URBAN ECOSYSTEMS _ BIODIVERSITY IN EUROPE _ NORTH AMERICA

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URBAN ECOSYSTEMS _ BIODIVERSITY IN EUROPE _ NORTH AMERICA Powered By Docstoc
					  URBAN ECOSYSTEMS &
BIODIVERSITY IN EUROPE &
    NORTH AMERICA

    By Richard C. Smardon, Ph.D.
  Faculty of Environmental Studies
SUNY College of Environmental Science
   & Forestry, Syracuse, New York
      General schedule for the day - Oct. 21,2003

• 08:15-08:45       Intro, organization, last class summary
• 08:45-10:20       Lecture on conservation diversity &
                    urban ecosystems
•   08:45-09:00     Definitions and principles
•   09:00-09:15     International urban biodiversity
•   09:15-09:30     European biodiversity programs
•   09:30-09:45     North American biodiversity “
•   09:45-10:00     Principles of urban ecosystem
                    conservation & biodiversity
• 10:00-10:15       Effective public participation
• 10:15-10:25       Summary
   Schedule for the day - Oct. 21, 2003

• 10:45-13:50   Distribution of tasks, articles + papers
                for students - Students work in groups:
                Part 1: Development of restoration
                goals and functions for local stream
• 12:30-13:30   Lunch
• 13:30-15:15   Students work in groups on Part II:
                Development of water quality
                treatment & habitat restoration
                alternatives for same waterway
• 15:15-16:15   Presentation of results
          Urban Ecosystems Overview
            Definitions & Principles
• 1970’s         early work on urban vegetation & wildlife
                 » US Forest Service & NE US universities

• 1980’s         shift to systems perspective
                 » J. Forester and H. Odum systems analysis

• 1990’s         large scale biodiversity assessment
                 » In Europe w/agenda 21 & US with LTER

• Radical idea > combing people within ecosystems
   –   Human activity concentrated in an urban cluster
   –   Humans as species dominating earth’s ecosystems
   –   Model of ecology must include human impact
   –   Understanding such processes= utility to problem solving
       Set or Urban Ecosystem protocols
• Biophysical drivers
   – Flow of energy
   – Cycling of matter
   – Flow of information              • Patterns/processes
                                         –   Primary production
• Socio-economic drivers
                                         –   Populations
   –   Information flow
                                         –   Organic matter
   –   Cultural values/institutions
                                         –   Nutrients
   –   Economic systems
                                         –   disturbance
   –   Power hierarchies
   –   Land use & management
   –   Demographic patterns
   –   Designed & built environ.
   International Biodiversity Programs

• Sustainable cities under Agenda 21
   – Status of LA21 Implementation :
        • Europe 5292 local/36 countries
        • N. America 101 local authorities/2countries
   –   Best practices data base in UN Habitat program- 40 cities
   –   Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) - 500 cities
   –   Urban Environmental Forum- UN Settlements Program
   –   WHO’s healthy cities program - 1500 cities
• Assessing urban biodiversity
• Urban biosphere Reserves
• Green space protection and function
           Assessing Urban Biodiversity

• International Convention on Biological Diversity
   – http://www.unep.org/themes/biodiversity/


• As implemented thru Chapter 28 of Local Agenda 21
   – Articulates the process by which local plans are developed
   – Does not specify what local plans should include
   – Process oriented > development of local plans thru local needs &
     concerns thru participatory processes
   – Recognizes the potential for diversity in action plans developed
     locally
               Urban Biosphere Reserves?

