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Creation according to Genesis

Creation according to Genesis
mythical, in the sense that it bears the marks of a carefully contrived literary creation, written with a distinct theological agenda—the elevation of Yahweh, the God of Israel, over all over gods, and notably over Marduk, the god of Babylon.

The narrative
The modern division of the Bible into chapters dates from c. AD 1200, and the division into verses somewhat later; the distinction between Genesis 1 and 2 is therefore a relatively recent development.[3]

God creating the land animals (Vittskövle Church fresco, 1480s). Creation according to Genesis is the Hebrew account of the creation of the world and of the first man and woman as found in the first two chapters of the Bible’s Book of Genesis. Chapter 1 describes God’s creation of the world by divine speech, culminating in the sanctification of the seventh day as the Biblical Sabbath, the divinely-ordained day of rest. Man and woman are created to be God’s regents over this new creation. Chapter 2 recounts God’s planting a garden in which he places the first man, and from whose rib (or side[1]) he fashions the first woman; the chapter ends with an injunction on the sanctity of marriage. The ancient Near East conceived of the world as a flat disk surrounded by water, in which the habitable earth floated rather like a bubble. This cosmology underlies Genesis 1-2, but with important theological differences: The Mesopotamian myths ascribes the creation to multiple gods who created man to be their servant, but the Hebrew re-telling is almost totally de-mythologized, emphasizing instead the supremacy of Yahweh, the single god (Elohim) of Israel. Today the Genesis narrative is increasingly being referred to as a creation myth—defined as the symbolic narrative of the beginning of the world as understood by a particular community.[2] The story contains distinct mythic elements, but is not entirely

First account: Creation week
See Genesis 1:1-2:3 The creation week narrative consists of eight divine commands executed over six days, followed by a seventh day of rest: "When God[4] began to create heaven and earth, and the earth then was welter and waste and darkness over the deep and God’s breath hovering over the waters, God said, ’Let there be light.’ and there was light" [5] • First day: God creates light ("Let there be light!") - the first divine command. The light is divided from the darkness, and "day" and "night" are named. • Second day: God creates a firmament ("Let a firmament be...!") - the second command - to divide the waters above from the waters below. The firmament is named "heavens". • Third day: God commands the waters below to be gathered together in one place, and dry land to appear (the third command). "Earth" and "sea" are named. God commands the earth to bring forth grass, plants, and fruit-bearing trees (the fourth command). • Fourth day: God creates lights in the firmament (the fifth command) to separate light from darkness and to mark days, seasons and years. Two great lights are made (most likely the Sun and Moon, but not named), and the stars. • Fifth day: God commands the sea to "teem with living creatures", and birds to fly


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across the heavens (sixth command); He creates birds and sea creatures, and commands them to be fruitful and multiply. • Sixth day: God commands the land to bring forth living creatures (seventh command); He makes wild beasts, livestock and reptiles. He then creates Man and Woman in His "image" and "likeness" (eighth command). They are told to "be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the earth, and subdue it." Humans and animals are given plants to eat. The totality of creation is described by God as "very good." • Seventh day: God, having completed the heavens and the earth, rests from His work, and blesses and sanctifies the seventh day.

Creation according to Genesis
The Eden narrative addresses the creation of the first man and woman: • Genesis 2:4b - the second half of the bridge formed by the "generations" formula, and the beginning of the Eden narrative - places the events of the narrative "in the day when YHWH Elohim made the earth and the heavens..."[10] • Before any plant had appeared, before any rain had fallen, while a mist[11] watered the earth, Yahweh formed the man (Heb. ha-adam ‫ )םָדָאָה‬out of dust from the ground (Heb. ha-adamah ‫ ,)הָמָדֲאָה‬and breathed the breath of life into his nostrils. And the man became a "living being" (Heb. nephesh). • Yahweh planted a garden in Eden and he set the man in it. He caused pleasant trees to spout from the ground, and trees necessary for food, also the tree of life and the tree of knowledge of good and evil.[12] (An unnamed river is described: it goes out from Eden to water the garden, after which it parts into four named streams.) He takes the man who is to tend His garden and tells him he may eat of the fruit of all the trees except the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, "for in that day thou shalt surely die." • Yahweh resolved to make a "helper"[13] suitable for the man.[14] He made domestic animals and birds, and the man gave them their names, but none of them is a fitting helper. Therefore Yahweh caused the man to sleep, and he took a rib,[15] and from it formed a woman. The man then named her "Woman" (Heb. ishah), saying "for from a man (Heb. ish) has this been taken." A statement instituting marriage follows: "Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh."[16] • The man and his wife were naked, and felt no shame.

