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Sepsis

Sepsis
Sepsis or Septicemia Classification and external resources ICD-10 ICD-9 DiseasesDB MedlinePlus MeSH A40. - A41.0 995.91 11960 000666 D018805

corticosteroids or activated drotrecogin alfa (recombinant protein C).[5]

Terminology
Severe sepsis occurs when sepsis leads to organ dysfunction, low blood pressure (hypotension), or insufficient blood flow (hypoperfusion) to one or more organs (causing, for example, lactic acidosis, decreased urine production, or altered mental status). Sepsis can lead to septic shock, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (formerly known as multiple organ failure), and death. Organ dysfunction results from sepsis-induced hypotension (< 90 mmHg or a reduction of ≥ 40 mmHg from baseline) and diffuse intravascular coagulation, among other things. Bacteremia is the presence of viable bacteria in the bloodstream. Likewise, the terms viremia and fungemia simply refer to viruses and fungi in the bloodstream. These terms say nothing about the consequences this has on the body. For example, bacteria can be introduced into the bloodstream during toothbrushing.[6] This form of bacteremia almost never causes problems in normal individuals. However, bacteremia associated with certain dental procedures can cause bacterial infection of the heart valves (known as endocarditis) in high-risk patients.[7] Conversely, a systemic inflammatory response syndrome can occur in patients without the presence of infection, for example in those with burns, polytrauma, or the initial state in pancreatitis and chemical pneumonitis.[2]

Sepsis is a serious medical condition characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state (called a systemic inflammatory response syndrome or SIRS) and the presence of a known or suspected infection.[1][2] The body may develop this inflammatory response to microbes in the blood, urine, lungs, skin, or other tissues. An incorrect layman’s term for sepsis is blood poisoning, more aptly applied to Septicemia, below. Septicemia (also sep[3], or erroneously ticaemia [sep⋅ti⋅cae⋅mi⋅a] Septasemia and Septisema) is a related but deprecated (formerly sanctioned medical) term referring to the presence of pathogenic organisms in the blood-stream, leading to sepsis.[4] The term has not been sharply defined. It has been inconsistently used in the past by medical professionals, for example as a synonym of bacteremia, causing some confusion. The present medical consensus is therefore that the term is problematic and should be avoided.[2] Sepsis is usually treated in the intensive care unit with intravenous fluids and antibiotics. If fluid replacement is insufficient to maintain blood pressure, specific vasopressor drugs can be used. Artificial ventilation and dialysis may be needed to support the function of the lungs and kidneys, respectively. To guide therapy, a central venous catheter and an arterial catheter may be placed. Sepsis patients require preventive measures for deep vein thrombosis, stress ulcers and pressure ulcers, unless other conditions prevent this. Some patients might benefit from tight control of blood sugar levels with insulin (targeting stress hyperglycemia), low-dose

Signs and symptoms
In addition to symptoms related to the provoking infection, sepsis is characterized by evidence of acute inflammation present throughout the entire body, and is, therefore, frequently associated with fever and elevated white blood cell count (leukocytosis) or low white blood cell count and lower-than-average temperature. The modern concept of sepsis is that the host’s immune response to the infection causes most of the symptoms of sepsis, resulting in hemodynamic

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consequences and damage to organs. This host response has been termed systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and is characterized by hemodynamic compromise and resultant metabolic derangement. Outward physical symptoms of this response frequently include a high heart rate (above 90 beats per minute), high respiratory rate (above 20 breaths per minute), elevated WBC count (above 12,000) and elevated or lowered body temperature (under 36 °C or over 38 °C). Sepsis is differentiated from SIRS by the presence of a known pathogen. For example SIRS and a positive blood culture for a pathogen indicates the presence of sepsis. Without a known infection you can not classify the above symptoms as sepsis, only SIRS. This immunological response causes widespread activation of acute-phase proteins, affecting the complement system and the coagulation pathways, which then cause damage to the vasculature as well as to the organs. Various neuroendocrine counter-regulatory systems are then activated as well, often compounding the problem. Even with immediate and aggressive treatment, this may progress to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and eventually death.

Sepsis
the beds of intensive care patients become death beds, often as a result of septic wounds.

