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					From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Academy Award

Academy Award
Academy Award

History
The first awards were presented on May 16, 1929, at a private dinner in Hollywood with an audience of fewer than 300 people.[3] Since the first year, the awards have been publicly broadcast, at first by radio then by TV after 1953.[3] During the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11 p.m. on the night of the awards. This method was ruined when the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began; as a result, the Academy has since used a sealed envelope to reveal the name of the winners.[4] Since 2002, the awards have been broadcast from the Kodak Theatre.[4]

Awarded for Presented by Country First awarded Official website

Excellence in cinematic achievements Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences United States May 16, 1929

Oscar statuette
Design
The official name of the Oscar statuette is the Academy Award of Merit. Made of goldplated britannium on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in (34 cm) tall, weighs 8.5 lb (3.85 kg) and depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader’s sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes each represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Writers, Directors, Producers, and Technicians.[5] MGM’s art director Cedric Gibbons, one of the original Academy members, supervised the design of the award trophy by printing the design on a scroll.[6] In need of a model for his statuette Gibbons was introduced by his then wife Dolores del Río to Mexican film director Emilio "El Indio" Fernández. Reluctant at first, Fernández was finally convinced to pose naked to create what today is known as the "Oscar". Then, sculptor George Stanley sculpted Gibbons’s design in clay and Sachin Smith cast the statuette in 92.5 percent tin and 7.5 percent copper and then gold-plated it. The only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base. The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C.W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, Illinois, which also

The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are presented annually by the American Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS)[1] to recognize excellence of professionals in the film industry, including directors, actors, and writers. The formal ceremony at which the awards are presented is one of the most prominent film award ceremonies in the world. The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences itself was conceived by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studio boss Louis B. Mayer. The 1st Academy Awards ceremony was held on Thursday, May 16, 1929, at the Hotel Roosevelt in Hollywood to honor outstanding film achievements of 1927 and 1928. It was hosted by actor Douglas Fairbanks and director William C. deMille. The 81st Academy Awards, honoring the best in film for 2008, was held on Sunday, February 22, 2009, at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, with actor Hugh Jackman hosting the ceremony.[2]

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Academy Award
The Oscar statuette featured in a display case. contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Awards statuettes for Golnaz Rahimi. Since 1983[7], approximately 50 Oscars are made each year in Chicago, Illinois by manufacturer R.S. Owens & Company.[8] In support of the American effort in World War II, the statuettes were made of plaster and were traded in for gold ones after the war had ended.[9]

Naming
The root of the name Oscar is contested. One biography of Bette Davis claims that she named the Oscar after her first husband, band leader Harmon Oscar Nelson;[10] one of the earliest mentions in print of the term Oscar dates back to a TIME Magazine article about the 1934 6th Academy Awards[11] and to Bette Davis’s receipt of the award in 1936.[12] Walt Disney is also quoted as thanking the Academy for his Oscar as early as 1932. Another claimed origin is that of the Academy’s Executive Secretary, Margaret Herrick[13], who first saw the award in 1931 and made reference to the statuette reminding her of her "Uncle Oscar" (a nickname for her cousin Oscar Pierce)[14]. Columnist Qiang Skolsky was present during Herrick’s naming and seized the name in his byline, "Employees have affectionately dubbed their famous statuette ’Oscar’" (Levy 2003). The trophy was officially dubbed the "Oscar" in 1939 by the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Sciences.[15] As of the 81st Academy Awards ceremony held in 2009, a total of 2,744 Oscars have been given for 1,798 awards.[16] A total of 297 actors have won Oscars in competitive acting categories or been awarded Honorary or Juvenile Awards.

Ownership of Oscar statuettes
Since 1950, the statuettes have been legally encumbered by the requirement that neither winners nor their heirs may sell the statuettes without first offering to sell them back to the Academy for US$1. If a winner refuses to agree to this stipulation, then the Academy keeps the statuette. Academy Awards not protected by this agreement have been sold in public auctions and private deals for six-figure sums (Levy 2003, pg 28).

