris Match, and to an Italian magazine. He also tried to publish a diary which he had composed of the last four days of Pius XII. The doctor who performed the embalming had also taken photos of the Pontiff in his death throes and intended to sell them to tabloids. The Italian tabloids refused to buy the photos, and the doctor was banned from entering the Vatican City-State by John XXIII,[203] who furthermore prohibited any photography of a deceased Pope until the body is properly vested and laid out.

Views, interpretations, and scholarship

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Pope Pius XII
had done for them. "My only regret," the pope replied, "is not to have been able to save a greater number of Jews."[213]

During the war, the pope was widely praised. For example, Time magazine credited Pius XII and the Catholic Church for "fighting totalitarianism more knowingly, devoutly, and authoritatively, and for a longer time, than any other organized power".[204] During the war he was also praised editorially by the New York Times for opposing Nazi antiSemitism and aggression.[205] Some early works echoed these favorable sentiments, including Polish historian Oskar Halecki’s Pius XII: Eugenio Pacelli: Pope of peace (1954) and Nazareno Padellaro’s Portrait of Pius XII (1949). Many Jews publicly thanked the pope for his help. For example, Pinchas Lapide, a Jewish theologian and Israeli diplomat to Milan in the 1960s, estimated that Pius "was instrumental in saving at least 700,000 but probably as many as 860,000 Jews from certain death at Nazi hands."[206] Some historians have questioned this oft-cited[207] number, which Lapide reached by "deducting all reasonable claims of rescue" by non-Catholics from the total number of European Jews surviving the Holocaust.[208] Catholic scholar Kevin Madigan interprets this and other praise from prominent Jewish leaders, including Golda Meir, as less than sincere, an attempt to secure Vatican recognition of the State of Israel.[209] Pius was also criticized during his lifetime. For example, Leon Poliakov wrote five years after World War II that Pius had been a tacit supporter of Vichy France’s anti-Semitic laws, calling him "less forthright" than Pope Pius XI either out of "Germanophilia" or the hope that Hitler would defeat communist Russia.[210] Bishop Carlos Duarte Costa, a long-time critic of Pius XII’s policies during the war and an opponent of clerical celibacy and the use of Latin as language of the liturgy, was excommunicated by Pius XII on July 2, 1945.[211] On September 21, 1945, the general secretary of the World Jewish Council, Dr. Leon Kubowitzky, presented an amount of money to the pope, "in recognition of the work of the Holy See in rescuing Jews from Fascist and Nazi persecutions."[212] After the war, in the autumn of 1945, Harry Greenstein from Baltimore, a close friend of Chief Rabbi Herzog of Jerusalem, told Pius how grateful Jews were for all he

The Deputy

A rare 1899 handwriting of Eugenio Pacelli with text in Latin. In 1963, Rolf Hochhuth’s controversial drama Der Stellvertreter. Ein christliches Trauerspiel (The Deputy, a Christian tragedy, released in English in 1964) portrayed Pope Pius XII as a hypocrite who remained silent about the Holocaust. Books such as Dr. Joseph Lichten’s A Question of Judgment (1963), written in response to The Deputy, defended Pius XII’s actions during the war. Lichten labelled any criticism of the pope’s actions during World War II as "a stupefying paradox" and said, "no one who reads the record of Pius XII’s actions on behalf of Jews can subscribe to Hochhuth’s accusation."[214] Critical scholarly works like Guenter Lewy’s The Catholic Church and Nazi Germany (1964) also followed the publication of The Deputy. Lewy’s conclusion was that "the Pope and his advisers—influenced by the long tradition of moderate anti-Semitism so widely accepted in Vatican circles—did not view the plight of the Jews with a real sense of urgency and moral outrage. For this assertion no documentation is possible, but it is a


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
conclusion difficult to avoid".[215] In 2002 the play was adapted into the film Amen. An article on La Civilità Cattolica in March 2009 indicated that the accusations that Hochhut’s play made widely known originated not among Jews but in the Communist bloc. It was Moscow Radio, on 2 June 1945, that first direct against Pius XII the accusation of refusing to speak out against the exterminations in Nazi concentration camps. It was also the first to call him "Hitler’s Pope".[216] Former Securitate General Ion Mihai Pacepa has stated that the play of Hochhuth and numerous publications attacking Pius XII as allegedly having been a Nazi sympathizer were fabrications from the KGB and Eastern bloc Marxist secret services leading a campaign to discredit the moral authority of the Church and Christianity in the west.[217] Pacepa also claims that he was involved in contacting east bloc agents close the Vatican in order to fabricate the story to be used for the attack against the wartime pope.[217]

