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Long Island

Long Island
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Main article Topics Geography History Economy Transportation Politics Music People Popular culture Recreation Law enforcement Regions Nassau County Suffolk County (Brooklyn, Queens) Municipalities North Shore · South Shore North Fork · South Fork Long Island Sound · Barrier islands Long Island is an island located in southeastern New York, USA, just east of Manhattan. Stretching northeast into the Atlantic Ocean, Long Island contains four counties, two of which (Queens and Kings) are boroughs of New York City, and two of which (Nassau and Suffolk) are mainly suburban. Numerous bridges and tunnels through Kings (also known as the Borough of Brooklyn) and Queens connect Long Island to the three other boroughs of New York City. Ferries connect Suffolk County northward across Long Island Sound to the state of Connecticut. Both the longest[1] and the largest island in the contiguous United States, Long Island extends 118 miles (190 km) from New York Harbor, and has a maximum width of 23 miles (37 km) between the northern (Long Island Sound) coast and the southern Atlantic coast.[2] With an area of 1,401 square miles (3,629 km2), Long Island is the 11th largest

in the United States, and the 149th largest island in the world. The land area of Long Island is larger than that of the state of Rhode Island and larger than any U.S. territory except Puerto Rico.[2] Long Island had a population of 7,448,618 as of the 2000 census,[2] with the population estimated at 7.7 million as of July 1, 2008, making it the most populated island in any U.S. state or territory. It is also the 17th most populous island in the world, ahead of Ireland, Jamaica and the Japanese island of Hokkaidō. Its population density is 5,470 inhabitants per square mile (2,110 /km2). If it were a state, Long Island would rank 12th in population.

Overview
Long Island
Native name: Paumanok

Mercator projection of Long Island showing state boundaries Geography

Long Island (New York) Location Coordinates Area Length Atlantic Ocean 40°48′N 73°18′W / 40.8°N 73.3°W / 40.8; -73.3 1,401 sq mi (3,630 km2) 118 mi (190 km)

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Width 23 mi (37 km) at widest part

Long Island

sectors since 1990. In its far east sections, Suffolk remains small-town rural, as in Jayne’s Hill (380 ft (120 m)) Highest Greenport on the North Fork and some of the point outward areas of The Hamptons, although Country summer tourism swells the population in those areas. United States Long Island is known for its affluence and State New York high quality of life. According to the 2000 Census, Nassau County is the third richest county per capita in New York State, and the 30th richest in the nation. Long Island’s Nassau County has the second highest property Demographics taxes in the United States.[3] Suffolk County 7,559,372 (as of 2006) Population has redeveloped North Fork potato fields into a burgeoning wine region. The South Fork is 5,395.7 /km² (13,975 /sq mi) Density known for beach towns, including the world57.16% White, 20.18% African American, Ethnic renowned Hamptons, and for Montauk Point, 0.36% Native American, 9.06% Asian, groups home of Montauk Point Lighthouse at the 0.05% Pacific Islander, 8.17% other eastern tip of the island. races, and 4.01% from two or more races
and 21.82% Hispanic or Latino

The westernmost end of Long Island contains the New York City boroughs of Brooklyn (Kings County) and Queens (Queens County). The central and eastern portions contain the suburban Nassau and Suffolk counties. However, colloquial usage of the term "Long Island" refers only to Nassau and Suffolk counties; the more dense and urban Brooklyn and Queens are not usually referred to as "Long Island", since they are politically part of New York City. Nassau County is more urbanized and congested than Suffolk County, with pockets of rural affluence in the cliffs of the Gold Coast of the North Shore overlooking the Long Island Sound. South Shore communities are built along protected wetlands and white sand beaches fronting on the Atlantic Ocean and Outer Barrier Islands. Old money from the time of the Revolutionary War populated the island and still does to this day. American aristocrats and European nobility in the Roaring Twenties established large estates on the North Shore. Today, many exist in their original state, while others have been donated to the public as parks, arboretums, universities and museums. Owing to economic growth and the suburbanization of the metropolitan region after World War II, Nassau was the fastest growing county in the United States from the 1950s to the 1970s. Suffolk County remains less congested despite substantial growth in high technology and light manufacturing