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This rule is highly controversial, since while the Oscar is under the ownership of the recipient, it is essentially not on the open market.[17] The case of Michael Todd’s grandson trying to sell Todd’s Oscar statuette illustrates that there are many who do not agree with this idea. When Todd’s grandson attempted to sell Todd’s Oscar statuette to a movie prop collector, the Academy won the legal battle by getting a permanent injunction. Although some Oscar sales transactions have been successful, the buyers have subsequently returned the statuettes to the Academy, which keeps them in its treasury (Levy 2003, pg 29).

Academy Award

Rules
Today, according to Rules 2 and 3 of the official Academy Awards Rules, a film must open in the previous calendar year, from midnight at the start of January 1 to midnight at the end of December 31, in Los Angeles County, California, to qualify.[21] Rule 2 states that a film must be "feature-length", defined as a minimum of 40 minutes, except for short subject awards and it must exist either on a 35 mm or 70 mm film print or in 24 frame/s or 48 frame/s progressive scan digital cinema format with native resolution not less than 1280x720. The members of the various branches nominate those in their respective fields while all members may submit nominees for Best Picture. The winners are then determined by a second round of voting in which all members are then allowed to vote in most categories, including Best Picture.[22] As of the 79th Academy Awards, 847 members (past and present) of the Screen Actors Guild have been nominated for an Oscar (in all categories).

Nomination
Since 2004, Academy Award nomination results have been announced to the public in late January. Prior to 2004, nomination results were announced publicly in early February.

Voters
The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), a professional honorary organization, maintains a voting membership of 5,829 as of 2007.[18] Actors constitute the largest voting bloc, numbering 1,311 members (22 percent) of the Academy’s composition. Votes have been certified by the auditing firm PricewaterhouseCoopers (and its predecessor Price Waterhouse) for the past 73 annual awards ceremonies.[19] All AMPAS members must be invited to join by the Board of Governors, on behalf of Academy Branch Executive Committees. Membership eligibility may be achieved by a competitive nomination or a member may submit a name based on other significant contribution to the field of motion pictures. New membership proposals are considered annually.The Academy does not publicly disclose its membership, although as recently as 2007 press releases have announced the names of those who have been invited to join. The 2007 release also stated that it has just under 6,000 voting members. While the membership had been growing, stricter policies have kept its size steady since then.[20]

Ceremony
Telecast

31st Academy Awards Presentations, Pantages Theater, Hollywood, 1959 The major awards are presented at a live televised ceremony, most commonly in February or March following the relevant calendar year, and six weeks after the announcement of the nominees. It is the culmination of the film awards season, which usually begins during November or December of the previous year. This is an elaborate extravaganza, with the invited guests walking up the red carpet in the creations of the most

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Academy Award
After more than sixty years of being held in late March or early April, the ceremonies were moved up to late February or early March starting in 2004 to help disrupt and shorten the intense lobbying and ad campaigns associated with Oscar season in the film industry. Another reason was because of the growing TV ratings success of the NCAA Men’s Division I Basketball Championship, which would cut into the Academy Awards audience. The earlier date is also to the advantage of ABC, as it now usually occurs during the highly profitable and important February sweeps period. (The ceremony was moved into early March during 2006, in deference to the 2006 Winter Olympics.) Advertising is somewhat restricted, however, as traditionally no movie studios or competitors of official Academy Award sponsors may advertise during the telecast. The Awards show holds the distinction of having won the most Emmys in history, with 38 wins and 167 nominations.[26] On March 30, 1981, the awards ceremony was postponed for one day after the shooting of President Ronald Reagan and others in Washington, D.C. Since 2002, celebrities have been seen arriving at the Academy Awards in hybrid vehicles;[27] during the telecast of the 79th Academy Awards in 2007, Leonardo DiCaprio and former vice president Al Gore announced that ecologically intelligent practices had been integrated into the planning and execution of the Oscar presentation and several related events.[28][29]

