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Salem__Massachusetts

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									From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Salem, Massachusetts

Salem, Massachusetts
Salem, Massachusetts Area code(s) FIPS code GNIS feature ID Website 351 / 978 25-59105 0614337 http://www.salem.com/

Salem Maritime National Historic Site

Nickname(s): The Witch City

Location in Essex County in Massachusetts

Coordinates: 42°31′10″N 70°53′50″W / 42.51944°N 70.89722°W / 42.51944; -70.89722 Country State County Settled Incorporated A City Government - Type - Mayor Area - Total - Land - Water Elevation United States Massachusetts Essex 1626 1629 1836 Mayor-council city Kimberley Driscoll 18.1 sq mi (46.8 km2) 8.1 sq mi (21.0 km2) 10.0 sq mi (25.8 km2) 9 ft (3 m)

Salem is a city in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 40,407 at the 2000 census. It and Lawrence are the county seats of Essex County.[1] Home to Salem State College, the Salem Willows Park and the Peabody Essex Museum, Salem is a residential and tourist area which includes the neighborhoods of Salem Neck, The Point, South Salem and North Salem, Witchcraft Heights, and the McIntire Historic District (named after Salem’s famous architect and carver, Samuel McIntire). Salem was one of the most significant seaports in early America. It has the first National Historic Site designated by Congress, Salem Maritime National Historic Site, which protects Salem’s historic waterfront. Tourists know Salem as a mix of important historical sites, New Age and Wiccan boutiques, and kitschy Halloween or witchthemed attractions. The most recent (and controversial) addition of significance is a bronze statue of the Samantha Stephens character (played by actress Elizabeth Montgomery) of the Bewitched television program in Salem’s Lappin Park on June 15, 2005. Featured notably in Arthur Miller’s The Crucible, much of the city’s culture is reflective of its role as the location of the Salem Witch Trials of 1692: Police cars are adorned with witch logos, a local public school is known as the Witchcraft Heights Elementary School, the Salem High School football team is named The Witches, and Gallows Hill, a site of numerous public hangings, is currently used as a playing field for various sports.

Population (2007) 40,922 - Total 5,052.1/sq mi (1,948.7/ - Density km2) Time zone - Summer (DST) ZIP code Eastern (UTC-5) Eastern (UTC-4) 01970

History
Salem was founded at the mouth of the Naumkeag River in 1626 (it was originally called Naumkeag and was renamed Salem three years later) by a company of fishermen from Cape Ann led by Roger Conant, and

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Salem, Massachusetts
Marblehead. Most of the accused in the Salem witch trials lived in nearby ’Salem Village’, although a few lived on the outskirts, now known as Danvers. Salem Village also included Peabody and parts of present-day Beverly. Middleton, Topsfield, Wenham and Manchester-by-the-Sea, too, were once parts of Salem. One of the most widely known aspects of Salem is its history of witchcraft allegations, which started with Abigail Williams, Betty Parris, and their friends playing with a Venus glass and egg. Salem achieved further legal notoriety as the site of the Dorothy Talbye trial, where a mentally ill woman was hanged for murdering her daughter, because at the time the Massachusetts common law made no distinction between insanity and criminal behavior.[3] On February 26, 1775, patriots raised the drawbridge at the North River, preventing British Colonel Alexander Leslie and his 300 troops from seizing stores and ammunition hidden in North Salem. A few months later, in May 1775, a group of prominent merchants with ties to Salem, including Francis Cabot, William Pynchon, Thomas Barnard, E.A. Holyoke and William Pickman, felt the need to publish a statement retracting what some interpreted as Loyalist leanings and to profess their dedication to the Colonial cause.[4] During the Revolution, the town became a center for privateering. By 1790, Salem was the sixth largest city in the country, and a world famous seaport—particularly in the China trade. Codfish was exported to the West Indies and Europe. Sugar and molasses were imported from the West Indies, tea from China, and pepper from Sumatra. Salem ships also visited Africa, Russia, Japan and Australia. During the War of 1812, privateering resumed. Prosperity would leave the city with a wealth of fine architecture, including Federal style mansions designed by one of America’s first architects Samuel McIntire, for whom the city’s largest historic district is named. These collection of homes and mansions from Colonial America are now the greatest concentrations of notable pre-1900 domestic structures in the United States. The wealth of architecture in Salem can be directly attributed to the Old China Trade, which was ongoing for years with America and Great Britain.

