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Vienna

Vienna
Vienna Wien Type Criteria Reference Region** Cultural ii, iv, vi 1033 Europe and North America

Inscription history Inscription 2001 (25th Session)

* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List. ** Region as classified by UNESCO.
Flag Seal

Location of Vienna in Austria

Coordinates: 48°12′31.5″N 16°22′21.3″E / 48.20875°N 16.372583°E / 48.20875; 16.372583 State Government - Mayor and governor Area - City - Land - Water Elevation Austria Michael Häupl (SPÖ)

414.90 km2 (160.2 sq mi) 395.51 km2 (152.7 sq mi) 19.39 km2 (7.5 sq mi) 190 m (623 ft)

Vienna (pronounced /viːˈɛna/; German: Wien IPA: [ˈviːn]) is the capital of the Republic of Austria and also one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria’s primary city, with a population of about 1.7 million[1] (2.3 million within the metropolitan area), it is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 10th largest city by population in the European Union. Vienna is host to many major international organizations such as the United Nations and OPEC. Vienna lies in the east of Austria and is close to the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site[2] and in 2005 an Economist Intelligence Unit study of 127 world cities ranked it first equal with Vancouver for the quality of life.[3] This assessment was mirrored by the Mercer Survey in 2009.[4][5]

Name
The English name of Vienna, the German name Wien, and the names of the city in most languages, are thought to be derived from the Celtic name of a settlement, but opinions vary on the precise origin. Some claim that the name comes from Vedunia, meaning "forest stream", which subsequently became Venia, Wienne and Wien. Others claim that the name comes from the name of the Roman settlement Vindobona, probably meaning "white soil" or "white property", which became Vindovina, Viden and Wien.[6] The name of the city in Hungarian (Bécs), Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian (Beč) and

Population (1st quarter of 2009) 1.680.266 - City 4,011/km2 (10,388.4/ - Density sq mi) 2,268,656 (01.02.2007) - Metro Time zone - Summer (DST) Website CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) www.wien.at

Historic Centre of Vienna* UNESCO World Heritage Site State Party Austria

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Ottoman Turkish (Beç) appears to have a different, Slavonic, origin.[7]

Vienna

History

View of Vienna in 1758, by Canaletto incorporated, and the city of Vienna grew dramatically. In 1918, after World War I, Vienna became capital of the First Austrian Republic. During the 1920s and 1930s, it was a bastion of socialism in Austria, and was known as the "Red Vienna." The city was a stage to the Austrian Civil War of 1934, when Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss sent the Austrian Army to shell civilian housing occupied by the socialist militia. In 1938, after a triumphant entry into Austria, Adolf Hitler famously spoke to the Austrian people from the balcony of the Neue Burg, a part of the Hofburg at the Heldenplatz. Between 1938 (Anschluß) and the end of the Second World War, Vienna lost its status as a capital to Berlin. In 1945, the Soviets successfully launched the Vienna Offensive against Germans who were holding Vienna. The city was besieged for about two weeks before it fell to the Soviets. After 1945, Vienna again became the capital of Austria, was initially divided into zones by the four powers (or the four prevailing nations), and was governed by the Allied Commission for Austria. The four-power occupation of Vienna differed in some respects from the four-power occupation of Berlin: the central area of Vienna had an international zone in which the four powers alternated on a monthly basis. When the Berlin blockade occurred in 1948, Vienna was even more vulnerable because there was no airport in the western sectors. However, despite fears, the Soviets did not blockade Vienna. Some have argued that this was because the Potsdam Agreement gave written rights of land access to the western sectors, whereas no such written guarantees had been given regarding Berlin. The true reason will, however, always remain a matter of speculation. During the 10 years of foreign occupation, Vienna

Roman ruins at Michaelerplatz Founded around 500 BC, Vienna was originally a Celtic settlement. In 15 BC, Vienna became a Roman frontier city (Vindobona) guarding the Roman Empire against Germanic tribes to the north. In the 13th century, Vienna came under the threat from the Mongolian Empire, which stretched over much of present-day Russia and China. However, due to the death of its leader, Ogedei Khan, the Mongolian armies receded from the European frontier and did not return. During the Middle Ages, Vienna was home to the Babenberg Dynasty, and in 1440 AD, it became the resident city of the Habsburg Dynasties, then it eventually grew to become the capital of the Holy Roman Empire and a cultural centre for arts and science, music and fine cuisine. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Ottoman armies were stopped twice outside Vienna (see Siege of Vienna, 1529 and Battle of Vienna, 1683). In 1804, Vienna became the capital of the Austrian Empire and continued to play a major role in European and world politics, including hosting the 1814 Congress of Vienna. After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, Vienna remained the capital of what was then the Austro-Hungarian Empire. During the latter half of the 19th century, the city developed what had previously been the bastions and glacis into the Ringstraße, a major prestige project. Former suburbs were

