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those following Harris and Whitefield are Calvinistic.  Wesley did not let this difference of interpretation change his friendship with Whitefield, and Wesley’s sermon on Whitefield’s death is full of praise and affection. Methodism has a very wide variety of forms of worship, ranging from high church to low church in liturgical usage. The Wesleys themselves greatly valued the Anglican liturgy and tradition, and based Methodist worship in The Book of Offices on the 1662 Book of Common Prayer.
The Wesleyan revival
The Methodist revival originated in Epworth, North Lincolnshire, England. It began with a group of men, including John Wesley and his younger brother Charles, as a movement within the Church of England in the 18th century. The movement focused on Bible study and a methodical approach to scriptures and Christian living. The term "Methodism" was a pejorative term given to a small society of students at Oxford who met together between 1729 and 1735 for the purpose of mutual improvement. They were accustomed to receiving communion every week, fasting regularly, and abstaining from most forms of amusement and luxury. They also frequently visited the sick and the poor, as well as prisoners. The early Methodists acted against perceived apathy in the Church of England, preaching in the open air and establishing Methodist societies wherever they went. These societies were made up of individual classes - intimate groups where individuals were encouraged to confess their sins to one another and to build each other up. They also took part in love feasts which allowed for the sharing of testimony, a key feature of early Methodists. Methodist preachers were notorious for their enthusiastic sermons and often accused of fanaticism. In those days, many members of the established (Anglican) church feared that new doctrines promulgated by the Methodists, such as the necessity of a New Birth for salvation, of Justification by Faith, and of
Methodism is a movement of Protestant Christianity represented by a number of denominations and organizations, claiming a total of approximately seventy million adherents worldwide. The movement traces its roots to John Wesley and his younger brother Charles who sought to keep Methodism as a revival movement within the Church of England. A significant number of Anglican clergy were known as Methodists in the mid eighteenth century, and the movement did not form a separate denomination in England until after John Wesley’s death in 1795. Other 18th century branches of Methodism include Welsh Methodists, later the Calvinistic Methodists, from the work of Howell Harris, and the Countess of Huntingdon’s Connexion through the work of George Whitefield. The influence of Lady Huntingdon and Whitefield on the Church of England was a factor in the founding of the Free Church of England in 1844. Through vigorous missionary activity Methodism spread throughout the British Empire, the United States, and beyond. Early Methodists were drawn from all levels of society, including aristocracy. But the Methodist preachers took the message to labourers and criminals who tended to be left outside of organised religion at that time. Wesley himself thought it wrong to preach outside a Church building until persuaded otherwise by Whitefield. Doctrinally, the branches of Methodism following the Wesleys are Arminian, while
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the constant and sustained action of the Holy Spirit upon the believer’s soul, would produce ill effects upon weak minds. Theophilus Evans, an early critic of the movement, even wrote that it was "the natural Tendency of their Behaviour, in Voice and Gesture and horrid Expressions, to make People mad." In one of his prints, William Hogarth likewise attacked Methodists as "enthusiasts" full of "Credulity, Superstition and Fanaticism." But the Methodists resisted the many attacks against their movement. (See John Wesley and George Whitefield for a much more complete discussion of early Methodism.) John Wesley came under the influence of the Moravians, and of the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius, while Whitefield adopted Calvinistic views. Consequently, their followers separated, those of Whitefield becoming Calvinistic Methodists. Wesleyan Methodists have followed Arminian theology.
George Whitefield Doctrinal distinctives Articles of Religion Prevenient Grace Governmental Atonement Imparted righteousness Christian perfection Conditional preservation of the saints Largest groups World Methodist Council United Methodist Church AME Church AME Zion Church Church of the Nazarene British Methodist Church CME Church Uniting Church in Australia
Background Christianity Protestantism Pietism Anglicanism Arminianism Wesleyanism Calvinism
Missions to America
In the late 1760s, two Methodist lay preachers emigrated to America and formed societies. Philip Embury began the work in New York. Soon, Captain Webb from the British Army aided him. He formed a society in Philadelphia and itinerated along the coast. By 1770, two Methodist missionaries arrived from the British Connexion. They were Richard Boardman and Joseph Pilmoor. Shortly thereafter, Francis Asbury arrived. Asbury reorganized the mid-Atlantic work in accordance with the Wesleyan model. Internal conflict characterized this period. Missionaries displaced most of the local preachers and irritated many of the leading lay members. Owing to the American Revolution, Wesley called all the missionaries who were left "the mid-Atlantic work". By 1778, the mid-Atlantic work was reduced to one circuit. Asbury refused to leave. He remained in Delaware during this period.