Definition of sepsis
Sepsis is considered present if infection is highly suspected or proven and two or more of the following systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria are met:[2] • Heart rate > 90 beats per minute (tachycardia) • Body temperature < 36 °C (97 °F) or > 38 °C (100 °F) (hypothermia or fever) • Respiratory rate > 20 breaths per minute or, on blood gas, a PaCO2 less than 32 mm Hg (4.3 kPa) (tachypnea or hypocapnia due to hyperventilation) • White blood cell count < 4,000 cells/mm3 or > 12,000 cells/mm3 (< 4 × 109 or > 12 × 109 cells/L), or greater than 10% band forms (immature white blood cells). (leukopenia, leukocytosis, or bandemia) Fever and leukocytosis are features of the acute-phase reaction, while tachycardia is often the initial sign of hemodynamic compromise. Tachypnea may be related to the increased metabolic stress due to infection and inflammation, but may also be an ominous sign of inadequate perfusion resulting in the onset of anaerobic cellular metabolism. In children, the SIRS criteria are modified in the following fashion:[10] • Heart rate > 2 standard deviations above normal for age in the absence of stimuli such as pain and drug administration, OR unexplained persistent elevation for greater than 30 minutes to 4 hours. In infants, also includes Heart rate < 10th percentile for age in the absence of vagal stimuli, beta-blockers, or congenital heart disease OR unexplained persistent depression for greater than 30 minutes. • Body temperature obtained orally, rectally, from Foley catheter probe, or from central venous catheter probe > 38.5 °C or < 36 °C. Temperature must be abnormal to qualify as SIRS in pediatric patients. • Respiratory rate > 2 standard deviations above normal for age OR the requirement for mechanical ventilation not related to neuromuscular disease or the administration of anesthesia. • White blood cell count elevated or depressed for age not related to

Epidemiology
In the United States, sepsis is the secondleading cause of death in non-coronary ICU patients, and the tenth-most-common cause of death overall according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (the first being multiple organ failure).[8] Sepsis is common and also more dangerous in elderly, immunocompromised, and critically-ill patients.[9] It occurs in 1–2% of all hospitalizations and accounts for as much as 25% of intensive-care unit (ICU) bed utilization. It is a major cause of death in intensive-care units worldwide, with mortality rates that range from 20% for sepsis to 40% for severe sepsis to >60% for septic shock. These figures are also controversially linked to the (sometimes unnecessary) use of sedation in intubated and intensive-care patients, because of the high rates of sepsis and general infection that commonly develop more freqently in sedated patients. Also, the overuse of antibiotics has led to the development of super-strains, such as MRSA, which runs rampants in hospitals, and often makes

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chemotherapy, or greater than 10% bands + other immature forms. Note that SIRS criteria are very non-specific,[11] and must be interpreted carefully within the clinical context. These criteria exist primarily for the purpose of more objectively classifying critically-ill patients so that future clinical studies may be more rigorous and more easily reproducible. Consensus definitions, however, continue to evolve, with the latest expanding the list of signs and symptoms of sepsis to reflect clinical bedside experience.[11] To qualify as sepsis, there must be an infection suspected or proven (by culture, stain, or polymerase chain reaction (PCR)), or a clinical syndrome pathognomonic for infection. Specific evidence for infection includes WBCs in normally sterile fluid (such as urine or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), evidence of a perforated viscus (free air on abdominal x-ray or CT scan, signs of acute peritonitis), abnormal chest x-ray (CXR) consistent with pneumonia (with focal opacification), or petechiae, purpura, or purpura fulminans The more critical subsets of sepsis are severe sepsis (sepsis with acute organ dysfunction) and septic shock (sepsis with refractory arterial hypotension). As an alternative, when two or more of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria are met without evidence of infection, patients may be diagnosed simply with "SIRS." Patients with SIRS and acute organ dysfunction may be termed "severe SIRS." Patients are defined as having "severe sepsis" if they have sepsis plus signs of systemic hypoperfusion: either end-organ dysfunction or serum lactate greater than 4 mmol/dL. Other signs include oliguria and altered mental status. Patients are defined as having septic shock if they have sepsis plus hypotension after aggressive fluid resuscitation (typically upwards of 6 liters or 40 ml/kg of crystalloid). Examples of end-organ dysfunction include the following:[12] • Lungs • acute lung injury (ALI) (PaO2/FiO2 < 300) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (PaO2/FiO2 < 200) • Brain • encephalopathy • symptoms: • agitation • confusion