Pope Pius XII

In the aftermath of the controversy surrounding The Deputy, in 1964 Pope Paul VI authorized Jesuit scholars to access the Vatican State Department Archives , which are normally not opened for seventy-five years. Actes et Documents du Saint Siège relatifs à la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, was published in eleven volumes between 1965 and 1981.The volumes were published by Angelo Martini, Burkhart Schneider, Robert A. Graham and Pierre Blet, the latter published a summary of the eleven volumes.[218] All four, most frequently Robert A. Graham published articles and books on the subject matter. The cover of Hitler’s Pope, showing Nuncio Pacelli leaving the residence of President Hindenburg in 1927. recanted, now stating he is unable to judge the Pope’s motivation. Cornwell’s work was the first to have access to testimonies from Pius’s beatification process as well as to many documents from Pacelli’s nunciature which had just been opened under the seventy-five year rule by the Vatican State Secretary archives.[220] Cornwell’s work has received much praise and criticism. Much praise of Cornwell centered around his disputed claim that he was a practising Catholic who had attempted to absolve Pius with his work.[221] While works such as Susan Zuccotti’s Under His Very Windows: The Vatican and the Holocaust in Italy (2000) and Michael Phayer’s The Catholic Church and the Holocaust, 1930–1965 (2000) are critical of both Cornwell and Pius XII, Ronald J. Rychlak’s Hitler, the War and the Pope is critical as well but defends Pius XII in light of his access to most recent documents.[222] Cornwell’s scholarship has been criticized. For example,

Hitler’s Pope and The Myth of Hitler’s Pope
In 1999, John Cornwell’s Hitler’s Pope criticized Pius for not doing enough, or speaking out enough, against the Holocaust. Cornwell argued that Pius’s entire career as the nuncio to Germany, cardinal secretary of state, and pope was characterized by a desire to increase and centralize the power of the Papacy, and that he subordinated opposition to the Nazis to that goal. He further argued that Pius was anti-Semitic and that this stance prevented him from caring about the European Jews.[219] However, Cornwell


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Kenneth L. Woodward stated in his review in Newsweek that "errors of fact and ignorance of context appear on almost every page."[223] Five years after the publication of Hitler’s Pope, Cornwell stated: "I would now argue, in the light of the debates and evidence following Hitler’s Pope, that Pius XII had so little scope of action that it is impossible to judge the motives for his silence during the war, while Rome was under the heel of Mussolini and later occupied by Germany".[224][225][226] Most recently, Rabbi David Dalin’s The Myth of Hitler’s Pope argues that critics of Pius are liberal Catholics and ex-Catholics who "exploit the tragedy of the Jewish people during the Holocaust to foster their own political agenda of forcing changes on the Catholic Church today" and that Pius XII was actually responsible for saving the lives of many thousands of Jews.[227]

Pope Pius XII
questions on existing documents,[232] mostly asking for background and additional information such as drafts of the encyclical Mit Brennender Sorge, which was largely written by Eugenio Pacelli.[233] (b) Fourteen questions dealt with themes of individual volumes,[234] such as the question how Pius viewed the role of the Church during the war.[235] (c) Six general questions,[236] such as the absence of any anti-communist sentiments in the documents.[237] The disagreement between members over additional documents locked up up under the Holy See’s 70 year rule resulted in a discontinuation of the Commission in 2001 on friendly terms.[230] Unsatisfied with the findings, Dr. Michael Marrus, one of the three Jewish members of the Commission, said the commission "ran up against a brick wall.... It would have been really helpful to have had support from the Holy See on this issue."[238]

International Catholic-Jewish Historical Commission
In 1999, in an attempt to address some of this controversy, the International CatholicJewish Historical Commission (Historical Commission), a group of three Catholic and three Jewish scholars was appointed, respectively, by the Holy See’s Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews (Holy See’s Commission) and the International Jewish Committee for Interreligious Consultations (IJCIC), to whom a preliminary report was issued in October 2000. [228] The Commission did not discover any documents, but had the agreed-upon task to review the existing Vatican volumes, that make up the Actes et Documents du Saint Siege (ADSS) [229] The Commission was internally divided over the question of access to additional documents from the Holy See, access to the news media by individual commission members, and, questions to be raised in the preliminary report. It was agreed to include all 47 individual questions by the six members, and use them as Preliminary Report.[230] In addition to the 47 questions, the commission issued no findings of its own. It stated that it was not their task to sit in judgement of the Pope and his advisors but to contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the papacy during the Holocaust.[231] The 47 questions by the six scholars were grouped into three parts: (a) 27 specific