Geography
Geology

NASA Landsat satellite image of Long Island and surrounding areas. Long Island, as part of the Outer Lands region, is formed largely of two spines of glacial moraine, with a large, sandy outwash plain beyond. These moraines consist of gravel and loose rock left behind during the two most recent pulses of Wisconsin glaciation some 21,000 years ago (19,000 BC). The northern moraine, which directly abuts the North Shore of Long Island at points, is known as the Harbor Hill moraine. The more southerly moraine, known as the Ronkonkoma moraine, forms the "backbone" of Long Island; it runs primarily through the very center of Long Island, roughly coinciding with the length of the Long Island Expressway. The land to the south of this moraine to the South Shore is the outwash plain of the last glacier. Known as the Hempstead Plains, this land contained one of the few natural

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prairies to exist east of the Appalachian Mountains.[4] The glaciers melted and receded to the north, resulting in the difference between the North Shore beaches and the South Shore beaches. The North Shore beaches are rocky from the remaining glacial debris, while the South Shore’s are crisp, clear, outwash sand. Running along the center of the island like a spine is the moraine left by the glaciers. (Bald Hill is the highest point along the moraine.) The glaciers also formed Lake Ronkonkoma, a kettle lake.

Long Island
reach Long Island, although despite this, some storms have made landfall at Category 1 or greater strength, including two unnamed Category 3 storms in 1938 (New England Hurricane of 1938) and 1944, Hurricane Donna in 1960, Hurricane Belle in 1976, Hurricane Gloria in 1985, Hurricane Bob in 1991 (brushed the eastern tip) and Hurricane Floyd in 1999. (There is debate among climatologists as to whether Hurricane Floyd made landfall as a Category 1 or as a very strong "almost hurricane strength" tropical storm. The official records note it as the latter.)

Climate
Long Island has a climate similar to other coastal areas of the Northeastern United States; it has warm, humid summers and cold winters. The Atlantic Ocean helps bring afternoon sea breezes that temper the heat in the warmer months and limit the frequency and severity of thunderstorms. Severe thunderstorms are not uncommon, especially when they approach the island from the mainland areas of the Bronx, Westchester County and Connecticut in the northwest. Average yearly snowfall totals range from approximately 20 to 35 inches (50-89 cm), with the north shore and western parts averaging more than the south shore and the east end. In any given winter, however, some parts of the island could see up to 75 inches (190 cm) or more. There are also some very quiet winters, in which most parts of the island could see less than 10 inches (25 cm).

Demographics
Historical populations Census Pop. %± 37,108 — 1790 42,907 15.6% 1800 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 48,752 56,978 69,775 110,406 212,637 379,788 540,648 743,957 1,029,097 1,452,611 2,098,460 2,723,764 4,103,638 4,600,022 5,237,918 6,403,852 7,141,515 6,728,074 6,861,474 7,448,618 13.6% 16.9% 22.5% 58.2% 92.6% 78.6% 42.4% 37.6% 38.3% 41.2% 44.5% 29.8% 50.7% 12.1% 13.9% 22.3% 11.5% −5.8% 2.0% 8.6%

An Animated Map Of A Nor’easter’s Movement. Long Island is somewhat vulnerable to hurricanes.[5] Its northern location and relatively cool waters tend to weaken storms to below hurricane strength by the time they

Est. 2008 7,713,454 3.6% Long Island is one of the most densely populated regions in the United States. As of the United States 2000 Census, the total population of all four counties of Long Island was 7,448,618. New York City’s portion of the census was 4,694,705, with Brooklyn’s population at 2,465,326 and Queens having 2,229,379 residents. The combined population of Nassau and Suffolk counties was 2,753,913 people; Suffolk County’s share at 1,419,369 and

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Long Island

Racial groups, ethnicity, and religious groups on Long Island Source for Race and Ethnicity: 2000 Census[6] American Indian, Native Alaskan, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander make up just 0.4% of the popula and have been included with "Other". Source for religious groups: ARDA[7] County Population % % % % % 2000 white black Asian Other mixed census or race African American Race Kings 2,465,326 41.2% 36.4% 44.1% 20.0% 79.3% 10.1% 84.6% 6.9% 57.2% 21.2% 7.5% 4.7% 2.4% 9.0% 10.6% 4.3% 3.8% 4.0% 8.6% 2.1% 2.1% 4.0% Queens 2,229,379 Nassau 1,334,544 Suffolk 1,419,369 Totals 7,448,618 17.6% 12.3% 6.1%

