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JAS 39 Gripen

JAS 39 Gripen
JAS 39 Gripen

A Swedish Air Force JAS 39 at an exercise in Bulgaria, 2003. Role Manufacturer First flight Introduction Status Primary users Multirole fighter Saab 9 December 1988 9 June 1996 Active service Swedish Air Force Czech Air Force Hungarian Air Force South African Air Force 213 as of December 2008[1][2] US$40-61 million (export price VAT excluded)[3][4]

Jakt (Air-to-Air), Attack (Air-to-Surface), and Spaning (Reconnaissance), indicating that the Gripen is a multirole or swingrole fighter aircraft that can fulfill each mission type. The JAS 39 got its name Gripen through a public competition in 1982.[9] The griffin is the heraldry on Saab’s logo and suited the multirole characteristics of the aircraft. Furthermore, the griffin is the symbolic animal on the coat of arms of Östergötland, the province in which Saab AB is headquartered (Linköping).

Number built Unit cost

The Saab JAS 39 Gripen (English: Griffin) is a 4.5 generation fighter aircraft manufactured by the Swedish aerospace company Saab. Gripen International acts as a prime contracting organisation and is responsible for marketing, selling and supporting the Gripen fighter around the world. The aircraft is in service with the Swedish Air Force, the Czech Air Force, the Hungarian Air Force and the South African Air Force, and has been ordered by the Royal Thai Air Force. A total of 236 Gripens have been ordered as of 2008.[5]

Empire Test Pilots’ School Saab JAS 39B Gripen taxis after landing at RIAT 2008, England. Sweden chose to develop the Gripen rather than purchase a variant of the F-16, F/A-18A/B, or the "F-5S" version of the Northrop F-20 Tigershark. The first Gripen was rolled out on 26 April 1987, marking Saab’s 50th anniversary.[10] The first prototype first flew on 9 December 1988.[11] On 26 November 2008, the final aircraft of the latest 64 jet Batch 3 contract was delivered to FMV.[1] This was accomplished at a 10% less than the agreed-upon price for the whole batch, putting the Gripen 39C fly-away price at under USD 30 million.

Development
By the late 1970s a replacement for Sweden’s ageing Saab 35 Drakens and Saab 37 Viggens was needed.[6] A new fighter was being considered by 1979,[7] with design studies beginning the following year.[6] The development of the Gripen began in 1982 with approval from Swedish Parliament.[8] The Gripen was designed for performance, flexibility, effectiveness and survivability in air combat. The designation JAS stands for

Teaming agreements
In 1995, Saab Military Aircraft and British Aerospace or BAe (now BAE Systems) formed the joint venture company Saab-BAe Gripen AB, with the goal of adapting, manufacturing, marketing and supporting Gripen internationally. The deal was to take advantage of

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BAe’s global marketing experience. BAe also saw the Gripen as a complementary product to its existing aircraft, fitting between its Hawk light attack/trainer and the larger Tornado and Typhoon fighters. This cooperation was extended in 2001 with the formation of Gripen International for the same purpose. In December 2004, Saab and BAE Systems agreed that from January 2005 Saab would take full responsibility for marketing of the Gripen in light of Saab’s increased export marketing capabilities. On 26 April 2007, Norway signed an agreement on a joint development programme of the aircraft regarding co-operation in advanced development work on future versions of the aircraft. The value of the deal, which will allow Norwegian companies to take part, is about NOK 150 million over two years.[12] In June 2007, Thales Norway A/S and Saab signed a contract concerning the development of communications systems for the Gripen fighter. This order for the Norwegian company is the first to be awarded under the provisions of the Letter of Agreement signed by the Norwegian Ministry of Defence and Gripen International in April 2007.[12] As part of Gripen International’s marketing efforts in Denmark, a deal was signed in December 2007 with Danish technology supplier Terma A/S which allows them to participate in an industrial co-operation programme over the next 10-15 years. The total value of the programme is estimated at over DKK 10 billion, and is partly dependent on Denmark choosing the Gripen.[13]