Sepsis
• coma • etiologies: • ischemia • hemorrhage • microthrombi • microabscesses • multifocal necrotizing leukoencephalopathy • Liver • disruption of protein synthetic function: manifests acutely as progressive coagulopathy due to inability to synthesize clotting factors • disruption of metabolic functions: manifests as cessation of bilirubin metabolism, resulting in elevated unconjugated serum bilirubin levels (indirect bilirubin) • Kidney • oliguria and anuria • electrolyte abnormalities • volume overload • Heart • systolic and diastolic heart failure, likely due to cytokines that depress myocyte function • cellular damage, manifest as a troponin leak (although not necessarily ischemic in nature) More specific definitions of end-organ dysfunction exist for SIRS in pediatrics.[10] • Cardiovascular dysfunction (after fluid resuscitation with at least 40 ml/kg of crystalloid) • hypotension with blood pressure < 5th percentile for age or systolic blood pressure < 2 standard deviations below normal for age, OR • vasopressor requirement, OR • two of the following criteria: • unexplained metabolic acidosis with base deficit > 5 mEq/L • lactic acidosis: serum lactate 2 times the upper limit of normal • oliguria (urine output < 0.5 ml/kg/ hr) • prolonged capillary refill > 5 seconds • core to peripheral temperature difference > 3°C • Respiratory dysfunction (in the absence of cyanotic heart disease or known chronic lung disease) • the ratio of the arterial partial-pressure of oxygen to the fraction of oxygen in

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the gases inspired (PaO2/FiO2) < 300 (the definition of acute lung injury), OR • arterial partial-pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) > 65 torr (20 mmHg) over baseline PaCO2 (evidence of hypercapnic respiratory failure), OR • supplemental oxygen requirement of greater than FiO2 0.5 to maintain oxygen saturation ≥ 92% Neurologic dysfunction • Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) ≤ 11, OR • altered mental status with drop in GCS of 3 or more points in a patient with developmental delay/mental retardation Hematologic dysfunction • platelet count < 80,000/mm3 or 50% drop from maximum in chronically thrombocytopenic patients, OR • international normalized ratio (INR) > 2 • Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Renal dysfunction • serum creatinine ≥ 2 times the upper limit of normal for age or 2-fold increase in baseline creatinine in patients with chronic kidney disease Hepatic dysfunction (only applicable to infants > 1 month) • total serum bilirubin ≥ 4 mg/dl, OR • alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ≥ 2 times the upper limit of normal

Sepsis
empirically for serious bacterial infection for at least 48 hours until cultures are demonstrated to show no growth. Attempts have been made to see whether it is possible to risk stratify newborns in order to decide if a newborn can be safely monitored at home without treatment despite having a fever. One such attempt is the Rochester criteria. A study performed at Strong Memorial Hospital in Rochester, New York, showed that infants ≤ 60 days old meeting the following criteria were at low-risk for having a serious bacterial illness[13]: • generally well-appearing • previously healthy • full term (at ≥37 weeks gestation) • no antibiotics perinatally • no unexplained hyperbilirubinemia that required treatment • no antibiotics since discharge • no hospitalizations • no chronic illness • discharged at the same time or before the mother • no evidence of skin, soft tissue, bone, joint, or ear infection • WBC count 5,000-15,000/mm3 • absolute band count ≤ 1,500/mm3 • urine WBC count ≤ 10 per high power field (hpf) • stool WBC count ≤ 5 per high power field (hpf) only in infants with diarrhea Those meeting these criteria likely do not require a lumbar puncture, and are felt to be safe for discharge home without antibiotic treatment, or with a single dose of intramuscular antibiotics, but will still require close outpatient follow-up.

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Neonatal sepsis
In common clinical usage, sepsis specifically refers to the presence of a serious bacterial infection(SBI) (such as meningitis, pneumonia, pyelonephritis, or gastroenteritis) in the setting of fever. Criteria with regards to hemodynamic compromise or respiratory failure are not useful clinically because these symptoms often do not arise in neonates until death is imminent and unpreventable. It is difficult to clinically exclude sepsis in newborns less than 90 days old that have fever (defined as a temperature > 38°C (100.4°F). Except in the case of obvious acute viral bronchiolitis, the current practice in newborns less than 30 days old is to perform a complete workup including complete blood count with differential, blood culture, urinalysis, urine culture, and cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) studies and CSF culture, admit the newborn to the hospital, and treat

