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Urdu

Urdu
Urdu ‫ودرُا‬ Language codes ISO 639-1 ISO 639-2 ISO 639-3 ur urd urd

Pronunciation Spoken in

[ˈʊrd̪uː] Pakistan, India, Fiji (Fiji Urdu). Also in various countries due to immigration, USA, UK, Germany, Canada, UAE, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Australia, Afghanistan, Norway, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Mauritius, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago and Burma(Mayanmar). South East Asia 60 million native (2007) 180 million total (2007) 19–21 (native speakers), in a near tie with Italian and Turkish Indo-European Indo-Iranian Indo-Aryan Central zone Western Hindi[1] Khariboli Urdu Urdu alphabet (Nasta’liq script)

Region Total speakers Ranking

Language family

Writing system Official status Official language in

Pakistan India (5 states only) Fiji National Language Authority, (Pakistan); National Council for Promotion of Urdu language, (India)

Regulated by

Urdu ( pronunciation , ‫ ,ودرا‬trans. Urdū, historically spelled Ordu) is a Central Indo-Aryan language[1][2] of the Indo-Iranian branch, belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. It is one of the 23 official languages of India. It is one of the two official languages, the other being English, as well as the national language of Pakistan. Its vocabulary developed under Hindi, Persian, Arabic, Turkic and Sanskrit. In modern times Urdu vocabulary has been significantly influenced by Punjabi and even English. Urdu was mainly developed in western Uttar Pradesh, India, but began taking shape during the Delhi Sultanate as well as Mughal Empire (1526–1858) in the Indian Subcontinent.[3] Scholars independently categorize Urdu as a standardised register of Hindustani[4][5][6] termed the standard dialect Khariboli.[6] The grammatical description in this article concerns this standard Urdu. In general, the term "Urdu" can encompass dialects of Hindustani other than the standardised versions.The original language of the Mughals had been Turkish, but after their arrival in South Asia, they came to adopt Persian and later Urdu. The word Urdu is believed to be derived from the Turkish, word ’Ordu’, which means army encampment.[7] It was initially called Zabān-e-Ordu-e-Mu’alla or language of the exalted army and later just Urdu. It obtained its name from Urdu Bazar, i.e. encampment (Urdu in Turkish) market, the market near the Red Fort in the walled city of Delhi.[8] Standard Urdu has approximately the twentieth largest population of native speakers, among all languages. Urdu is often contrasted with Hindi, another standardised form of Hindustani.[9] The main differences between the two are that Standard Urdu is conventionally written in Nastaliq calligraphy style of the Perso-Arabic

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script and draws vocabulary more heavily from Persian and Arabic than Hindi,[10] while Standard Hindi is conventionally written in Devanāgarī and draws vocabulary from Sanskrit comparatively[11] more heavily.[5] Most linguists nonetheless consider Urdu and Hindi to be two standardized forms of the same language;[12][13] however, others classify them separately due to sociolinguistic differences.[14]

Urdu
counted as native speakers of Urdu, and viceversa. Due to interaction with other languages, Urdu has become localised in many different parts and regions of the world it is spoken in, including Pakistan iteself. Urdu in Pakistan has undergone small changes and has lately incorporated and borrowed many words from Pakistani languages like Punjabi, Sindhi and Pashto, thus allowing speakers of the language in Pakistan to distinguish themselves more easily. Similarly, the Urdu spoken in India can also be distinguished into many dialects like Dakhni (Deccan) of SouthIndia and Khariboli of Punjab region since the recent years. In Pakistan, Urdu is initially spoken and understood by everyone, including a majority of urban dwellers in such cities as Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Abbottabad, Faisalabad, Hyderabad, Peshawar, Quetta and Sargodha. It is written, spoken and used in all Provinces/Territories of Pakistan despite the fact that the people from state-tostate may have different mother-tongues, as from the fact that it is the "base language" of the country. For this reason, it is also taught as a compulsory subject up to higher secondary school in both English and Urdu medium school systems. This has produced millions of Urdu speakers from people whose mother tongue is one of the State languages of Pakistan such as Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Balochi, Pothohari, Hindko, Pahari, Siraiki, and Brahui but they can read and write only Ordu. It is absorbing many words from the regional languages of Pakistan. This variety of Urdu is now called Pakistani Urdu. This facet changes the basis of language censuses, i.e. An Urdu speaker is one who speaks Urdu, though he may be a native speaker of other indigenous languages. The regional languages are also being influenced by Urdu vocabulary. There are millions of Pakistanis whose mother tongue is not Urdu, but since they have studied in Urdu medium schools, they can read and write Urdu along with their native language. Most of the nearly five million Afghan refugees of different ethnic origins (such as Pathan, Tajik, Uzbek, Hazarvi, and Turkmen) who stayed in Pakistan for over twenty-five years have also become fluent in Urdu. With such a large number of people(s) speaking Urdu, the language has in recent years acquired a peculiar Pakistani flavour further distinguishing it from the

Speakers and geographic distribution
See also: Languages of Pakistan and Languages of India

The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla ("The language of the exalted camp") written in Nasta’liq script. There are between 60 and 80 million native speakers of standard Urdu (Khari Boli). According to the SIL Ethnologue (1999 data), Urdu ‫/ودرا‬Hindiis the fifth most spoken language in the world.[15] According to George Weber’s article Top Languages: The World’s 10 Most Influential Languages in Language Today, Hindi/Urdu is the fourth most spoken language in the world, with 4.7 percent of the world’s population, after Mandarin, English, and Spanish.[16] Because of Urdu’s similarity to Hindi, speakers of the two languages can usually understand one another, if both sides refrain from using specialized vocabulary. Indeed, linguists sometimes count them as being part of the same language diasystem. However, Urdu and Hindi are socio-politically different, and people who describe themselves as being speakers of Hindi would question being

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Urdu spoken by native speakers and diversifying the language even further. • • • • • • • • •