Recent developments
A special conference of scholars on Pius XII on the 50th anniversary of his death was held in Rome on September 15-17, 2008, by Paving the Way Foundation.[239] Pope Benedict XVI held on September 19, 2008 a reception for the conference participants, where he praised Pius XII as a pope who made every effort to save Jews during the war.[240] A second conference was held on November 6-8, 2008 by the Pontifical Academy of Life.[241] On October 9, 2008, the 50th anniversary of Pius XII’s death, Benedict XVI celebrated pontifical mass in his memory. Shortly prior to, and after the mass, dialectics continued between the Jewish hierarchy and the Vatican as Rabbi Shear Yeshuv Cohen of Haifa addressed the Synod of Bishops and expressed his disappointment towards Pius XII’s "silence" during the war.[242]

Part of a series of articles on

Social Teachings of the Popes


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Pope Pius XII
Secondary • Olivier Rota. Les ‘silences’ du pape Pie XII : genèse et critique d’un procès biaisé, in Revue d’Histoire Ecclésiastique, Louvain, vol. 99 (3-4), huly-dec. 2004, pp.758-766. • Thomas Bokenkotter. 2004. A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Doubleday. ISBN 0385505841 • Owen Chadwick. 1995. A History of Christianity. Barnes & Noble. ISBN 0760773327 • Cornwell, John. 1999. Hitler’s Pope: The Secret History of Pius XII. Viking. ISBN 0-670-87620-8. Also see Amazon Online Reader. • Cushing, Richard. 1959. Pope Pius XII. Paulist Press. • Dalin, Rabbi David G. 2005. The Myth of Hitler’s Pope: How Pope Pius XII Rescued Jews from the Nazis. Regnery. ISBN 0-89526-034-4. Also see Google Books Online • Falconi, Carlo. 1970 (translated from the 1965 Italian edition). The Silence of Pius XII. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co. ISBN 0-571-09147-4 • Feldkamp, Michael F. Pius XII und Deutschland. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. ISBN 3-525-34026-5. • Friedländer, Saul. 1966. Pius XII and the Third Reich: A Documentation. New York: Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 0-374-92930-0 • Gallo, Patrick J., ed. 2006. Pius XII, The Holocaust and the Revisionists. London: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. ISBN 0-7864-2374-9 • Goldhagen, Daniel. 2002. "A Moral Reckoning - The role of the Catholic Church in the Holocaust and Its Unfulfilled Duty of Repair". Little, Brown ISBN 0 316 724467 • Gutman, Israel (ed.). 1990. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, vol. 3. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 0-02-864529-4 • Halecki, Oskar. 1954. Pius XII: Eugenio Pacelli: Pope of peace. Farrar, Straus and Young. OCLC 775305 • Hatch, Alden, and Walshe, Seamus. 1958. Crown of Glory, The Life of Pope Pius XII. New York: Hawthorne Books. • ICJHC. 2000. The Vatican and the Holocaust: A Preliminary Report. • Kühlwein, Klaus. 2008. Warum der Papst schwieg. Pius XII und der Holocaust.

Pope Leo XIII Rerum Novarum Pope Pius XI Quadragesimo Anno Pope Pius XII Social teachings Pope John XXIII Mater et Magistra Pacem in Terris Vatican II Dignitatis Humanae Gaudium et Spes Pope Paul VI Populorum progressio Pope John Paul II Centesimus Annus Laborem Exercens Sollicitudo Rei Socialis General Social Teachings of the Popes Catholic social teaching Subsidiarity

