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					TYPES OF PRODUCTION PLATFORMS
                                                                                          CSIROPETROLEUM


                    Fixed Platform:                                         Compliant Tower:
              Built on concrete or steel                            Narrow and flexiable towers with a
            Legs & anchored to seabed.                                Piled foundation to support a
           Supporting a Deck for drilling &                          convention deck for drilling and
             production facilities & also                          production facilities and operations.
          Crew quarters. Feasible for water                        Typically use for water depth 450 to
                  depth up to 520 m                                               900 m.



                                                 TYPES PLATFORMS




               Semi-submersible Platform:                                Jack up Platform:
          Partly submerged into the sea using                  Platform that can be jacked up above
        legs of sufficient bouyancy to float it but            the sea using legs that can be jacked
          Sufficient weight to keep it upright. It            down. The platform is anchored in place
         can be moved from place to place. Can                   Using the jack-like legs and can be
         be ballasted up or down. It can be used                moved away after finishing the job.
             For water depth 180 to 1800 m




  Confidential – internal use only                                                                    AmanSlide1
TYPES OF PRODUCTION PLATFORMS
                                                                                          CSIROPETROLEUM


                    Drillship:                                          Floating Production System:
      A maritime vessel that is fitted with                           FPSO, FSO, FSU. These are large
      drilling and production facilities for                       ships that are equipped with production
     operations, especially deep water and                             and some processing facilities
    remote operations. It is often fitted with
         a dynamic positioning system




                                                 TYPES PLATFORMS




                      Spar Platform:                                    Tension Leg Platform:
             Tethered to the sea bottom by                         These are floating rigs that are
         conventional mooring lines in stead of                 Tethered to the seabed to eliminate
            vertical tension legs. It could be                 Most of the vertical movement using
         conventional one piece cylindrical hull,             vertical tension. It can be used in water
            the truss spar and the cell spar.                            depth up to 2000 m.




  Confidential – internal use only                                                                    AmanSlide2
TYPES OF OFFSHORE PRODUCTION PLATFORMS
                                                                                                         CSIROPETROLEUM




                        Source: Pat O‟Connor, BP presentation, California & World Ocean‟ 06, September 17-20



  Confidential – internal use only                                                                               AmanSlide3
FUNCTION OF PRODUCTION FACILITY
                                                                  CSIROPETROLEUM


                                     Function of
                                     Production
                                       Facility


          Water                         Oil             Gas
        Separation                   Separation      Separation




      Processing                                      Processing
          &                           Processing     To Marketable
       Disposal                      to Marketable      Product
                                        Product



  Confidential – internal use only                                        AmanSlide4
PRODUCTION MECHANISMS
                                                                                                         CSIROPETROLEUM




                                                        Production
                 Primary Recovery:                                                    Secondary Recovery:
                 Average Recovery
                                                        Mechanisms                    Additional Recovery
                       < 30%                                                               15 to 20%
                                                                                      Production Life 6-10
                                                                                             years
                                                                     In-situ
                                                                   Combustion
    Expansion of                       Existing Water                                                          Water
   Dissolved Gas                           Drive                                 Gas                         Injection
                                                                              Injection        Steam
                                                                                             Injection
                      Produced by                     Tertiary Recovery:
                         Pump                    (After secondary recovery)
                                                      Average Recovery
                                                    Additional 15 to 20%
                                                                                      MEOR
                                      LPG +
                                     Gas Drive                                CO2+
                                                 Surfactant                   Water
                                                  Flooding      Miscible
                                                                 Drive

  Confidential – internal use only                                                                                  AmanSlide5
PRODUCTION WELL
                                                                                                  CSIROPETROLEUM




                                     http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/7/7f/Oil_Well.png

  Confidential – internal use only                                                                        AmanSlide6
PRODUCTION MECHANISMS
                                                                                CSIROPETROLEUM




 Primary Recovery                                       Secondary Recovery


                                     http://www.maverickenergy.com/oilgas.htm
  Confidential – internal use only                                                      AmanSlide7
PRODUCTION MECHANISMS
                                                                      CSIROPETROLEUM




              http://www.cogeneration.net/enhanced_oil_recovery.htm


  Confidential – internal use only                                            AmanSlide8
SEPARATION PROCESS
                                                                                              CSIROPETROLEUM



                                                           Light HC component            Partial Pressure of a
                                                          flashing to the vapour         component =( No. of
         Higher the initial separator                     phase depends on its        molecules of a component
           Pressure, greater the                             partial pressure          / No. Molecules of total
            amount of Liquid in                                                         component in vapour
               the separator                                                              phase) X Separator
                                                                                               Pressure

                                                 Depends on
                                                  separator                             Higher the separator
                                                  Pressure                              Pressure, greater the
                                                                                          partial pressure
          Too high initial
     Separation pressure, too
      many light component                                                                  Greater the partial
        in separator liquid                         Too low initial separator              Pressure, higher the
                                                      Pressure, few light                   tendency to liquid
                                                    Components in separator                      phase
                                                             liquid
                         Light HC components
                           Will be lost to gas                              Light HC components
                           phase at the tank                                   is lost to the gas
                                                                                     phase