Urdu
and Balochi as mother tongues- See Muhajir) India (51,536,111 [2001], 5.1%)[19] United Kingdom Bangladesh (650,000, 0.4%)[20] United Arab Emirates (600,000, 13%) Saudi Arabia (382,000, 1.5%)[21] Nepal (375,000, 1.3%) United States (350,000, 0.1%) Afghanistan (320,000, 8%) South Africa (170,000 South Asian Muslims, some of which may speak Urdu)[22] Canada (156,415 [2006], 0.5%)[23] Oman (90,000, 2.8%) Bahrain (80,000, 11.3%) Mauritius (74,000, 5.6%) Qatar (70,000, 8%) Germany (50,000) Norway (27,700 [2006])[24] France (20,000) Spain (18,000 [2004])[25] Sweden (10,000 [2001])[26] World Total: 60,503,578[27]

Autograph and a couplet of Last Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah II, dated 29th April 1844 A great number of newspapers are published in Urdu in Pakistan, including the Daily Jang, Nawa-i-Waqt, Millat, among many others (see List of newspapers in Pakistan). In India, Urdu is spoken in places where there are large Muslim minorities or cities which were bases for Muslim Empires in the past. These include parts of Uttar Pradesh (namely Lucknow), Delhi,Moradabad,Bijnore, Rampur, Aligarh, Bhopal, Hyderabad, Bangaluru, Kolkata, Mysore, Patna, Ajmer, and Ahmedabad.[17] Some Indian schools teach Urdu as a first language and have their own syllabus and exams. Indian madrasahs also teach Arabic as well as Urdu. India has more than 3,000 Urdu publications including 405 daily Urdu newspapers. Newspapers such as Sahara Urdu, Daily Salar, Hindustan Express, Daily Pasban, Siasat Daily, Munsif Daily and Inqilab are published and distributed in Bangaluru, Mysore, Hyderabad, and Mumbai (see List of newspapers in India). Outside South Asia, it is spoken by large numbers of migrant South Asian workers in the major urban centers of the Persian Gulf countries and Saudi Arabia. Urdu is also spoken by large numbers of immigrants and their children in the major urban centres of the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Germany, Norway and Australia. Countries with large numbers of native Urdu speakers: • Pakistan (10,800,000 [1993], 7%)[18] (Only refers to Pakistanis with Urdu as first language, i.e people who do not additionally speak the State languages of Pakistan including Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto

• • • • • • • • • • •

Official status
Urdu is the national and one of the two official languages (Qaumi Zabaan) of Pakistan, the other being English, and is spoken and understood throughout the country, while the state-by-state languages (languages spoken throughout various regions) are the provincial languages. It is used in education, literature, office and court business.[28] It holds in itself a repository of the cultural and social heritage of the country.[29] Although English is used in most elite circles, and Punjabi has a plurality of native speakers, Urdu is the lingua franca in Pakistan. Urdu is also one of the officially recognised languages in India[30] and has official language status in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar,[31] Jammu and Kashmir, and Uttar Pradesh, and the national capital, New Delhi. See also: States of India by Urdu speakers The importance of Urdu in the Muslim world is visible in the Holy cities of Makkah and Medinah-Al-Munawarah (Saudi Arabia), where most of the information signboards are written in Arabic, English and Urdu.

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Urdu

Bilabial Labio- Dental/ Retroflex Post-alv./ Velar Uvular Glottal dental Alveolar Palatal Nasal Plosive Affricate Fricative Tap or Flap Approximant ʋ f s ɾ l z (ɽ) (ɽʱ) j Vowels m p pʰ b bʱ n t̪ t̪ʰ d̪ d̪ʱ ʈ ʈʰ ɖ ɖʱ tʃ tʃʰ ʃ dʒ dʒʱ x ɣ ɦ k g q kʰ gʱ

Dialects
Urdu has four recognised dialects: Dakhini, Pinjari, Rekhta, and Modern Vernacular Urdu (based on the Khariboli dialect of the Delhi region). Sociolinguists also consider Urdu itself one of the four major variants of the Hindi-Urdu dialect continuum.[13] Dakhini (also known as Dakani, Deccani, Desia, Mirgan) is spoken in Deccan region of southern India. It is distinct by its mixture of vocabulary from Marathi and Telugu language, as well as some vocabulary from Arabic, Persian and Turkish that are not found in the standard dialect of Urdu. In terms of pronunciation, the easiest way to recognize a native speaker is their pronunciation of the letter "qāf" (‫ )ﻕ‬as "kh" (‫ .)ﺥ‬Dakhini is widely spoken in all parts of Maharashtra, Karnatka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Urdu is read and written as in other parts of India. A number of daily newspapers and several monthly magazines in Urdu are published in these states. Modern Vernacular Urdu is the form of the language that is least widespread and is spoken around Delhi and Lucknow while the Pakistani variant of the language spoken in Karachi and Lahore; it becomes increasingly divergent from the original form of Urdu as it loses some of the complicated Persian and Arabic vocabulary used in everyday terms. In addition, Rekhta (or Rekhti), the language of Urdu poetry, is sometimes counted as a separate dialect.

Grammar Levels of formality
Urdu in its less formalised register has been referred to as a rekhta (‫[ ,ہتﺥیر‬reːxt̪aː]), meaning "rough mixture". The more formal register of Urdu is sometimes referred to as zabān-e-Urdu-e-mo’alla (‫[ ,ہلعم ِودرا ِنابز‬zəbaːn eː ʊrd̪uː eː moəllaː]), the "Language of Camp and Court". The etymology of the word used in the Urdu language for the most part decides how polite or refined your speech is. For example, Urdu speakers would distinguish between ‫ یناپ‬pānī and ‫ بآ‬āb, both meaning "water" for example, or between ‫ یمدآ‬ādmi and ‫ درم‬mard, meaning "man". The former in each set is used colloquially and has older Hindustani origins, while the latter is used formally and poetically, being of Persian origin. If a word is of Persian or Arabic origin, the level of speech is considered to be more formal and grand. Similarly, if Persian or Arabic grammar constructs, such as the izafat, are used in Urdu, the level of speech is also considered more formal and grand. If a word is inherited from Sanskrit, the level of speech is considered more colloquial and personal.[32]

Phonology

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That distinction has likenesses with the division between words from a French or Old English origin while speaking English.