JAS 39 Gripen
14,000 to 16,000 kg (30,900–35,300 lb) with an increase in empty weight of 200 kg (440 lb). Due to relocated main landing gear, the internal fuel capacity has increased by 40%, which will increase ferry range to 4,070 km (2,200 nmi). The new undercarriage configuration also allows for the addition of two heavy stores pylons to the fuselage. Its PS-05/A radar adds a new AESA antenna for flight testing beginning in mid-2009.[17] Gripen Demo’s maiden flight was conducted on 27 May 2008. The test flight took about 30 minutes and reached a maximum altitude of about 6,400 meters.[18] On 21 January 2009, the Gripen Demo flew at Mach 1.2 without reheat to test its supercruise capability.[19][20]

Design

Gripen NG
A two-seat "New Technology Demonstrator" has been built,[14] and was presented on 23 April 2008. It has increased fuel capacity, a more powerful powerplant, increased payload capacity, upgraded avionics and other improvements. The new aircraft is also referred to as the "Gripen Demo".[15][16] The new Gripen NG (Next Generation) will have many new parts and will be powered by the GE/Volvo Aero F414G, a development of the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet’s engine. The engine will produce 20% more thrust at 98 kN (22,000 lbf), enabling a supercruise speed of Mach 1.1 with air-to-air missiles.[17] Compared to the Gripen D, the Gripen NG’s max takeoff weight has increased from Farnborough Airshow 2006. In designing the aircraft, several layouts were studied. Saab ultimately selected an unstable canard design. The canard configuration gives a high onset of pitch rate and low drag, enabling the aircraft to be faster, have longer range and carry a larger payload. The combination of delta wing and canards gives the Gripen significantly better takeoff and landing performance and flying characteristics. The totally integrated avionics make it a "programmable" aircraft. It also has a built-in electronic warfare unit, making

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it possible to load more ordnance onto the aircraft without losing self defence capabilities. The Gripen affords more flexibility than earlier generations of combat aircraft used by Sweden, and its operating costs are about two thirds of those for JA 37 Viggen. In the Swedish Air Force’s list of requirements was the ability to operate from 800 m runways. Early on in the programme, all flights from Saab’s facility in Linköping were flown from within a 9 m × 800 m outline painted on the runway. Stopping distance was reduced by extending the relatively large air brakes; using the control surfaces to push the aircraft down, enabling the wheel brakes to apply more force and tilting the canards downwards, making them into large air brakes and further pushing the aircraft down.

JAS 39 Gripen
displays taking up around 75 percent of available space. It is dominated by three large (15.7 x 21 cm) active-matrix, liquid crystal, multifunction displays and a wide angle (20 x 28 degree) head-up display (HUD). The displays are equipped with light sensors for computer assisted brightness and contrast control.

Expeditionary capabilities
One interesting feature is the Gripen’s ability to take off and land on public roads, which was part of Sweden’s war defence strategy. The aircraft is designed to be able to operate even if the air force does not have air superiority. During the Cold War, the Swedish Armed Forces were preparing to defend against a possible invasion from the Soviet Union. Even though the defensive strategy in principle called for an absolute defence of Swedish territory, military planners calculated that Swedish defence forces could eventually be overrun. For that reason, Sweden had military stores dispersed all over the country, in order to maintain the capacity of inflicting damage on the enemy even if military installations were lost. Accordingly, among the requirements from the Swedish Air Force was that the Gripen fighter should be able to land on public roads near military stores for quick maintenance, and take off again. As a result, the Gripen fighter can be refueled and re-armed in ten minutes by a five man mobile ground crew operating out of a truck, and then resume flying sorties.[24] In the post-Cold War era, these dispersed operation capabilities have proved to be of great value for a different purpose. The Gripen fighter system is expeditionary in nature, and therefore well suited for peacekeeping missions worldwide, which has become the new main task of the Swedish Armed Forces.