% % % not % % Hispanic/ Catholic affiliated Jewish Pr Latino of any race Ethnicity 19.8% 25.0% 10.0% 10.5% 17.8% Religious groups 37% 29% 52% 52% 40% 4% 37% 9% 21% 18% 15% 11% 16% 7% 12%

8%

5%

7%

8%

7%

Nassau County’s at 1,334,544. Nassau County had a larger population for decades, but Suffolk County surpassed it in the 1990 census as growth and development continued to spread eastward. As Suffolk County has over twice the land area of Nassau County, the latter still has a much higher population density. Combining all four counties, Long Island’s population is greater than 38 of the 50 United States. If it were an independent nation, it would rank as the 96th most populated nation, falling between Switzerland and Israel. Population figures from the U.S. Census Bureau Census 2000[6] show that non-whites are in the majority in the two urban counties of New York City, while whites are in the majority in the two suburban counties of Nassau and Suffolk. Catholics are the largest religious group, with non-affiliated in second place.

Montaukett tribe and their neighbors

History
At the time of European contact, the Lenape people (named the Delaware by Europeans) inhabited the western end of the Island, and spoke the Munsee dialect of the Algonquian language family. Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to record an encounter with these people when he entered what is now New York Bay in 1524. The eastern portion of the island was inhabited by speakers of the Mohegan-Montauk-Narragansett language group of the same language family, indicative of their ties to the aboriginal peoples

The Brooklyn Bridge is the first of seven bridges constructed across the East River, connecting Long Island with the Borough of Manhattan (in background). inhabiting what is now Connecticut and Rhode Island. The western portion of Long Island was later settled by the Dutch, while the eastern

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region was settled by English Puritans from New Haven, Connecticut, settling in Southold on October 21, 1640. The entirety of Long Island came under English dominion in 1664 when the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam was taken over by the English and renamed New York. In 1683, the English established the three original counties on Long Island: Kings, Queens, and Suffolk. During the American Revolutionary War, the island was captured from General George Washington early by the British in the Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the entire war. The island remained a British stronghold until the end of the war, and was the center of much of General Washington’s espionage activities due to the proximity to the British North American military headquarters in New York City. After the British victory on Long Island many Patriots fled, leaving mostly Loyalists behind. In the 19th century, Long Island was still mainly rural and agricultural. The predecessor to the Long Island Rail Road began service in 1836 from the ferry terminal (to Manhattan) through Brooklyn to Jamaica in Queens, and completed the line to the east end of Long Island in 1844. From 1830 until 1930, population roughly doubled every twenty years, and several cities were incorporated, such as the City of Brooklyn in Kings County, and Long Island City in Queens. Until the 1883 completion of the Brooklyn Bridge, the only connection between Long Island and the rest of the United States was by boat. Other bridges and tunnels followed, and a suburban character spread as population increased. On January 1, 1898, Kings County and portions of Queens were consolidated into The City of Greater New York, abolishing all cities and towns within them. The easternmost 280 square miles (725 km2) of Queens County, which were not part of the consolidation plan,[8][9][10][11][12][13][14] separated from Queens in 1899 to form Nassau County. In the 1920s and 1930s, Long Island began the transformation from backwoods and farms to the paradigm of the American suburb. Railroads made possible commuting suburbs before construction of the Long Island Expressway and other major roadways. Robert Moses created various parkway projects to span the island, along with state parks for the enjoyment of many. Gradually development started to follow the parkways,

Long Island
with various communities springing up along the more traveled routes. After World War II, Long Island’s population skyrocketed, mostly in Nassau County and western Suffolk County. People who worked and lived in New York City moved out to Long Island in new developments built during the post-war boom. The most famous post-war development was the town of Levittown: the area became the first place to massively reproduce houses on a grand scaleproviding great opportunity for GI’s returning home to start a family. The immigration waves of southern and eastern Europe, followed by more recent ones from Latin America, have been pivotal in creating the diversity on Long Island that many other American regions lack. These immigrations are reflected in the large Italian American, Irish American and Jewish American populations.

Economy
The counties of Nassau and Suffolk have been long renown for their affluence.