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People Richard Allen Francis Asbury Thomas Coke Albert C. Outler James Varick Charles Wesley Bishops Theologians
Related movements Moravian Church Holiness movement Salvation Army Personalism Pentecostalism
Robert Strawbridge began a Methodist work in Maryland at the same time as Embury began his work in New York. They did not work together and did not know of each other’s existence. Strawbridge ordained himself and organized a circuit. He trained many very influential assistants who became some of the first leaders of American Methodism. His work grew rapidly in numbers and in geography. The British missionaries discovered Strawbridge’s work and annexed it
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into the American connection. However, the native preachers continued to work side-byside with the missionaries. Plus, they continued to recruit and dispatch more native preachers. Southern Methodism was not dependent on missionaries in the same way as mid-Atlantic Methodism. Up until this time, with the exception of Strawbridge, none of the missionaries or American preachers was ordained. Consequently, the Methodist people received the sacraments at the hands of ministers from established Anglican churches. Most of the Anglican priests were Loyalists who fled to England, New York or Canada during the war. As such, a group of native preachers ordained themselves. This caused a split between the Asbury faction and the southern preachers. Asbury mediated the crisis by convincing the southern preachers to wait for Wesley’s response to the sacramental crisis. That response came in 1784. At that time, Wesley sent the Rev. Dr. Thomas Coke to America to form an independent American Methodist church. The native circuit riders met in late December. Coke had orders to ordain Asbury as a joint superintendent of the new church. However, Asbury turned to the assembled conference and said he would not accept it unless the preachers voted him into that office. It was done. From that moment forward, the general superintendents received their authority from the conference. Later, Coke convinced the general conference that he and Asbury were bishops and added the title to the discipline. It caused a great deal of controversy. Wesley did not approve of the title. By the 1792 general conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, the controversy related to episcopal power boiled over. Ultimately, the delegates sided with Bishop Asbury. However, the Republican Methodists split off from the Methodist Episcopal Church in 1792. Also, William Hammett (a missionary ordained by Wesley who traveled to America from Antigua with Bishop Coke), led a successful revolt against the MEC in 1791. He opposed Bishop Asbury and the episcopacy. He formed his people into the American Primitive Methodist Church (not directly connected with the British Primitive Methodist Church). Both American churches operated in the Southeast and presaged the episcopal debates of later reformers. Regardless, Asbury remained the leading bishop of early
American Methodism and did not share his "appointing" authority until Bishop McKendree was elected in 1808. Coke had problems with the American preachers. His authoritarian style alienated many. Soon, he became a missionary bishop of sorts and never had much influence in America.
Traditionally, most Methodists have identified with the Arminian view of free will, through God’s prevenient grace, as opposed to the determinism of absolute predestination. This distinguishes it, historically, from Calvinist traditions found in Reformed churches. However, in strongly Reformed areas such as Wales, Calvinistic Methodists remain, also called the Presbyterian Church of Wales. The Calvinist Countess of Huntingdon’s Connexion was also strongly associated with the Methodist revival. In recent theological debates, clergy members have cut across denominational lines so that theologically left-leaning Methodist and Reformed churches have more in common with each other than with more conservative members of their own denominations. John Wesley is studied by Methodist ministerial students and trainee local preachers for his interpretation of Church practice and doctrine. One popular expression of Methodist doctrine is in the hymns of Charles Wesley. Since enthusiastic congregational singing was a part of the early Evangelical movement, Wesleyan theology took root and spread through this channel. Methodism affirms the traditional Christian belief in the triune Godhead: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, as well as the orthodox understanding of the consubstantial humanity and divinity of Jesus. Most Methodists also affirm the Apostles Creed and the Nicene Creed. In devotional terms, these confessions are said to embrace the biblical witness to God’s activity in creation, encompass God’s gracious self-involvement in the dramas of history, and anticipate the consummation of God’s reign. American Methodists also believe in remembering the saints, especially on holidays such as All Saints Day. Sacramental theology within Methodism tends to follow the historical interpretations and liturgies of Anglicanism. This stems from the origin of much Methodist theology and
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practice within the teachings of John and Charles Wesley, both of whom were priests of the Church of England. As affirmed by the Articles of Religion, Methodists recognize two Sacraments as being ordained of Christ: Baptism and Holy Communion. Methodism also affirms that there are many other Means of Grace which often function in a sacramental manner, but most Methodists do not recognize them as being Dominical sacraments. Methodists, stemming from John Wesley’s own practices of theological reflection, make use of tradition, drawing primarily from the teachings of the Church fathers, as a source of authority. Though not infallible like holy Scripture, tradition may serve as a lens through which Scripture is interpreted (see also Prima scriptura and the Wesleyan Quadrilateral). Theological discourse for Methodists almost always makes use of Scripture read inside the great theological tradition of Christendom. It is a historical position of the church that any disciplined theological work calls for the careful use of reason. By reason, it is said, one reads and is able to interpret Scripture coherently and consistently. By reason one determines whether one’s Christian witness is clear. By reason one asks questions of faith and seeks to understand God’s action and will. Methodism insists that personal salvation always implies Christian mission and service to the world. Scriptural holiness entails more than personal piety; love of God is always linked with love of neighbors and a passion for justice and renewal in the life of the world. A distinctive liturgical feature of Methodism is the use of Covenant services. Although practice varies between different national churches, most Methodist churches annually follow the call of John Wesley for a renewal of their covenant with God. It is not unusual in Methodism for each congregation to normally hold an annual Covenant Service on the first convenient Sunday of the year, and Wesley’s Covenant Prayer is still used, with minor modification, in the order of service. In it, Wesley avers man’s total reliance upon God, as the following excerpt demonstrates: ...Christ has many services to be done. Some are easy, others are difficult. Some bring honour, others bring reproach. Some are suitable to our natural inclinations and temporal interests,
others are contrary to both... Yet the power to do all these things is given to us in Christ, who strengthens us. ...I am no longer my own but yours. Put me to what you will, rank me with whom you will; put me to doing, put me to suffering; let me be employed for you or laid aside for you, exalted for you or brought low for you; let me be full, let me be empty, let me have all things, let me have nothing; I freely and wholeheartedly yield all things to your pleasure and disposal... Whereas most Methodist worship is modeled after the Anglican Communion’s Book of Common Prayer, a unique feature of the liturgy of the American Methodist Church is its observance of the season of Kingdomtide, which encompasses the last thirteen weeks before Advent, thus dividing the long season after Pentecost into two discrete segments. During Kingdomtide, Methodist liturgy emphasizes charitable work and alleviating the suffering of the poor. Some Methodist churches utilize a more contemporary and less defined liturgy, either in conjunction with traditional Methodist liturgy or in exclusion of it.