Urdu

Politeness
Urdu is supposed to be a subtle and polished language; a host of words are used in it to show respect and politeness. This emphasis on politeness, which is reflected in the vocabulary, is known as adab and to some extent as takalluf in Urdu. These words are generally used when addressing elders, or people with whom one is not acquainted. For example, the English pronoun ’you’ can be translated into three words in Urdu the singular forms tu (informal, extremely intimate, or derogatory) and tum (informal and showing intimacy called "apna pan" in Urdu) and the plural form āp (formal and respectful). Similarly, verbs, for example, "come," can be translated with degrees of formality in three ways: 1. āiye/[aːɪje] or ‫ ںیئ‏آ‬āen/[aːẽː] (formal and respectful) 2. āo/[aːo] (informal and intimate with less degree) 3. ā/[aː] (extremely informal, intimate and potentially derogatory). 4. tum or tu (Used if between speakers there is less age differences or speakers are relatives.) 5. Aap (Used if speakers have age difference approximately 5 to 10 or more years.)

The Urdu Nasta’liq alphabet, with names in the Devanāgarī and Latin alphabets
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Vocabulary
Urdu has a vocabulary rich in words with Indic and Middle Eastern origins. The language’s Indic base has been enriched by borrowing from Persian and Arabic.[33] There are also a small number of borrowings from Turkish, Portuguese, and more recently English. Many of the words of Arabic origin have different nuances of meaning and usage than they do in Arabic. Other words have exactly the same pronunciation, spelling, and meaning. For instance, the words "Sa’waal" (lit. "Question") and "Ja’waab" (lit. "Answer") are exactly the same in both Urdu and Arabic.

Writing system
Further information: Hindustani orthography Further information: Uddin and Begum UrduHindustani Romanization

Urdu is written right-to left in an extension of the Persian alphabet, which is itself an extension of the Arabic alphabet. Urdu is associated with the Nasta’liq style of Arabic calligraphy, whereas Arabic is generally written in the modernized Naskh style. Nasta’liq is notoriously difficult to typeset, so Urdu newspapers were hand-written by masters of calligraphy, known as katib or khush-navees, until the late 1980s. Historically, Urdu was also written in the Kaithi script. A highly-Persianized and technical form of Urdu was the lingua franca of the law courts of the British administration in Bengal, Bihar, and the North-West Provinces & Oudh. Until the late 19th century, all proceedings and court transactions in this register of Urdu were written officially in the Persian script. In 1880, Sir Ashley Eden, the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal abolished the use of the Persian alphabet in the law courts of Bengal and Bihar and ordered the exclusive use of Kaithi, a popular script used for both Urdu and Hindi.[34] Kaithi’s association with Urdu and Hindi was ultimately eliminated by the political contest between these languages and their scripts, in which the Persian script was definitively linked to Urdu. More recently in India, Urdu speakers have adopted Devanagari for publishing Urdu periodicals and have innovated new strategies to mark Urdū in Devanagari as distinct from Hindi in Devanagari.[35] The popular Urdu monthly magazine, ????? ????

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(Mahakta Anchal), is published in Delhi in Devanagari in order to target the generation of Muslim boys and girls who do not know the Persian script. Such publishers have introduced new orthographic features into Devanagari for the purpose of representing Urdu sounds. One example is the use of ? (Devanagari a) with vowel signs to mimic contexts of ‫‘( ع‬ain). To Urdu publishers, the use of Devanagari gives them a greater audience, but helps them to preserve the distinct identity of Urdu when written in Devanagari. A list of the Urdu alphabet and pronunciation is given below. Urdu contains many historical spellings from Arabic and Persian, and therefore has many irregularities. The Arabic letters yaa and haa are split into two in Urdu: one of the yaa variants is used at the ends of words for the sound [i], and one of the haa variants is used to indicate the aspirated consonants. The retroflex consonants needed to be added as well; this was accomplished by placing a superscript ‫( ط‬to’e) above the corresponding dental consonants. Several letters which represent distinct consonants in Arabic are conflated in Persian, and this has carried over to Urdu. The National Language Authority of the Government of Pakistan has finalized the list and collating order of Urdu letters.[36]

Urdu
movable type for printing presses. The use of Roman Urdu was common in contexts such as product labels. Today it is regaining popularity among users of text-messaging and Internet services and is developing its own style and conventions. Habib R. Sulemani says, "The younger generation of Urdu-speaking people around the world, especially Pakistan, are using Romanised Urdu on the Internet and it has become essential for them, because they use the Internet and English is its language. Typically, in that sense, a person from Islamabad in Pakistan may chat with another in Delhi in India on the Internet only in Roman Urdū. They both speak the same language but would have different scripts. Moreover, the younger generation of those who are from the English medium schools or settled in the west, can speak Urdu but can’t write it in the traditional Arabic script and thus Roman Urdu is a blessing for such a population."[38] Among Christians in Pakistan and India Roman Urdu also holds significance among the Christians of Pakistan and North India. Urdū was the dominant native language among Christians of Karachi and Lahore in present-day Pakistan and Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh Rajasthan in India, during the early part of tbe nineteenth and twentieth century, and is still used by Christians in these places. Pakistani and Indian Christians often used the Roman script for writing Urdū. Thus Roman Urdū was a common way of writing among Pakistani and Indian Christians in these areas up to the 1960s. The Bible Society of India publishes Roman Urdū Bibles which enjoyed sale late into the 1960s (though they are still published today). Church songbooks are also common in Roman Urdū. However, the usage of Roman Urdū is declining with the wider use of Hindi and English in these states. The major Urdu-Hindi South Asian film industries, Lollywood and Bollywood, are also noteworthy for their use of Roman Urdū for their movie titles, along with the translated title in Urdu and Hindi which are usually written underneath. Usually, bare transliterations of Urdu into Roman letters omit many phonemic elements that have no equivalent in English or other languages commonly written in the Latin alphabet. It should be noted that a comprehensive system has emerged with specific

Software
The Daily Jang/daily waqt was the first Urdu newspaper to be typeset digitally in Nasta’liq by computer. There are efforts underway to develop more sophisticated and user-friendly Urdu support on computers and the Internet. Nowadays, nearly all Urdu newspapers, magazines, journals, and periodicals are composed on computers via various Urdu software programmes, the most widespread of which is InPage Desktop Publishing package. Microsoft has included Urdu language support in all new versions of Windows and both Vista and Office 2007 are available in Urdu through Language Interface Pack[37] support.