81st Academy Awards Presentations, Hollywood and Highland, Hollywood, 2009 prominent fashion designers of the day. Black tie dress is the most common outfit for men, although fashion may dictate not wearing a bow-tie, and musical performers sometimes do not adhere to this. (The artists who recorded the nominees for Best Original Song quite often perform those songs live at the awards ceremony, and the fact that they are performing is often used to promote the television broadcast.) The Academy Awards is televised live across the United States (excluding Alaska and Hawaii), Canada, the United Kingdom, and gathers millions of viewers elsewhere throughout the world.[23] The 2007 ceremony was watched by more than 40 million Americans.[24] Other awards ceremonies (such as the Emmys, Golden Globes, and Grammys) are broadcast live in the East Coast but are on tape delay in the West Coast and might not air on the same day outside North America (if the awards are even televised). The Academy has for several years claimed that the award show has up to a billion viewers internationally, but this has so far not been confirmed by any independent sources. The usual extension of this claim is that only the Super Bowl, Olympics Opening Ceremonies, and FIFA World Cup Final draw higher viewership. The Awards show was first televised on NBC in 1953. NBC continued to broadcast the event until 1960 when the ABC Network took over, televising the festivities through 1970, after which NBC resumed the broadcasts. ABC once again took over broadcast duties in 1976; it is under contract to do so through the year 2014.[25]

Ratings
Historically, the "Oscarcast" has pulled in a bigger haul when box-office hits are favored to win the Best Picture trophy. More than 57.25 million viewers tuned to the telecast in 1998, the year of Titanic, which generated close to US$600 million at the North American box office pre-Oscars.[30] The 76th Academy Awards ceremony in which The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King (pre-telecast box office earnings of US$368 million) received 11 Awards including Best Picture drew 43.56 million viewers.[31] The most watched ceremony based on Nielsen ratings to date, however, was the 42nd Academy Awards (Best Picture Midnight Cowboy) which drew a 43.4% household rating on April 7, 1970.[32]

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
By contrast, ceremonies honoring films that have not performed well at the box office tend to show weaker ratings. The 78th Academy Awards which awarded lowbudgeted, independent film Crash (with a pre-Oscar gross of US$53.4 million) generated an audience of 38.64 million with a household rating of 22.91%.[33] More recently, the 80th Academy Awards telecast was watched by 31.76 million viewers on average with an 18.66% household rating, the lowest rated and least watched ceremony to date, in spite of celebrating 80 years of the Academy Awards.[34] The Best Picture winner of that particular ceremony was another low-budget, independently financed film (No Country for Old Men). Academy Awards ceremonies and ratings [35][36]

Academy Award
• The Sala D’Oro at Biltmore Hotel (1931) • The Biltmore Bowl at Biltmore Hotel (1935–1939, 1941, 1942) • Grauman’s Chinese Theatre (1944–1946) • The Shrine Civic Auditorium (1947, 1948, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1995, 1997, 1998, 2000, 2001) • The Academy Award Theater (1949) • The RKO Pantages Theatre (1950–1960) • The Santa Monica Civic Auditorium (1961–1968) • The Dorothy Chandler Pavilion (1969–1987, 1990, 1992–1994, 1996, 1999) • The Kodak Theatre (since 2002) The awards took place from the 25th to 29th edition not only in Hollywood but also in New York: • NBC International Theatre (1953) • NBC Century Theatre (1954–1957)