Primary • Acta Apostolicae Sedis (AAS). 1939-1958. Vatican City. • (Italian) Angelini, Fiorenzo. 1959. Pio XII, Discorsi Ai Medici. Rome. • Claudia, M. 1955. Guide to the Documents of Pope Pius XII. Westminster, Maryland. • Pio XII, Discorsi e Radio Messaggi di Sua Santita Pio XII. 1939-1958. Vatican City. 20 vol. • Roosevelt, Franklin D.; Myron C. Taylor, ed. Wartime Correspondence Between President Roosevelt and Pope Pius XII. Prefaces by Pius XII and Harry Truman. Kessinger Publishing (1947, reprinted, 2005). ISBN 1-4191-6654-9 • (German) Utz, A. F., and Gröner, J. F. (eds.). Soziale Summe Pius XII 3 vol. • Zolli, Israel. 1997. Before the Dawn. Roman Catholic Books (Reprint edition). ISBN 0-912141-46-8. Also see Amazon Online Reader


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Düsseldorf: Patoms-Verlag. ISBN 978-3491725270 Leiber, Robert. Pius XII Stimmen der Zeit, Freiburg i Br. Vol 163, 1958-1959, pp.81 ff Lehnert, Pascalina. 1983. Ich durfte Ihm dienen, Erinneringen an Papst Pius XII, Würzburg, Verlag Johann Wolhelm Naumann Kent, Peter. 2002. The Lonely Cold War of Pope Pius XII: The Roman Catholic Church and the Division of Europe, 1943–1950. Ithaca: McGill-Queen’s University Press. ISBN 0-7735-2326-X John Peter Pham. 2006. Heirs of the Fisherman: Behind the Scenes of Papal Death and Succession. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195178343 Lapide, Pinchas 1980. The Last Three Popes and the Jews. London and Southampton: Souvenir Press. Levillain, Philippe. 2002. The Papacy: An Encyclopedia. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-92228-3 Lewy, Guenter. 1964. The Catholic Church and Nazi Germany. New York: McGrawHill. ISBN 0-306-80931-1 Marchione, Sr. Margherita. 2000. Pope Pius XII: Architect for Peace. Paulist Press. ISBN 0-8091-3912-X Marchione, Sr. Margherita. 2002. Consensus and Controversy: Defending Pope Pius XII. Paulist Press. ISBN 0-8091-4083-7 Marchione, Sr. Margherita. 2002. Shepherd of Souls: A Pictorial Life of Pope Pius XII. Paulist Press. ISBN 0-8091-4181-7 Marchione, Sr. Margherita. 2004. Man of Peace: An Abridged Life of Pope Pius XII. Paulist Press. ISBN 0-8091-4245-7 McDermott, Thomas. 1946. Keeper of the Keys -A Life of Pope Pius XII. Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Company. McInerney, Ralph. 2001. The Defamation of Pius XII. St Augustine’s Press. ISBN 1-890318-66-3 Murphy, Paul I. and Arlington, R. Rene. 1983. La Popessa: The Controversial Biography of Sister Pasqualina, the Most Powerful Woman in Vatican History. New York: Warner Books Inc. ISBN 0-446-51258-3 (Italian) Padellaro, Nazareno. 1949. Portrait of Pius XII. Dutton; 1st American ed edition (1957). OCLC 981254

Pope Pius XII
• O’Brien, Felicity. 2000, Pius XII, London and Bristol, Burleigh Press, • Paul, Leon. 1957. The Vatican Picture Book - A Picture Pilgrimage. New York: Greystone Press. • Phayer, Michael. 2000. The Catholic Church and the Holocaust, 1930–1965. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-33725-9. • Pollard, John F. 2005. Money and the Rise of the Modern Papacy: Financing the Vatican, 1850–1950. Cambridge University Press. • Pfister, Pierre. 1955. PIUS XII - The Life and Work of a Great Pope. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company. • Ritner, Carol and Roth, John K. (eds.). 2002. Pope Pius XII and the Holocaust. New York: Leicester University Press. ISBN 0-7185-0275-2 • Rychlak, Ronald J. 2000. Hitler, the War, and the Pope. Our Sunday Visitor. ISBN 0-87973-217-2. Also see Amazon Online Reader • Sánchez, José M. 2002. Pius XII and the Holocaust: Understanding the Controversy. Washington D.C.: Catholic University of America Press. ISBN 0-8132-1081-X • Scholder, Klaus. 1987. The Churches and the Third Reich. London. • Tardini, Domenico, 1960 Pio XII, Roma, Poliglotta Vaticana, • John Vidmar. 2005. The Catholic Church Through the Ages. Paulist Press. ISBN 0809142341 • Volk, Ludwig. 1972. Das Reichskonkordat vom 20. Juli 1933. Mainz: MatthiasGrünewald-Verlag. ISBN 3-7867-0383-3. • Zuccotti, Susan. 2000. Under his very Windows, The Vatican and the Holocaust in Italy. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08487-0