Nathaniel Hawthorne by Bela Pratt incorporated in 1629. The name "Salem" is related to the Hebrew word "shalom" and Arabic word "salam", both meaning "peace". Salem is also the original name of Jerusalem used in Genesis 14:18.[2] Conant was later supplanted by John Endecott, the governor assigned by the Massachusetts Bay Company. In 1627 a patent was solicited from England and it was obtained by a group led by John Endicott who arrived in Naumkeag in 1628. Endicott and the other settlers of the New England Company now owned the rights to Naumkeag. Fortunately for the peaceful continuity of the settlement, Conant remained in Salem and, despite what must have been a disappointment for him, acceded to Endicott’s authority as the new governor. Conant built the first Salem house on what is Essex Street today, almost opposite the Town Market. In 1639, his was one of the signatures on the building contract for enlarging the meeting house in Town House Square for the First Church in Salem. This document remains part of the town records at City Hall. He was active in the affairs of the town throughout his life. In 1679, he died at the age of 87. Salem originally included much of the North Shore, including

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Incorporated as a city on March 23, 1836 Salem adopted a city seal in 1839 with the motto "Divitis Indiae usque ad ultimum sinum", Latin for "To the farthest port of the rich Indies." Nathaniel Hawthorne was overseer of the port from 1846 until 1849. He worked in the Customs House near Pickering Wharf, his setting for the beginning of The Scarlet Letter. In 1858, an amusement park was established at Salem Willows, a peninsula jutting into the harbor. It should be noted that up until the War of 1812, the port of Salem Massachusetts was the center of trade in America. But shipping would decline through the 19th century. Salem and its silting harbor were increasingly eclipsed by Boston and New York. Consequently, the city turned to manufacturing. Industries included tanneries, shoe factories and the Naumkeag Steam Cotton Company. More than 400 homes burned in the Great Salem Fire of 1914, leaving 3,500 families homeless from a blaze that began in the Korn Leather Factory. The fire ripped into one part of the city, but historical places including City Hall and the historic concentration of Federal architecture on Chestnut Street were spared; the fire left mostly all of Salem’s architectural legacy intact, which helped it develop as a center for tourism. Historic Salem Gallery
[5],

Salem, Massachusetts

Geography
Salem is located at 42°31′1″N 70°53′55″W / 42.51694°N 70.89861°W / 42.51694; -70.89861 (42.516845, -70.898503).[6] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 18.1 square miles (46.8 km²), of which, 8.1 square miles (21.0 km²) of it is land and 9.9 square miles (25.8 km²) of it (55.09%) is water. Salem Harbor faces north onto the Danvers River, a tidal inlet of Massachusetts Bay. Besides driving, there are two ways into Boston, Commuter Rail [7] or Salem High Speed Ferry [8].

Demographics

Essex Street in c. 1920 As of the census[9] of 2000, there were 40,407 people, 17,492 households, and 9,708 families residing in the city. The population density was 4,986.0 people per square mile (1,926.1/km²). There were 18,175 housing units at an average density of 2,242.7/sq mi (866.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 85.37% White, 3.15% African American, 0.22% Native American, 2.00% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 6.74% from other races, and 2.47% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.24% of the population. There were 17,492 households out of which 24.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.8% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 44.5% were non-families. 34.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.95.

Peabody House, c. 1905

Salem Harbor in 1907

Lafayette Street in 1910

Naumkeag Roger WilMills, c. liams 1910 House (or The Witch House) c. 1910

Sampler (needlework) made in Salem in 1791. Art Institute of Chicago textile collection.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Salem, Massachusetts
Grammar School and St. Mary’s School closed in 1971, St. James Grammar School closed in 1972, St. Thomas the Apostle School closed in 1973, St. Anne School closed in 1976, St. John the Baptist School closed in 1977 and St. Joseph High School closed in 1980.[10] In late 2007 and early 2008, the city’s public school system garnered regional and even national attention after officials announced a $4.7 million budget shortfall that threatened the jobs of teachers and other staff members. The Massachusetts General Court passed legislation, and residents raised enough money, that averted teacher layoffs. Several dozen support workers were still laid off.[11] Police were investigating what happened to the money in a search for criminal violations of the law.[12]

Pickering House in c. 1905 In the city the population was spread out with 20.2% under the age of 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 33.4% from 25 to 44, 21.9% from 45 to 64, and 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 86.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $44,033, and the median income for a family was $55,635. Males had a median income of $38,563 versus $31,374 for females. The per capita income for the city was $23,857. About 6.3% of families and 9.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.2% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over.