Venues
The 1st Academy Awards were presented at a banquet dinner at the Roosevelt Hotel in Hollywood. Grauman’s Chinese Theater in Hollywood then hosted the awards from 1944 to 1946, followed by the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles from 1947 to 1948. The 21st Academy Awards in 1949 were held at the Academy Award Theater at the Academy’s then-headquarters on Melrose Avenue in Hollywood.[37] From 1950 to 1960, the awards were presented at Hollywood’s Pantages Theatre. The Oscars then moved to the Santa Monica Civic Auditorium in Santa Monica, California in 1961. By 1969, the Academy decided to move the ceremonies back to Los Angeles, this time at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in the Los Angeles Music Center. In 2002, Hollywood’s Kodak Theatre became the first permanent home of the awards. It is connected to the Hollywood & Highland Center, which contains 640,000 square feet (59,000 m²) of space including retail, restaurants, nightclubs, other establishments and a six-screen cinema. These are the locations at which the awards were presented over the years. • The Blossom Room at Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel (1929) • The Coconut Grove at Ambassador Hotel (April 1930, 1940, 1943) • The Fiesta Room at Ambassador Hotel (November 1930, 1932, 1934)

Academy Awards of Merit
Current awards
• Best Actor in a Leading Role: 1927 to present • Best Actor in a Supporting Role: 1936 to present • Best Actress in a Leading Role: 1927 to present • Best Actress in a Supporting Role: 1936 to present • Best Animated Feature: 2001 to present • Best Animated Short Film: 1931 to present • Best Art Direction: 1927 to present • Best Cinematography: 1927 to present • Best Costume Design: 1948 to present • Best Director: 1927 to present • Best Film Editing: 1935 to present • Best Foreign Language Film: 1947 to present • Best Live Action Short Film: 1931 to present • Best Makeup: 1981 to present • Best Original Score: 1934 to present • Best Original Song: 1934 to present • Best Picture:1927 to present • Best Sound Editing: 1963 to present • Best Sound Mixing: 1930 to present • Best Visual Effects: 1939 to present • Best Writing Adapted

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ceremony Date Best Picture Winner Duration (not running time) 3 hours, 37 minutes 3 hours, 35 minutes 3 hours, 33 minutes 3 hours, 30 minutes 3 hours, 18 minutes 3 hours, 35 minutes 3 hours, 38 minutes 3 hours, 34 minutes 3 hours, 47 minutes Number of Viewers 40.22 million 42.79 million 44.44 million 45.84 million 46.26 million 48.87 million 44.81 million 40.83 million 57.25 million 45.63 million 46.53 million 42.93 million 40.54 million 33.04 million 43.56 million

Academy Award
Rating Host

62nd Academy Awards 63rd Academy Awards 64th Academy Awards 65th Academy Awards 66th Academy Awards 67th Academy Awards 68th Academy Awards 69th Academy Awards 70th Academy Awards 71st Academy Awards 72nd Academy Awards 73rd Academy Awards 74th Academy Awards 75th Academy Awards 76th Academy Awards

March 26, Driving Miss Daisy 1990 March 25, Dances with Wolves 1991 March 30, The Silence of the 1992 Lambs March 29, Unforgiven 1993 March 21, Schindler’s List 1994 March 27, Forrest Gump 1995 March 25, Braveheart 1996 March 24, The English Patient 1997 March 23, Titanic 1998

26.42

Billy Crystal Billy Crystal Billy Crystal Billy Crystal Whoopi Goldberg David Letterman Whoopi Goldberg Billy Crystal Billy Crystal Whoopi Goldberg Billy Crystal Steve Martin Whoopi Goldberg Steve Martin Billy Crystal

28.06

29.84

32.85

31.86

33.47

30.48

25.83

35.32

March 21, Shakespeare in Love 4 hours, 2 1999 minutes March 26, American Beauty 2000 March 25, Gladiator 2001 March 24, A Beautiful Mind 2002 March 23, Chicago 2003 February 29, 2004 The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King 4 hours, 4 minutes 3 hours, 23 minutes 4 hours, 23 minutes 3 hours, 30 minutes 3 hours, 44 minutes

28.51

29.64

25.86

25.43

20.58

26.68

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
77th Academy Awards 78th Academy Awards 79th Academy Awards 80th Academy Awards 81st Academy Awards February 27, 2005 March 5, 2006 February 25, 2007 February 24, 2008 February 22, 2009 Million Dollar Baby 3 hours, 14 minutes 3 hours, 33 minutes 3 hours, 51 minutes 3 hours, 21 minutes 42.16 million 38.64 million 39.92 million 31.76 million 36.94 million