• Urban working group to examine feasibility
   – By looking at existing examples:
       •   Green belts around Rio de Janeiro
       •   Cerrado Biosphere Reserve around Brasilia
       •   Cordilla Volconica Central Biosphere Reserve near San Jose, CR
       •   Alto Manzanaris Biosphere Reserve near Madrid
   – By looking at scenarios
       • City as biosphere reserve
       • Greenbelt biosphere reserve around the city
       • Mixture of 1 and 2 above
     Potential Urban Biosphere Reserves

• New York City
  Metropolitan area



• Being studied by the
  NY Urban Biosphere
  Group at Columbia
     Potential Urban Biosphere Reserves

• Cape Town in South
  Africa



• Also being studied by
  the Urban Biosphere
  Group at Columbia
          Urban Greenspace Assessment

• Programs below stress protecting, maintaining or restoring
  urban greenspace for the functions they provide, e.g., air
  quality, watershed protection, habitat, plus food and fiber:

• FAO’s Urban and Periurban policy agenda
   – Http://www.fao.org/urbanag
• RUAF- Resource Center on Urban Agriculture & Forestry
   – Http://www.ruaf.org/ruaf_inf_fr.html
• FAO’s Trees for the Urban Millennium
   – Http:www.fao.org/docrep/x3989/x3989eo9.htm
         Urban Greenspace Assessment

• Street lined with almond,
  coconut and mango trees
  in Port Moresby, Pupua
  New Guinea which means
  local food security

• Fuel wood supply market
  in Cape Verde
 European Urban Ecosystems & Biodiversity

• Aalborg Charter: Charter of European Cites & Towns
  Towards Sustainability at http:www.iclei.org/europe/ECHARTER
   –   Recognition of existing planning & financial frameworks
   –   Systematic identification w/public consultation of problems/causes
   –   Prioritization of tasks to address problems
   –   Vision for sustainable community thru participatory processes
   –   Consideration/assessment of alternative strategic options
   –   Long-term local action plan with measurable targets
   –   Implementation including; timetable & allocation responsibilities
   –   Systems & procedures for monitoring & reporting implementation
                 Other European Programs
• European Academy: Urban Environment http://www.ceral.net
• European Commission;http://europa.eu.int/com/environment/urban.ht
• European Environmental Agency; http://www.bsdcold.natural
   sceinces.be/belgium/links/themes/urban
• International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives
  ICLEI at http://www.iclei.org/europe
• URGE-Development of Urban Greenspaces to Improve the
  Quality of Life & Urban Regions at http:www.urge-
   project.org.reports.htm
• Regional Environmental Center for Central & Eastern
  Europe at http://www.rec.org/REC/Programs
• UNEP-European Regional Portal at
   http://europe.unep.net/index.php?struct_id=urbarea
        Sample Biodiversity Assessments

• Brussels Capitol Region
  first biodiversity
  assessment report
• Types of green spaces in
  percentages of total open
  and green spaces in the
  Brussels capital region
Wildlife and the city publication from the Netherlands
  URGE -Development of Urban Green Spaces to
 Improve Quality of Life in Cities & Urban Regions

• Case study sites and
  reference cities in
  Europe

• European Union
  funded projects
  involving greenspace
  criteria and indicators
      Sample URGE Projects in Europe



• URGE Project in
  Genoa Italy
• Case Study are within
  Genoa City
• Public green and
  urban parks map 1997
URGE - Urban Green Spaces to Improve the Quality
  of Life in Cities and Urban Regions - Criteria

• Whole city scale indicators             • Site scale indicators
    – Fragmentation of urban green            – Fragmentation
        • Size, shape isolation,                  • Same measures
          connectivity                        – Naturalness
    – Level of nature protection                  • Degree of disturbance
        • Preparation for protected               • Exotica/rare species
          green areas
    – Biodiversity-species & habitat          – Biodiversity-species
        • Diversity of breeding birds &           • Diversity of birds, vascular
          vascular plants                           plants, carbid beetles,
                                                    butterflies
        • Biotype diversity                       • Biotype diversity
 North American Urban Ecosystems & Biodiversity;
        Sustainable Development Activity