Transportation
Salem has a station on the MBTA Commuter Rail’s Newburyport/Rockport Line, and is served by numerous MBTA Bus lines which connect to the train station. The cost of a Commuter Rail ticket to Boston is $5.25. No limited-access highways serve Salem, but Massachusetts Route 1A passes through downtown, and the city is close to Interstate 95, Route 1, and Route 128. Between late spring and early autumn, the high-speed Salem Ferry operates between Salem and the New England Aquarium in Boston.

Education
Salem State College is the largest state college in Massachusetts (note that State Colleges are separate from the University of Massachusetts system), with 7,000 undergraduates and 2,500 graduate students; its campus comprises 108 acres (0.44 km2) and 33 buildings. It hosts a regular Speaker Series, featuring major invited speakers. Public elementary schools include the Bates, Bentley, Carlton, Horace Mann, Nathaniel Bowditch, Saltonstall and Witchcraft Heights schools. Collins Middle School, Nathaniel Bowditch School, and Salem High School are located on Highland Avenue. Private schools are also located in the city, including two independent, alternative schools, the Phoenix and the Greenhouse, as well as the Salem Academy Charter School. Salem also once had a very strong Roman Catholic school system. Once home to almost a dozen schools, the last school in the city, St. Joseph, has announced it will close in June 2009. St. James High School, St. Chretienne Academy, St. Chretienne

Tourism
Witch-related tourism
Since the decline of the city’s industrial base, tourism has become an increasingly important part of Salem’s economy. Tourism based on the 1692 witch trials dates back to at least the first half of the 20th century, when dry goods merchant Daniel Low sold souvenir spoons with witch images. Such tourism expanded significantly in the 1970s, when the television comedy Bewitched filmed several episodes here.[13] Witch-related tourism expanded significantly in the 1990s, and the city added an official "Haunted Happenings" celebration during the October tourist season. In 2007, the city launched the Haunted Passport program which offers visitors discounts and benefits from local tourist

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Salem, Massachusetts
Salem is also the setting of the play, The Crucible by Arthur Miller written in the early 1950s.

Other tourist attractions
Salem is home to the oldest National Historic location managed by the National Park Service. Salem Massachusetts was one of the most important ports in the nation prior to the War of 1812, when ships were still small enough to fit into the rather small inner harbor. Lining the downtown are historic buildings, wharves, and the customs house where Nathaniel Hawthorne penned The Scarlet Letter. Other historical tourist attractions include Hawthorne’s birthplace, the House of the Seven Gables which inspired Hawthorne’s novel of the same name, and a reconstructed late 18th-century warehouse from neighboring Marblehead. Many businesses have Salem Walking Tours around all the historic places with Ghost Hunting, talks on the Salem Witch Trials of 1692 & Maritime History.

People lined up to visit the Witch Museum on Halloween attractions and retailers from October to April. The goal of the program is to get visitors to come back to Salem after Halloween and experience businesses that may not be directly tied to Halloween. Thousands watched in 2007 as Mayor Kim Driscoll started a new trend with a massive fireworks display that kicked off at 10:00 pm Halloween.
[14]

In recent years, tourism has been an occasional source of debate in the city, with some residents arguing the city should downplay witch tourism and market itself as a more upscale cultural center. In 2005, the conflict came to a head over plans by the cable television network TV Land to erect a bronze statue of Elizabeth Montgomery, who played the comic witch "Samantha" in the 1960s series Bewitched. A few special episodes of the series were actually filmed in Salem, and TV Land said that the statue commemorated the 35th anniversary of those episodes. The statue was sculpted by StudioEIS under the direction of brothers Elliott and Ivan Schwartz. Many felt the statue was good fun and appropriate to a city that promotes itself as "The Witch City", and contains a street named "Witch Way". Others objected to the use of public property for what was transparently commercial promotion. Some felt that the statue trivialized history by encouraging visitors to recall a sitcom rather than the tragic Salem witch trials. The statue was later vandalized with red spray-painted "X"s over the face and chest, and flags placed in the statue’s hands.