Transliteration in English (Roman Urdu)
Urdu is occasionally also written in the Roman script. Roman Urdu has been used since the days of the British Raj, partly as a result of the availability and low cost of Roman

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Letter Name of Phonemic representation (in IPA) letter ‫ا‬ ‫ب‬ ‫پ‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ٹ‬ ‫ث‬ ‫ج‬ ‫چ‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ﺥ‬ ‫د‬ ‫ڈ‬ ‫ذ‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ڑ‬ ‫ز‬ ‫ژ‬ ‫س‬ ‫ش‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ض‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ظ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ﻕ‬ ‫ک‬ ‫گ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫م‬ ‫ن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﮨ ,ﮩ ,ہ‬ ‫ھ‬ ‫ء‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ے‬ alif be pe te ṭe se jīm ce baṛī he khe dāl ḍāl zāl re ṛe ze zhe sīn shīn su’ād zu’ād to’e zo’e ‘ain ghain fe qāf kāf gāf lām mīm nūn vā’o choṭī he /ɪ/,/ʊ/,/ɘ/,/ɑ/ depending on diacritical marks /b/ /p/ /t̪/ (dental) /ʈ/ (retroflex) /s/ /dʒ/ /tʃ/ /h/ /x/ /d̪/ (dental) /ɖ/ (retroflex) /z/ /r/ /ɽ/ (retroflex flap) /z/ /ʒ/ /s/ /ʃ/ /s/ /z/ /t/ (dental) /z/ /ɑ/ after a consonant; otherwise /ʔ/, /ə/, or silent. /ɣ/ /f/ /q/ /k/ /g/ /l/ /m/ /n/ or a nasal vowel /v/, /u/, /ʊ/, /o/, /ow/ /ɑ/ at the end of a word, otherwise /h/ or silent

Urdu

do cashmī indicates that the preceding consonant is aspirated (/pʰ/, /t̪ʰ/, /ʈʰ/, /tʃʰ/, /kʰ/) he or murmured (/bʱ/, /d̪ʱ/, /ɖʱ/, /dʒʱ/, /gʱ/). hamzah choṭī ye baṛī ye /ʔ/ or silent /j/, /i/, /e/, /ɛ/ /eː/

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English Hello Hello Goodbye yes yes yes no no please thank you Please have a seat I am happy to meet you Do you speak English? Urdu ‫مکیلع مالسلا‬ ‫مالسلا مکیلع و‬ ‫ظفاح ادﺥ‬ ‫ںاہ‬ ‫یج‬ ‫ںاہ یج‬ ‫ہن‬ ‫ںیہن یج ،ںیہن‬ ‫ینابرہم‬ ‫ہیرکش‬ Transliteration Notes assalāmu ‘alaikum waˈalaikum assalām Khuda hāfiz hān jī jī hān nā nahīn, jī nahīn meharbānī shukrīā tashrīf laīe from Arabic shukran lit. "Bring your honour" lit. "Peace be upon you." (from Arabic)

Urdu

lit. "And upon you, peace." Response to assalāmu ‘alaikum (from Arabic) lit. "May God be your Guardian" (from Persian). casual formal confident formal casual formal;jī nahīn is considered more formal

Please come in ‫ےیئال فیرشت‬

‫ ےئیھکر فیرشت‬tashrīf rakhīe ‫رک لم ےس پا‬ ‫یئوہ یشوﺥ‬ ‫یزیرگنا پا ایک‬ ‫؟ںیہ ےتلوب‬ āp se mil kar khushī hūyī kya āp angrezī bolte hain? lit. "Do you speak English?"

I do not speak ‫ںیہن ودرا ںیم‬ Urdu. ‫یتلوب/اتلوب‬ My name is ... Which way to Lahore? Where is Lucknow? ‫ےہ ۔۔۔ مان اریم‬ ‫فرط سک روھال‬ ‫؟ےہ‬ ‫؟ےہ ںاہک ؤنھکل‬

main urdū nahīn boltā is masculine, boltī is feminine boltā/boltī merā nām .... hai lāhaur kis taraf hai? Lakhnau kahān hai

Urdu is a good ‫ ےہ نابز یھچا ودرا‬urdū achchhī zalanguage. bān hai notations to signify non-English sounds, but it can only be properly read by someone already familiar with Urdu, Persian, or Arabic for letters such as:‫ ص ط غ ﺥ ژ‬or ‫ ﻕ‬and Hindi for letters such as ‫ .ڑ‬This script may be found on the Internet, and it allows people who understand the language but without knowledge of their written forms to communicate with each other. of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (by the United Nations):

Urdu (Nastaliq) text (used in Pakistan)
‫ےک تزع و ﻕوﻕح روا دازآ ناسنا مامت :1 ہعفد‬ ‫روا ریمض ںیہنا ۔ںیہ ۓوہ ادیپ ربارب ےس رابتعا‬ ‫ےک ےرسود کیا ںیہنا ۓلسا ۔یہ یئوہ تعیدو لﻕع‬ ‫۔ۓیہاچ انرک کولس اک ےراچ یئاھب ھتاس‬

Examples
Sample text
See also: Hindi#Sample_Text The following is a sample text in zabān-e urdū-e muʻallā (formal Urdu), of the Article 1

Urdu (Devanagari) text (used in India)
???? 1: ???? ????? ????? ?? ???? ? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?? ???? ???? ??????

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Urdu
interpretation of Qur’an, commentary on Hadith, Fiqh, history, spirituality, Sufism and metaphysics. A great number of classical texts from Arabic and Persian, have also been translated into Urdu. Relatively inexpensive publishing, combined with the use of Urdu as a lingua franca among Muslims of South Asia, has meant that Islam-related works in Urdu far outnumber such works in any other South Asian language. Popular Islamic books, originally written in Urdu, include Qasas-ulAnbia, Fazail-e-Amal, Bahishti Zewar the Bahar-e-Shariat.

Transliteration (ALA-LC)
ˈˈˈDafʻah 1ːˈˈˈ Tamām insān āzād aur ḥuqūq o ʻizzat ke iʻtibār se barābar paidā hu’e heṇ. Unheṇ zamīr aur ʻaql wadīʻat hu’ī he. Isli’e unheṇ ek dūsre ke sāth bhā’ī chāre kā sulūk karnā chāhi’e.