Methodism in Great Britain
Logo of the Methodist Church of Great Britain British Methodism does not have bishops, though a report, "What Sort of Bishops?", to the Conference of 2005, was accepted for study and report. This report considered if this should now be changed and if so what forms of episcopacy might be acceptable. It has however always been characterised by a strong central organization, the Connexion, which holds an annual Conference (note that the Church retains the 18th century spelling "connexion" for many purposes). The connexion is divided into Districts in the charge of a Chair (who may be male or female), except the new London District, created in September 2006, which has three chairs with a
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The Methodist Chapel High Town, Luton, built in 1897 Wesley Memorial Church, a Methodist church in Oxford, where the Wesley brothers studied. "Lead" chair. Methodist districts often correspond approximately, in geographical terms, to counties - as do the dioceses of the Church of England. The districts are divided into circuits governed by the Circuit Meeting and led and administrated principally by a "superintendent minister". ministers are appointed to Circuits rather than to individual churches (though some large inner-city churches, known as Central Halls, are designated as circuits in themselves - Westminster Central Hall, opposite Westminster Abbey in central London is the best known). Most circuits have fewer ministers than churches, and the majority of services are led by lay local preachers, or by supernumerary ministers (ministers who have retired, called supernumerary because they are not counted for official purposes in the numbers of ministers for the circuit in which they are listed). The superintendent and other ministers are assisted in the leadership and administration of the Circuit by lay Circuit Stewards, who collectively with the ministers form what is normally known as the Circuit Leadership Team.
Chellaston Methodist Church, Derby. Schisms within the original Methodist church, and independent revivals, led to the formation of a number of separate denominations calling themselves Methodist. The largest of these were the Primitive Methodist church, deriving from a revival at Mow Cop in Staffordshire, the Bible Christians and the United Methodist Church (not connected with the American denomination of the same name, but a union of three smaller denominations). The original church became known as the Wesleyan Methodist Church to
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distinguish it from these bodies. The three major streams of British Methodism united in 1932 to form the current Methodist Church of Great Britain. The Wesleyan Reform Union and the Independent Methodist Connexion still remain separate. The Primitive Methodist Church had branches in the USA which still continue. In the 1960s, the Methodist Church made ecumenical overtures to the Church of England, aimed at church unity. Formally, these failed when they were rejected by the Church of England’s General Synod in 1972; conversations and co-operation continued, however, leading in 2003 to the signing of a covenant between the two churches. From the 1970s onward, the Methodist Church also started several Local Ecumenical Projects (LEPs, later renamed Local Ecumenical Partnerships) with local neighbouring denominations, which involved sharing churches, schools and in some cases ministers. In many towns and villages there are United Churches which are sometimes with Anglican or Baptist churches, but most commonly are Methodist and URC, simply because in terms of belief, practice and churchmanship the Methodist Church is much closer to the United Reformed Church than other denominations and especially the Church of England. In the 1990s and early 2000s, the Methodist Church was involved in the Scottish Church Initiative for Union, seeking greater unity with the established and Presbyterian Church of Scotland, the Scottish Episcopal Church and the United Reformed Church in Scotland.  Traditionally, Methodism was particularly popular in Wales and Cornwall, both regions noted for their non-conformism and distrust of the Church of England. It was also very strong in the old mill towns of Yorkshire and Lancashire, where the Methodists stressed that the working classes were equal to the upper classes in the eyes of God. The Methodist Council also helps to run a number of schools, including two leading Public Schools in East Anglia: Culford School and The Leys. It helps to promote an all round education with a strong Christian ethos. (See also 1904-1905 Welsh Revival and Welsh Methodist revival.) An example of a traditional English Methodist Church in chapel style is Great Glen Methodist Church, built in 1827.