Literary Bridge
The phrase "These are the tôledôt (Hebrew ‫ ;תֹודְלֹות‬generations) of the heavens and the earth when they were created" lies between the creation week account and the account of Eden which follows. It is the first of ten "tôledôt" phrases[6] used to provide structure to the book of Genesis.[7] Since the phrase always precedes the "generation" to which it belongs, the "generations of the heavens and the earth" should logically be taken to refer to Genesis 2; a position taken by several commentators.[8] Nevertheless, other commentators from Rashi to the present day (e.g., Driver) have argued that in this case it should apply to what precedes.[9]

Second account: Eden narrative

Genesis 1-11: Primeval History
Genesis 1-2 opens the “primeval history” of Genesis 1-11. This unit within Genesis forms an introduction to the stories of Abraham and the Patriarchs, and contains the first mention of many themes which are continued throughout the book of Genesis and the Torah, including fruitfulness, God’s election of Israel, and His ongoing forgiveness of

Painting by Lucas Cranach the Elder, depicting Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. See Genesis 2:4-25


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man’s rebellious nature. It is therefore impossible to understand either Genesis 1-2 or the Torah as a whole without reference to this introductory history.[17]

Creation according to Genesis
heavens. It is from the eye-sockets of the slain Tiamat that the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers emerged. Marduk then created humanity - in seven pairs, male and female, and from clay mingled with spit and the blood of another slaughtered god - and placed them on the earth to tend the Earth for the gods, while Marduk himself was enthroned in Babylon in the Esagila, "the temple with its head in heaven." Genesis 1-2 parallels the Enuma Elish, not only in its creation myth, but also in its religious message, which sets up one specific god as Creator and ruler over all things.[22] The Enuma Elish promotes the power of Marduk, patron god of Babylon, as king over all gods and people, while Genesis 1-2 places Yahweh Elohim as king over everything. But despite their similarities, there is still an important and stark difference between Genesis 1-2 and the Babylonian myths with regard to world view. The world view of the Ancient Near East was one that saw the world as beginning negatively: Man began as nothing more than a "lackey of the gods to keep them supplied with food."[23] It was only with time that things became increasingly better: "things were not nearly as good to begin with as they have become since."[24] The world of Genesis, in contrast, starts out "very good," (Gen. 1:31), with man and woman at the apex of created order. It was not until after this initial state of "goodness," when Adam and Eve ate the fruit of the tree "in the midst of the garden" from which God had forbidden them to eat ("lest [they] die"), that God became angry with them. From that time on things grew steadily worse, until "the Lord saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every intention of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually," and resolved to destroy his world by returning it to the waters of chaos (Gen. 6:5).

Ancient Near East context
The Earth according to the civilizations of the Ancient Near East was a flat disk, with infinite water both above and below it.[18] The dome of the sky, was thought to be a solid metal bowl - tin according to the Sumerians, iron for the Egyptians - separating the surrounding water from the habitable world. The stars were embedded in the under surface of this dome, and there were gates in it that allowed the passage of the Sun and Moon back and forth. This flat-disk Earth was seen as a single island-continent surrounded by a circular ocean, of which the known seas - what we call today the Mediterranean Sea, the Persian Gulf, and the Red Sea - were inlets. Beneath the Earth was a fresh-water sea, the source of all fresh-water rivers and wells. It is the creation of this world which is described in Genesis 1-2.[18]