F-14 Tomcat on static display pedestal at Grumman Memorial Park, Calverton, New York From about 1930 to about 1990, Long Island was considered one of the aviation centers of the United States, with companies such as Grumman Aircraft having their headquarters and factories in the Bethpage area. Long Island has played a prominent role in scientific research and in engineering. It is the home of the Brookhaven National Laboratory in nuclear physics and Department of Energy research. In recent decades companies such as Sperry Rand, Computer Associates (headquartered in Islandia), and

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Motorola Enterprise Mobility (now occupying the former headquarters of Symbol Technologies, previously a Grumman plant in Holtsville, New York), have made Long Island a center for the computer industry. Gentiva Health Services, a national provider of home health and pharmacy services, also is headquartered on Long Island. Stony Brook University of the State University of New York conducts far-ranging medical and technology research. Long Island is also home to the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, which was directed for 35 years by James D. Watson (who, along with Francis Crick, discovered the double helix structure of DNA). Long Island is home to the East Coast’s largest industrial park, the Hauppauge Industrial Park. The park has over 1,300 companies employing more than 55,000 Long Islanders. Companies in the park and abroad are represented by the Hauppauge Industrial Association. as much as 20 percent of Long Islanders commute to New York City jobs. The eastern end of the island is still partly agricultural. In the last 25 years, development of vineyards on the North Fork became a major new industry, replacing potato fields. Pumpkin farms have been added to traditional truck farming. Farms allow fresh fruit picking by Long Islanders for much of the year. Fishing continues to be an important industry, especially at Northport and Montauk.

Long Island
Executive leading each. Each has a county legislature and countywide-elected officials, such as district attorney, county clerk and county comptroller. The towns in both counties have their own governments as well, with town supervisors and a town council. Within Nassau, there are two small incorporated cities (Glen Cove and Long Beach) with a combined population of about 65,000. Brooklyn and Queens, on the other hand, do not have independent county governments. As boroughs of New York City, both have Borough Presidents, largely ceremonial offices with little political power. The shutdown of the city’s Board of Estimate due to a Supreme Court decision declaring it unconstitutional, led to a reorganization of the city government. Two Indian reservations - Poospatuck Reservation and Shinnecock Reservation located in Suffolk County are the home of Native Americans. Numerous island place names are Native American in origin. Nassau and Suffolk Counties have voted for the Democratic candidate in every presidential election since (and including) 1996.

Law enforcement and crime
See also: List of Long Island law enforcement agencies In 2005, Forbes magazine listed Long Island (Nassau & Suffolk counties) as having 2,042 crimes per 100,000 residents, less than half the US average.[15] Queens and Brooklyn are patrolled by the New York City Police Department; Nassau has its own police department, as does Suffolk. New York State Police patrol state parks and parkways; several dozen villages and the two cities in Nassau have their own police departments. Both Nassau and Suffolk have a sheriff’s office that handles civil process, evictions, warrant service and enforcement, prisoner transport and detention, and operation of the county jail. The Nassau County Sheriff’s Department employs about 1,000 correction officers and 100 deputy sheriffs and performs the above duties although deputy sheriffs have full police officer powers and can make arrests for any crime they come across. The Suffolk County Sheriff’s Office has approximately 900 correction officers and 260 deputy sheriffs and operates the two jail facilities in Suffolk County. The deputy sheriffs

Government and politics

Map of Long Island showing county and municipal boundaries. Nassau County and Suffolk County each have their own governments, with a County

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in Suffolk County have a full service patrol unit, including K9, Aviation, SWAT, and Marine divisions as well as a Criminal Investigation Division and various other special details and assignments. N.Y.S Court Officers secure court houses for Long Island courts.

Long Island

Secession proposals
On March 28, 2008 Suffolk County, NY Comptroller Joseph Sawicki proposed a plan that would make Long Island (specifically, Nassau and Suffolk counties) the 51st state of the United States of America. Sawicki says that all the Long Island taxpayers’ money would stay on Long Island, rather than the funds being dispersed all over the entire state of New York. The state of Long Island would include over 2.7 million people. Another Secession proposal was made on May 12 2009. As of yet the results of the proposal are unknown

I-495 NY Nassau County Every major form of transportation serves Long Island, including John F. Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia Airport, and Long Island MacArthur Airport, multiple smaller airports, railroads, subways, and several major highways. There are historic and modern bridges, recreational and commuter trails, and ferries as well. The Long Island Expressway, Northern State Parkway, and Southern State Parkway, all products of the automobile-centered planning of Robert Moses, make east-west travel on the island straightforward, if not always quick. There are currently ten road crossings out of Long Island, all within New York City limits at the extreme western end of the island. Plans for a Long Island Crossing at various locations in Nassau and Suffolk Counties have been discussed for decades, but there are currently no firm plans to construct such a crossing.