Many Methodist bodies around the world see the British Methodist Church as their parent church. Some strong groups include the Methodist Church Ghana and the Methodist Church Nigeria.
Methodism in the United States
The First Great Awakening was a religious movement among colonials in the 1730s and 1740s. The English Calvinist Methodist preacher George Whitefield played a major role, traveling across the colonies and preaching in a dramatic and emotional style, accepting everyone as his audience. The new style of sermons and the way people practiced their faith breathed new life into religion in America. People became passionately and emotionally involved in their religion, rather than passively listening to intellectual discourse in a detached manner. People began to study the Bible at home, which effectively decentralized the means of informing the public on religious matters and was akin to the individualistic trends present in Europe during the Protestant Reformation. The first American Methodist bishops were Thomas Coke and Francis Asbury, whose boyhood home, Bishop Asbury Cottage, in West Bromwich, England, is now a museum. Upon the formation of the Methodist Episcopal Church in America at the Baltimore Christmas Conference in 1784, Coke (already ordained in the Church of England) ordained Asbury a deacon, elder, and bishop each on three successive days. Circuit riders, many of whom were laymen, traveled by horseback to preach the gospel and establish churches until there was scarcely any crossroad community in America without a Methodist expression of Christianity. One of the most famous circuit riders was Robert Strawbridge who lived in the vicinity of Carroll County, Maryland soon after arriving in the Colonies around 1760. The Second Great Awakening was a nationwide wave of revivals. In New England, the renewed interest in religion inspired a wave of social activism among Yankees; Methodism grew rapidly and established several colleges, notably Boston University. In the "burned over district" of western New York, the spirit of revival burned brightly. Methodism saw the emergence of a Holiness
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movement. In the west, especially at Cane Ridge, Kentucky and in Tennessee, the revival strengthened the Methodists and the Baptists. Disputes over slavery placed the church in difficulty in the first half of the 1800s, with the northern church leaders fearful of a split with the South, and reluctant to take a stand. The Wesleyan Methodists (later became The Wesleyan Church) and the Free Methodist Churches were formed by staunch abolitionists, and the Free Methodists were especially active in the Underground Railroad, which helped to free the slaves. Finally, in a much larger split, in 1845 at Louisville, the churches of the slaveholding states left the Methodist Episcopal Church and formed The Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The northern and southern branches were reunited in 1939, when slavery was no longer an issue. In this merger also joined the Methodist Protestant Church. Some southerners, conservative in theology, and strongly segregationist, opposed the merger, and formed the Southern Methodist Church in 1940. The Third Great Awakening from 1858 to 1908 saw enormous growth in Methodist membership, and a proliferation of institutions such as colleges (e.g., Morningside College). Methodists were often involved in the Missionary Awakening and the Social Gospel Movement. The awakening in so many cities in 1858 started the movement, but in the North it was interrupted by the Civil War. In the South, on the other hand, the Civil War stimulated revivals, especially in Lee’s army. In 1914-1917 many Methodist ministers made strong pleas for world peace. To meet their demands, President Woodrow Wilson (a Presbyterian), promised "a war to end all wars." In the 1930s many Methodists favored isolationist policies. Thus in 1936, Methodist Bishop James Baker, of the San Francisco Conference, released a poll of ministers showing 56% opposed warfare. However, the Methodist Federation did call for a boycott of Japan, which had invaded China and was disrupting missionary activity there. In Chicago, sixty-two local African Methodist Episcopal churches voted their support for the Roosevelt administration’s policy, while opposing any plan to send American troops overseas to fight. When war came in 1941, the vast majority of Methodists strongly
supported the national war effort, but there were also a few (673) conscientious objectors. The United Methodist Church was formed in 1968 as a result of a merger between the Evangelical United Brethren (EUB) and the Methodist Church. The former church had resulted from mergers of several groups of German Methodist heritage. There was no longer any need or desire to worship in the German language. The merged church had approximately 9 million members as of the late 1990s. While United Methodist Church in America membership has been declining, associated groups in developing countries are growing rapidly. American Methodist churches are generally organized on a connectional model, related but not identical to that used in Britain. Pastors are assigned to congregations by bishops, distinguishing it from presbyterian government. Methodist denominations typically give lay members representation at regional and national meetings (conferences) at which the business of the church is conducted, making it different from episcopal government. This connectional organizational model differs further from the congregational model, for example of Baptist, and Congregationalist Churches, among others. In addition to the United Methodist Church, there are over 40 other denominations that descend from John Wesley’s Methodist movement. Some, such as the African Methodist Episcopal Church, the Free Methodists, the Wesleyan Church (formerly Wesleyan Methodist), the Congregational Methodist Church and First Congregational Methodist Church are explicitly Methodist. The Primitive Methodist Church is a continuing branch of the former British Primitive Methodist Church. Others do not call themselves Methodist, but are related to varying degrees. The Evangelical Church was formed by a group of EUB congregations who dissented from the merger which formed the United Methodist Church. The Salvation Army was founded by William Booth, a former Methodist, and derives some of its theology from Methodism. Similar "social justice" denominations include the Church of the Nazarene and the Christian and Missionary Alliance. Some of the Charismatic or Pentecostal churches such as the Pentecostal Holiness Church and the Assemblies of God also have roots in or draw from Wesleyan thought.