The Friendship replica docked off of Derby Street In 2000 the replica tall ship Friendship was finished and sailed to Salem Harbor, where she sits today. The Friendship is a reconstruction of a 171-foot (52 m) threemasted Salem East Indiaman trading ship, originally built in 1797, which traveled the world over a dozen times and returning to Salem after each voyage with goods from all over the world. The original was taken by the British during the War of 1812 then stripped and sold in pieces. The Peabody Essex Museum is a leading museum of Asian art and culture and early American maritime trade and whaling; its collections of Indian, Japanese, Korean, and Chinese art, and in particular Chinese export

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
porcelain, are among the finest in the country. It is now America’s oldest continuously operating museum, having been founded in 1799. The museum owns and exhibits over 30 historic houses in downtown Salem. In 2003, it completed a massive renovation and expansion, designed by architect Moshe Safdie, and moved a 200-year-old 16-room Chinese home from Xiuning County in southeastern China to the grounds of the Museum. execution of the Salem Witches near this site.

Salem, Massachusetts
The Pickman House, c. 1664, located on Charter Street and believed to be Salem’s oldest surviving building

Points of interest
• • • • • • • Nathaniel Bowditch House (c. 1805) Crowninshield-Bentley House (c. 1727–30) John Tucker Daland House (1851) Gedney House (c. 1665) Nathaniel Hawthorne Birthplace (c. 1730–45) House of the Seven Gables (1668) The Witch House, the home of Salem Witch Trials investigator Jonathan Corwin, and the only building still standing in Salem with direct ties to the Witch Trials Salem Common Misery Islands Peabody Essex Museum (1799) Phillips Library Stephen Phillips Memorial Trust House (1800 & 1821) Pickering House, Broad Street (c. 1651) Ropes Mansion (late 1720s) Marine Arts Gallery McIntire Historic District, greatest concentration of 17th and 18th century domestic structures in the U.S. Salem Maritime National Historic Site, the only remaining intact waterfront from the U.S. age of sail Pioneer Village, Forest River Park (c. 1930) Salem Willows Park (1858), a small oceanfront amusement park. Joseph Story House Winter Island, park and historic point of the U.S. coastguard in WW2 for U-boat patrol

Notable residents
• Brian St. Pierre, QB for the Arizona Cardinals • Nehemiah Adams, clergyman & author • Brunonia Barry, author of The Lace Reader • Frank W. Benson, artist • William Bentley, Unitarian Minister, Salem diarist • Nathaniel Bowditch, mathematician and navigator • Robert Ellis Cahill, sheriff, historian and author • Roger Conant, founder of Salem • Crowninshield family, Boston Brahmins who later helped found Salem • Elias Hasket Derby, merchant, first millionaire [15] • Joseph Horace Eaton, artist and military officer • John Endecott, governor • Nathaniel Hawthorne, writer • Jeff Juden, major league baseball pitcher • Frederick W. Lander, Civil War General, wagon trail and railroad surveyor, poet • Dudley Leavitt (1720–62), early Harvardeducated Congregational minister,[16] New Hampshire native, married to Mary Pickering,[17] Salem’s Leavitt Street named for him [18] • Samuel McIntire, architect & woodcarver • George Swinton Parker, founder of Parker Brothers • Samuel Parris, minister • Samuel Dibble, CEO of MassCore • Timothy Pickering, secretary of state • Benjamin Pickman, early Salem merchant for whom Salem’s Pickman Street is named [19] • Dudley Leavitt Pickman, (1779–1846), state legislator,[20] Salem merchant, partner, Devereux, Pickman & Silsbee,[21] wealthiest Salem merchant of his day
[22][23]

• • • • • • • • •

•

• • • •

The Salem House Gallows Common of the Hill Park. in 2006 Seven Popular leGables gend places the

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• Sarah Parker Remond, abolitionist • Aaron Richmond, impresario and artist manager • Samuel Sewall, magistrate • John F. Tierney, U.S. Congressman • Luke Temple, musician • Founder of Salem Walking Tours, David Kess • Roger Williams, theologian • Laurie Cabot, Wiccan high priestess • Hardcore/metal band Converge (and various associated side projects) are based in Salem. • Singer/Songwriter Mary Lou Lord grew up in Salem • Steve Thomas, former host of PBS’s "This Old House" • Jack Welch, former chairman and CEO of General Electric grew up in Salem, attended Salem High School • Rick Brunson, former NBA star, played for Salem High School • Scoonie Penn, professional basketball player

Salem, Massachusetts

Sister Cities
• • - Oroville, California (USA) 2007[24] - Ota, Japan (Japan) 1991[25]

Further reading
• In the Devil’s Snare: The Salem Witchcraft Crisis of 1692, Mary Beth Norton, Knopf, 2002, hardcover, 432 pages, ISBN 0-375-40709-X

References
• Perley, Sidney. History of Salem, Massachusetts in Three Volumes. Full images at University of Virginia eText Center and the Salem Witch Trial Documentary Archive and Transcription Project. • 1795 Map of Salem. • Saunders, Jonathan P. 1832 Map of Salem. • Beer, D.G. 1872 Atlas of Essex County Map of Salem. Plate 118. • Walker, George H. 1884 Atlas of Essex County Salem South. Plate 16. Salem North. Plate 17. • Various Salem Atlases. • Hopkins, C.M. Atlas of Salem, Massachusetts. Published in 1874.