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Year 1754 1800 271,800 1961 1850 551,300 1971 1900 1910 1923

Vienna
1939

175,460 Total population Year 1951

1,769,137 2,083,630 1,918,720 1,770,938 1981 1991 2001 2008

1,616,125 1,627,566 1,619,885 1,531,346 1,539,848 1,550,123 1,678,435 Total population became a hot-bed for international espionage between the Western and Eastern blocs. The atmosphere of four-power Vienna is captured in the Graham Greene novel The Third Man and by the movie which followed. In the 1970s, Austrian Chancellor Bruno Kreisky inaugurated the Vienna International Centre, a new area of the city created to host international institutions. Vienna has regained a part of its former international relevance by hosting international organizations, such as the United Nations (UNIDO, UNOV, CTBTO and UNODC), the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries, and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. Slavic or Hungarian origin. By 2001, 16% of people under the census living in Vienna had nationalities other than Austrian, nearly half of whom were from the former Yugoslavia, primarily the Serbs;[9] the next most numerous nationalities in Vienna were Turkish (39,000 or 2.5%), Polish (13,600 or 0.9%) and German (12,700 or 0.8%).[10] However, the real numbers of people of different nationalities living today in Vienna is much higher due to high numbers of individuals not being counted in the census who either do not possess Austrian citizenship or who live illegally in Austria.

Geography and climate
Vienna is located in north-eastern Austria, at the easternmost extension of the Alps in the Vienna Basin. The earliest settlement, at the location of today’s inner city, was south of the meandering Danube while the city now spans both sides of the river. Elevation ranges from 151 to 524 m (495 to 1,719 ft). Vienna has a humid continental climate according to the Köppen classification. The city has warm summers with average high temperatures of 22 - 26°C (72 - 79°F), with maxima now exceeding 30°C (86°F) somewhat more often than before, and lows of around 15°C (59°F). Winters are relatively cold with average temperatures at about freezing point, and snowfall occurring mainly from December through March. Spring and autumn are cool to mild. Precipitation is generally moderate throughout the year.

Historical population

Inhabitants according to official census figures: 1800 to 2005 Due to the industrialization and immigration from other parts of the Empire, the population of Vienna increased sharply during its time as the capital of Austria-Hungary (1867–1918). In 1910, Vienna had more than 2 million inhabitants, and was one of the six largest cities in the world. At the turn of the century, Vienna was the second largest Czech city, after Prague.[8] However, after World War I, many Czechs and Hungarians returned to their ancestral countries, resulting in a decline in the Viennese population. At the height of the migration, about onethird of the Viennese population were of

Districts
Vienna is composed of 23 districts (Bezirke). Legally, they are not districts in the sense of administrative bodies with explicit powers (such as the districts in the other Austrian states), but mere subdivisions of the city administration. Elections at the district level give the representatives of the districts some

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Vienna
boulevard called the Ringstraße was built, along which imposing public and private buildings, monuments, and parks now lie. These buildings include the Rathaus (town hall), the Burgtheater, the University, the Parliament, the twin museums of natural history and fine art, and the Staatsoper. It is also the location of the Hofburg, the former imperial palace. The mainly Gothic Stephansdom is located at the centre of the city, on Stephansplatz. Beyond the Ringstraße, there was another wall called the Linienwall, which was torn down in the latter half of the 19th century to make room for expanding suburbs. It is now a ring road called Gürtel. Industries are located mostly in the southern and eastern districts. The Innere Stadt is situated away from the main flow of the Danube, but is bounded by the Donaukanal ("Danube canal"). Vienna’s second and twentieth districts are located between the Donaukanal and the Danube River. Across the Danube are the newest districts, where also the Vienna International Centre is located. Vienna’s postal codes can be determined by the district where a given address is located; 1XXA - 1 denotes Vienna, XX the district number (if it is a single digit then with a leading zero), A is the number of the post office (irrelevant in this case, usually zero). Example: 1070 for Neubau. Exceptions include 1300 for the Vienna International Airport located in Lower Austria near Schwechat, 1400 for the UN Complex, 1450 for the Austria Center, and 1500 for the Austrian UN forces.