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The Holiness Revival was primarily among people of Methodist persuasion, who felt that the church had once again become apathetic, losing the Wesleyan zeal. Some important events of this revival were the writings of Phoebe Palmer during the mid-1800s, the establishment of the first of many holiness camp meetings at Vineland, New Jersey in 1867, and the founding of Asbury College, (1890), and other similar institutions in the US around the turn of the 20th century. From its beginning in England, Methodism laid emphasis on social service and education. Numerous originally Methodist institutions of higher education were founded in the United States in the early half of the 19th century, and today altogether there are about twenty universities and colleges named as "Methodist" or "Wesleyan" still in existence. Additionally, the Methodist Church has created a number of Wesley Foundation establishments on college campuses. These ministries are created to reach out to students, and often provide student housing to a few students in exchange for service to the ministry. There are a wide range of theological and political beliefs in The United Methodist Church. For example, former Republican President George W. Bush is a member, and former Vice President Dick Cheney attends the United Methodist Church (though he is not a member). Democrats Hillary Clinton and John Edwards are both members of the United Methodist Church. United Methodist Elders and Local Pastors may marry and have families. They are placed in congregations by their bishop. Elders and Local Pastors can either ask for a new appointment or their church can request that they be re-appointed elsewhere. If the Elder is a full-time pastor, the church is required to provide either a house or a housing allowance for the pastor.
World Methodist Council at Lake Junaluska, North Carolina - a consultive body linking most Methodist groups of the world. The headquarters contains a museum of Methodism and a small park - the Susannah Wesley Herb Garden churches are members of a consultative body called the World Methodist Council, which is headquartered at Lake Junaluska, North Carolina, in the United States.
Methodism became rooted in Sierra Leone during the late nineteenth century. Many of the Nova Scotian migrants who settled there were Methodists.
The Igreja Metodista Unida is one of the largest Christian denominations of Mozambique.
Methodism was brought to China in the fall of 1847 by the Methodist Episcopal Church. The first missionaries sent out were Judson Dwight Collins and Moses Clark White, who sailed from Boston April 15, 1847, and reached Foochow September 6. They were followed by Henry Hickok and Robert Samuel Maclay, who arrived April 15, 1848. In 1857 it baptized the first convert in connection with its labors. In August, 1856, a brick church, called the "Church of the True God" (???), the first substantial church building erected at Foochow by Protestant Missions, was dedicated to the worship of God. In the winter of the same year another brick church, located on the hill in the suburbs on
Methodism in other countries
An estimated 75 million people worldwide belong to the Methodist community, however the number has gone into steady decline, especially in North America, where an increasing number of people are becoming more inclined to join theologically conservative denominations. Almost all Methodist
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The cornerstone of Church of Heavenly Peace, Fuzhou. The inscription tells the brief history of Methodism in Fuzhou. the south bank of the Min, was finished and dedicated, called the "Church of Heavenly Peace" (???). In 1862, the number of members was 87. The Foochow Conference was organized by Isaac W. Wiley on December 6, 1867, by which time the number of members and probationers had reached 2,011. In 1867, the mission sent out the first missionaries to Central China, who began work at Kiukiang. In 1869 missionaries were also sent to the capital city Peking, where they laid the foundations of the work of the North China Mission. In November, 1880, the West China Mission was established in Sichuan Province. In 1896 the work in the Hinghua prefecture (modern-day Putian) and surrounding regions was also organized as a Mission Conference. In 1947, the Methodist Church in the Republic of China celebrated its centennial. In 1949, however, the Methodist Church moved to Taiwan with the Kuomintang government. On June 21, 1953, the Taipei Methodist Church was erected, then local churches and chapels with a baptized membership numbering over 2,500. Various types of educational, medical and social services are provided (including Tunghai University). In 1972 the Methodist Church in the Republic of China became autonomous and the first bishop was installed in 1986.
CSI English Wesley Church in Broadway, Chennai, India. This is one of the first Methodist Churches in India. in 1814. Dr. Coke, then 66, died en route. Rev. James Lynch was the one who finally arrived in Madras (present day Chennai) in 1817 at a place called Black Town (Broadway), later known as George Town. Lynch conducted the first Methodist missionary service on March 2, 1817, in a stable. The first Methodist church was dedicated in 1819 at Royapettah. A chapel at Broadway (Black Town) was later built and dedicated on April 25, 1822. This church was rebuilt in 1844 since the earlier structure was collapsing. At this time there were about 100 Methodist members in all of Madras, and they were either Europeans or Eurasians (European and Indian descent). Among those names associated with the founding period of Methodism in India are Elijah Hoole & Thomas Cryer, who came as missionaries to Madras. In 1857, the Methodist Episcopal Church started its work in India, and with prominent Evangelists like William Taylor the Emmanuel Methodist Church, Vepery, was born in 1874. The Methodist Church in India is governed by the MCI - the Methodist Church of India.. in 1947 the Methodist Church in India merged with Presbyterians, Anglicans
Methodism came to India twice, in 1817 and in 1856, according to P. Dayanandan who has done extensive research on the subject. Dr. Thomas Coke and six other missionaries set sail for India on New Year’s Day
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and other Protestant churches to form the Church of South India.