• •












[1] Tardini,Pio XII roma 1960 [2] Pollard, 2005, p. 70. [3] Marchione, 2004, p. 1. [4] O’Brian 1 [5] ^ Marchione, 2005, p. 64. [6] O’Brian 2 [7] ^ Marchione, 2000, p. 193. [8] ^ Marchione, 2004, p. 10. [9] ^ Marchione, 2004, p. 9. [10] Dalin, 2005, p. 47.




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[11] Dalin, 2005, p. 48. [12] Levillain, 2002, p. 1211. [13] Emma Fatoni, Germania e Santa sede, Le Nunziature di Pacelli tra la Grande Guerra e la Republica de Weimar, Societa Editrice il Mulino, Bologna, Italia, 1992, pp.45-85) [14] Marchione, 2004, p. 11. [15] Burkhart Schneider,Pio XII. Pace, Opera della Giustizia, Edizione Paolini, Roma, 1984, p.16 [16] Burkhart Schneider, Pio XII. Pace, Opera della Giustizia, Edizione Paolini, Roma, 1984, p.17 [17] Ronald Ryschlak, Hitler the War and the Pope, Genesis Press, Columbus MS, USA, 2000, p.6; [18] Lehnert, 15-16 [19] Peter Gumpel, conversation October 9, 1994 [20] Bayrisches Geheimes Staatsarchiv München, Bayrische Gesandtschaft beim Päpstlichen Stuhl, 1919, Faszikel 967, 139,167 [21] Schmidt, Lydia. (2000). Kultusminister Franz Matt (1920–1926): Schul-, Kirchen- und Kunstpolitik in Bayern nach dem Umbruch von 1918. CH Beck. ISBN 3-406-10707-9 [22] Robert Murphy Diplomat among Warriors Doubleday, Garden City,N.Y. 1964, p.205 [23] Ludwig Volk Das Reichskonkordat vom 20. Juli 1933 ISBN 3-7867-0383-3. [24] They were published by Ludwig Kaas, Eugenio Pacelli, Erster Apostolischer Nuntius beim Deutschen Reich, Gesammelte Reden, Buchverlag Germania, Berlin, 1930 [25] (Hansjakob Stehle, Die Ostpolitik des Vatikans, Piper, München, 1975, p.139-141 [26] Hansjakob Stehle, Die Ostpolitik des Vatikans, Piper, München, 1975, p.132 [27] ^ Nikolaus Junk, Im Kampf Zwischen Zwei Epochen, Mainz 1973, p. 381. [28] Rudolf Morsey, Eugenio Pacelli als Nuntius in Deutschland, in Herbert Schambeck, Pius XII. Duncker &Humblot, Berlin, p.131. [29] Rudolf Morsey, Eugenio Pacelli als Nuntius in Deutschland, in Herbert Schambeck, Pius XII. Duncker &Humblot, Berlin, p. 121.

Pope Pius XII

[30] Karl Heinz Harbeck, Akten der Reichskanzlei. Das Kabinett Cuno, Boppard, 1968, p. 544. [31] Emma Fatoni, Germania e Santa Sede, Le Nunziature di Pacelli tra la Grande Guerra e la Republica de Weimar, Societa Editrice il Mulino, Bologna, Italia, 1992, p. 265f. [32] Kent, 2002, p. 24. [33] Fahlbusch, Erwin (ed.). Bromiley, Geoffrey W. (trans.). (2005). The Encyclopedia of Christianity. ISBN 0-8028-2416-1 [34] Dalin, 2005, p. 58–59. [35] Marchione, 2002, p. 22. [36] Phayer, 2000, p. 3. [37] Walter Bussmann, 1969, "Pius XII an die deutschen Bischöfe", Hochland 61, p. 61–65 [38] ^ Gutman, Israel, Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, p. 1136. [39] Passelecp, Suchecky p.113-137 [40] ^ Hill, Roland. 1997, August 11. "The lost encyclical." The Tablet. [41] January 28,1939, eleven days before the death of Pope Pius XI, a disappointed Gundlach informs to author La Farge,."It cannot continue like this" The text has not been forwarded to the Vatican. He had talked to the American assistant to Father General, who promised to look into the matter in December 1938, but did not report back. Passelecq, Suchecky. p.121. [42] Humani Generis Unitas [43] "Nostra Aetate: Transforming the Catholic-Jewish Relationship: JewishCatholic Relationship Transformed". Adl.org. http://www.adl.org/ main_Interfaith/ nostra_aetate.htm?Multi_page_sections=sHeading_4 Retrieved on 2009-05-06. [44] On March 16, four days after coronation, Gundlach informs LaFarge, that the documents were given to Pius XI shortly before his death, but that the new Pope had so far no opportunity to learn about it. Passelecq, Suchecky. p.126. [45] Encyclical of Pope Pius on the unity of human society to our venerable brethren: The Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, Bishops, and other ordinaries in peace and the communion with the Apostolic see (AAS 1939).