Transportation

Platforms at Jamaica

Rail
The Long Island Rail Road is the busiest commuter railroad system in North America, carrying an average of 282,400 customers each weekday on 728 daily trains. Chartered on April 24, 1834, it is also the oldest railroad still operating under its original name.[16]

Education
Primary and secondary education
LaGuardia Airport Aerial view Long Island’s Nassau and Suffolk counties are home to 125 public school districts

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Major roads of Long Island West-East Roads Montauk Highway Sunrise Highway* Belt Parkway / Southern State Parkway Hempstead Turnpike Grand Central Parkway / Parkway Long Island Expressway Northern State

Long Island

South-North Roads Brooklyn-Queens Expressway Van Wyck Expressway Cross Island Parkway Meadowbrook State Parkway Wantagh State Parkway Newbridge Road Cedar Swamp Road/Broadway Seaford-Oyster Bay Expressway Broad Hollow Road Deer Park Avenue Robert Moses Causeway Sagtikos State Parkway Sunken Meadow State Parkway Islip Avenue Nicolls Road William Floyd Parkway

Jericho Turnpike/Middle Country Road Northern Boulevard

Roads in boldface are limited access roads. *Sunrise Highway is only limited-access from western Suffolk county eastwards. containing a total of 656 public schools. In contrast, all of Brooklyn and Queens are served by the New York City Department of Education, the largest school district in the United States. Long Island is also home to a number of private and parochial schools. • Stony Brook University, including Stony Brook Southampton campus • SUNY College at Old Westbury • Farmingdale State College • Nassau Community College • Suffolk County Community College • Other • United States Merchant Marine Academy Private • Adelphi University • Briarcliffe College - in Queens at Long Island City; Nassau at Bethpage; and Suffolk at Patchogue • Dowling College • Five Towns College • Hofstra University • Gibbs College, Melville • Long Island University, C.W. Post Campus • Molloy College - in Rockville Centre • New York Institute of Technology • Polytechnic Institute of New York University (formerly Polytechnic University, now part of NYU) - has a "Long Island Graduate Center" in Suffolk, at Melville • Saint John’s University[17] • Saint Joseph’s College (Suffolk Campus) • Touro Law Center • Watson School of Biological Sciences

The main alley of Stony Brook West Campus

Colleges and universities
Nassau and Suffolk counties are home to numerous colleges and universities, including: Public • Branches of the State University of New York

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Club Sport Founded League 1994 Venue

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Long Island Rough Soccer Riders New York Islanders Long Island Lizards New York Titans

United Soccer Leagues Mitchel Athletic Complex National Hockey League Nassau Coliseum

Ice hockey 1972 Lacrosse Indoor lacrosse 2001 2007 1995 2000

Major League Lacrosse Mitchel Athletic Complex National Lacrosse League Arena Football League Atlantic League American Basketball Association Major League Baseball Nassau Coliseum/MSG Nassau Coliseum Citibank Park Suffolk County Community College Citi Field

New York Dragons Arena Football Long Island Ducks Baseball Strong Island Sound New York Mets

Basketball 2005 Baseball 1962 2001

Brooklyn Cyclones Baseball

New York-Penn League KeySpan Park Almost all major fast food and casual dining chains have a presence on Long Island as well.

• Webb Institute For colleges in Brooklyn and Queens, see List of colleges and universities in New York City.

Leisure and recreation
Resort areas Food
Both Nassau and Suffolk County are home to thousands of restaurants, many of them top quality. As New York is known as a melting pot, every kind of restaurant from Mexican to Hungarian to Indian to Bengali can be found. These specialty restaurants are often family owned. Small family-owned pizzerias are ubiquitous. It is not uncommon for a town on Long Island to have several different pizzerias, each with its own distinct flavor. The Long Island Pizza Festival & Bake-Off is an annual competition in which "mom and pop" pizzerias compete to be named best on Long Island. Bagel stores and delis are common. Some bagel stores are Jewish-owned and approved as kosher. Long Island bagels are considered some of the best in the world. Often more than one deli can be found in a town. Diners also abound on Long Island; many are Greek- and German-owned, and many, depending on the business of the town, are open all night, for late-night patrons.