Scholars of the Ancient Near East see Hebrew monotheism as emerging from a common Mesopotamian/Levantine background of polytheistic religion and myth.[19] The narrative elements of Genesis 1-11 draw specifically from four Mesopotamian myths: Adapa and the South Wind, Atrahasis, the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Enuma Elish. These myths share similar motifs and characters with Genesis 1-11, with Genesis challenging the Babylonian view point.[20] According to the Enuma Elish, which has the closest parallels, the original state of the universe was a chaos formed by the mingling of two primeval waters, the female saltwater god Tiamat and the male freshwater god Apsu.[21] Through the fusion of their waters six successive generations of gods were born. A war amongst these gods began with the slaying of Apsu, and ended with the powerful god Marduk killing Tiamat by splitting her in two with an arrow. Marduk then used one half of her body to form the earth and the other half to form the firmament of the

Exegetical points
"In the beginning..."
The first word of Genesis 1 in Hebrew, "in the beginning" (Heb. berēšît ‫ ,)תיִׁשאֵרְּב‬provides the traditional Jewish title for the book. The ambiguity of the Hebrew grammar in this verse gives rise to two alternative translations, the first implying that God’s first act of creation was the heavens and the earth, the


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second that the heavens and the Earth already existed in a "formless and void" state, to which God brings form and order:[25] 1. "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. And the earth was without form, and void...God said, Let there be light!" (King James Version). 2. "At the beginning of the creation of heaven and earth, when the earth was (or the earth being) unformed and void . . . God said, Let there be light!" (Rashi, and with variations Ibn Ezra and Bereshith Rabba).

Creation according to Genesis

The "deep"
The "deep" (Heb. ‫ םֹוהְת‬tehôm), is the formless body of primeval water surrounding the habitable world. These waters are later released during the great flood, when "all the fountains of the great deep burst forth" from under the earth and from the "windows" of the sky.(Genesis 7:11).[8] The word is cognate with the Babylonian Tiamat,[8] and its occurrence here without the definite article ha (i.e., the literal translation of the Hebrew is that "darkness lay on the face of tehôm) indicates its mythical origins.[29]

The name of God
Two names of God are used, Elohim in the first account and Yahweh Elohim in the second account. This difference, plus differences in the styles of the two chapters, as well as a number of discrepancies between them, formed one of the earliest ideas that the Pentateuch had multiple origins. These ideas were instrumental in the development of source criticism and the documentary hypothesis.

The firmament of heaven
The "firmament" (Heb. ‫ ַעיִקָר‬rāqîa) of heaven, created on the second day of creation and populated by luminaries on the fourth day, denotes a solid ceiling[18] which separated the earth below from the heavens and their waters above. The term is etymologically derived from the verb rāqa (‫ ,) עַקֹר‬used for the act of beating metal into thin plates.[8][30]

Great sea monsters
Heb. hatanninim hagedolim (‫ )םיִלֹדְּגַה םִניִּנַּתַה‬is the classification of creatures to which the chaos-monsters Leviathan and Rahab belong (cf. Isaiah 27:1, Isaiah 51:9, Psalm 74:13-14).[31] In Genesis 1:21, the proper noun Leviathan is missing and only the class noun great tanninim appears. The great tannînim are associated with mythological sea creatures such as Lotan (the Ugaritic counterpart of the biblical Leviathan) which were considered deities by other ancient near eastern cultures; the author of Genesis 1 asserts the sovereignty of Elohim over such entities.[30] The NJV translates it as "sea monsters".