Map of the districts of Vienna with numbers

Satellite view of Vienna political power in fields such as planning and traffic. The 23 districts are numbered for convenience, in a roughly clockwise fashion, starting in the city centre: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Innere Stadt 13. Leopoldstadt14. Landstraße 15. Wieden 16. Margareten 17. Mariahilf 18. Neubau 19. Josefstadt 20. Alsergrund 21. Favoriten 22. Simmering 23. Meidling Hietzing Penzing Rudolfsheim-Fünfhaus Ottakring Hernals Währing Döbling Brigittenau Floridsdorf Donaustadt Liesing

Politics
Until 1918, Viennese politics were shaped by the Christian Social Party, in particular longterm mayor Karl Lueger. Vienna is today considered the centre of the Social Democratic Party of Austria. During the period of the First Republic (1918-1934), the Vienna Social Democrats undertook many overdue social reforms. At that time, Vienna’s municipal policy was admired by Socialists throughout Europe, who therefore referred to the city as "Red Vienna" (Rotes Wien). For most of the time since the First World War, the city has been governed by the Social Democratic Party with absolute majorities in the city parliament. Only between 1934 and 1945, when the Social Democratic Party

The heart and historical city of Vienna, the Innere Stadt, was once surrounded by walls and open fields in order to defend itself from potential attackers. The walls were razed in 1857, making it possible for the city to expand and eventually merge with the surrounding villages. In their place, a broad

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Vienna

The Rathaus serves as the seat of the mayor and city council of the city of Vienna was illegal, mayors were appointed by the austro-fascist and later by the Nazi authorities. The current mayor of Vienna is Michael Häupl. The Social Democrats currently hold 55% of the seats with a 49% share of the vote.[12] Many Austrian political experts believe that if not for the Social Democrats’ nearly unbreakable hold on Vienna, the rival Austrian People’s Party would dominate Austrian politics. An example of the city’s many social democratic policies is its low-cost residential estates called Gemeindebauten. Ever since Vienna obtained federal state (Bundesland) status of its own in 1921, the mayor has also had the role of the state governor (Landeshauptmann). The Rathaus accommodates the offices of the mayor and the state government (Landesregierung). The city is administered by a multitude of departments (Magistratsabteilungen).

St. Stephen’s Cathedral (Stephansdom) in 1905 Other or none indicated 6.3%

Many Roman Catholic churches in central Vienna also feature performances of religious or other music, including masses sung with classical music and organ.

Culture
Music, theatre and opera
See also: Music of Austria and Vienna State Opera Ballet

Religions
Vienna is the seat of the Viennese Roman Catholic archdiocese, and its current Archbishop is Cardinal Christoph Schönborn. The religions of the Viennese resident population is divided according to the 2001 census as follows [10]: Roman Catholic No religion Muslim Orthodox Jewish 49.2% 25.7% 7.8% 6.0% 0.5% State Opera (Staatsoper), venue of the annual ball

Protestant (mostly Lutheran) 4.7%

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Vienna

Imperial Court Theatre (Burgtheater) Art and culture have a long tradition in Vienna, including theater, opera, classical music and fine arts. The Burgtheater is considered one of the best theaters in the German-speaking world alongside its branch, the Akademietheater. The Volkstheater Wien and the Theater in der Josefstadt also enjoy good reputations. There is also a multitude of smaller theaters, in many cases devoted to less mainstream forms of performing arts, such as modern, experimental plays or cabaret. Vienna is also home to a number of opera houses, including the Theater an der Wien, the Staatsoper and the Volksoper, the latter being devoted to the typical Viennese operetta. Classical concerts are performed at well known venues such as the Wiener Musikverein, home of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, and the Wiener Konzerthaus. Many concert venues offer concerts aimed at tourists, featuring popular highlights of Viennese music (particularly the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and Johann Strauss). In recent years, the Theater an der Wien has become widely known for hosting premieres of musicals, although it has recently devoted itself to the opera again. The most successful musical by far was "Elisabeth", which was later translated into several other languages and performed all over the world. The Haus der Musik ("house of music") opened in 2000.

Kunsthistorisches Museum at Maria-TheresaSquare Museum (a museum devoted to Empress Elisabeth Amalie Eugenie of Austria) allows visitors to view the Imperial apartments as well as the silver cabinet. Directly opposite the Hofburg are the Kunsthistorisches Museum and the Naturhistorisches Museum, which houses many paintings by old masters, ancient and classical artifacts. A number of museums are located in the Museumsquartier (museum quarter), the former Imperial Stalls which were converted into a museum complex in the 1990s. It houses the Museum of Modern Art,commonly known as the MUMOK (Ludwig Foundation), the Leopold Museum (focusing on works of the Viennese Secession, Viennese Modernism and Austrian Expressionism), additional halls with feature exhibitions and the Tanzquartier. The Liechtenstein Palace contains one of the world’s largest private art collections. There are a multitude of other museums in Vienna, including the Military History Museum, the Technical Museum, the Vienna Clock Museum and the Burial Museum. The museums dedicated to Vienna’s districts provide a retrospective of the respective districts.