Living Bread, Inc., and the Wesley Evangelical Methodist Church & Mission, Inc.
Malaysia and Singapore
Missionaries from Britain, North America, and Australia founded Methodist churches in many Commonwealth countries. These are now independent and many of them are stronger than the former "mother" churches. In addition to the churches, these missionaries often also founded schools to serve the local community. A good example of such schools are the Methodist Boys’ School in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and The Anglo-Chinese Schools, Methodist Girls’ Schools and Fairfield Methodist Schools in Singapore.
Possibly the strongest Methodist church in the world now is that of South Korea. There are many Korean-language Methodist churches in North America catering to Korean-speaking immigrants, not all of which are named as Methodist. There are several denominations that are of Wesleyan/Methodist heritage, but are not explicitly Methodist.
There are small Methodist Churches in many European countries, the strongest being in Germany. These mostly derive from links with the American rather than the British church.
The beginnings of Methodism in the Philippines islands grow from the American invasion of the Philippines following the SpanishAmerican War. On June 21, 1898, the American executives of the Mission Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church expressed their desire to join other Protestant denominations in starting mission work in the islands and to enter into any comity agreement that would facilitate the establishment of such mission. The first Protestant worship service was conducted on August 28, 1898 by an American military chaplain named Rev. George C. Stull. Rev. Stull was an ordained Methodist minister from the Montana Annual Conference of The Methodist Episcopal Church (Later became The United Methodist Church in 1968). Methodist and Wesleyan traditions in the Philippines are shared by three of the largest mainline Protestant churches in the country The United Methodist Church, Iglesia Evangelica Metodista En Las Islas Filipinas (IEMELIF) (Evangelical Methodist Church in the Philippine Islands), and The United Church of Christ in the Philippines. There are also evangelical Protestant churches in the country with Methodist and Wesleyan tradition like The Wesleyan Church of the Philippines, Inc. Free Methodist Church of the Philippines, and the Church of the Nazarene in the Philippines.. There are also the IEMELIF Reform Movement (IRM), The Wesleyan (Pilgrim Holiness) Church of the Philippines, the Philippine Bible Methodist Church, Inc., the Pentecostal Free Methodist Church, Inc., the Fundamental Christian Methodist Church, The Reformed Methodist Church, Inc., The Methodist Church of the
The Methodist Church in Ireland covers the entire island of Ireland including Northern Ireland. Eric Gallagher was the head of the Church in the 1970s. He was one of the group of Protestant churchmen who met with IRA/Sinn Féin representatives in Feakle, County Clare to try (unsuccessfully) to broker a peace. Another strong Methodist movement in Ireland is the Church of the Nazarene which takes its roots from American Methodism as opposed to British whilst still rejecting episcopacy
The Italian Methodist Church ("OPCEMI Opera per le Chiese Evangeliche Metodiste in Italia) is small,with c.5,000 members. It is in a formal covenant partnership with the Waldesian Church. The Italian Methodist Church was previously an overseas district of the British Methodist Church. Bertrand Tipple, pastor of the American Methodist Church in Rome, founded a college there.
Bermuda’s Methodist Synod, is a separate presbytery of the United Church of Canada’s Maritime Conference.
Methodist Episcopal circuit riders from New York State began to arrive in the Kingston region on the northeast shore of Lake Ontario
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in the early 1790s. At the time the region was part of British North America and became part of Upper Canada after the Constitutional Act of 1791. Upper and Lower Canada were both part of the New York Episcopal Methodist Conference until 1810 when they were transferred to the newly formed Genesee Conference. The spread of Methodism in the Canadas was seriously disrupted by the War of 1812 but quickly gained lost ground after the Treaty of Ghent was signed in 1815. In 1817 the British Wesleyans arrived in the Canadas from the Maritimes but by 1820 had agreed, with the Episcopal Methodists, to confine their work to Lower Canada (presentday Quebec) while the later would confine themselves to Upper Canada (present-day Ontario). In 1828 Upper Canadian Methodists were permitted by the General Conference in the United States to form an independent Canadian Conference and, in 1833, the Canadian Conference merged with the British Wesleyans to form the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Canada. The Methodist Church of Canada was an 1884 union of pioneering groups. In 1925, they merged with the Presbyterians, then by far the largest Protestant communion in Canada, most Congregationalists, Union Churches in Western Canada, and the American Presbyterian Church in Montreal, to form the United Church of Canada. In 1968, the Evangelical United Brethren Church’s Canadian congregations joined after their American counterparts joined the United Methodist Church.
Uniting Church. The Wesleyan Methodist Church of Australia continues to operate independently. There are also other independent Methodist congregations, some of which were established by, or have been impacted by, Tongan immigrants.