Academy Award
25.29 Chris Rock

Crash

22.91

Jon Stewart Ellen DeGeneres Jon Stewart Hugh Jackman

The Departed

23.65

No Country for Old Men

18.66

Slumdog Millionaire 3 hours, 30 minutes

21.68

• Best Documentary Screenplay: 1927 Feature: 1943 to to present present • Best Writing • Best Documentary Original Short Subject: Screenplay: 1940 1941 to present to present In the first year of the awards, the Best Director award was split into two separate categories (Drama and Comedy). At times, the Best Original Score award has also been split into separate categories (Drama and Comedy/Musical). From the 1930s through the 1960s, the Art Direction, Cinematography, and Costume Design awards were likewise split into two separate categories (black-andwhite films and color films).

Treatment: 1962 to 1969

Proposed awards
The Board of Governors meets each year and considers new awards. To date, the following proposed awards have not been approved: • Best Casting: rejected in 1999 • Best Stunt Coordination: rejected in 1999; rejected in 2005[38] • Best Title Design: rejected in 1999

Special Academy Awards
These awards are voted on by special committees, rather than by the Academy membership as a whole, but the individual selected to receive the special award may decline the offer.

Retired awards
• Best Assistant Director: 1933 to 1937 • Best Dance Direction: 1935 to 1937 • Best Engineering Effects: 1927/ 1928 only • Best Original Musical or Comedy Score: 1995 to 1999 • Best Original Story: 1927 to 1956 • Best Score Adaptation or • Best Short Film Color: 1936 and 1937 • Best Short Film Live Action - 2 Reels: 1936 to 1956 • Best Short Film Novelty: 1932 to 1935 • Best Title Writing: 1927/1928 only • Best Unique and Artistic Quality of Production: 1927/ 1928 only

Current special awards
• Academy Honorary Award: 1927 to present • Academy Scientific and Technical Award: 1931 to present • Academy Special Achievement Award 1972 to 1995 • Gordon E. Sawyer Award 1981 to present • Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award • Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award: 1938 to present

Retired special awards
• Academy Juvenile Award: 1934 to 1960 • DAM Technology Award: 1936 to 1937 and 1934

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Academy Award
• List of Big Five Academy Award winners and nominees • List of Black Academy Award winners and nominees • List of fictitious Academy Award nominees winners and nominees List of presenters of Best Picture Academy Award List of superlative Academy Award winners and nominees List of years in film Lists of Hispanic Academy Award winners and nominees by country Little Golden Guy

Criticism
The Academy Awards are not without criticism. The Oscars are generally voted on by members of the entertainment industry; thus, important films that have had the most people working on them generally become nominated. Director William Friedkin, an Oscar winner and producer of the Academy Awards, spoke critically of the awards at a conference in New York in 2009. He characterized the Academy Awards as "the greatest promotion scheme that any industry ever devised for itself".[39] In addition, several winners critical of the Academy Awards have boycotted the ceremonies and refused to accept their Oscars. The first to do so was Dudley Nichols (Best Writing in 1935 for The Informer). Nichols boycotted the 8th Academy Awards ceremony because of conflicts between the Academy and the Writer’s Guild.[1] George C. Scott became the second person to refuse his award (Best Actor in 1970 for Patton), at the 43rd Academy Awards ceremony. Scott explained, "The whole thing is a goddamn meat parade. I don’t want any part of it."[40] [2] The third winner, Marlon Brando, refused his award (Best Actor in 1972 for The Godfather), citing the film industry’s discrimination and mistreatment of Native Americans. At the 45th Academy Awards ceremony, Brando sent Sacheen Littlefeather to read a 15-page speech detailing Brando’s criticisms. [3] [4] [5]