Architecture
See also: Category:Buildings and structures in Austria A variety of architectural styles can be found in Vienna, such as the Romanesque Ruprechtskirche and the Baroque Karlskirche. Styles range from classicist buildings to modern architecture. Art Nouveau left many architectural traces in Vienna. The Secession, Karlsplatz Stadtbahn Station, and

Museums
The Hofburg is the location of the Schatzkammer (treasury), holding the imperial jewels of the Habsburg dynasty. The Sisi

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Vienna
and districts designated as world cultural heritage. Strong rules apply to the planning, authorisation and construction of high-rise buildings. Consequently, much of the inner city is a high-rise free zone.

Vienna balls
Vienna is the last great capital of the nineteenth century ball. There are over 2 significant balls per year, some featuring as many as nine live orchestras. Balls are held in the many beautiful palaces in Vienna, with the principal venue being the Hofburg Palace at Heldenplatz. While the Opera Ball is the best known internationally of all the Austrian balls, other balls such as the Kaffeesiederball (Cafe Owners Ball), the Jägerball (Hunter’s Ball) and the Rudolfina Redoute are almost as well known within Austria and even better appreciated for their cordial atmosphere. Viennese of at least middle class may visit a number of balls in their lifetime. For many, the ball season lasts three months and can include up to ten or fifteen separate appearances. Dancers and opera singers from the Vienna Staatsoper often perform at the openings of the larger balls. A Vienna ball is an all-night cultural attraction. Major Viennese balls generally begin at 9pm and last until 5am, although many guests carry on the celebrations into the next day.

Hundertwasserhaus the Kirche am Steinhof by Otto Wagner rank among the best known examples of Art Nouveau in the world. The Hundertwasserhaus by Friedensreich Hundertwasser, designed to counter the clinical look of modern architecture, is one of Vienna’s most popular tourist attractions. Another example of unique architecture is the Wotrubakirche by sculptor Fritz Wotruba. In the 1990s, a number of quarters were adapted and extensive building projects were implemented in the areas around Donaustadt (north of the Danube) and Wienerberg (in southern Vienna). The 202 m-high Millennium Tower located at Handelskai is the highest building in Vienna.[13][14] In recent years, Vienna has seen numerous architecture projects completed which combine modern architectural elements with old buildings, such as the remodelling and revitalisation of the old Gasometer in 2001. Most buildings in Vienna are relatively low; in early 2006 there were around 100 buildings higher than 40 m. The number of high-rise buildings is kept low by building legislation aimed at preserving green areas

Education

University of Vienna Vienna is also Austria’s main centre of education and home to many universities, professional colleges and gymnasiums.

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• Vienna Christian School • Vienna International School • Diplomatic Academy of Vienna

Vienna

Transportation
Twelve bridges cross the Danube in the city, which is divided by the Danube and its branch, the Neue Donau ("new Danube").

Public transportation

Academy of Fine Arts

Universities
• Academy of Fine Arts Vienna • Medical University of Vienna • PEF Private University of Management Vienna • University of Applied Arts Vienna • University of Music and Performing Arts, Vienna • University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna • University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna • University of Vienna • Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration • Vienna University of Technology • Webster University Vienna

Four generations of tram stock called "Bim"

International schools

Stadtbahnstation Karlsplatz by Otto Wagner Vienna has a large public transportation network. • Vienna S-Bahn • Vienna U-Bahn • Local Railways (Lokalbahn Wien-Baden) • Wiener Linien (= Vienna Lines, municipal company operating U-Bahn, tram, and most bus routes) Vienna has an extensive train and bus network, the train network being third largest in the world. In the most populated areas of Vienna, public transport runs so frequently (even during off-peak hours) that any familiarity with departure timetables is virtually unnecessary. The convenience and flexibility of the public transport is in turn reflected by its popularity; 53% of Viennese workers travel to their workplace by public transport.[15] During night hours, public transport is continued by the Nightline buses operating

The Diplomatic Academy is housed in the Neue Favorita Palace • • • • American International School Vienna Danube International School International University Vienna Lycée Francais de Vienne

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on all the main routes, generally every half hour. Fare prices within the city are independent of the length of the journey and covers all modes of public transport. Tickets are also available for various time periods, such as 24 hour, weekly, monthly, or yearly tickets. The Viennese public transport services are incorporated into a larger concentric system of transport zones, the VOR (Verkehrsverbund Ostregion = eastern region transport association). VOR includes railway and bus lines operating 50 kilometers into the surrounding areas, and ticket prices are calculated according to the number of zones crossed, Vienna being a single zone. Tickets must be purchased (and usually punched ) prior to boarding or entering a station. Tickets are not routinely checked when entering a station or boarding, but there are surprise inspections on all routes. There are also two miniature railways: the Liliputbahn in the Wiener Prater and the Donauparkbahn in the Donaupark. They are for amusement purposes and have no practical importance as a means of public transport.