IPA Transcription
ˈˈˈd̪əfa ekːˈˈˈ t̪əmam ɪnsan azad̪ ɔɾ hʊquq o ʔizət̪ ke ɪʔt̪ɪbaɾ se bəɾabəɾ pɛda hʊe hẽ. ʊnɦẽ zəmiɾ ɔɾ ʔəqəl ʋədiət̪ hʊi he. ɪslɪe ʊnɦẽ ek d̪usɾe ke sat̪ʰ bɦai tʃaɾe ka sʊluk kəɾna tʃahɪe.

Gloss (word-for-word)
Article 1: All humans free[,] and rights and dignity *(’s) consideration from equal born are. To them conscience and intellect endowed is. Therefore, they one another *(’s) with brotherhood *(’s) treatment do must.

Literary
Secular prose includes all categories of widely known fiction and non-fiction work, separable into genres. The dāstān, or tale, a traditional story which may have many characters and complex plotting. This has now fallen into disuse. The afsāna, or short story, probably the best-known genre of Urdu fiction. The bestknown afsāna writers, or afsāna nigār, in Urdu are Munshi Premchand, Saadat Hasan Manto, Krishan Chander, Qurratulain Hyder (Qurat-ul-Ain Haider), Ismat Chughtai, Bhupendra nath Kaushik"fikr" Ghulam Abbas, Banu Qudsia and Ahmed Nadeem Qasmi. Munshi Premchand, became known as a pioneer in the afsāna, though some contend that his were not technically the first as Sir Ross Masood had already written many short stories in Urdu. Novels form a genre of their own, in the tradition of the English novel. Other genres include saférnāma (travel story), mazmoon (essay), sarguzisht(account/ narrative), inshaeya(satirical essay), murasela(editorial), and khud navvisht (autobiography).

Translation (grammatical)
Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience. Therefore, they should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Note: *(’s) represents a possessive case which when written is preceded by the possessor and followed by the possessed, unlike the English ’of’. “ ‫نڀس نهنوس ’ومس ’وڙوس وڙوڏو وڙبا‬ ‫يڻڙ ڇك يڍك هن ڌنك نچا ڀس رد نهنت‬ (‫) ِيئاٽڀ فيطلادبع ھاش‬ ”

Literature
Urdu has become a literary language only in recent centuries, as Persian and Arabic were formerly the idioms of choice for "elevated" subjects. However, despite its relatively late development, Urdu literature boasts some world-recognised artists and a considerable corpus.

Poetry
Urdu has been one of the premier languages of poetry in South Asia for two centuries, and has developed a rich tradition in a variety of poetic genres. The ’Ghazal’ in Urdu represents the most popular form of subjective music and poetry, while the ’Nazm’ exemplifies the objective kind, often reserved for narrative, descriptive, didactic or satirical purposes. Under the broad head of the Nazm we may also include the classical forms of poems known by specific names such as ’Masnavi’ (a long narrative poem in rhyming couplets on

Prose
Religious
Urdu holds the largest collection of works on Islamic literature and Sharia after Arabic and Persian. These include translations and

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Urdu
• • • • • • • • • • • The major genres of poetry found in Urdu are: • Doha (‫)اہود‬ • Fard • Geet (‫)تیگ‬ • Ghazal (‫ ,)لزغ‬as practiced by many poets in the Arab tradition. Mir, Ghalib, Daagh, Jaun and Nasir Kazmi are well-known composers of ghazal. • Hamd (‫)دمح‬ • Hazal, Bhupendra nath Kaushik"fikr" • Hijv • Kafi • Madah • Manqabat • Marsia (‫)ہیثرم‬Mir Anees Mirza Dabeer and Naseem Amrohvi are known as the masters of Marsia writing. • Masnavi (‫)یونثم‬ • Munajat • Musaddas (‫)سدسم‬ • Mukhammas • Naat (‫)تعن‬ • Nazm (‫,)مظن‬Faiz,Bhupendra nath Kaushik"fikr" and Rashid are known as great poets of this form. • Noha (‫)ہحون‬ • Qasida (‫)ہدیصﻕ‬ • Qat’ã (‫)ہعطﻕ‬ • Qawwali • Rubai (a.k.a. Rubayyat or Rubaiyat) (‫)تایعابر‬ • Salam • Sehra (‫)ارہس‬ • Shehr a’ashob • Soaz (‫)زوس‬Syed Ali Ausat Zaidi, Sibte Jafar are the well known recitor of Soaz and Salam • Wasokht Foreign forms such as the sonnet, azad nazm or (Free verse) and haiku have also been used by some modern Urdu poets. Probably the most widely recited, and memorised genre of contemporary Urdu poetry is nāt—panegyric poetry written in

Mirza Ghalib (1796–1869), a respected poet of Urdu. any theme: romantic, religious, or didactic), ’Marsia’ (an elegy traditionally meant to commemorate the martyrdom of Hazrat Imam Hussain, grandson of Muhammad, and his comrades of the Karbala fame), or ’Qasida’ (a panegyric written in praise of a king or a nobleman), for all these poems have a single presiding subject, logically developed and concluded. However, these poetic species have an old world aura about their subject and style, and are different from the modern Nazm, supposed to have come into vogue in the later part of the nineteenth century. Urdu poetry forms itself with following basic ingredients: • (‫)تیب‬ • • • (‫)ناوید‬ • • (‫)مالک‬ • (‫)تایلک‬ • • •

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
praise of the Prophet Muhammad. Nāt can be of any formal category, but is most commonly in the ghazal form. The language used in Urdu nāt ranges from the intensely colloquial to a highly Persified formal language. The great early twentieth century scholar Imam Ahmad Raza Khan, who wrote many of the most well known nāts in Urdu (the collection of his poetic work is Hadaiq-e-Baqhshish), epitomised this range in a ghazal of nine stanzas (bayt) in which every stanza contains half a line each of Arabic, Persian, formal Urdu, and colloquial Hindi. The same poet composed a salām—a poem of greeting to the Prophet Muhammad, derived from the unorthodox practice of qiyam, or standing, during the mawlid, or celebration of the birth of the Prophet—Mustafā Jān-e Rahmat, which, due to being recited on Fridays in some Urdu speaking mosques throughout the world, is probably the more frequently recited Urdu poems of the modern era. Another important genre of Urdu prose are the poems commemorating the martyrdom of Imam Hussain Allah hiss salam and Battle of Karbala, called noha (‫ )ہحون‬and marsia. Anees and Dabeer are famous in this regard. Indian film industry has long history of Urdu Poetry in the songs, in fact, popularity and success is some time song dependent. The quality of language and expression is much higher than Hindi language. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • AlaHazrat • •