Diagnosis
The medical history and clinical examination can provide important elements regarding the cause and severity of sepsis. The identification of the causative microbe in sepsis can provide useful information. Imaging (such as chest X-rays or CT scans) and laboratory techniques (such as urine microscopy or lumbar puncture) are often necessary to find the source of the infection. The exact causative organism is confirmed by microbiological culturing in the laboratory (blood cultures and cultures from suspected sites of infections such as urine cultures, sputum cultures, and so on). However, this is a slow process, as it takes a few days to grow

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up the cultures and correctly identify the pathogens. New molecular diagnostic tests are now available that uses genetic material from the pathogen to quickly (within hours) provide results. However, current practice is to directly prescribe broad spectrum antibiotics to the patient. The effects of the condition on the function of the organs should be documented to guide therapy. This can involve measurement of blood levels of lactate, blood gas sampling, and other blood tests. Because patients on the intensive-care unit are predisposed to hospital-acquired infections (especially related to the presence of catheters), they may require surveillance cultures. Procalcitonin has been suggested as a more specific marker for infection rather than inflammation, but studies are conflicting and further research is needed to establish proper use of this marker.[14] broad spectrum antibiotics is the medicine which doctors uses these days.

Sepsis
MD, is a systematic approach to resuscitation that has been validated in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. It is meant to be started in the Emergency Department. The theory is that one should use a step-wise approach, having the patient meet physiologic goals, to optimize cardiac preload, afterload, and contractility, thus optimizing oxygen delivery to the tissues.[15] A recent metaanalysis showed that EGDT provides a benefit on mortality in patients with sepsis.[16] As of December 2008 some controversy around its uses remains and a number of trials are ongoing in an attempt to resolve this.[17] In EGDT, fluids are administered until the central venous pressure (CVP), as measured by a central venous catheter, reaches 8-12 cm of water (or 10-15 cm of water in mechanically ventilated patients). Rapid administration of several liters of isotonic crystalloid solution is usually required to achieve this. If the mean arterial pressure is less than 65 mmHg or greater than 90 mmHg, vasopressors or vasodilators are given as needed to reach the goal. Once these goals are met, the mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2), i.e., the oxygen saturation of venous blood as it returns to the heart as measured at the vena cava, is optimized. If the SvO2 is less than 70%, blood is given to reach a hemoglobin of 10 g/dl and then inotropes are added until the SvO2 is optimized. Elective intubation may be performed to reduce oxygen demand if the SvO2 remains low despite optimization of hemodynamics. Urine output is also monitored, with a minimum goal of 0.5 ml/kg/h. In the original trial, mortality was cut from 46.5% in the control group to 30.5% in the intervention group.[15] The Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines recommend EGDT for the initial resuscitation of the septic patient with a level B strength of evidence (single randomized control trial).[5] Most therapies aimed at the inflammation process itself have failed to improve outcome, however drotrecogin alfa (activated protein C, one of the coagulation factors) has been shown to decrease mortality from about 31% to about 25% in severe sepsis. To qualify for drotrecogin alfa, a patient must have severe sepsis or septic shock with an APACHE II score of 25 or greater and a low risk of bleeding.[18] During critical illness, a state of adrenal insufficiency and tissue resistance (the word ’relative’ resistance should be avoided[19]) to

Treatment
Adults and children
The therapy of sepsis rests on antibiotics, surgical drainage of infected fluid collections, fluid replacement and appropriate support for organ dysfunction. This may include hemodialysis in kidney failure, mechanical ventilation in pulmonary dysfunction, transfusion of blood products, and drug and fluid therapy for circulatory failure. Ensuring adequate nutrition—preferably by enteral feeding, but if necessary by parenteral nutrition—is important during prolonged illness. A problem in the adequate management of septic patients has been the delay in administering therapy after sepsis has been recognized. Published studies have demonstrated that for every hour delay in the administration of appropriate antibiotic therapy there is an associated 7% rise in mortality. A large international collaboration was established to educate people about sepsis and to improve patient outcomes with sepsis, entitled the "Surviving Sepsis Campaign." The Campaign has published an evidence-based review of management strategies for severe sepsis,[5] with the aim to publish a complete set of guidelines in subsequent years. Early Goal Directed Therapy (EGDT), developed at Henry Ford Hospital by E. Rivers,