Vienna
• Wien Franz-Josefs-Bahnhof, the starting point of the Franz Josef Railway • Wien Westbahnhof, starting point of the Western Railway • Wien Südbahnhof (Former South and East Station) for the Southern Railway and the Eastern Railway There are also several through train stations: • Wien Hütteldorf on the Western Railway • Wien Heiligenstadt on the Franz Josef Railway • Wien Praterstern (Formerly known as Wien Nord or Wien Nord-Praterstern) on the Northern Railway. • Wien Meidling (Philadelphiabrücke) on the Southern Railway. This is Vienna’s most frequented transit station. • Wien Mitte (Landstraße) on the S-Bahn Stammstrecke ("main line"); it is the nearest railway station to the centre of the city. There are also a large number of smaller stations that are important for local passenger traffic. Since the mid 1990s, the Westbahnhof and Südbahnhof have handled all long-distance travel. Many trains also stop at Hütteldorf or Meidling, especially when inbound. In order to bundle all long-distance traffic it has become necessary to build a tunnel, colloquially known as the Wildschweintunnel ("boar tunnel"), underneath Lainzer Tiergarten linking the Western Railway to the Southern Railway. The new bundled train line will connect to a new through train station called Wien Zentralbahnhof that will be constructed instead of the Südbahnhof.

Railways

Wien Westbahnhof, the starting point of the Austrian Western Railway.

Road traffic
To be translated from here Similar to the train lines, Bundesstraßen leave the city in a star-shaped pattern. Some are named after their historical final destination (Prager Straße to Prague, Linzer Straße to Linz, Triester Straße to Trieste and Brünner Straße to Brno). Bundesstraßen can be compared to U.S. Highways in the United States, being two-lane in rural areas and multi-lane in urban areas... Four national autobahns leave Vienna in the westerly (A1), northwesterly (A22), southerly (A2), and easterly directions (A4). Similar to the rail lines, they are commonly referred to after their exit direction (Westautobahn, Südautobahn, and

Interior of Wien Praterstern Historically, all transport was oriented towards the main cities in the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. Vienna has several train stations that form the beginning of several train lines:

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Vienna
Danube Canal, and to Eastern European countries along the Danube to the Black Sea. The planned Danube-Oder-Canal remains unfinished. The "Twin City Liner" boat service connects Vienna and Bratislava. Nearly all of Vienna’s drinking water is brought to the city via two large water pipelines, built in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The pipelines stretch 120 km (75 miles) and 200 km (124 miles) from the Alps to the city’s Hietzing district. The Alpine sources are pristine and the water does not require treatment.

Leisure activities
Viennese parks and gardens
Panoramic view of Vienna towards the east, seen from "Himmel" (Heaven)

River Danube, Brigittenauer Brücke (bridge) and Millennium Tower in Vienna (view from Donauturm) Ostautobahn). In addition, several spur and branch autobahns circle around the southern and eastern areas of the city. The protected Wienerwald forest area in the western and northern areas has been left mostly untouched.

The "Alte Donau", one of the top bathing and recreation spots Vienna possesses many park facilities, including the Stadtpark, the Burggarten, the Volksgarten (part of the Hofburg), the Schloßpark at Schloss Belvedere (home to the Vienna Botanic Gardens), the Donaupark, the Schönbrunner Schlosspark, the Prater, the Augarten, the Rathauspark, the Lainzer Tiergarten, the Dehnepark, the Resselpark, the Votivpark, the Kurpark Oberlaa, the AuerWelsbach-Park and the Türkenschanzpark. Green areas include Laaer-Berg (including the Bohemian Prater) and the foothills of the Wienerwald, which reaches into the outer areas of the city. Small parks, known by the Viennese as Beserlparks, are everywhere in the inner city areas. Many of Vienna’s famous parks include monuments, such as the

Air traffic
Vienna International Airport is located to the southeast of Vienna. The airport handled over 254,000 arrivals and departures in 2007 and was frequented by 18.77 million passengers.[16] Following lengthy negotiations with surrounding communities, the airport will be expanded to increase its capacity by adding a third runway. The airport is currently undergoing a major expansion, including a new terminal building and office park, to prepare for an expected increase in passengers.