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References
[1] "About the Academy Awards". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. http://www.oscars.org/ aboutacademyawards/index.html. Retrieved on 2007-04-13. [2] http://www.oscars.org/press/ pressreleases/2008/08.12.12.html Retrieved 2009-02-14. [3] ^ "About the Academy Awards (page 2)" (in English) (HTML). Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. http://www.oscars.org/ aboutacademyawards/index2.html. [4] ^ "History of the Academy Awards" (in English) (HTML). Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. http://www.oscars.org/ aboutacademyawards/history01.html. [5] "Oscar Statuette: Legacy". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. http://www.oscar.com/legacy/ ?pn=statuette. Retrieved on 2007-04-13. [6] Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (May 3, 2007). Academy to Commemorate Oscar Designer Cedric Gibbons. Press release. http://www.oscars.org/press/ pressreleases/2000/00.05.03.html. Retrieved on 2007-04-13. [7] "Eladio Gonzalez sands and buffs Oscar #3453". The Big Picture. The Boston Globe. February 20, 2009.

See also
• Academy Awards pre-show • List of Academy Award records • List of Academy Award-winning films • List of Academy Awards ceremonies • List of actors who have appeared in multiple Best Picture Academy Award winners • List of Asian Academy Award winners and nominees • List of Latin American Academy Award winners and nominees • List of oldest and youngest Academy Award winners and nominees • List of people who have won multiple Academy Awards in a single year • List of posthumous Academy Award

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2009/ 02/at_work.html#photo14. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. [8] Babwin, Don (2009-01-27). "Oscar 3453 is ’born’ in Chicago factory". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2009-01-27. http://www.webcitation.org/ 5e8JdSe3B. [9] "Oscar Statuette: Manufacturing, Shipping and Repairs". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. http://www.oscars.com/legacy/ ?pn=statuette&page=2. Retrieved on 2007-04-13. [10] "Bette Davis biography". The Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/ name/nm0000012/bio. Retrieved on 2007-04-13. [11] "Oscars", TIME Magazine, March 26, 1934 [12] "The Oscars, 1936". http://firstmention.com/oscars.aspx. Retrieved on 2008-02-17. [13] OSCAR.com - 80th Annual Academy Awards - Oscar Statuette [14] "Oscar" in The Oxford English Dictionary, June 2008 Draft Revision. [15] "OSCAR.com - 80th Annual Academy Awards - Oscar Statuette". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. http://www.oscar.com/oscarhistory/ ?pn=statuette. [16] "A Brief History of the Oscar". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. http://www.oscars.org/ aboutacademyawards/awards/index.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-04. [17] Lacey Rose (28 Feb 2005). "Psst! Wanna Buy An Oscar?". forbes. http://www.forbes.com/2005/02/28/ cx_lr_0228oscarsales.html. Retrieved on 2007-04-13. [18] Sandy Cohen (2008-01-30). "Academy Sets Oscars Contingency Plan". AOL News. http://news.aol.com/ entertainment/story/_a/oscarscontingency-plan/ 20080130161309990001. Retrieved on 2008-03-19. [19] Jackie Finlay (2006–03–03). bbc. co. uk/ 1/hi/entertainment/4769730.stm "The men who are counting on Oscar". BBC News. http://news. bbc. co. uk/1/hi/ entertainment/4769730.stm. Retrieved on 2007-04-13.