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corticosteroids may occur. This has been termed critical illness–related corticosteroid insufficiency.[19] Treatment with corticosteroids might be most beneficial in those with septic shock and early severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), whereas its role in other patients such as those with pancreatitis or severe pneumonia is unclear.[19] These recommendations stem from studies showing benefits from low dose hydrocortisone treatment for septic shock patients and methylprednisolone in ARDS patients.[20][21][22][23][24][25] However, the exact way of determining corticosteroid insufficiency remains problematic. It should be suspected in those poorly responding to resuscitation with fluids and vasopressors. ACTH stimulation testing is not recommended to confirm the diagnosis.[19] Glucocorticoid drugs should be weaned and not stopped abruptly. In some cases, sepsis may lead to inadequate tissue perfusion and necrosis. As this may affect the extremities, amputation may become necessary. On January 08 2009 a patent request was submitted for the possible treatment of sepsis ( 20090011974 Scavenger Receptor B1 (Cla-1) Targeting for the Treatment of Infection, Sepsis and Inflammation 01-08-2009) .

Sepsis
also vulnerable to other common pathogens that can cause meningitis and bacteremia such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. Although uncommon, if anaerobic species are suspected (such as in cases where necrotizing enterocolitis or intestinal perforation is a concern, clindamycin is often added. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is often used in neonatal sepsis, however a recent study found that, while GM-CSF corrects neutropenia if present, it has no effect on reducing sepsis or improving survival. [26]

Prognosis
Prognosis can be estimated with the MEDS score.[27] Approximately 20–35% of patients with severe sepsis and 40–60% of patients with septic shock die within 30 days. Others die within the ensuing 6 months. Late deaths often result from poorly controlled infection, immunosuppression, complications of intensive care, failure of multiple organs, or the patient’s underlying disease. Prognostic stratification systems such as APACHE II indicate that factoring in the patient’s age, underlying condition, and various physiologic variables can yield estimates of the risk of dying of severe sepsis. Of the individual covariates, the severity of underlying disease most strongly influences the risk of dying. Septic shock is also a strong predictor of short- and long-term mortality. Case-fatality rates are similar for culture-positive and culture-negative severe sepsis.

Neonates
Note that, in neonates, sepsis is difficult to diagnose clinically. They may be relatively asymptomatic until hemodynamic and respiratory collapse is imminent, so, if there is even a remote suspicion of sepsis, they are frequently treated with antibiotics empirically until cultures are sufficiently proven to be negative. In addition to fluid resuscitation and supportive care, a common antibiotic regimen in infants with suspected sepsis is a beta-lactam antibiotic (usually ampicillin) in combination with an aminoglycoside (usually gentamicin) or a third-generation cephalosporin (usually cefotaxime—ceftriaxone is generally avoided in neonates due to the theoretical risk of kernicterus.) The organisms which are targeted are species that predominate in the female genitourinary tract and to which neonates are especially vulnerable to, specifically Group B Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes (This is the main rationale for using ampicillin versus other beta-lactams.) Of course, neonates are

See also
• Meningococcemia • Septic shock • Systemic inflammatory response syndrome

References
[1] Levy MM, Fink MP, Marshall JC, et al (April 2003). "2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ ATS/SIS International Sepsis Definitions Conference". Crit. Care Med. 31 (4): 1250–6. doi:10.1097/ 01.CCM.0000050454.01978.3B. PMID 12682500. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/ pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/

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Sepsis

[2]

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[6]

[7]

[8]