Water transportation
Vienna is connected to Rotterdam and German Industrial areas via the Rhine-Main-

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Stadtpark with its statue of Johann Strauss II, and the gardens of the baroque palace, where the State Treaty was signed. Vienna’s principal park is the Prater which is home to the Riesenrad, a Ferris wheel. The imperial Schönbrunn’s grounds contain an 18th century park which includes the world’s oldest zoo, founded in 1752. The Donauinsel, part of Vienna’s flood defences, is a 21.1 km long artificial island between the Danube and Neue Donau dedicated to leisure activities.

Vienna

Sport
Wiener Schnitzel flour, egg and breadcrumbs, and fried in clarified butter. It is available in almost every restaurant that serves Viennese cuisine. Other examples of Viennese cuisine include Tafelspitz (very lean boiled beef), which is traditionally served with Geröstete Erdäpfel (boiled potatoes mashed with a fork and subsequently fried) and horseradish sauce, Apfelkren (a mixture of horseradish, cream and apple) and Schnittlauchsauce (a chives sauce made with mayonnaise and old bread).

Ernst-Happel-Stadion in the Prater Vienna hosts many different sporting events including the Vienna City Marathon, which attracts more than 10,000 participants every year and normally takes place in May. In 2005 the Ice Hockey World Championships took place in Austria and the final was played in Vienna. Vienna’s Ernst Happel Stadium was the venue of four Champions League and European Champion Clubs’ Cup finals (1964, 1987, 1990 and 1995) and on June 29 it hosted the final of Euro 2008 which saw a Spanish 1-0 victory over Germany. Austria’s capital is home to numerous teams. The best known are the local football clubs SK Rapid Wien (32 Austrian Bundesliga titles), FK Austria Wien (23 Austrian Bundesliga titles and 26-time cup winners) and the oldest team, First Vienna FC. Other important sport clubs include the Dodge Vikings Vienna (American Football), who won the Eurobowl title between 2004 and 2007 4 times in a row, the Vienna Hot Volleys, one of Europe’s premier Volleyball organisations, and the Vienna Capitals (Ice Hockey).vienna was also where the European handball federation (ehf) was foundered.

Sachertorte Vienna has a long tradition of cakes and desserts. These include Apfelstrudel (hot apple strudel), Palatschinken (sweet pancakes), and Knödel (dumplings) often filled with fruit such as apricots (Marillenknödel). Sachertorte, a dry chocolate cake with apricot jam from the Sacher Hotel, is world famous. In winter, small street stands sell traditional Maroni (hot chestnuts) and potato fritters. Sausages are popular and available from street vendors (Würstelstand) throughout the

Culinary specialities
Food
See also: Austrian food Vienna is well known for Wiener schnitzel, a cutlet of veal that is pounded flat, coated in

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day and into the night. The sausage known as Wiener (German for Viennese) in the USA and Germany is, however, called Frankfurter. Other popular sausages are Burenwurst (a coarse beef and pork sausage, generally boiled), Käsekrainer (spicy pork with small chunks of cheese), and Bratwurst (a white pork sausage). Most can be ordered "mit Brot" (with bread) or as a "hot dog" (stuffed inside a long roll). Mustard is the traditional condiment and usually offered in two varieties: "suß" (sweet) or "scharf" (spicy). Kebab and pizza are, increasingly, the snack food most widely available from small stands. The Naschmarkt is a permanent market for fruit, vegetables, spices, fish, meat, etc. from around the world. The city centre has many delicatessen stores, such as the Julius Meinl am Graben.

Vienna

Café Central providing information that allowed the Austrians to defeat the Turks. Kolschitzky then opened Vienna’s first coffee shop. Julius Meinl set up a modern roasting plant in the same premises where the coffee sacks were found, in 1891.

Drink
Vienna, along with Paris, Prague and Bratislava, is one of the few remaining world capital cities with its own vineyards. The wine is served in small Viennese pubs known as Heuriger, which are especially numerous in the wine growing areas of Döbling (Grinzing, Neustift am Walde, Nußdorf, Salmannsdorf, Sievering) and Floridsdorf (Stammersdorf, Strebersdorf). The wine is often drunk as a spritzer ("G’spritzter") with sparkling water. The Grüner Veltliner, a dry white wine, is the most widely cultivated wine in Austria. Beer is next in importance to wine. Vienna has a single large brewery, Ottakringer, and more than ten microbreweries. A "Beisl" is a typical small Austrian pub, of which Vienna has many.