"Without form and void"
The phrase traditionally translated in English "without form and void" is tōhû wābōhû (Hebrew: ‫ּוהֹבָו ּוהֹת‬‎). The Greek Septuagint (LXX) rendered this term as "unseen and unformed" (Greek: ἀόρατος καὶ ἀκατασκεύαστος), paralleling the Greek concept of Chaos. In the Hebrew Bible, the phrase is a dis legomenon, being used only in one other place, Jeremiah 4:23. There Jeremiah is telling Israel that sin and rebellion against God will lead to "darkness and chaos," or to "de-creation," "as if the earth had been ‘uncreated.’" [26]

The rûach of God
The Hebrew rûach (‫ )ַחּור‬has the meanings "wind, spirit, breath," but the traditional Jewish interpretation here is "wind," as "spirit" would imply a living supernatural presence co-extent with yet separate from God at Creation. This, however, is the sense in which rûach was understood by the early Christian church in developing the doctrine of the Trinity, in which this passage plays a central role. [27] Most English translations render this phrase as "the Spirit of God."[28]

The number seven
Seven was regarded as a significant number in the ancient Near East, including ancient Israel, denoting divine completion.[32] It is embedded in the text of Genesis 1 (but not in Genesis 2) in a number of ways, besides the obvious seven-day framework: the word "God" occurs 35 times (7 × 5) and "earth" 21 times (7 × 3). The phrases "and it was so" and "God saw that it was good" occur 7 times each. The first sentence of Genesis 1:1, contains 7 Hebrew words, and the second sentence contains 14 words, while the verses


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about the seventh day (Genesis 2:1-3) contain 35 words in total.[33]

Creation according to Genesis
day six populates what was created on day three, and animals and man are place on the land. This six-day structure is symmetrically bracketed: On day zero primeval chaos reigns, and on day seven there is cosmic order.[35] Genesis 2 is a simple linear narrative, with the exception of the parenthesis about the four rivers at Genesis 2:10-14. This interrupts the forward movement of the narrative and possibly is an expansion on the spring or stream mentioned in Genesis 2:6, which waters the ground "on the day when Yahweh Elohim formed earth and heavens."[36] The two are joined by Genesis 2:4a, "These are the tôledôt (‫ תֹודְלֹות‬in Hebrew) of the heavens and the earth when they were created." This echoes the first line of Genesis 1, "In the beginning Yahweh created both the heavens and the earth," and is reversed in the next line of Genesis 2, "In the day when Yahweh Elohim made the earth and the heavens...". The significance of this, if any, is unclear, but it does reflect the preoccupation of each chapter, Genesis 1 looking down from heaven, Genesis 2 looking up from the earth.[37]

Man and the image of God
The meaning of the "image of God" has been much debated. The medieval Jewish scholar Rashi believed it referred to "a sort of conceptual archetype, model, or blueprint that God had previously made for man;" his colleague Maimonides suggested it referred to man’s free will.[34] Modern scholarship still debates whether the image of God was represented symmetrically in Adam and Eve, or whether Adam possessed the image more fully than the woman.

Structure and composition


Michelangelo’s painting of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel shows the creation of the stars and planets as described in the first chapter of Genesis.

Michelangelo’s The Creation of Adam (1512) is the most famous Fresco in the Sistine Chapel According to the Jewish tradition the first five books of the Bible were written by Moses. Today virtually all scholars accept that the Pentateuch "was in reality a composite work, the product of many hands and periods.”[38] In the first half of the 20th century the dominant theory regarding its origins was the documentary hypothesis, which supposes that the Torah was produced about 450 BC by combining four distinct, complete and coherent documents, with Genesis 1 from one source (called P), and Genesis 2 from another (J).[39] Since the last quarter of the 20th

Genesis 1 consists of eight acts of creation within a six day framework. In each of the first three days there is an act of division: Day one divides the darkness from light; day two, the waters from the skies; and day three, the sea from the land. In each of the next three days these divisions are populated: day four populates what was created on day one, and heavenly bodies are placed in the darkness and light; day five populates what was created on day two, and fish and birds are placed in the seas and skies; finally,


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century there has been renewed interest in alternative theories which see P (Genesis 1) as an editor adding to an existing J document, rather than as a complete and independent document; like the documentary hypothesis, contemporary theories also see Genesis 1-2, with their strong Babyonian influence and anti-Babylonian agenda, as a product of the exilic and post-exilic period (6th-5th centuries BC).