As a result of the early efforts of missionaries, most of the natives of the Fiji Islands were converted to Methodism in the 1840s and 1850s. Most ethnic Fijians are Methodists today (the others are largely Roman Catholic), and the Methodist Church of Fiji and Rotuma is in important social force.
The Methodist Church of New Zealand is the fourth largest denomination in the country.
The Methodist Church is the third largest denomination throughout the Samoan Islands, in both Samoa and American Samoa
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Albert Outler Articles of Religion (Methodist) Assurance (theology) Atonement (Governmental view) Category:Methodism Category:Methodists Category:Methodist theologians Christian apologetics Christian perfection Holiness movement Homosexuality and Methodism Imparted righteousness List of Christian denominations Methodist theologians (list) Means of Grace Methodism (philosophy) (unrelated to the religious movement) Methodist Order of St. Luke Dusty Miller (Martyr) Personalism Prevenient Grace The Supernatural Occurrences of John Wesley United Methodist Church Wesleyanism World Methodist Council Saints in Methodism
Various branches of Methodism in Australia merged in the 20 years from 1881, with a union of all groups except the Lay Methodists forming the Methodist Church of Australasia in 1902. In 1945 the Rev. Dr. Kingsley Ridgway offered himself as a Melbourne based "field representative" for a possible Australian branch of the Wesleyan Methodist Church of America, after meeting an American serviceman who was a member of that denomination. The Wesleyan Methodist Church of Australia was founded on his work. The Methodist Church of Australasia merged with the majority of the Presbyterian Church of Australia and the Congregational Union of Australia in 1977, becoming the
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 Richard Bennett, "Howell Harris and the Dawn of Revival", (1909, Eng. tr. 1962), ISBN 1 85049 035 X  Gwyn Davies, "A Light in the Land", (2002), Ch 5, ISBN 1 85049 181 X  John Wesley, Journal 31 March 1739  Wesley, "Sermons on Several Occasions", No. 53  "The Book of Offices" 
1. ^ This social analysis is a summary of a wide variety of books on Methodist history, articles in The Methodist Magazine etc. Most of the Methodist aristocracy were associated with the Countess of Huntingdon who invited Methodist preachers to gatherings she hosted. Methodists were the leaders at that time in reaching out to the poorest of the working classes in any major way. A number of soldiers were also Methodists. 2. ^ Arminianism is named after Jacobus Arminius, a Dutch Reformed pastor who was trained to preach Calvinism, but concluded that some aspects of Calvinism had to be modified in the light of Scripture. Both of these branches of Reformation doctrine hold as essential the "Solas" - Scripture alone, Grace alone, Faith alone, Glory to God alone. John Wesley was perhaps the clearest English proponent of arminianism. In spite of the differences, these twin strands have much common ground, such as that salvation is entirely a work of God alone with no work by which it can be earned (monergism), and that one cannot either turn to God nor believe unless God has first drawn a person and implanted the desire in their heart (the Wesleyan doctrine of prevenient grace). The primary difference is that Arminians interpret the Bible as teaching that the saving work of Jesus Christ is for all people (general atonement} but effective only to those who believe in accordance with the Reformation principles of Grace alone and Faith alone. While also holding to these principles, the Solas, Calvinists emphasize the deterministic interpretation of Election, that salvation is only for a few decreed by God (limited atonement) while all others are decreed to be condemned.
 http://www.adherents.com/ adh_branches.html#Christianity  http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/ christianity/subdivisions/ methodist_1.shtml/ BBC History
"Methodism". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/ Catholic_Encyclopedia_(1913)/ Methodism.  Wesley Covenant Prayer  What sorts of bishops?:Models of episcopacy and British Methodism  http://thewru.com/  http://www.imcgb.org.uk/  Anglican-Methodist Covenant  http://www.methodist.org.uk/ index.cfm?fuseaction=opentogod.content&cmid=359  [Meyer 200, 354]  Methodist World Peace Commission administered Civilian Public Service units at Duke University Hospital in Durham, North Carolina and Cherokee State (Psychiatric) Hospital in Cherokee, Iowa (list of CPS Camps).  Cracknell and White (2005), p. ’i’ (frontmatter)  Stephen Livingstone Baldwin, Foreign Missions of the Protestant Churches, 1900  The Hindu: Entertainment / Religion: In commemoration of John Wesley  GBGM Feature  http://www.umc.org  http://www.iemelif.org  http://www.uccp.ph  http://www.wesleyan.org/  http://cebu.freemethodistchurch.org/ aboutus.html  http://www.nazarene.org.ph/  http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archivefree/ pdf?res=9500E6DE113FE633A25755C2A9679C9465  Humphreys, Robert; Rowland Ward (1986). Religious Bodies in Australia. Melbourne: Robert Humphreys and Rowland Ward. pp. 45. ISBN 1862527091.  O’Brien, Glen (1996). Kingsley Ridgway: Pioneer with a Passion. Melbourne: Wesleyan Methodist Church.