• President’s Council on Sustainable Development -1993-1999
    – Task of developing & recommending a national sustainable strategy
• Clinton-Gore Livable Communities Initiative - 1999
• Smart Growth Network since 1966 - partnership of government.
  Business and civic organizations that support smart growth
• Sustainable Communities Network since 1993 - 15 NP organizations
• Joint Center for Sustainable Communities since 1996
• Sponsored by USEPA, DOE, DOT, HUD, USDA & NOAA
• Dozens of NGO’s states, cities are supporting LA21 related activities
  in US and Canada
• North America has at least 101 local authorities with LA21 plans
 Example: North American Biodiversity Plan

• Chicago Wilderness:
  Biodiversity Recovery Plan
    – 1: Executive Summary
    – 2: Values of Biodiversity
    – 3: Biodiversity Challenge
    – 4: Assessment Processes
    – 5: Terrestrial Communities
    – 6: Aquatic Communities
    – 7: Endangered/Threatened
    – 8: Preserving land/water
    – 9: Management, Research &
      Monitoring
    – 10: Education/ Communication
    – 11: Role of Key Players
   Urban Ecosystems/Biodiversity Research
• National Science Foundation Urban LTER’s : Baltimore & Phoenix
• Sustainable Forest Research Group at UBC
    – Research themes on urban ecology within Vancouver forested parks
• Center for Urban Ecology (CUE) in Wash., D.C. with NPS
• Center for Urban and Regional Ecology; regional biodiversity
    – Includes U.Georgia. Georgia State, Emory & Morehouse
• Ecological Cities Project at U Mass., Amherst
• Urban Ecological Institute at Boston College
• Urban Ecology Laboratory at U. of Washington, Seattle
    – NSF Biocomplexity, urban to rural gradient, and spatial analysis
• US Forest Service projects: Baltimore LTER, Houston and UFORE
• US Environmental Protection Agency at Baltimore LTER
• Metropolitan DC Urban Biodiversity Mode
                Urban LTER: Baltimore

• Institute of Ecosystems Studies
• Spatial structure of socio-
  economic, ecological &
  physical change over time
• Fluxes of energy, matter,
  capitol & population/over time
• How can people improve their
  understanding of urban
  ecosystems?
• Book: Understanding Urban
  Ecosystems: A New Frontier of
  Science
          Central Arizona-Phoenix LTER

• Arizona State University
• Generate & test general
  ecological theory
• Enhance understandability of
  ecology of cities
• Identify feedback between
  ecological and socioeconomic
  factors, and
• Involve k-12 students in the
  enterprise of scientific
  discovery
            US Forest Service UFORE Project

• Collect from random plots:
  ground cover, shrubs, trees:
  species & physical dimensions
• For correlation w/climate data,
  pollution, carbon sequestration
  & diversity indices
• Data collected for Atlanta,
  Baltimore, Boston, Calgary,
  NYC, Philadelphia, Santiago &
  Syracuse
• Future data sites=Baton Rouge,
  Melbourne, Morgantown & San
  Juan, PR
                        Cities Analyzed
•   Atlanta, GA
•   Baltimore, MD (1999, 2001)
•   Brooklyn, NY
•   Boston, MA
•   Calgary, AB
•   Freehold, NJ
•   Hefei, China
•   Jersey City, NJ
•   Moorestown, NJ
•   New York, NY
•   Ningbo, China
•   Philadelphia, PA
•   Santiago, Chile
•   Syracuse, NY (1999, 2001)
•   Toronto, ON
•   Woodbridge, NJ
                           New Cities

•   Baton Rouge, LA
•   Fuenlabrada, Spain
•   Greenville-Spartanburg, SC
•   Houston, TX
•   Melbourne, Australia (2004)
•   Morgantown, WV
•   Porto Allegro, Brazil
•   San Juan, PR
•   Wilmington, DE (2004)
        Currently quantifies:
• Structure (e.g., spp. composition)
• Air pollution removal and value (hourly to yearly)
• VOC emissions (hourly to yearly)
• Annual carbon storage and sequestration and value
• Seasonal effects on building energy use and
  associated energy costs
• Pollen allergenicity index
• Tree transpiration / water use (hourly to yearly)
• Pest potentials
       North American Greenspace Programs