Tourist attractions

Viennese cafés
Viennese cafés have an extremely long and distinguished history that dates back centuries, and the caffeine addictions of some famous historical patrons of the oldest are something of a local legend. Traditionally, the coffee comes with a glass of water. Viennese cafés claim to have invented the process of filtering coffee from bounty captured after the second Turkish siege in 1683. Viennese cafés claim that when the invading Turks left Vienna, they abandoned hundreds of sacks of coffee beans. The Emperor gave Franz George Kolschitzky (Polish - Franciszek Jerzy Kulczycki) some of this coffee as a reward for

Hofburg Imperial Palace seen from Heroes’ Square Major tourist attractions include the imperial palaces of the Hofburg and Schönbrunn (also home to the world’s oldest zoo, Tiergarten Schönbrunn) and the Riesenrad in the Prater. Cultural highlights include the Burgtheater, the Wiener Staatsoper, the Lipizzaner horses at the spanische Hofreitschule and the Vienna Boys’ Choir, as well as excursions to Vienna’s Heuriger districts. There are also more than 100 art museums, which together attract over eight million visitors per year.[17] The most popular ones are Albertina, Belvedere, Leopold Museum in the Museumsquartier,

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KunstHausWien, BA-CA Kunstforum, the twin Kunsthistorisches Museum and Naturhistorisches Museum, and the Technisches Museum Wien, each of which receives over a quarter of a million visitors per year.[18] There are many popular sites associated with composers who lived in Vienna including Beethoven’s various residences and grave at Zentralfriedhof (Central Cemetery) which is the largest cemetery in Vienna and the burial site of many famous people. Mozart has a memorial grave at the Habsburg gardens and at St. Marx cemetery (where his grave was lost). Vienna’s many churches also draw large crowds, the most famous of which are St. Stephen’s Cathedral, the Deutschordenskirche, the Jesuitenkirche, the Karlskirche, the Peterskirche, Maria am Gestade, the Minoritenkirche, the Ruprechtskirche, the Schottenkirche and the Votivkirche. Modern attractions include the Hundertwasserhaus, the United Nations headquarters and the view from the Donauturm.

Vienna

UN complex in Vienna, with the Austria Center Vienna in front, taken from the Danube Tower in the nearby Donaupark before the extensive building work

Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE). Currently Vienna is the world’s 4th "UN city" (after New York, Geneva and The Hague). Additionally, Vienna is the seat of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Albertina Law’s secretariat (UNCITRAL). In conjuncBelvedere tion, the University of Vienna annually hosts Schönbrunn Palace the prestigious Willem C. Vis Moot, an interPalace national commercial arbitration competition Naturhistorisches for students of law from around the world. Museum Various special diplomatic meetings have been held in Vienna in the latter half of the 20th century, resulting in various documents bearing the name Vienna Convention or Vienna Document. Among the more important documents negotiated in Vienna are the 1969 Modern Vienna The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, as The SeRiesenrad well as the 1990 Treaty on Conventional The statue cession in the Armed Forces in Europe (CFE). building of Athena in Wiener See also: Vienna Convention front of the Prater Austrian Parliament

International organizations in Vienna
Vienna is the seat of a number of United Nations offices and various international institutions and companies, including the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive

Charitable organizations in Vienna

Alongside the international and intergovernmental organisations, there are dozens of charitable organisations based in Vienna; these organisations provide relief goods and assistance to tens of thousands of disadvantaged children and needy people in developing countries. One such organisation is the network of SOS Children’s Villages, founded by Hermann Gmeiner in 1949. Today, SOS

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Children’s Villages are active in 132 countries and territories worldwide. Others include HASCO and the Childrens Bridge of Hope.

Vienna
• Innere Stadt with Taito, Tokyo. (since 1989) • Meidling with Gifu, Gifu. (since 1992) Further, the Viennese district Leopoldstadt and the New York City borough Brooklyn entered into a partnership in 2007.[20]

Twin cities

See also
• • • • • • • • • • • • Donauinsel Donauinselfest History of Vienna List of Honorary Citizens of Vienna List of mayors of Vienna List of Viennese Vienna (Billy Joel song) Vienna (Ultravox song) Vienna Circle Vienna International Airport Viennese German Vienna Biennale

The Hermesvilla in Hietzing Vienna is twinned with the following cities: • • Bratislava in Slovakia • Budapest in Hungary • Brno in Czech Republic Belgrade in Serbia • • • • Istanbul in Turkey (since 2007) Tunis in Tunisia Moscow in Russia

References

Kiev in Ukraine • Ljubljana in Slovenia • Los Angeles in USA •

Tel Aviv in Israel • Warsaw in Poland (since
2001)[19]

•

Zagreb in Croatia

Other forms of cooperation and city friendship similar to the twin city programmes: • Niš in Serbia In addition, individual Viennese districts are twinned with Japanese cities/districts: • Alsergrund with Takarazuka, Hyōgo. (since
1994)

• Döbling with Setagaya, Tokyo. (since 1985) • Donaustadt with Arakawa, Tokyo. (since
1996)