Athletics
Long Island is home to numerous famous athletes, including hall of famers Jim Brown, Julius Erving, John Mackey and Carl Yastrzemski. Others include Gold Medalist Sarah Hughes, D’Brickashaw Ferguson, Billy Donovan, Jumbo Elliott, Matt Serra, Boomer Esiason, Vinny Testaverde, Craig Biggio, Frank Catalanotto, Greg Sacks, Rob Burnett, Steve Park, Frank Viola, Marques Colston and Speedy Claxton. Ebbets Field, which stood in Brooklyn from 1913 to 1957, was the home of the Brooklyn Dodgers baseball team, who decamped to California after the 1957 season to become the Los Angeles Dodgers. The Dodgers won several National League penants in the 1940s and 1950s, losing several times in the World Series—often called Subway Series—to their Bronx rivals, the New York Yankees. The Dodgers won their lone championship in Brooklyn in the 1955 World Series versus the Yankees. The Brooklyn Nets Arena is a proposed sports arena, business and residential complex to be built partly on a platform over the Atlantic Yards at Atlantic Avenue, and is intended to serve as a new home for the New Jersey Nets. The New York Mets baseball team now plays at the new Citi Field in Flushing,

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Queens. Their former stadium, Shea Stadium was also home for (The New York Jets football team from 1964 until 1983. The new stadium is designed with an exterior facade and main entry rotunda inspired by Ebbets Field. The Brooklyn Cyclones are a minor league baseball team, affiliated with the New York Mets. The Cyclones play at KeySpan Park just off the boardwalk on Coney Island in Brooklyn. Nassau County is home to the New York Islanders of the National Hockey League and the New York Dragons of the Arena Football League, who both play at the Nassau Coliseum in Uniondale. Long Island has been a hot spot for outdoor lacrosse at the youth and college level, which made way for a Major League Lacrosse team in 2001, the Long Island Lizards. The Lizards play at Mitchel Athletic Complex in Uniondale. The longest dirt Thoroughbred racecourse in the world is located in the Nassau County community of Elmont at Belmont Park. Long Island is also home to the Long Island Ducks minor league baseball team of the Atlantic League. Their stadium, Citibank Park, is located in Central Islip. The American Basketball Association’s Strong Island Sound play home games at Suffolk County Community College. The two main rugby teams are the Long Island RFC in East Meadow and the Suffolk Bull Moose in Stony Brook. It also has a professional soccer club, the Long Island Rough Riders, who play at Mitchel Athletic Complex in Uniondale. The Rough Riders have won two national championships, in 1995 and 2002. Another category of sporting events popular in this region are Firematic Racing events, involving many local Volunteer fire departments.

Long Island

Nikon at Jones Beach Theater State Park. Jones Beach State Park is a popular place to view summer concerts, with new as well as classic artists performing there during the summer months at its outdoor venue. It hosts a large Fourth of July fireworks show every year, and the stands are filled. People park cars along the highway leading to the show, and others watch from the nearby beaches.[18] Long Island is also known for its schools’ music programs. Many schools in Suffolk County have distinguished music programs, with high numbers of students who are accepted into the state-wide All-State music groups, or even the National All-Eastern Coast music groups. Both the Suffolk County and Nassau County Music Educator’s Associations are recognized by The National Association of Music Education (MENC) [19][20], and host numerous events, competitions, and other music-related activities. Notable musicians of the Long Island (Nassau and Suffolk County) music scene include; Billy Joel, Pat Benatar, godfather of punk rock[21] Lou Reed, Paul Simon, Johnny Ramone, Dream Theater, Debbie Gibson, Eddie Money, new-age musician John Tesh, Public Enemy, Mariah Carey, Busta Rhymes, Shaggy, folk singer Oscar Brand, Harry Chapin, De La Soul, Brooklyn Bridge, Ashanti, Dee Snider, LL Cool J, Lindsay Lohan, Chuck D, Flavor Flav, EPMD, Rakim, Blue Öyster Cult, Stray Cats, Nine Days, Vanilla Fudge, Glassjaw, Taking Back Sunday, Sam "Bluzman" Taylor, Straylight Run, Patent Pending, Nightmare of You, The Repercussions, From Autumn to Ashes, Brand New, Virtuoso guitarists Steve Vai, Joe Satriani, and Lee Ranaldo, and underground MCs Aesop Rock and MF Doom [22][23].