Radar
The Gripen uses the modern PS-05/A pulsedoppler X-band radar, developed by Ericsson and GEC-Marconi, and based on the latter’s advanced Blue Vixen radar for the Sea Harrier (which inspired the Eurofighter’s CAPTOR radar as well).[21] The radar is capable of detecting, locating, identifying and automatically tracking multiple targets in the upper and lower spheres, on the ground and sea or in the air, in all weather conditions. It can guide four air to air missiles (e.g. AIM-120 AMRAAM, MBDA MICA) simultaneously at four different targets.[22] On March the 27th, 2009, Saab and Selex Galileo signed an agreement for joint development of the radar based on Selex Galileo’s AESA Vixen and PS-05/A.[23]

Cockpit
The cockpit has three full colour head down displays and digital emergency instrument presentation unique to the aircraft. The cockpit layout provides a human-machine interface that eases pilot workload substantially and increases situational awareness, but still provides substantial future growth potential. The pilot flies the aircraft by means of a centre stick and left hand throttles. The cockpit provides a display area some 30 percent larger than that available in most other fighters, with the multi-function

Operational history
Current operators
The Gripen is in operational service with the Swedish Air Force, which has ordered 204 aircraft (including 28 two-seaters).[25] The Czech Air Force and the Hungarian Air Force also operate the Gripen, and

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JAS 39 Gripen
tender for 36 Gripen NGs to the Brazilian Air Force Command.[32] Croatia The Croatian Air Force has announced plans to replace their MiG-21 bis aircraft, possibly with either the JAS 39 Gripen or the F-16 Falcon.[33] The final projection calls for 12-18 aircraft. On 27 March 2008, the Swedish Defence Material Administration and Saab responded to Croatia’s request for information regarding the procurement of twelve aircraft.[34][35] Due to economic and political reasons, the Croatian Air Force is not expected to make a decision before 2010.[36] Denmark Denmark has signed a Memorandum of Understanding between the Defence Ministers of Sweden and Denmark to evaluate the Gripen, pending Denmark’s future replacement of their fleet of 48 F-16s. Denmark has also requested for the new variants of Gripens to be developed. It will include the package of new avionics, a larger and more powerful engine, larger payload and, most importantly, longer range.[13] This request was the basis for the Gripen NG, which satisfies all Denmark’s requirements, such as the more powerful F414G engine.[37] India India is evaluating the Gripen NG in its tender for 126 multi-role combat aircraft. Gripen International handed over its proposal on 28 April 2008. The company is offering the Gripen IN, a version of the Gripen NG for India’s tender,[38] and has opened an office in New Delhi in order to support its efforts in the Indian market.[39] On 4 February 2009, it was announced that Saab had partnered with the Indian Tata Group to develop a new Gripen variant to fit India’s needs.[40][41] Netherlands On 7 July 2008 Dagens Industri reported that the Netherlands announced they will evaluate JAS 39 Gripen Next Generation together with four other competitors and announce the result in the end of 2008.[42] Saab responded on 25 August 2008 to a ’Replacement Questionnaire’ issued by the Dutch Ministry of Defence, offering 85 aircraft to the Royal Netherlands Air Force.[43] The Netherlands evaluated the Gripen NG against the F-35.[44] On 18 December 2008 media reported that the Netherlands evaluated the F-35 ahead of the Gripen, citing better performance and lower price.[45][46][47] On 13 January 2009, NRC Handelsblad claimed

Gripen taking off

Gripen in flight currently lease 14 Swedish Air Force aircraft each, with the option of eventually acquiring them. In both cases two of the aircraft are two-seaters. The Czech and the Hungarian Air Force are the first Gripen operators within NATO.[26][27] Deliveries to the South African Air Force (26 aircraft, including nine two-seaters) commenced in April 2008,[28] and are ongoing.[2] The Gripen has also been ordered by the Royal Thai Air Force (six aircraft, four of them two-seaters).[29] The British based Empire Test Pilots’ School (ETPS) is operating Gripen as its advanced fast jet platform for test pilots worldwide.