media/ sepsis in the United States from 1979 landingpage.htm?issn=0090-3493&volume=31&issue=4&spage=1250. J Med 348 (16): through 2000". N Engl ^ Bone RC, Balk RA, Cerra FB, et al (Jun 1546–54. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa022139. 1992). "Definitions for sepsis and organ PMID 12700374. http://content.nejm.org/ failure and guidelines for the use of cgi/content/full/348/16/1546. innovative therapies in sepsis. The [9] "Sepsis can strike, kill shockingly fast" ACCP/SCCM Consensus Conference by Elizabeth Cohen, January 29, 2009, Committee. American College of Chest CNN Physicians/Society of Critical Care [10] ^ Goldstein B, Giroir B, Randolph A Medicine". Chest 101 (6): 1644–55. (2005). "International pediatric sepsis doi:10.1378/chest.101.6.1644. PMID consensus conference: definitions for 1303622. http://www.chestjournal.org/ sepsis and organ dysfunction in content/101/6/1644. pediatrics". Pediatr Crit Care Med 6 (1): Dictionary 2–8. doi:10.1097/ septicemia at eMedicine Dictionary 01.PCC.0000149131.72248.E6. PMID ^ Dellinger RP, Levy MM, Carlet JM, 15636651. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/ et.al, for the International Surviving pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/ Sepsis Campaign Guidelines Committee. media/ (2008). "Surviving Sepsis Campaign: landingpage.htm?issn=1529-7535&volume=6&issue International Guidelines for Management [11] ^ Levy MM, Fink MP, Marshall JC, of Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock: Abraham E, Angus D, Cook D, Cohen J, 2008" (Subscription required). Crit Care Opal SM, Vincent JL, Ramsay G (Apr Med 36 (1): 296–327. doi:10.1097/ 2003). "2001 SCCM/ESICM/ACCP/ATS/ 01.CCM.0000298158.12101.41. PMID SIS International Sepsis Definitions 18158437. http://www.ccmjournal.com/ Conference". Crit Care Med 31 (4): pt/re/ccm/searchresults.htm. 1250–1256. doi:10.1097/ Lockhart PB, Brennan MT, Sasser HC, 01.CCM.0000050454.01978.3B. Fox PC, Paster BJ, Bahrani-Mougeot FK http://www.ccmjournal.com/pt/re/ccm/ (Jun 2008). "Bacteremia associated with abstract.00003246-200304000-00038.htm. toothbrushing and dental extraction". [12] Abraham E, Singer M (2007). Circulation 117 (24): 3118–25. "Mechanisms of sepsis-induced organ doi:10.1161/ dysfunction" (Subscription required). CIRCULATIONAHA.107.758524. PMID Crit. Care Med. 35 (10): 2408–16. 18541739. http://circ.ahajournals.org/ doi:10.1097/ cgi/ 01.CCM.0000282072.56245.91. PMID pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=18541739. 17948334. http://www.ccmjournal.com/ Wilson W, Taubert KA, Gewitz M, et al pt/re/ccm/ (Oct 2007). "Prevention of infective abstract.00003246-200710000-00026.htm. endocarditis: guidelines from the [13] Dagan R, Powell KR, Hall CB, Menegus American Heart Association: a guideline MA (Dec 1985). "Identification of infants from the American Heart Association unlikely to have serious bacterial Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and infection although hospitalized for Kawasaki Disease Committee, Council on suspected sepsis". J. Pediatr. 107 (6): Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, 855–60. doi:10.1016/ and the Council on Clinical Cardiology, S0022-3476(85)80175-X. PMID 4067741. Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and http://www.jpeds.com/article/ Anesthesia, and the Quality of Care and S0022-3476(85)80175-X/abstract. Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary [14] Becker KL, Snider R, Nylen ES (March Working Group". Circulation 116 (15): 2008). "Procalcitonin assay in systemic 1736–54. doi:10.1161/ inflammation, infection, and sepsis: CIRCULATIONAHA.106.183095. PMID clinical utility and limitations". Crit. Care 17446442. http://circ.ahajournals.org/ Med. 36 (3): 941–52. doi:10.1097/ cgi/ CCM.0B013E318165BABB. PMID pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17446442. 18431284. Martin GS, Mannino DM, Eaton S, Moss [15] ^ Rivers E, Nguyen B, Havstad S, et al M (2003-04-17). "The epidemiology of (2001). "Early goal-directed therapy in