  Confidential – internal use only                                                                         AmanSlide9
SEPARATED OIL CHARACTERISTICS AND
PROCESSING REQUIREMENT                                                                                 CSIROPETROLEUM



                                                     OIL
                                                  PROCESSING

       Water Removal
                                                    Basic Sediment                        Salt Removal
        to 0.5 to 3%
                                                  Removal to 0.5 to 3%                to 10-25 lbs/1000 bbls

        Direct
     Fired Heater                       Hydro-                     Filters                             Dilution
                                                                                      Water
                                       cyclones
                                                                                     Removal           With FW
                                                   Settling


                                                                                                                  Tanker
                                                                             Waste Water       Stock              Truck
          Well Head                                                                                    Pipe
                                     Heater            Separator             Skimmer Vessel    Tank
                                                                                                       Line




  Confidential – internal use only                                                                                AmanSlide10
SEPARATED GAS CHARACTERISTICS AND
PROCESSING REQUIREMENT                                                           CSIROPETROLEUM


                                         GAS
                                     CHARACTERISTIC
                                           &
                                      PROCESSING


          Water                          Requires
         Vapour                      Dehydration to                  Glycol
        Saturated                    7 lb/MMscf Gas                Dehydration


                                        Wet Glycol                           Pumping
                                        Separation                           Dry Glycol
                                                               Strips Gas
                                                               From Water
                                                                 Vapour

                            Dry                        Boiling
                                      Water
                           Glycol                    In Reboiler
                                     Boiled off


  Confidential – internal use only                                                        AmanSlide11
PIPE CONSTRUCTION FOR OIL AND GAS
TRANSPORTATION                                                                       CSIROPETROLEUM



                                       Pipe Line Construction:
                                     Transport O &G to storage
                                      Processing & Distribution
             Onshore                                                              Offshore


         Vegetation & Surface
             Anomalies                                                             Assembling
              Removal                                                            Pipe Section on
                                          Prevent Pipe          Prevent            a Lay Barge
                                         Line Movement       Anchor Damage

            Pipe Stringing
       Individual Pipe Section
             May be 80 ft                       Lowering String                Jetting using a sled
                                            Into sea and placement               To dig a trench
                                                 Into the trench               3 ft Below Mudline
            Trench Digging                                                     For Pipe >8 in dia &
          5-6 ft deep. Must be                                                 Water Depth <200 ft
         Below 30 in any event
                                        Prevent Fishing     Prevent Damage
                                         Gear Damage         By Boat traffic



  Confidential – internal use only                                                              AmanSlide12
OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING
FACILITIES                                                                                         CSIROPETROLEUM


                                                                         Onshore              Onshore
                                                                        Separation              Water
                                                                                              Injection


                                                                Onshore Gas                                 Gas
                                                                                     Onshore oil
                                                                    Lift                                  Terminal
                                                                                     production


                Subsea                    Subsea
               Separation                 Tie-back                       Onshore               Onshore Gas
                                                                         Pipeline              Compression


 Offshore Gas                                          Gas
                               Offshore oil
      Lift                                           Terminal
                               production



                Offshore                 Offshore Gas
                Pipeline                 Compression

                              Offshore
                            Water Injection


  Confidential – internal use only                                                                        AmanSlide13
TERRA NOVA FPSO
                                                                                                              CSIROPETROLEUM




                                    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/c/c7/Terra_Nova_FPSOmodule.jpg

 Confidential – internal use only                                                                                    AmanSlide14
TYPICAL OIL & GAS PRODUCTION FLOW DIAGRAM
OF A FPSO                                                                                                      CSIROPETROLEUM




                                     http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/c/c7/Terra_Nova_FPSOmodule.jpg

  Confidential – internal use only                                                                                    AmanSlide15
FPSO FUNCTIONS
                                                                                    CSIROPETROLEUM




                                    Produced
                                                                       Processing
                              Oil/gas collection from
                               Production platform



                                                          FPSO
                                                        FUNCTIONS




                                         Offloading
                                                                        Storage



                Tanker
                                                            Pipeline




  Confidential – internal use only                                                         AmanSlide16
CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF WORLD”S
LARGEST FPSO                                                                                 CSIROPETROLEUM




                                Storage capacity                        Building Cost
                                  2.2 MM bbls                           US$800.00 MM



                                                    FPSO KIZOMBA A
                                                       L = 285 m
                                                                                  Built by Hyundai
                  Operated by Esso                     W= 63 m
                                                                                  Heavy Industries
                  Exploration Angola                   H = 32 m



                                      Operating Water
                                       Depth: 1200 m                 Weight = 81,000 tones