Potential and future operators
In October 2008, it was reported that the Brazilian Air Force had selected three finalists in their F-X2 program. They are Dassault Rafale, Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet and Gripen NG,[30][31] and the number of aircraft involved are said to be anywhere between 36 and 120. The decision should be made early 2009. On 2 February 2009, Saab submitted a

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that, according to Swedish sources, Saab has made an offer to the Dutch to deliver 85 Gripens for 4.8 billion euro, about 1 billion euro cheaper than budgeted for the F-35.[48] This price includes training of pilots and maintenance for the next 30 years.[49] Switzerland On 17 January 2008 the Swiss Defence Material Administration invited Gripen International to submit initial bids for supplying the Gripen as a replacement for their old F-5s.[50] Saab responded with a proposal on 2 July 2008. The exact number of aircraft has not been disclosed.[51] Others Bulgaria announced that they are to replace their 20 Mikoyan MiG-29s with possible 16 JAS 39C/D Gripens,[52] or 16 used F-16s. The process is to be completed around 2010. The Romanian Air Force has announced that they will replace their MiG-21 LanceR aircraft beginning in 2008, possibly with JAS 39 Gripen, F-16 Fighting Falcon or Eurofighter Typhoon.[53][54] Other nations that are showing interest in the Gripen include Slovakia.[55][56]

JAS 39 Gripen
to Tolgfors, Norway’s mistakes will make it harder to sell Gripen to other countries.[62]

Variants

JAS 39 Gripen taxiing in after display, Farnborough 2006. JAS 39A Fighter version that first entered service with the Swedish Air Force in 1996. A modification program has started and 31 of these will be upgraded to C/D standard.[63] JAS 39B Two-seat version of the A variant. This variant is 2 feet 2 inches longer than the single seat version. JAS 39C NATO-compatible version of Gripen with extended capabilities in terms of armament, electronics, etc. This variant can also be refueled in flight. JAS 39D Two-seat version of the C variant. Gripen Demo A two-seat technology demonstrator for improvements slated for the Gripen NG. Gripen NG (Next Generation) Proposed version with new engine (F414G), increased fuel capacity, higher payload, upgraded avionics and other improvements. The Gripen IN version is a contender for the Indian MRCA competition.[38]

Missed contracts
On 18 January 2008. the Norwegian Ministry of Defence issued a Request for Binding Information (RBI) to the Swedish Defence Material Administration,[57] who responded on 28 April 2008 with a proposal offering 48 aircraft.[58] However, on 20 November 2008, the Norwegian government released a statement that they have selected F-35s for the Royal Norwegian Air Force.[59] Saab has criticized the selection, stating that there were flaws in Norway’s cost calculations for the Gripen NG.[60][61] On 10 February 2009, Swedish defence minister Sten Tolgfors declared that Norway had mis-calculated the deal. The offer was for 48 aircraft over 20 years, while Norway had calculated on operating 57 aircraft over 30 years, thus doubling the cost. The Swedish Ministry of Defence has several other objections to Norway’s calculations. Among other things, Norway has projected the operational costs for the American F-16 on the Gripen, and has not considered Swedish experiences of Gripen’s operational costs. Norway also calculated with more aircraft losses in accidents than what Sweden considers reasonable based on their operational experience of the type. According

Operators
Current operators
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JAS 39 Gripen

Gripen users in red, orders in green and potential buyers in blue.

Closeup image of Gripen’s engine nozzle

General characteristics
• • • • • • • • • 1 (2 for JAS 39B/D) 14.1 m (46 ft 3 in) 8.4 m (27 ft 7 in) 4.5 m (14 ft 9 in) 30.0 m² (323 ft²) 5,700 kg (14,600 lb) 8,500 kg (18,700 lb) 14,000 kg (31,000 lb) 1× Volvo Aero RM12 afterburning turbofan • 54 kN (12,100 lbf) • 80.5 kN (18,100 lbf) • 2.4 m (7 ft 10 in) • 14.8 m (48 ft 5 in)

JAS 39 Gripen of Empire Test Pilots’ School, Farnborough 2006.