Urdu

Urdu poetry example
This is Ghalib’s famous couplet in which he compares himself to his great predecessor, the master poet Mir:[39] ‫بلاغ وہ ںیہن داتسا یہمت ےک اتﺥیر‬ ‫ریم یئوک ںیم ےنامز ےلگا ںیہ ےتہک‬ ‫اھت یھب‬ Transliteration Rekhta ke tumhinustād nahīn ho Ghālib Kahte hain agle zamāne men ko’ī Mīr bhī thā Translation You are not the only master of Rekhta*, Ghalib They say that once there also was someone named Mir *Rekhta was the name for the Urdu/Hindi language in Ghalib’s days, when the distinction had not yet been made.

Terminology
Ash’ār (‫( )راعشا‬Couplet). It consists of two lines, Misra (‫ ;)ہعرصم‬first line is called Misrae-oola (‫ )یلوا عرصم‬and the second is called ’Misra-e-sānī’ (‫ .)یناث ہعرصم‬Each verse embodies a single thought or subject (sing) She’r (‫.)رعش‬

Famous poets of Urdu Literature
• , termed "Baba Adam" of Urdu by Maulana Mohammad Hussain Azad. • • • • • • • • • • • • •

History
Urdu developed as local Indo-Aryan dialects came under the influence of the Muslim courts that ruled South Asia from the early

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
thirteenth century. Its Indic vocabulary has been enriched by borrowings from Arabic, Persian, Turkish, English and other Indian languages. The official language of the Delhi Sultanate, the Mughal Empire, and their successor states, as well as the cultured language of poetry and literature, was Persian, while the language of religion was Arabic. Most of the Sultans and nobility in the Sultanate period were Turks from Central Asia who spoke Turkic as their mother tongue. The Mughals were also from Central Asia, they spoke Turkish as their first language; however the Mughals later adopted Persian. Persian became the preferred language of the Muslim elite of north India before the Mughals entered the scene. Babur’s mother tongue was Turkish and he wrote exclusively in Turkish. His son and successor Humayun also spoke and wrote in Turkish. Muzaffar Alam, a noted scholar of Mughal and IndoPersian history, suggests that Persian became the lingua franca of the empire under Akbar for various political and social factors due to its non-sectarian and fluid nature.[40] The influence of these languages on Indian apabhramshas led to a vernacular that is the ancestor of today’s Urdu. Dialects of this vernacular are spoken today in cities in Pakistan and in some places throughout northern India. Cities with a particularly strong tradition of Urdu include Karachi and Lahore, as well as Delhi, Hyderabad and Lucknow to a smaller scope.

Urdu
displacing Persian as the language of elite in the then Indian society. Urdu continued as one of many languages in Northwest India. In 1947, Urdu was established as the national language of Pakistan in the hope that this move would unite and homogenise the various ethnic groups of the new nation. Urdu suddenly went from a language of a minority to the language of the majority. It also became the official language of some of the various states of India. Today, Urdu is taught throughout Pakistani schools and spoken in government positions, and it is also common in much of Northern India. Hindi, which is very similar to Urdu, is the official language of India, while Urdu itself is also an officially recognized language in India, and taught and used widely.

Urdu and Hindi
Because of their identical grammar and nearly identical core vocabularies, most linguists do not distinguish between Urdu and Hindi as separate languages—at least not in reference to the informal spoken registers. For them, ordinary informal Urdu and Hindi can be seen as variants of the same language (Hindustani) with the difference being that Urdu is supplemented with a Perso-Arabic vocabulary and Hindi a Sanskritic vocabulary. Additionally, there is the convention of Urdu being written in Perso-Arabic script, and Hindi in Devanagari. The standard, "proper" grammars of both languages are based on Khariboli grammar — the dialect of the Delhi region. So, with respect to grammar, the languages are mutually intelligible when spoken, and can be thought of as two written variants of the same language. Hindustani is the name often given to this language as it developed over hundreds of years throughout India (which formerly included what is now Pakistan). In the same way that the core vocabulary of English evolved from Old English (Anglo-Saxon) but includes a large number of words borrowed from French and other languages (whose pronunciations often changed naturally so as to become easier for speakers of English to pronounce), what may be called Hindustani can be said to have evolved from Sanskrit while borrowing many Persian and Arabic words over the years, and changing the pronunciations (and often even the meanings) of those words to make them easier for

The name Urdu
The term Urdu came into use when Shah Jahan built the Red Fort in Delhi in 1639 A.D. The word Urdu itself comes from a Turkic word ordu,which means "camp", "tent" or "army", from which English also gets the word "horde". Hence Urdu is sometimes called "Lashkarī zabān", Persian for "the language of the army". Furthermore, armies of India often contained soldiers with various native tongues. Hence, Urdu was the chosen language to address the soldiers as it abridged several languages. Wherever Muslim soldiers and officials settled, they carried Urdu with them. Urdu enjoyed commanding status in the literary courts of late Muslim rulers and Nawabs, and flourished under their patronage, partially

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hindustani speakers to pronounce. Therefore, Hindustani is the language as it evolved organically. Linguistically speaking, Standard Hindi is a form of colloquial Hindustani, with lesser use of Persian and Arabic loanwords, while inheriting its formal vocabulary from Sanskrit; Standard Urdu is also a form of Hindustani, de-Sanskritised, with a significant part of its formal vocabulary consisting of loanwords from Persian and Arabic. The difference, thus is in the vocabulary, and not the structure of the language. The difference is also sociolinguistic: When people speak Hindustani (i.e., when they are speaking colloquially) speakers who are Muslims will usually say that they are speaking Urdu, and those who are Hindus will typically say that they are speaking Hindi, even though they are speaking essentially the same language. The two standardised registers of Hindustani — Urdu and Hindi — have become so entrenched as separate languages that often nationalists, both Muslim and Hindu, claim that Urdu and Hindi have always been separate languages. However, there are unifying forces. For example, it is said that Indian Bollywood films are made in "Hindi", but the language used in most of them is Urdu. The dialogue is frequently developed in English and later translated to an intentionally neutral Hindustani which can be easily understood by speakers of most north-South Asian languages, both in Pakistan and in India.