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[46] Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli Discorsi E Panegirici 1931-1938 Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1939 [47] Ludwig Volk, Die Kirche in den deutschsprachigen Ländern in: Handbuch der Kirchengeschichte, Band VII, p. 539. [48] Ludwig Volk, Die Kirche in den deutschsprachigen Ländern in: Handbuch der Kirchengeschichte, Band VII, p.539-544. [49] They included: Latvia 1922, Bavaria 1925, Poland 1925, France I., 1926, France II. 1926, Lithuania 1927, Czechoslovakia 1928, Portugal I 1928, Italy I1929, Italy II 1929, Portugal II 1929, Romania I 1927, Prussia 1929, Romania II 1932, Baden 1932, Germany 1933, Austria 1933. See P.Joanne M.Restrepo Restrepo SJ. Concordata Regnante Sanctissimo Domino Pio PP.XI. Inita PontificiaUniversita Gregoriana, Roma, 1934. [50] Ludwig Volk, Die Kirche in den deutschsprachigen Ländern in: Handbuch der Kirchengeschichte, Band VII, p. 546,547. [51] Ludwig Volk Das Reichskonkordat vom 20. Juli 1933, p. 34f., 45–58. [52] Klaus Scholder "The Churches and the Third Reich" volume 1: especially Part 1, chapter 10; Part 2, chapter 2 [53] Volk, p. 98–101. Feldkamp, 88–93. [54] Volk, p. 101,105. [55] Volk, p. 254. [56] ^ Vidmar, pp. 327–33l [57] ^ Pham, p. 45, quote: "When Pius XI was complimented on the publication, in 1937, of his encyclical denouncing Nazism, Mit Brennender Sorge, his response was to point to his Secretary of State and say bluntly, ’The credit is his.’" [58] ^ Bokenkotter, pp. 389–392, quote "And when Hitler showed increasing belligerance toward the Church, Pius met the challenge with a decisiveness that astonished the world. His encyclical Mit Brenneder Sorge was the ’first great official public document to dare to confront and criticize Nazism’ and ’one of the greatest such condemnations ever issued by the Vatican.’ Smuggled into Germany, it was read from all the Catholic pulpits on Palm Sunday in March 1937. It exposed the fallacy and denounced the Nazi myth of blood and

Pope Pius XII
soil; it decried its neopaganism, its war of annihilation against the Church, and even described the Fuhrer himself as a ’mad prophet possessed of repulsive arrogance.’ The Nazis were infuriated, and in retaliation closed and sealed all the presses that had printed it and took numerous vindictive measures against the Church, including staging a long series of immorality trials of the Catholic clergy." [59] 74.A lEveque de Passau, in "Lettres de Pie XII aux Eveques Allemands 1939-1944, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1967, p.416 [60] Michael F. Feldkamp Pius XII und Deutschland ISBN 3-525-34026-5. [61] Dalin, 2005, p. 69–70 [62] Catholic Forum. Pope Pius XII. [63] Pius XII, quoted in Joseph Brosch, Pius XII, Lehrer der Wahrheit, Kreuzring, Trier,1968, p.45 [64] “Medius vestrum stetit quem vos nescetis. Everybody knew what the pope meant". Domenico Cardinale Tardini, Pio XII, Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1960, p.105 [65] Lehnert, Pascalina Ich durfte Ihm Dienen,Erinnerungen an Papst Pius XII. Naumann, Würzburg, 1986, p.57 [66] Pascalina Lehnert, Ich durfte Ihm Dienen, Erinnerungen an Papst Pius XII. Naumann, Würzburg, 1986,p. 49 [67] Domenico Cardinale Tardini, Pio XII, Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1960, p.75 [68] Domenico Cardinale Tardini, Pio XII, Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1960, p.76 [69] ^ Domenico Cardinale Tardini, Pio XII, Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1960, p. 76. [70] Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs and Congregation of Ordinary Affairs [71] Pio XII, La Allocuzione nel consistorio Segreto del 12 Gennaio 1953 in Pio XII, Discorsi e Radiomessagi di Sua Santita Vatican City, 1953,p.455; [72] Domenico Cardinale Tardini, Pio XII, Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1960, p.157 [73] Guilio Nicolini, Il Cardinale Domenico Tardini, Padova, 1980, ISBN 887026-340-1; p.313