• Floridsdorf with Katsushika, Tokyo. (since
1987)

[1] "STATISTIK AUSTRIA - Bevölkerung zu Jahres-/Quartalsanfang". Statistik.at. 2009-02-13. http://www.statistik.at/ web_de/statistiken/bevoelkerung/ bevoelkerungsstand_und_veraenderung/ bevoelkerung_zu_jahres-_quartalsanfang/ index.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-06. [2] "Historic Centre of Vienna". UNESCO. http://whc.unesco.org/ pg.cfm?cid=31&id_site=1033. [3] "Vancouver is ’best place to live’". BBC. October 4, 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/ hi/business/4306936.stm. [4] Forbes Magazine 2009 [1] [5] "Mercer’s Survey 2009". Mercer. April 28, 2009. http://www.mercer.com/ referencecontent.htm?idContent=1173105#Top_50_ [6] Wien International website: History [7] Encyclopedia Britannica 1911 edition [8] Czech and Slovak roots in Vienna, wieninternational.at [9] http://www.statistik.at/web_de/static/ bevoelkerung_2001_nach_umgangssprache_staatsan [10] ^ (in German) (PDF) Volkszählung. Hauptergebnisse I - Wien. Statistik Austria. 2003. ftp://www.statistik.at/pub/ neuerscheinungen/vz01wien_web.pdf. [11] "Weather Information for Vienna". World Weather Information Service]. http://www.weather.com. Retrieved on January 6 2008.

• Hernals with Fuchu, Tokyo. (since 1992) • Hietzing with Habikino, Osaka. (since 1995)

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Vienna

[12] "Gemeinderatswahl 2005". wien.at. http://www.wien.gv.at/wahl/NET/GR051/ Official websites GR051-109.htm. (German) • Wien.info - Official site of the tourism [13] Vienna’s 10 tallest skyscrapers board: events, sightseeing, cultural [14] Millennium Tower - Emporis information, etc. [15] Der Standard, Tuesday 27th March 2007 • Wien.gv.at - Official site of the [16] Vienna International Airport municipality, with interactive map. (2008-01-17). Sound traffic development • List of Embassies in Vienna in 2007. Press release. • Vienna travel guide from Wikitravel http://www.viennaairport.com/jart/prj3/ Pictures and videos of Vienna via/website.jart?rel=en&content• Photos of Vienna at night (veryid=1168245748284&reservebored.com) mode=active. Retrieved on 2007-02-07. • Photos of Vienna (zoomvienna.com) [17] (page 10) "Vienna in figures: Special • PhotoGlobe Vienna - a collection of Issue for the EU Presidency 2006" (PDF). georeferenced photos of Vienna City of Vienna. http://www.wien.gv.at/ • Vienna. Pleasure and Melancholy A statistik/pdf/viennainfigures.pdf (page collection of photos of Vienna 10). (willypuchner.com) [18] "Top 30 Sights, Museums, Exhibition • Panoramic pictures of Vienna Halls 2005" (xls). Vienna Tourist Board. (wienkultur.info) http://www.wien-tourismus.at/data/ • 360º virtual tour of Vienna, Austria Besucherstatistik-2005.xls. (VRVienna.com) [19] (Polish) "Miasta partnerskie Warszawy". • Vienna Christmas market "Wiener um.warszawa.pl. Biuro Promocji Miasta. Christkindlmarkt" (butkaj.com) 2005-05-04. http://um.warszawa.pl/ • Photos of Vienna Sightseeings v_syrenka/new/ (butkaj.com) index.php?dzial=aktualnosci&ak_id=3284&kat=11. History of Vienna Retrieved on 2008-08-29. • Hundreds of articles on historical [20] "Brooklyn und Leopoldstadt sind nun buildings of Vienna: Churches, Palaces, Partner «". Diepresse.com. Art, Culture and History of Vienna http://diepresse.com/home/politik/ • Jews in Vienna (from Encyclopaedia aussenpolitik/289167/ Judaica 1971). index.do?from=suche.intern.portal. Coordinates: 48°12′30″N 16°22′23″E / Retrieved on 2009-05-06. 48.20833°N 16.37306°E / 48.20833; • Wien German language Wikipedia 16.37306

External links

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vienna" Categories: World Heritage Sites in Austria, Capitals in Europe, Cities, towns and villages in Austria, Settlements on the Danube, NUTS 2 statistical regions of the European Union, Roman legions' camps in Central Europe, Settlements established in the 1st millennium BC, States of Austria, Turkish communities outside Turkey, Vienna, Wine regions of Austria This page was last modified on 15 May 2009, at 22:34 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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