Urdu
Roman scripts. Most Bollywood films today present film titles in the Roman alphabet along with the Devanagari script, and Nasta`liq scripts are getting rarer. This is also due to the increasing sophistication and segmentation of the Hindi films, which are mostly directed towards the Indian diaspora spread around the world, who are more comfortable with Hinglish (a mixture of Hindi and English) than Urdu. It is interesting to note that Hinglish is closer to Urdu than Hindi because it mainly has replacements for exclusive Hindi words from English, which is the actual difference between Urdu and Hindi. Therefore, some linguists argue that Hinglish is actually modern Urdu as spoken by Pakistanis which always have been open to foreign languages as one meaning of Urdu is mixture.

Footnotes

Urdu and Bollywood
The part of the Indian film industry based in Mumbai (Bombay) is often called Bollywood (‫ .)ڈو یلاب‬The language used in Bollywood movies uses a dialogue vocabulary which is primarily Hindi, but its song lyrics are often based in Urdu, which use elevated, poetic language. This was due to the preponderance of Urdu speaking lyricists in the early development of Bollywood. Often, this means using poetic Urdu words of Arabic and Persian origin. A few films, like Jodhaa Akbar, Umrao Jaan, Pakeezah, Heer Raanjha, Mughal-eAzam, and The Chess Players, have used vocabulary that leans more towards Urdu, as they depict places and times when Urdu would have been used.[41] From the 1950s through the 1970s, Bollywood films displayed the name of the film in Hindi, Urdu, and

[1] ^ Linguistic Lineage for Urdu Ethnologue [2] "Urdu (?????)". Omniglot. http://www.omniglot.com/writing/ urdu.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-20. [3] "A Historical Perspective of Urdu". National Council for Promotion of Urdu language. http://www.urducouncil.nic.in/ pers_pp/index.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-15. [4] "Urdu language". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/ EBchecked/topic/619612/Urdu-language. Retrieved on 2008-05-20. [5] ^ "Urdu". Random House Unabridged Dictionary. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/ urdu. Retrieved on 2008-05-20. [6] ^ "Hindustani language". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/ EBchecked/topic/619612/Urdu-language. Retrieved on 2008-05-20. [7] http://www.loghatnaameh.com/ dehkhodaworddetail-425df33b8c494ab68d57b5794c Dehkhoda Loghatnameh [8] Ghalib, 1797-1869: In 2vols .Vol.1, Life and Letters, By Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib, Ghalib, Asad-Allāh Ḫān Mīrzā Ġālib, Ralph Russell, Khurshidul Islam Published by Allen & Unwin, 1969 [9] "Hindi language". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/ EBchecked/topic/266241/Hindi-language. Retrieved on 2008-05-20.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
[10] "Bringing Order to Linguistic Diversity: Language Planning in the British Raj". Language in India. http://www.languageinindia.com/ oct2001/punjab1.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-20. [11] "A Brief Hindi - Urdu FAQ". sikmirza. http://www.geocities.com/sikmirza/ arabic/hindustani.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-20. [12] "Hindi/Urdu Language Instruction". University of California, Davis. http://mesa.ucdavis.edu/hindiurdu/ index.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-20. [13] ^ "Ethnologue Report for Hindi". Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.org/ show_language.asp?code=hin. Retrieved on 2008-02-26. [14] "Urdu and it’s Contribution to Secular Values". South Asian Voice. http://india_resource.tripod.com/ Urdu.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-26. [15] "Most Widely Spoken Languages". Saint Ignatius. http://www2.ignatius.edu/ faculty/turner/languages.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-23. [16] "The World’s 10 most influential Languages". Language Today. http://www.andaman.org/BOOK/reprints/ weber/rep-weber.htm. Retrieved on 2008-02-26. [17] India Travelite: Holy Places - Ajmer [18] "Ethnologue Report for Pakistan". SIL Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/ show_country.asp?name=pk. Retrieved on 2007-10-07. [19] "Abstract of speakers’ strength of languages and mother tongues – 2001". Government of India. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/ Census_Data_2001/Census_Data_Online/ Language/Statement1.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-10. [20] Ethnologue Report for Bangladesh [21] Ethnologue Report for Saudi Arabia [22] Ethnologue Report for South Africa [23] Canada:The most common non-official mother tongues, 1971, 2001 and 2006 [24] Statistics Norway [25] Pakistan Link: Desi Salsa in Barcelona [26] Answers.com: Demographics of Sweden [27] Ethnologue Report for Urdu [28] It should be noted that in the lower courts in Pakistan, despite the proceedings taking place in Urdu, the documents are in English whilst in the

Urdu

higher courts, ie the High Courts and the Supreme Court, both documents and proceedings are in English. [29] Zia, Khaver (1999), "A Survey of Standardisation in Urdu". 4th Symposium on Multilingual Information Processing, (MLIT-4), Yangon, Myanmar. CICC, Japan [30] see Urdu at Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia [31] "Urdu in Bihar". Language in India. http://www.languageinindia.com/ feb2003/urduinbihar.html. Retrieved on 2008-05-17. [32] "About Urdu". Afroz Taj (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. http://www.unc.edu/. Retrieved on 2008-02-26. [33] "Urdu". The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/society/ A0850180.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-26. [34] King, 1994. [35] Ahmad, R., 2006. [36] Government of Pakistan, National Language Authority (Cabinet Division) [nla.gov.pk]. [37] http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/ Browse.aspx?displaylang=ur&productID=38DF6AB1 CBE61F040027 [38] The News, Karachi, Pakistan: Roman Urdu by Habib R Sulemani [39] Columbia University: Ghazal 36, Verse 11 [40] Alam, Muzaffar. "The Pursuit of Persian: Language in Mughal Politics." In Modern Asian Studies, vol. 32, no. 2. (May, 1998), pp. 317–349. [41] "Hindi? Urdu? Hindustani? Hindi-Urdu?". University of Iowa. http://www.uiowa.edu/~incinema/ Hindinote.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-20.