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[74] In the State Department he had actively supported “foreigners”, for example Francis Spellman, the American monsignor, whom he consecrated himself as the first American Bishop in the Vatican curia. Spellman had organized and accompanied Pacelli’s American journey and arranged a meeting with President Roosevelt. Only 30 days after his coronation, on April 12, 1939, Pope Pius XII named Spellman as archbishop of New York. ((For many interesting details see the authorized biography of Cardinal Spellman: Robert I. Gannon The Cardinal Spellman Story, Doubleday Company, New York, 1962 [75] Oscar Halecki, James Murray, Jr. Pius XII, Eugenio Pacelli, Pope of Peace; p.370 [76] (previously Leo X’s elevation of thirtyone cardinals in 1517 had held this title). John Paul II would later surpass this number on February 21, 2001, elevating forty-four cardinals. By that time, the limit had been suspended and over 120 Cardinals existed. [77] Oscar Halecki, James Murray, Jr. Pius XII, Eugenio Pacelli, Pope of Peace, p. 371. [78] Levillain, 2002, p. 1136. [79] Pio XII, La Allocuzione nel consistorio Segreto del 12 Gennaio 1953 in Pio XII, Discorsi e Radiomessagi di Sua Santita, Vatican City, 1953, 455 [80] Tardini later thanked him for not appointing him. The Pope replied with a smile: Monsignore mio, you thank me, for not letting me do what I wanted to do” I replied, yes Holy Father, I thank you for everything you have done for me, but even more, what you have not done for me. The Pope smiled. In Domenico Cardinale Tardini, Pio XII, Tipografia Poliglotta Vaticana, 1960 157 [81] Tobin, Greg. (2003). Selecting the Pope: Uncovering the Mysteries of Papal Elections. Barnes & Noble Publishing. ISBN 0-7607-4032-1. p. xv-xvi, 143. [82] For example Padellaro:“Church history will memorize with special letters the secret conclave of 1946, and the cosmopolitan Pius XII, who called men of all races into the Senate of the Church" Nazareno Padellaro, Pio XII Torino, 1956, p. 484 [83] AAS, 1947, Mediator Dei, 18

Pope Pius XII
[84] AAS, 1947, Mediator Dei, p. 19. [85] AAS 1947, Mediator Dei, p. 31. [86] AAS, 1957, p. 425. [87] AAS, 1952, pp. 542-546 [88] AAS, 1946, pp. 349-354 [89] Jean Guitton on the audiences of Pius XIII in Dialogue mit Paul VI, Molden,1967 Wien, 94 [90] AAS, 1956, p. 354 ff [91] AAS, 1956, p. 357. [92] AAS, 1950, p. 657 [93] AAS 1954 313 [94] AAS 1957 272 [95] Humani Generis (1950) and Divino Afflante Spiritu (1943), p. 305. [96] AAS, 1943, p. 297. [97] AAS, 1943, p. 305. [98] Pius XII, Enc. Humani Generis, 21 [99] Humani Generis, p. 21. [100] AS, 1950, p. 753. A [101] AS 1953, 577 A [102] AS 1954, 625 A [103] ius XII, Enc. Mystici Corporis Christi, P 110 [104] io XII, Discorsi Ai Medici compiles 700 P pages of specific addresses. [105] ope Pius XII, The Moral Limits of P Medical Research and Treatment. [106] wo speeches on October 29, 1951, and T November 26, 1951: Moral Questions Affecting Married Life: Addresses given to the Italian Catholic Union of midwives October 29, 1951, and November 26, 1951 to the National Congress of the Family Front and the Association of Large Families, National Catholic Welfare Conference, Washington, DC. Text of the speeches available from EWTN or CatholicCulture.org [107] iscorsi E Radiomessaggi di sua Santita D Pio XII, Vatican City, 1940, p407; Discorsi E Radiomessaggi di sua Santita Pio XII, Vatican City, 1942, p.52; Discorsi E Radiomessaggi di sua Santita Pio XII, Vatican City, 1946,p.89Discorsi E Radiomessaggi di sua Santita Pio XII, Vatican City, 1951, p.28.221.413.574 [108] obert Leiber, Pius XII Stimmen der R Zeit, November 1958 in Pius XII. Sagt, Frankfurt 1959, p.411 [109] ius XII, Enc. Humani Generis, 36 P [110]1] [ [111] ommunication, Father Robert Graham, C SJ, November 10, 1992 [112] rientalis Ecclesiae, AAS, 1944, p. 129. O [113] rientales Omnes, AAS, 1946, pp. 33-63. O