Performance
• • • • • • JAS 39 Gripen of the Hungarian Air Force, Kecskemét open day, 2007 (landing). Mach 2 (2,130 km/h, 1,320 mph) 800 km (500 mi, 432 nmi) 3,200 km (2,000 mi) with drop tanks 15,240 m (50,000 ft) 336 kg/m² (68.8 lb/ft²) 0.97

Armament
• 1 × 27 mm Mauser BK-27 cannon 120 rounds • 6 × Rb.74 (AIM-9) or Rb 98 (IRIS-T) • 6 × Rb.99 (AIM-120) or MICA • 4 x Rb.71 (Skyflash) or Meteor • 4 x Rb.75 • 2 x KEPD.350 • 4 x GBU-12 Paveway II laser-guided bomb • 4 x rocket pods 13.5 cm rockets • 2 x Rbs.15F anti-ship missile • 2 x Bk.90 cluster bomb • 8 x Mark 82 bombs • 1 x ALQ-TLS ECM pod

Orders

Incidents
Five Gripens have crashed causing only minor injuries; one prototype, one production aircraft and three in service with the Swedish Air Force.

Specifications (JAS 39)
Data from Gripen International data,[77] Gripen to Brazil data,[78] Superfighters,[79] Czech Republic page,[80] Gripen weapons,[81] Great Book,[82] Fuel chart.[83]

See also
• 4.5 generation jet fighters

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JAS 39 Gripen
[16] "Gripen Demonstrator – The Future has Arrived!" Gripen International, 23 April 2008. [17] ^ Hoyle, Craig. "Saab’s Demo aircraft to highlight Gripen NG capabilities." Flightglobal.com, 25 April 2008. [18] "Gripen Demo makes its maiden flight." Gripen International, 27 May 2007. [19] "Gripen Supercruises." Gripen International, 21 January 2009. [20] Hoyle, Craig."Saab celebrates ’supercruise’ test success for Gripen Demo." Flight International, 22 January 2009. [21] Lake 2008, p. 2. [22] "The SAAB JAS 39 Gripen." vectorsite.net, 1 October 2007. [23] "Gripen NG to carry new FinmeccanicaSelex radar." upi.com, 16 April 2009. [24] "Tailor-made for the modern defense budget." Gripen International. [25] Swedish military aviation OrBat [26] Czech military aviation OrBat [27] Hungarian military aviation OrBat [28] ^ Hoyle, Craig. "South Africa fields first Gripen fighter." Flightglobal.com, 8 May 2008. [29] Thai military aviation OrBat [30] "Gripen NG shortlisted in Brazil." Gripen International, 2 October 2008. [31] Trimble, Stephen. "Brazil names three finalists for F-X2 contract, rejects three others." Flight International, 6 October 2008. [32] "Gripen NG tender for Brazil." Gripen International, 2 February 2009. [33] "Agreement signed between Ministry of Defence of Kingdom of Sweden and Croatian MOD." Croatian Ministry of Defence On-line, 1 February 2007. [34] "Gripen answer to Croatian request." Gripen International, 9 April 2008. [35] Kucic, Dino. "Saab details Gripen proposal to Croatia." Flightglobal.com, 17 April 2008. [36] "’Financijska kriza odgađa kupovinu borbenih zrakoplova’ (Financial crisis postpones purchase of fighter aircraft) (Croatian)." Militarium, 18 November 2008. [37] "Gripen team responds to Denmark’s requirements." Gripen International, 29 November 2007. [38] ^ "Gripen next generation fighter for India - The Independent Choice." Gripen International, 28 April 2008.