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the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock". N. Engl. J. Med. 345 (19): 1368–77. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa010307. PMID 11794169. http://content.nejm.org/ cgi/content/full/345/19/1368. [16] Jones AE, Brown MD, Trzeciak S, et al (October 2008). "The effect of a quantitative resuscitation strategy on mortality in patients with sepsis: a metaanalysis". Critical care medicine 36 (10): 2734–9. doi:10.1097/ CCM.0b013e318186f839. PMID 18766093. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/ pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/ media/landingpage.htm?doi=10.1097/ CCM.0b013e318186f839. [17] McKenna M (December 2008). "Controversy swirls around early goaldirected therapy in sepsis: pioneer defends ground- breaking approach to deadly disease". Ann Emerg Med 52 (6): 651–4. doi:10.1016/ j.annemergmed.2008.10.013. PMID 19048659. [18] Bernard GR, Vincent JL, Laterre PF, LaRosa SP, Dhainaut JF, LopezRodriguez A, Steingrub JS, Garber GE, Helterbrand JD, Ely EW, Fisher CJ Jr (2001-03-08). "Recombinant human protein C Worldwide Evaluation in Severe Sepsis (PROWESS) study group. Efficacy and safety of recombinant human activated protein C for severe sepsis". N Engl J Med 344 (10): 699–709. doi:10.1056/NEJM200103083441001. PMID 11236773. http://content.nejm.org/ cgi/content/abstract/344/10/699. [19] ^ Marik PE, Pastores SM, Annane D, et al (Jun 2008). "Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of corticosteroid insufficiency in critically ill adult patients: consensus statements from an international task force by the American College of Critical Care Medicine". Crit. Care Med. 36 (6): 1937–49. doi:10.1097/ CCM.0b013e31817603ba. PMID 18496365. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/ pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/ media/landingpage.htm?doi=10.1097/ CCM.0b013e31817603ba. [20] Annane D, Sebille V, Charpentier C, Bollaert PE, Francois B, Korach JM, Capellier G, Cohen Y, Azoulay E, Troche G, Chaumet-Riffaut P, Bellissant E (2002-08-21). "Effect of treatment with

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low doses of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone on mortality in patients with septic shock". JAMA 288 (7): 862–71. doi:10.1001/jama.288.7.862. PMID 12186604. http://jama.amaassn.org/cgi/content/full/288/7/862. [21] Meduri GU, Headley AS, Golden E, et al (Jul 1998). "Effect of prolonged methylprednisolone therapy in unresolving acute respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial". JAMA 280 (2): 159–65. doi:10.1001/jama.280.2.159. PMID 9669790. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/ pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9669790. [22] Meduri GU, Golden E, Freire AX, et al (Apr 2007). "Methylprednisolone infusion in early severe ARDS: results of a randomized controlled trial". Chest 131 (4): 954–63. doi:10.1378/chest.06-2100. PMID 17426195. http://www.chestjournal.org/cgi/ pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17426195. [23] Sprung CL, Annane D, Keh D, et al (Jan 2008). "Hydrocortisone therapy for patients with septic shock". N. Engl. J. Med. 358 (2): 111–24. doi:10.1056/ NEJMoa071366. PMID 18184957. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/ pmidlookup?view=short&pmid=18184957&promo=O [24] Steinberg KP, Hudson LD, Goodman RB, et al (Apr 2006). "Efficacy and safety of corticosteroids for persistent acute respiratory distress syndrome". N. Engl. J. Med. 354 (16): 1671–84. doi:10.1056/ NEJMoa051693. PMID 16625008. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/ pmidlookup?view=short&pmid=16625008&promo=O [25] Annane D, Sébille V, Bellissant E (Jan 2006). "Effect of low doses of corticosteroids in septic shock patients with or without early acute respiratory distress syndrome". Crit. Care Med. 34 (1): 22–30. doi:10.1097/ 01.CCM.0000194723.78632.62. PMID 16374152. http://meta.wkhealth.com/pt/ pt-core/template-journal/lwwgateway/ media/ landingpage.htm?an=00003246-200601000-00004. [26] Carr R, Brocklehurst P, Doré CJ, Modi N (January 2009). "Granulocytemacrophage colony stimulating factor administered as prophylaxis for reduction of sepsis in extremely preterm, small for gestational age neonates (the PROGRAMS trial): a single-blind,

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multicentre, randomised controlled trial". Lancet 373 (9659): 226–33. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60071-4. PMID 19150703. [27] Shapiro NI, Wolfe RE, Moore RB, Smith E, Burdick E, Bates DW (2003). "Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis (MEDS) score: a prospectively derived and validated clinical prediction rule". Crit. Care Med. 31 (3): 670–5. doi:10.1097/ 01.CCM.0000054867.01688.D1. PMID

Sepsis
12626967. http://www.ccmjournal.com/ pt/re/ccm/ abstract.00003246-200303000-00002.htm.

External links
• • • • So More Survive Surviving Sepsis Campaign International Sepsis Forum Sepsis can strike, kill shockingly fast CNN

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