Creation according to Genesis

Part of a series on


Theology and interpretation
Questions of genre
Genre means, roughly, a "kind" of literature: biography, for example, is of a different genre from romance, poetry a different genre from history, and the reader expects different things from different genres.[40] The genre of Genesis 1-2 (and Genesis 1-11, the larger whole to which the two chapters belong) remains subject to differences of opinion, and modern scholars can only make informed judgments. One inevitable conclusion is that Genesis 1-2 represent theology: the chapters concern the actions of God, and the meaning of those acts. Possibly the authors also believed they were writing science, in the sense of an accurate description of the cosmos and its beginnings as known to them and their contemporaries - a flat earth surrounded by infinite water, with a solid sky-dome set with stars - "a scientific description of Creation from the perspective of ritual, and without myth," according to a recent study of the numerological basis of Genesis.[41] The story is also presented with a clear chronological progression, as part of a history which leads from the moment of first creation to the destruction of the First Temple, leading Thorkild Jacobsen to classify it as "mythical history".[42]

History of creationism Neo-creationism Types of creationism Young Earth creationism Old Earth creationism Day-Age creationism Progressive creationism Gap creationism Intelligent design Other religious views Hindu · Islamic · Jewish Deist · Pandeist Creation theology Creation in Genesis Genesis as an allegory Framework interpretation Omphalos hypothesis Creation science Baraminology Flood geology Intelligent design Controversy Politics of creationism Public education History Teach the Controversy · See also: Creationism and Creation-evolution controversy Creationism springs from the belief that should one element of the biblical narrative be shown to be untrue, then all others will follow: "Tamper with the Book of Genesis and you undermine the very foundations of Christianity...If Genesis 1 is not accurate, then there’s no way to be certain that the rest of Scripture tells the truth."[44] Thus a literal genre - Genesis as history - is substituted for the symbolic - Genesis as theology - and the text is placed in conflict with science.[45] The most extreme literalists believe that the seven "days" of Genesis 1 correspond to normal 24-hour days (even though that is not the definition in the text), while Day-age creationists, more willing to reconcile their
Creationism Portal

The theology of Genesis
The "Creation week" narrative forms a monotheistic polemic on creation-theology directed against pagan creation myths, the sequence of events building to the establishment of the Biblical Sabbath (in Hebrew: ‫,תָּבַׁש‬ Shabbat) commandment as its climax.[43]


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religious beliefs with modern science, hold that each "day" represents an "age" of perhaps millions or even billions of years. It is evolution that is the particular object of dread of biblical literalism. All literalists read Genesis 2 as history, holding that God breathed into the nostrils of a being formed out of dust, and from whose side (or rib) the first woman was formed.[46]

Creation according to Genesis
Union of American Hebrew Congregations, page 18) [6] The other nine are for 2 Adam Genesis 5:1, 3 Noah Genesis 6:9, 4 Noah’s sons Genesis 10L1, 5 Shem Genesis 11:10, 6 Terah Genesis 11:27, 7 Yishmael Genesis 25:12, 8 Isaac Genesis 25:19, 9 Esau Genesis 36:1, and 10 Jacob Genesis 37:2. [7] Frank Moore Cross, "The Priestly Work," in Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic, 1973. [8] ^ Gordon J. Wenham. Genesis 1-15 (Word Biblical Commentary). Word Books, Texas, 1987. [9] The argument is based on several grounds, notably the fact that Genesis 1 uses the phrase "heavens and earth" to introduce and close the Creation, while the account in Chapter 2 is introduced by the phrase "earth and heavens." Advocates of the other view argue that 2:4 is designed as a chiasm (Wenham, 49) [10] The lack of punctuation in the Hebrew creates ambiguity over where sentenceendings should be placed in this passage. This is reflected in differing modern translations, some of which attach this clause to Genesis 2:4a and place a full stop at the end of 4b, while others place the full stop after 4a and make 4b the beginning of a new sentence, while yet others combine all verses from 4a onwards into a single sentence culminating in Genesis 2:7. [11] in some translations, a stream [12] Some modern translations alter the tense-sequence so that the garden is prepared before the man is set in it, but the Hebrew has the man created before the garden is planted. [13] `ezer: Most often used to refer to God, such as "The Lord is our Help (`ezer)" in Psalms 115:9 and many other Old Testament verses. (Strong’s H5828) [14] Kvam, Kristen E., Linda S. Schearing, Valarie H. Ziegler, eds. Eve and Adam: Jewish, Christian, and Muslim readings on Genesis and gender. Indiana University Press, 1999. ISBN 0253212715. [15] Hebrew tsela`, meaning side, chamber, rib, or beam (Strong’s H6763). Some feminist scholars have questioned the traditional "rib" on the grounds that it denigrates the equality of the sexes,