Comparable aircraft
• • • • • • Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet Chengdu J-10 Dassault Rafale Eurofighter Typhoon HAL Tejas Lockheed Martin F-16E/F Fighting Falcon Block 60 • Mikoyan MiG-35 • Mitsubishi F-2 • PAC JF-17 Thunder

Related lists
• List of fighter aircraft • List of military aircraft of Sweden

References
Notes
[1] ^ "Stark milstolpe av Gripenprojektet" (Strong milestone by the Gripen project)" (Swedish) FMV (Swedish Defence Materiel Administration), 27 November 2008. [2] ^ "Fifth Gripen advanced fighter delivered to South Africa." Gripen International, 1 December 2008. [3] "Sticker Shock: Estimating the Real Cost of Modern Fighter Aircraft", defenseaerospace.com, 2006, p. 2. [4] Tran, Pierre. "Buy Now, Save a Bundle on the F-35", Defense News, 15 July 2008. [5] "The Gripen Fighter Aircraft", Gripen International. [6] ^ Frawley 2002, p. 147. [7] Spick 2000 [8] "Gripen − The Story So Far." Gripen International. [9] "Gripen − Milestones", FMV (Swedish Defence Materiel Administration). [10] Winchester 2004, p. 216. [11] Williams 2003, p. 73. [12] ^ "Gripen agreement in Norway." Gripen International, 26 April 2007. [13] ^ "Saab offers Danish industry great opportunities." Gripen International, 4 December 2007. [14] "Gripen Demo − Trail-blazing the future", Gripen International, 19 June 2007. [15] Hoyle, Craig. "Saab reveals Gripen Demo aircraft." Flightglobal.com, 23 April 2008.

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[39] "Saab opens office in India." Gripen International, 28 January 2009. [40] "Saab leverages India for Gripen Next Generation development." Gripen International, 10 February 2009. [41] "Saab ties up with Tata to develop fighter jet." DefenceTalk.com, 10 February 2009. [42] " ’Holland utvärderar Gripen’ (Holland evaluates Gripen) (Swedish)." Dagens Industri, 7 July 2008. [43] "The Netherlands shows interest in Gripen", Gripen International, 25 August 2008. [44] Trimble, Stephen. "Saab proposes 85 Gripen NGs for Netherlands." Flight International, 1 August 2008. [45] Trimble, Stephen. "Dutch military report ranks F-35 superior to rivals." Flight International, 19 December 2008. [46] " ’Även Nederländerna nobbar Gripen’ (Netherlands too snubs Gripen) (Swedish)." Göteborgs-Posten, 18 December 2008. [47] "De Vries: JSF is beter dan Gripen" (De Vries: JSF is better than Gripen) (Dutch)." NOS.nl, 18 December 2008. [48] "’Saab verrast met prijs opvolger F-16’ (Saab surprises with price for F-16 successor) (Dutch)." NRC Handelsblad, 13 January 2009. [49] "’Saab doet aantrekkelijk aanbod’ (Saab makes an attractive offer) (Dutch)." Nederlands Dagblad, 13 January 2009. [50] "Switzerland invites Gripen team to bid for F-5 Tiger replacement." Gripen International, 17 January 2008. [51] "Saab offers Gripen to Switzerland." Gripen International, 2 July 2008. [52] Vatahov, Ivan. "Bulgaria receives multirole offer from Gripen." TheSofiaEcho, 4 September 2006. [53] " ’SUA şi UE se intrec să ne doboare MiG-urile’ (Replacement of the MiG-21) (Romanian)." Cotidianul, January 2007. [54] "Romania replaces the MiG-21 (Romanian)." Antena 3, 16 May 2007. [55] "The JAS-39 Gripen: Sweden’s 4+ Generation Wild Card", Defense Industry Daily. [56] "Brazil Embarking Upon F-X2 Fighter Program?" Defense Industry Daily. [57] "Norway requests Sweden to bid for F-16 fleet replacement." Gripen International, 18 January 2008.