Dictionaries
• Download complete English to Urdu or Roman Hindi dictionary, free, editable, 24000 words, urdu script • Urdu Dictionary English to Urdu Dictionary • Urdu to English Dictionary Urdu to English Dictionary • English to Urdu to English dictionary • English to Urdu to English dictionary

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• English to Urdu to English dictionary • Online Urdu-English Dictionary

Urdu
• Kelkar, A. R. 1968. Studies in Hindi-Urdu: Introduction and word phonology. Poona: Deccan College. • Khan, M. H. 1969. Urdu. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Current trends in linguistics (Vol. 5). The Hague: Mouton. • King, Christopher R. 1994. One Language, Two Scripts: The Hindi Movement in Nineteenth Century North India. Bombay: Oxford University Press. • Koul, Ashok K. 2008. Urdu Script and Vocabulary. Delhi: Indian Institute of Language Studies. • Koul, Omkar N. 1994. Hindi Phonetic Reader. Delhi: Indian Institute of Language Studies. • Koul, Omkar N. 2008. Modern Hindi Grammar. Springfield: Dunwoody Press. • Narang, G. C. and D. A. Becker. 1971. Aspiration and nasalization in the generative phonology of Hindi-Urdu. Language, 47, 646–767. • Ohala, M. 1972. Topics in Hindi-Urdu phonology. (PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles). • "A Desertful of Roses", a site about Ghalib’s Urdu ghazals by Dr. Frances W. Pritchett, Professor of Modern Indic Languages at Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. • Phukan, S. 2000. The Rustic Beloved: Ecology of Hindi in a Persianate World, The Annual of Urdu Studies, vol 15, issue 5, pp. 1–30 • Rahim, Rizwana. Urdu in India, 3-part review: • [1] Urdu News web colaction by Maifnaz • Rai, Amrit. 1984. A house divided: The origin and development of HindiHindustani. Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-561643-X. • Snell, Rupert Teach yourself Hindi: A complete guide for beginners. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC • URDU Poetry by an Eminent Poet from Iindia - Barq Kadapavi

References
• Ahmad, Rizwan. 2006. "Voices people write: Examining Urdu in Devanagari". http://www.ling.ohio-state.edu/NWAV/ Abstracts/Papr172.pdf • Alam, Muzaffar. 1998. "The Pursuit of Persian: Language in Mughal Politics." In Modern Asian Studies, vol. 32, no. 2. (May, 1998), pp. 317–349. • Asher, R. E. (Ed.). 1994. The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-035943-4. • Azad, Muhammad Husain. 2001 [1907]. Aab-e hayat (Lahore: Naval Kishor Gais Printing Works) 1907 [in Urdu]; (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 2001. [In English translation] • Azim, Anwar. 1975. Urdu a victim of cultural genocide. In Z. Imam (Ed.), Muslims in India (p. 259). • Bhatia, Tej K. 1996. Colloquial Hindi: The Complete Course for Beginners. London, UK & New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-11087-4 (Book), 0415110882 (Cassettes), 0415110890 (Book & Cassette Course) • Bhatia, Tej K. and Koul Ashok. 2000. "Colloquial Urdu: The Complete Course for Beginners." London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-13540-0 (Book); ISBN 0-415-13541-9 (cassette); ISBN 0-415-13542-7 (book and casseettes course) • Chatterji, Suniti K. 1960. Indo-Aryan and Hindi (rev. 2nd ed.). Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay. • Dua, Hans R. 1992. "Hindi-Urdu as a pluricentric language". In M. G. Clyne (Ed.), Pluricentric languages: Differing norms in different nations. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-012855-1. • Dua, Hans R. 1994a. Hindustani. In Asher, 1994; pp. 1554. • Dua, Hans R. 1994b. Urdu. In Asher, 1994; pp. 4863–4864. • Durrani, Attash, Dr. 2008. Pakistani Urdu.Islamabad: National Language Authority, Pakistan. • Hassan, Nazir and Omkar N. Koul 1980. Urdu Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages.

See also
• • • • • • Badshah Munir Bukhari Ghazal Hindi-Urdu controversy Languages of Pakistan Languages of India List of Urdu poets

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• List of Urdu writers • Persian and Urdu • TIHUS - The International Hindi-Urdu Script • Uddin and Begum Urdu-Hindustani Romanization • Urdu Digest • Urdu Informatics • Urdu keyboard • Urdu literature • Urdu poetry • Urdu forum • Urdu phonology

Urdu
• Download Alvi Nastaliq fonts (unicode), a recent breakthrough • A Guide to Urdu, BBC • Urdu Website • Urdu News Room • Urdu News and views website specially covers Urdu poets and literature • A Good Urdu Site • Urdu Stuff • National Language Authority, Pakistan • Mutakallim - A Free Urdu Speaking Software, Pakistan • UrduWiki, reading and writing Urdu on the Web • minhajspain.org/atiq - ‫ےک ےنھکل ںیم ودرا‬ ‫ںیرک کلک ےئل‬ • Online Aasaan Urdu Qaida for children, interactive and with colorful pictures • Urdu Poetry • Urdu Ghazal • Urdu Nigar Unicode - Free Urdu Text Editor (Word Processor) • UrduBar is a plugin for Internet Explorer / addon for FireFox supporting Urdu / Arabic text • The Situation of the Urdu Writer: A Letter from Bara Banki, December 1993/ February 1994 • Online Urdu newspapers: Indian, Pakistani websites

External links
• Urdu Press in India - TCN News • Free Urdu Book at Wikibooks • Largest Urdu Literature online and free classics • Share and view discussions on various topic in Urdu. • Urdu Font and Keyboard Installer ‫ٹنوف ودرا‬ ‫ںیرک لاٹسنا ڈروبیک روا‬ • History & Information about the Urdu language • InPage Urdu homepage widespread Urdu Desktop Publishing tool • Download IPA for Urdu and Roman Urdu for Mobile and Internet Users

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