[1] see NIV’s translation of Genesis 2:21 [2] "Creation Myth." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 19 May. 2009 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/ topic/142144/creation-myth>. [3] Gordon Wenham, "Ëxploring the Old Testament: Volume 1, The Pentateuch", SPCK, (2003), p.5. [4] Genesis uses the words YHWH and Elohim (and El) for God; the combined form in Gen.2 and 3,YHWH Elohim, usually translated as "LORD God", is unique to these two chapters. [5] Robert Alter, 2004, The Five Books of Moses, New York: W.W. Norton & Company page 17. The first verse of Genesis is ambiguous in the original Hebrew. Other notable translations include "When God set about the Create the heaven and the earth - the world being then a formless waste, with darkness over the seas and only an awesome wind sweeping over the water, God said, "Let there by light.’ And there was light." (E.A. Speiser, Tha Anchor Bible: Genesis New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell.); "At the beginning of God’s creating of the heavens and the earth, when the earth was wild and waste, darkness over the face of Ocean, rushing-spirit of God hovering over the face of the waters - God said: Let there be light! And there was light (Everett Fox, 1983, The Schocken Bible, Volume I: The Five Books of Moses pages 11-13) and "When God began to create the heaven and the earth - the earth being unformed and void, with darkness over the surface of the deep and a wind from God sweeping over the water - God said, ’Let there be light’; and there was light." (W. Gunther Plaut, ed., 1981 The Torah: A Modern Commentary. New York:


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suggesting it should read "side": see Reisenberger, Azila Talit. "The creation of Adam...." in Judaism: A Quarterly Journal of Jewish Life and Thought, 9/22/ 1993 (accessed 09–12–2007). [16] The lack of punctuation in the Hebrew makes it uncertain whether or not these words about marriage are intended to be a continuation of the speech of the man. [17] For a schematic representation of the structure of the "primeval history", see table iii of this document from McMaster University (table i contains a breakdown of the "history"according to the documentary hypothesis); for a more detailed discussion, see "Pentateuchal Research", Encyclopedia of Christianity (somewhat dated, but scholarly). [18] ^ For a description of Near Eastern and other ancient cosmologies and their connections with the Biblical view of the Universe, see Paul H. Seeley, "The Firmament and the Water Above: The Meaning of Raqia in Genesis 1:6-8", Westminster Theological Journal 53 (1991), and "The Geographical Meaning of ’Earth’ and ’Seas’ in Genesis 1:10", Westminster Theological Journal 59 (1997). [19] For a discussion of the roots of Biblical monotheism in Canaanite polytheism, see Mark S. Smith, "The Origins of Biblical Monotheism"; See also the review of David Penchansky, "Twilight of the Gods: Polytheism in the Hebrew Bible", which describes some of the nuances underlying the subject. See the Bibliography section at the foot of this article for further reading on this subject. [20] "Genesis’ Genesis, The Hebrew Transformation of the Ancient Near Eastern Myths and Their Motifs. [21] Bandstra, Barry L. (1999), "Enuma Elish", Reading the Old Testament: An Introduction to the Hebrew Bible, Wadsworth Publishing Company, http://web.archive.org/web/ 20061212054040/hope.edu/bandstra/ RTOT/CH1/CH1_1A3C.HTM . [22] Bandstra, Barry L. (1999), "Enuma Elish", Reading the Old Testament: An Introduction to the Hebrew Bible, Wadsworth Publishing Company, http://web.archive.org/web/