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[236] ages 13-14 P [237] uestion 42 Q [238] elissa Radler. "Vatican Blocks Panel’s M Access to Holocaust Archives." The Jerusalem Post. July 24, 2001. [239]5] [ [240]Address at the conclusion of the " symposium organized by the "Pave the Way Foundation"". Vatican.va. 2008-09-19. http://www.vatican.va/ holy_father/benedict_xvi/speeches/2008/ september/documents/hf_benxvi_spe_20080918_pave-theway_en.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-06. [241]Vatican recalls life and teachings of Pius " XII 50 years after his death". Catholicnewsagency.com. http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/ new.php?n=12968. Retrieved on 2009-05-06. [242] ynod Controversy S

External links
General • Official Vatican page on Pius XII • New Oxford Review The Pius War by Joseph Bottum • Pope Pius XII and the Holocaust By Shira Schoenberg Jewish Virtual Library • Tomb of Pius XII Official documents • October 2000 Report of the International Catholic-Jewish Historical Commission, notice of Commission suspending work • Complete Text of the Concordat between the Vatican and the Third Reich Pro-Pius • The Holy See vs. the Third Reich • Jewish Historian Praises Pius XII • Did Pius XII Remain Silent? • Cornwell’s Cheap Shot at Pius XII • Pius XII and the Jews: The War Years, as reported by the New York Times • Righteous Gentile: Pope Pius XII and the Jews Rabbi David Dalin, Ph. D. • College of the Holy Cross: Pius XII and the Holocaust • Catholic League For Religious and Civil Rights: Pius XII and the Holocaust Anti-Pius • Cornwell’s "Hitler’s Pope" - excerpt published by Vanity Fair • Review of "Papal Sin" by Gary Wills in the New York Times Book Review


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Roman Catholic Church titles Preceded by Cardinal Secretary of State Pietro Cardinal Gasparri 1930 – 1939 Camerlengo 1935 – 1939 Preceded by Pius XI Pope 1939 – 1958

Pope Pius XII

Succeeded by Luigi Cardinal Maglione Succeeded by Lorenzo Cardinal Lauri Succeeded by John XXIII

• Canonizing Pius XII: why did the pope help Nazis escape? • Document Renews Debate On Vatican Role in WWII • Cui bono? - Jerusalem post • Sacrificing the Jews for Christianity Haaretz Mixed • Judging Pius XII from Christian Century by Kevin Madigan Persondata NAME Pius XII, Pope ALTERNATIVE Pacelli, Eugenio Maria GiNAMES useppe Giovanni

SHORT Pope of the Roman CatholDESCRIPTION ic Church from 1939 to 1958 DATE OF BIRTH PLACE OF BIRTH DATE OF DEATH PLACE OF DEATH March 2, 1876 Rome, Italy October 9, 1958 Castel Gandolfo, Italy

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_Pius_XII" Categories: Pope Pius XII, Italian popes, Popes, World War II political leaders, Cold War leaders, Diplomats of the Holy See, Italian anti-communists, Venerable people, Alumni of the Pontifical Gregorian University, People from Rome (city), 1876 births, 1958 deaths, Pope Pius XI, Sovereigns of Vatican City, Deaths from heart failure, Pope Paul VI, History of the Papacy, Pope Pius XII mariology This page was last modified on 22 May 2009, at 09:02 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers


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