• Sanborn Map Co. Map of Salem Showing Area Destroyed by Fire June 25, 1914. • Atlas of Salem for 1890-1903 Index Map. Page selection. • 1897 Atlas of Salem Massachusetts Index Map. • Walker. 1911 Atlas of Salem, Massachusetts. • Salem 1906-1938 Index or Key Map. • Vital Records of Salem, Massachusetts to 1849. Published 1916, 1918, 1924, 1925. Transcribed and put online by John Slaugher. [1] "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/ Template.cfm?Section=Find_a_County&Template=/ cffiles/counties/usamap.cfm. Retrieved on 2008-01-31. [2] MileChai.com definition [3] Albert Christophe. "The Romantic Story of the Puritan Fathers: And Their Founding of NewBoston". http://books.google.com/ books?id=648_AAAAMAAJ&pg=PA131&lpg=PA131& Retrieved on 2007-11-14. [4] The Loyalists of Massachusetts and the Other Side of the American Revolution, James H. Stark, James H. Stark, Boston, 1910 [5] Salem history [6] "US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2005-05-03. http://www.census.gov/geo/ www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved on 2008-01-31. [7] Boston Rail route map [8] Salem Ferry schedule [9] "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved on 2008-01-31. [10] Salem News [11] Salem News [12] Salem News [13] Harpies Bizarre [14] Salem News [15] Hasket Derby Pickman, Harvard College class of 1815 and son of Col. Benjamin Pickman Esq. and his wife Anstiss Derby, daughter of merchant Elias Hasket Derby and his wife Elizabeth Crowninshield, died the year he graduated from Harvard.[1] [16] The Native Ministry of New Hampshire, Nathan Franklin Carter, Rumford Printing Co., Concord, N.H., 1906

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[17] The Life of Timothy Pickering, Vol. II, Octavius Pickering, Charles Wentworth Upham, Little, Brown & Co., Boston, 1873 [18] Leavitt was minister of a splinter church of Salem’s First Church. Upon Leavitt’s untimely death in 1762, the church elected to call itself ’the Church of which the Rev. Mr. Dudley Leavitt was late Pastor.’[2] [19] Naturalization papers of Benjamin Pickman, Dudley Leavitt Pickman Papers, Phillips Library Collection, Peabody Essex Museum, pem.org/ museum [20] Acts and Resolves Passed by the General Court, Russell, Cutler & Co., Boston, 1812-1815 [21] George Nichols, Salem Shipmaster and Merchant, George Nichols, Martha Nichols, Reprinted by Ayers Publishing, 1970 [22] Yankee India: American Commercial and Cultural Encounters with India in the Age of Sail, 1784–1860, Susan S. Bean, Peabody Essex Museum, Published by Peabody Essex Museum, 2001

Salem, Massachusetts
[23] History of Essex County, Massachusetts, Vol. I, Douglas Hamilton Hurd, J.W. Lewis & Co., Philadelphia, 1888 [24] Chico considers establishing permanent sister city guidelines - Chico Enterprise Record [25] This resulted from the affiliation between Salem’s Peabody Essex Museum (PEM) and the Ota Folk Museum in Japan.

External links
• City of Salem • A multimedia walking tour of Salem • Salem Public Library • The First Church in Salem • SalemWeb • Salem Police Department • Stephen Phillips Memorial Trust House • This Week in Salem History • History of the Salem Common • The Bewitched Statue of Salem MA • Salem Old Town Hall Coordinates: 42°31′01″N 70°53′55″W / 42.516845°N 70.898503°W / 42.516845; -70.898503

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salem,_Massachusetts" Categories: Salem, Massachusetts, Cities in Massachusetts, Essex County, Massachusetts, Coastal settlements in Massachusetts, Witchcraft, Settlements established in 1626, County seats in Massachusetts, Salem witch trials This page was last modified on 20 May 2009, at 23:30 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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