• Sustainability and Food Security programs
   – Cities Feeding People Program IDRC, Canada
   – New Jersey Urban Ecology Program
• Urban Greenspace programs
   –   Evergreen Foundation in Canada
   –   Greenlinks Project; Restoring habitat in British Columbia
   –   Audubon Society of Portland Oregon
   –   Open Land Project: Urban Greening in Chicago
• Wildlife habitat Programs
   – Environmental Literacy Council: Urban Wildlife
   – Texas Wildscapes
              North American Greenways

• Connecting open space &
  habitat
• Multi-nodal transportation
• Aesthetics and recreation
• Air and water quality
  maintenance
• Urban climate amelioration
• Supported by some government
  programs and private land trusts
 One Hundred American Greenways
     Central European Greenways Study Tour 2002




• Central European Greenways regional
  greenways program managed by
  Environmental Partnership for Central Europe
• Participants of Study Tour - five CE
  national greenway co-ordinators
• Supported by German Marshall Fund of the
  USA
Greenways
in Central
Europe
 One Hundred American Greenways
      Central European Greenways Study Tour 2002




• Goals of Greenways Study Tour
   – bringing American experience to Europe
   – learning from existing models of development and financing
     of greenways
       • public, private, nonprofit sector collaboration
       • creation of coalitions along greenway
       • striking a balance between heritage preservation and
         prudent economic exploitation
       • using professional services and methods
   – building partnership among existing greenway organizations
     in USA and Central Europe
One Hundred American Greenways
  Map of Greenways Study Tour, April-May 2003
      Visited trails and Greenways
Urban Greenways, Portland, Willamette Greenway, OR
Visited trails and Greenways
Urban Greenways, Manhattan, NYC
Visited trails and Greenways
     Towpath, Erie Canal,   OH
 Visited trails and Greenways
Rails-trails, OD Trail, Washington-Arlington
   Visited trails and Greenways
Greenbelt, Capital Greenbelt Area, Harrisburg, PA
One Hundred American Greenways
   Central European Greenways Study Tour 2002




 Destroyed pedestrian bridge in Podyji National Park,
       which is currently being repaired with the
   contribution of the Czech Greenways Flood Fund,
            initiated with help of US donors
www.nadacepartnerstvi.cz
         North American Waterway Restoration

•   Urban river restoration initiative
•   Federal Interagency Stream
    Restoration Working group
•   Citizen initiated activity across US
     –   Blackstone River.MA & RI
     –   Bronx River, NYC
     –   California Streams Program
     –   Ninemile Run in Pittsburg, PA
     –   Lower Passaic River in NJ
     –   Rouge River Gateway in Detroit
     –   San Antonio River, Texas
     –   South Platte River in Denver
  Visited trails and Greenways
Natural Trails, Portland metropolitan area, OR
   Visited trails and Greenways
Center for Wooden Boats, Blueways in Seattle, WA
    Visited trails and Greenways
Urban Greenways, South Plate River, Denver, CO
 One Hundred American Greenways
      Central European Greenways Study Tour 2002




Paul Labovitz, director of Rivers And Trails Program NPS,
  helping to start the idea of revitalization of 13th
  Century Water Mill Canal in Znojmo region, Czech Rep.
     Public Participation & Biodiversity

• For Europe: Agenda 21 plus the Aalborg
  Charter provides participatory processes
• In North America: Local restoration
  projects are providing the fuel for activity
• Most biodiversity assessments are being
  done in Europe and Australia
• But NGO’s and land trusts are doing much
  of the work in North America
                       Summary

• In Europe driving forces are Local Agenda 21 plus
  Aalborg Charter plus Convention on Biodiversity.
• Some interest in Greenway Development and ecosystems
  restoration.
• In North America there is not so much action on Local
  Agenda 21 but more interest in CCP program.
• In North America - there is much interest/activity in
  Greenspace development and ecosystem restoration.
• General need for urban ecosystems research and twinning
  programs between North America and Europe.

				
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