JAS 39 Gripen
[58] "Gripen proposal to Norway delivered." Gripen International, 28 April 2008. [59] "The Joint Strike Fighter recommended to replace the F-16." Prime Minister’s Office, 20 November 2008. [60] Hoyle, Craig. "Saab launches attack on Norway’s ’faulty’ fighter analysis." Flight International, 10 December 2008. [61] "Saab comments on Norwegian evaluation." Gripen International, 10 December 2008. [62] " ’Norge räknade fel i Gripenaffär’ (Norway mis-calculated in Gripen deal) (Swedish)." Sveriges Television, 10 February 2009. [63] " ’Klart för nya Super-Gripen’ (Ready for the new Super-Gripen) (Swedish)." E24, 17 April 2007. [64] "Sweden delivers final 3 Gripen fighter aircraft to Hungary." Gripen International, 13 December 2007. [65] "Gripen team on target in South Africa", Gripen International, 13 November 2007. [66] "First Gripen for South Africa Delivered." Gripen International, 8 May 2008. [67] Hoyle, Craig. "Gripen enhancements escape Swedish cutbacks." Flightglobal.com, 7 September 2007. [68] "Sweden commits to Gripen’s future." Gripen International, 17 October 2007. [69] "Saab signs new agreement with UK’s test pilots’ school." Gripen International, 15 February 2008. [70] "Government approves Thailand deal", Gripen International, 25 January 2008. [71] "Thailand to buy six Swedish Gripen fighters." Reuters, 17 October 2007. [72] "Thailand selects Gripen and Erieye", Gripen International, 17 October 2007. [73] "Gripen agreement between Sweden and Thailand signed." Gripen International, 11 February 2008. [74] Hoyle, Craig. "Thailand signs contract for six Saab Gripen fighters." Flightglobal.com, 15 February 2008. [75] "Press Release on Gripen program." Royal Thai Air Force. [76] "Thai Air Force gets okay for six more Grippen fighters." DPA, 12 February 2009. [77] "Gripen Technical Summary." Gripen International. [78] "’Gripen para o Brasil’ (Gripen for Brazil) (Portuguese)" Gripen International, p. 6. [79] Williams 2003, p. 90.

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[80] JAS-39 Gripen Supersonic Aircraft, Czech Republic. [81] "Gripen weapons." Gripen International. [82] Spick 2000, p. 431. [83] "Combat radius on p. 39, B1." Defence University, SwAF Air Tactical Command.

JAS 39 Gripen
Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company, 2000. ISBN 0-7603-0893-4. • Williams, Mel (ed.). Superfighters, The Next Generation of Combat Aircraft. London: AIRtime, 2003. ISBN 1-880588-53-6. • Winchester, Jim (ed.). "Saab JAS 39 Gripen." Modern Military Aircraft (Aviation Factfile). Rochester, Kent, UK: Grange Books plc, 2004. ISBN 1-84013-640-5.

Bibliography
• Frawley, Gerard. The International Directory of Military Aircraft, 2002-2003. London: Aerospace Publications Pty Ltd, 2002. ISBN 1-875671-55-2. • Griffiths, Dave. "AFM Evaluates the Gripen." Air Forces Monthly, No. 144, March 2000. • Lake, Jon. "Gripen C/D" (Supplement). Air International. London: Key Publishing Ltd., July 2008. • Lindqvist, Gunnar and Bo Widfeldt. Rikets flygplanköp - JAS 39 Gripen (Swedish). Nässjö, Sweden: Air Historic Research AB, 2003. ISBN 91-973892-5-0. • Spick, Mike. "Saab JAS 39 Gripen". The Great Book of Modern Warplanes. St.

External links
• Official Saab Gripen fighter page • FMV - Swedish Defence Material Administration - Official website • The JAS-39 Gripen: Sweden’s 4+ Generation Wild Card at Defense Industry Daily • JAS-39 Gripen on dmoz.org • SAAB GRIPEN at Greg Goebel’s Air Vectors • Gripen on Czech army page

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