  Confidential – internal use only                                                                   AmanSlide17
PRODUCTION WELL
                                                                           CSIROPETROLEUM



                                Rod
                                Pump             Well Head



                                                 Casing


                                                 Tubing

                                                     Packer




                                                     Gas


                                               Oil            Impervious
                                                                Rock
                                       Water




  Confidential – internal use only                                                AmanSlide18
ESP SYSTEM
                                                                                                        CSIROPETROLEUM



       A staged series of                A special motor with
      Centrifugal pumps to            a high voltage (3-5 kV) AC
     Increase wellbore fluid         current source, Temp 150 oC,
            pressure                   Pressure 5000 psi, depth
                                       12000 ft, energy 1000 HP




                             ESP
                            System

       Not very tolerant to
      Solids such as sands
     Due to high rpm ( up to             Low efficiency with
    4000) and tight clearance          Significant gas fraction,
                                                > 10%



                                                                   http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/7/7f/Oil_Well.png


  Confidential – internal use only                                                                                     AmanSlide19
PUMPJACK OR PUMPING UNIT
                                                                           CSIROPETROLEUM

 • Pump jack/Pumping Unit: Overground drive for a reciprocating
 piston pump. It is used to mechanically lift liquid if there is not


 •
 enough reservoir pressure.
   The pump jack converts the rotary mechanism of the motor to a
 vertical reciprocating motion to drive the pump shaft vertically up and


 •
 down.
   The engine of the pumping jack runs a set of pulleys to transmit the
 power to drive a pair of cranks. The cranks have a counter weight on


 •
 them to assist the motor to lift the heavy string of rod.
    The cranks in turns raise and lower one end of an „I‟ beam which is
 free to move on an “A” frame.
 • The other end of the „I‟ beam has a curved metal box known as


 •
 horse/donkey head.
   A metal cable or fiber glass known as bridle is connected to the
 horse head and the polished pipe. The bridle follows the curve of the
 horse head as it lowers or raises to create a completely vertical


 •
 stroke.
    Depending on the size of the pump, it generally produces 5 to 40
 litres oil-water mixture per stroke
  Confidential – internal use only                                                AmanSlide20
BEAM PUMP ELEMENTS
                                                                                     CSIROPETROLEUM


                    Clamp:                                         Sucker & Polished Rods
      Gripping the polished rod body and                     Transmit movement from the surface
         holding the sucker rod string                          drive to the deep well plunger
                  suspended




                                               BEAM PUMP
                                                ELEMENT



                          Coupling
                  Joins sucker rods together                           Centraliser
                                                       (a) Centralising the sucker rod to protect
                                                              tubing and sucker rod coupling.
                                                        (b) Cleaning sucker rod and tubing from
                                                            asphaltene, pitch & paraffin deposits.
                                                          (c) Protecting sucker rod and tubing
                                                                       from high wear




  Confidential – internal use only                                                              AmanSlide21
SURFACE DRIVE FOR SCREW PUMP
                                                                                                CSIROPETROLEUM
          The surface drive of screw pump is designed for operation as a part of the unit for
          pumping-out formation fluid from the wells.




                                      http://motovilikha.perm.ru/mash/neften/neftepromen/


  Confidential – internal use only                                                                     AmanSlide22
DOWNHOLE SAFETY VALVE (DHSV)
                                                                                                           CSIROPETROLEUM



 •  Down hole Safety Valve: These are usually uni-directional flapper valves which open downwards under the
 action of pressure applied from the surface. During well shut off, wellbore fluid pressure closes the valve thus

         •
 isolate the reservoir fluids from surface.


                 •
             Positioning of Downhole Safety Valve
                    Positioning High (Low Depth) – higher the position of the DHSV, lower the amount of HC
                 above it when the well is shut off. Hence, in the event of any accident, there is no possibility of large
                 volume of fluid spill and thus little environmental damage due to the spill. Also there is a lower scope
                 fire and lower severity of fire. Therefore, placing the valve higher reduces hazards associated with

                 •
                 spills and fire.
                    Positioning Low (High Depth) -Deeper the position of the DHSV, higher the amount of HC
                 above it when the well is shut off. Hence, in the event of any accident, there is high possibility of
                 large volume of fluid spill and thus high environmental damage due to the spill. Also there is a
                 higher scope of fire and lseverity of fire. Therefore, placing the valve lower increases hazards
                 associated with spills and fire.
                 Deeper the position of the DHSV, larger the hydraulic control line below the surface that are used to
                 open the DHSV. Hence, the weight of the hydraulic fluid alone may apply sufficient pressure to keep

                 •
                 the valve open, even with the loss of surface pressure.
                     Optimum Depth: The DHSV should be positioned subsurface to prevent any potential damage to
                 it from risk of cratering in the event of a catastropic loss of the top side facility. It shoud be placed
                 beyond the cratering risk depth.


     Confidential – internal use only                                                                                    AmanSlide23

				
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