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 Humphreys, Robert; Rowland Ward (1986). Religious Bodies in Australia. Melbourne: Robert Humphreys and Rowland Ward. pp. 47. ISBN 1862527091.  World COuncil of Churches, Methodist Church in Fiji and Rotuma.  J A Clapperton, "Romance and Heroism in Early Methodism", (1901)  Edgar Parkyns, "His Waiting Bride", (1996), pp169-170, ISBN 0 9526800 0 9  Gwyn Davies, "A Light in the Land", (2002), p. 46, ISBN 1 85049 181 X  John Wesley, Sermons on Several Occasions for further detail.  J. Steven Harper, "The Way to Heaven: The Gospel According to John Wesley", (1983), ISBN 0310252601  J S Banks, "The development of Doctrine - Early Middle Ages to the Reformation" in the "Books for Bible Students" series, (1901), Part 3, Ch. II and VI where the issues of determinism and the differences from Luther are discussed.  "The Baptist Confession of Faith 1689", Section 3, p. 13, edited by Peter Masters, The Wakeman Trust, (1981), ISBN 1 870855 24 8 • Cracknell, Kenneth and White, Susan J. (2005) An Introduction to World Methodism, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-81849-4.
• Kent, John (2002) Wesley and the Wesleyans, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-45532-4 • Warner, Wellman J. (1930) The Wesleyan Movement in the Industrial Revolution, London: Longmans, Green, 299 p.
• Campbell, James T. (1995) Songs of Zion: The African Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States and South Africa, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-507892-6 • George, Carol V.R. (1973) Segregated Sabbaths: Richard Allen and the Rise of Independent Black Churches, 1760-1840, New York: Oxford University Press, LCCN 73076908 • Montgomery, William G. (1993) Under Their Own Vine and Fig Tree: The AfricanAmerican Church in the South, 1865-1900, Louisiana State University Press, ISBN 0-80711-745-5 • Walker, Clarence E. (1982) A Rock in a Weary Land: The African Methodist Episcopal Church During the Civil War and Reconstruction, Louisiana State University Press, ISBN 0-80710-883-9 • Wills, David W. and Newman, Richard (eds.) (1982) Black Apostles at Home and Abroad: Afro-American and the Christian Mission from the Revolution to Reconstruction, Boston, MA: G. K. Hall, ISBN 0-81618-482-8
• Dowson, Jean and Hutchinson, John (2003) John Wesley: His Life, Times and Legacy [CD-ROM], Methodist Publishing House, TB214 • Harmon, Nolan B. (ed.) (1974) The Encyclopedia of World Methodism, Nashville: Abingdon Press, ISBN 0-687-11784-4. • Heitzenrater, Richard P. (1994) Wesley and the People Called Methodists, Nashville: Abingdon Press, ISBN 0-687-01682-7 • Hempton, David (2005) Methodism: Empire of the Spirit, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-10614-9 • Hempton, David (1984) Methodism and Politics in British Society, 1750-1850, Stanford University Press, ISBN 0-80471-269-7
USA and Canada
• Cameron, Richard M. (ed.) (1961) Methodism and Society in Historical Perspective, 4 vol., New York: Abingdon Press • Lyerly, Cynthia Lynn (1998) Methodism and the Southern Mind, 1770-1810, Religion in America Series, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-511429-9 • Meyer, Donald (1988) The Protestant Search for Political Realism, 1919-1941, Wesleyan University Press, ISBN 0-81955-203-8 • Rawlyk, G.A. (1994) The Canada Fire: Radical Evangelicalism in British North America, 1775-1812, Kingston: McGillQueen’s University Press, ISBN 0-7735-1221-7 • Schmidt, Jean Miller (1999) Grace Sufficient: A History of Women in
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American Methodism, 1760-1939, Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press ISBN 0-687-15675-0 • Semple, Neil (1996) The Lord’s Dominion: The History of Canadian Methodism, Buffalo: McGill-Queen’s University Press, ISBN 0-7735-1367-1 • Sweet, William Warren (1954) Methodism in American History, Revision of 1953, Nashville: Abingdon Press, 472 p. • Wigger, John H. (1998) Taking Heaven by Storm: Methodism and the Rise of Popular Christianity in America, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-510452-8 – p. ix & 269 focus on 1770-1910
ISBN 0-687-24673-3 – 756 p. of original documents • Sweet, William Warren (ed.) (1946) Religion on the American Frontier: Vol. 4, The Methodists,1783-1840: A Collection of Source Materials, New York: H. Holt & Co., – 800 p. of documents regarding the American frontier
• World Methodist Council • The Methodist Church Of Great Britain • Divisions and Reunions in North American Methodism • United Methodist Church • United Methodist Social Principles • Francis Asbury • Methodist History Bookmarks • Union of Waldensian and Methodist Churches in Italy • Pictures of Strawbridge Shrine near New Windsor, MD
• Richey, Russell E., Rowe, Kenneth E. and Schmidt, Jean Miller (eds.) (2000) The Methodist Experience in America: a sourcebook, Nashville: Abingdon Press,