Creation according to Genesis
20061212054040/hope.edu/bandstra/ RTOT/CH1/CH1_1A3C.HTM . [23] "Genesis’ Genesis, The Hebrew Transformation of the Ancient Near Eastern Myths and Their Motifs. [24] T. Jacobson, "The Eridu Genesis", JBL 100, 1981, pp.529, quoted in Gordon Wenham, "Exploring the Old Testament: The Pentateuch", 2003, p.17. See also Gordon J. Wenham. Genesis 1-15 (Word Biblical Commentary). Word Books, Texas, 1987. [25] Harry Orlinski’s Notes to the New JPS Translation of the Torah, Genesis 1. [26] F.B. Huey, vol. 16, Jeremiah, Lamentations, "The New American Commentary" (Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2001, c1993), p. 85; Holladay, Jeremiah 1, p. 164; Thompson writes, "it’s as if the earth had been ‘uncreated.’", Thompson, Jeremiah, NICOT, p. 230; [27] Orlinsk’s notes to the New JPS translation of Genesis [28] The Message and NCV say, "God’s Spirit." The NRSV is the only notable exception, translating this as "a wind from God" but still offering a alternate translation of "the spirit of God" Genesis 1:2. [29] Noted by Hermann Gunkel - see Ernest Nicholson, "The Pentateuch in the Twentieth Century", 2002, p.34.) [30] ^ Victor P. Hamilton. The Book of Genesis (New International Commentary on the Old Testament). William B. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, 1990. [31] Vocabulary of Biblical Hebrew, Texas A&M University. [32] Meir Bar-Ilan, The Numerology of Genesis (Association for Jewish Astrology and Numerology, 2003) [33] Gordon Wenham, Genesis 1-15 (Commentary, Word Books, 1987. p. 6 [34] Footnotes to Genesis translation at bible.ort.org [35] Bandstra, Barry L. (1999), "Priestly Creation Story", Reading the Old Testament: An Introduction to the Hebrew Bible, Wadsworth Publishing Company, http://web.archive.org/web/ 20061212054040/hope.edu/bandstra/ RTOT/CH1/CH1_1A1.HTM . [36] David Carr, “The Politics of Textual Subversion: A Diachronic Perspective on the Garden of Eden Story”, Journal of


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Biblical Literature, Vol. 112, No. 4 (Winter, 1993), pp. 577-595. [37] Richard Elliott Friedman, "The Bible With Sources Revealed", (Harper San Francisco, 2003), fn 3, p. 35 [38] Speiser, E. A. (1964). Genesis. The Anchor Bible. Doubleday. p. XXI. ISBN 0-385-00854-6. [39] Documentary Hypothesis (notes from from John Barton, "Source Criticism," Anchor Bible Dictionary) describes both the documentary hypothesis and the Mosaic authorship tradition. [40] [http://www.wfu.edu/~horton/r102/ ho1.html "A Basic Vocabulary of Biblical Studies For Beginning Students: A Work in Progress", by Fred L. Horton, Kenneth G. Hoglund, and Mary F. Foskett, Wake Forest University, 2007 [41] Meir Bar-Ilan, The Numerology of Genesis", (Rehovot: Association for Jewish Astrology and Numerology, 2003), pp. vi + 218 [42] Thorkild Jacobsen, "The Eridu Genesis", (JBL 100, 1981), pp.513-29 [43] Meredith G. Kline, "Because It Had Not Rained", (Westminster Theological Journal, 20 (2), May 1958), pp. 146-57; Meredith G. Kline, "Space and Time in the Genesis Cosmogony", Perspectives on Science & Christian Faith (48), 1996), pp. 2-15; Henri Blocher, Henri Blocher. In the Beginning: The Opening Chapters of Genesis. InterVarsity Press, 1984. ; and with antecedents in St. Augustine of Hippo . [44] Literalist minister/theologian John MacArthur, in Eugenie C. Scott, "Evolution vs Creationism: An Introduction", (University of California Press, 2005), pp. 227-8 [45] Conrad Hyers, "The Meaning of Creation: Genesis and Modern Science", 1984, p. 75 [46] Answers in Genesis - What Was Adam Like?