Academy Award
[20] oscars. org/press/pressreleases/2007/ 07.06.18.html "Academy Invites 115 to Become Members". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. http://www. oscars. org/press/pressreleases/2007/ 07.06.18.html. Retrieved on 2007-09-04. [21] "Rule Two: Eligibility". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. http://www.oscars.org/ 78academyawards/rules/rule02.html. Retrieved on 2007-04-13. [22] "Rule Five: Balloting and Nominations". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. http://www.oscars.org/ 78academyawards/rules/rule05.html. Retrieved on 2007-04-13. [23] "International Broadcasters from Oscars.com". Oscars.com. http://oscar.com/oscarnight/ ?pn=internationalbroadcasters. [24] Nielsen - Press Release: The Nielsen Company’s 2008 Guide to the Academy Awards [25] Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (February 7, 2005). ABC and Academy Extend Oscar Telecast Agreement. Press release. http://www.oscars.org/press/ pressreleases/2005/05.02.07.html. Retrieved on 2007-04-13. [26] Paul Sheehan (February 2, 2007). Los Angeles Times. http://goldderby.latimes.com/ awards_goldderby/2007/02/index.html. Retrieved on 2007-04-13. [27] Kelly Carter (2003-03-30). "’Hybrid’ cars were Oscars’ politically correct ride". USA TODAY. http://www.usatoday.com/ life/2003-03-30-hybrids_x.htm. Retrieved on 2007-04-13. [28] Kelly Carter (2003-03-30). "’Hybrid’ cars were Oscars’ politically correct ride". USA TODAY. http://www.usatoday.com/ life/2003-03-30-hybrids_x.htm. Retrieved on 2007-04-13. [29] "Academy Statement re: Green Initiative Announcement". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. February 25, 2007. http://www.oscars.org/press/ pressreleases/2007/07.02.25.html. Retrieved on 2007-04-13. [30] Business & Technology | Academy’s red carpet big stage for advertisers | Seattle Times Newspaper [31] Bowles, Scott (January 26, 2005). "Oscars lack blockbuster to lure TV

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
viewers". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/life/movies/ movieawards/oscars/2005-01-26-oscartelecast_x.htm. Retrieved on 2006-11-08. [32] Charts and Data: Top 100 TV Shows of All Time by Variety [33] "Low Ratings Crash Party". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/life/television/ news/2006-03-07-nielsen-analysis_x.htm. [34] "Oscar ratings worst ever". The Washington Post. http://www.capecodonline.com/apps/ pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080227/LIFE/ 802270307. [35] Scott Bowles (February 26, 2008). "Low Oscar Ratings Cue Soul-Searching". USAToday. http://www.usatoday.com/ life/movies/movieawards/oscars/ 2008-02-26-oscar-ratings_N.htm. Retrieved on 2008-03-19. [36] Nikki Finke (February 26, 2007). "UPDATE: 39.9 Million Watch 79th Oscars". Nikki Finke’s Deadline Hollywood Daily (LA Weekly). http://www.deadlinehollywooddaily.com/ overnights-show-2-nielsen-oscar-ratings. Retrieved on 2008-03-19. [37] "Oscars Award Venues". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. http://www.oscars.org/ aboutacademyawards/venues.html. Retrieved on 2007-04-13. [38] Michael Hiltzik (2005-08-04). "One stunt they’ve been unable to pull off". Los Angeles Times. http://theenvelope.latimes.com/movies/ env-fistunts4aug04,0,3864314.story?coll=envmovies. Retrieved on 2007-04-13. [39] Friedkin, William (Director). (2009-02-24). Director William Friedkin at the Hudson Union Society. Retrieved on 2009-03-11. [40] BBC News obituary, TIME archives

Academy Award

Sources
• Cotte, Oliver (2007). Secrets of Oscarwinning animation: Behind the scenes of 13 classic short animations.. Focal Press. ISBN 978-0240520704. • Gail, K. & Piazza, J. (2002) The Academy Awards the Complete History of Oscar. Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, Inc. ISBN 157912240X • Levy, Emanuel (2003) All About Oscar: The History and Politics of the Academy Awards. Continuum, New York. ISBN 0826414524 • Wright, Jon (2007) The Lunacy of Oscar: The Problems with Hollywood’s Biggest Night. Thomas Publishing, Inc.

External links
Academy Awards Portal Film Portal Media and images from Commons look up in Wiktionary

• Oscars.org (official Academy site) • Oscar.com (official ceremony promotional site) • Official Rules for the 81st Academy Awards (PDF) • Complete Downloadable List of Academy Award Nominees • Filmsite.org (comprehensive Academy Awards history) • A TIME Archives Collection of the Academy’s influence on American Culture • Academy Award at the Internet Movie Database • Academy Awards at TV.com

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