Creation according to Genesis
• Anderson, Bernhard W. Creation Ver Bernhard W. Understanding the Old Testament (ISBN 0-13-948399-3) • Reis, Pamela Tamarkin (2001). Genesis as Rashomon: The creation as told by God and man. Bible Review ’17’ (3). • G.J. Spurrell, Notes on the Text of the Book of Genesis, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1896. • Davis, John, Paradise to Prison - Studies in Genesis, Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1975, p. 23 • P.N. Benware, "Survey of the Old Testament," Moody Press, Chicago IL, (1993). • Bloom, Harold and Rosenberg, David The Book of J, Random House, NY, USA 1990. • Friedman, Richard E. Who Wrote The Bible?, Harper and Row, NY, USA, 1987. • Nicholson, E. The Pentateuch in the Twentieth Century: The Legacy of Julius Wellhausen Oxford University Press, 2003. • Tigay, Jeffrey, Ed. Empirical Models for Biblical Criticism University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA, USA 1986 • J.D. Douglas et al., "Old Testament Volume: New Commentary on the Whole Bible," Tyndale, Wheaton, IL, (1990)

See also
• • • • • • Allegorical interpretations of Genesis Biblical criticism Documentary hypothesis Enuma Elish Creation myth Sacred history

External links
Sources for the Biblical text
• Chapter 1 Chapter 2 (Hebrew-English text, translated according to the JPS 1917 Edition) • Chpater 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 (HebrewEnglish text, with Rashi’s commentary. The translation is the authoritative Judaica Press version, edited by the esteemed translator and scholar, Rabbi A.J. Rosenberg.) • Chapter 1 Chapter 2 (King James Version) • Chapter 1 Chapter 2 (Revised Standard Version)

• Rouvière, Jean-Marc, (2006), Brèves méditations sur la création du monde L’Harmattan, Paris. • Anderson, Bernhard W. Creation in the Old Testament (editor) (ISBN 0-8006-1768-1)


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Chapter 1 Chapter 2 (New Living Translation) • Chapter 1 Chapter 2 (New American Standard Bible) • Chapter 1 Chapter 2 (New International Version (UK))

Creation according to Genesis
• Mark S. Smith, "The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel’s Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts", Bible and Interpretation. • Review of John Day, Yahweh and the Gods and Goddesses of Canaan (2000). • "Enuma Elish", at Encyclopedia of the Orient Summary of Enuma Elish with links to full text. • Review of Benjamin R. Foster, Before the Muses: An Anthology of Akkadian Literature (2005) Includes comments on parallels between ancient Mesopotamian literature and biblical texts. • "Epic of Gilgamesh" (summary) • Old Earth Interpretation of Genesis • The Mosaic Authorship of the Pentateuch • The Multiple Authorship of the Books Attributed to Moses • Hexaemeron - Catholic Encyclopedia article • Creation Magazine and Ministries • Origin Science - Seeking to reconcile Science with Scripture • Creation Crisis - Examining problems with young-earth creationism

Other resources
• Justin Lee Marple, "Kingdom Prologue, Genesis 1:1-2:3," Feeding the Sheep TorahPresents the Framework View of Genesis 1 • Alexander Heidel, "Babylonian Genesis" A classic text, at Wikibooks • Paul H. Seely, "The Geographical Meaning of ’Éarth’ and ’Seas’ in Genesis 1:10", Westminster Theological Journal 59 (1997)ANE cosmography. • Paul H. Seely, "The Firmament and the Water Above", The Westminster Theological Journal 53 (1991) ANE cosmography • Review of James P. Allen, The Egyptian Pyramid Texts (2005) • Religious practices in late 7th century Israel

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