Music
Music on Long Island (Nassau and Suffolk) is influenced by the proximity to New York City and by the youth culture of the suburbs. Psychedelic rock was widely popular in the 1960s as flocks of disaffected youth travelled to NYC to participate in protest and the culture of the time. R & B also has a history on Long Island, especially in Nassau County, where population is denser and more closely influenced by New York City. Nikon at Jones Beach Theater is an outdoor amphitheatre, located at Jones Beach

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Artists from the counties of Kings and Queens have been numerous. Notable hiphop artists from these counties have included Jay Z, Nas, 50 Cent, Lloyd Banks, Mobb Deep, LL Cool J, Q-Tip, Fugees, Mos Def, Foxy Brown, Fabolous, Notorious B.I.G., WuTang Clan, the Beastie Boys, Run-D.M.C., and A Tribe Called Quest. Folk artist Art Garfunkel also hails from Queens.

Long Island
• List of references to Long Island places in popular culture • Geography and environment of New York City • Long Island Association • Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant • Long Island Marathon

References

Long Island gallery

See also

[1] John Burbidge (2004-11-21). "Long Island at its Best; Who’s the Longest of Them All?". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ fullpage.html?res=9A07E3DB133FF932A15752C1A9 Long Island Retrieved on 2008-10-16. ""But the court Swan Mascot divided inwasn’t saying Long Island isn’t an island Port JefferRiver Dock- Vilto counties. in a geographical sense", he continued. son ferry Long lage of "In fact, all parties involved in the case Island Patchogue agreed Long Island is a geographical island. It was only for the purposes of the case that the island was declared an extension of New York’s coastline."" [2] ^ "Long Island". Encyclopedia Britannica Old Field Barrier IsNissequogue (Britannica Concise ed.). Encyclopedia Looking lighthouse lands River State out from Britannica, Inc.. 2007. 9370515. boardwalk Park Montauk http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/ Lighthouse. article-9370515/Long-Island. Retrieved on 2007-10-29. [3] "Study: Property Taxes Sky-High in Citi Field Metro Areas". WCBS. October 4, 2006. Long Island/ http://www.wcbs880.com/pages/ Fire IsNYC 96453.php?contentType=4&contentId=217028. land Light Long Island Vinyards Retrieved on 2007-08-06. [4] DeWan, George. "Long Island History: VerrazanoThe Prairie That Was". Newsday.com. Narrows http://www.newsday.com/community/ Bridge guide/lihistory/ny-historyLong Ishs105a,0,5519292.story. Retrieved on land to 2009-01-04. Staten [5] "Vulnerable Cities: Long Island". island weather.com. The Weather Channel. http://www.weather.com/newscenter/ specialreports/hurricanes/ vulnerablecities/longisland.html. Stony Retrieved on December 5 2005. Corona Brook, NY [6] ^ http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ Park GCTTable?_bm=y&geo_id=04000US36&ds_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U&-_lang=en&redoLog=false&-format=ST-2&• List of Long Islanders, famous residents of mt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_GCTP6_ST2&Nassau and Suffolk CONTEXT=gct • List of people from New York City, [7] The Association of Religion Data including famous residents of Brooklyn Archives (ARDA), Year 2000 Report and Queens Churches were asked for their

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Long Island

membership numbers. ARDA estimates Island City ... Newtown... The townships that most of the churches not reporting in Queens County that are to be included were black Protestant congregations. in the Greater New-York have not been [8] "OF INTEREST TO POLITICIANS.". The heard from yet..." New York Times. 1894-09-13 (before [12] "REPORT FAVORS CONSOLIDATION.; vote). pp. p 9, 620 words. An Argument Against the Claims of the http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ Resubmissionists.". The New York Times. abstract.html?res=9C05EFDD1131E033A25750C1A96F9C94659ED7CF. 5318 words. 1896-02-22. pp. Page 1, Retrieved on 2007-12-28. "The question http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ of the Greater New-York, which is also to abstract.html?res=9B02E3DD123EE333A25751C2A9 be submitted to the people at this Retrieved on 2007-12-28. coming election, involves the proposition [13] "THE EAST CITY LINE FIXED". The New to unite in one city the following cities, York Times. 1899-02-12. pp. page 15, counties, and towns: New-York City, 1267 words. http://query.nytimes.com/ Long Island City, in Queens County; the gst/ County of Kings, (Brooklyn;) the County abstract.html?res=9C04E2DC1730E132A25751C1A9 of Richmond, (S.I.;) the towns of Retrieved on 2007-12-28. Flushing, Newtown, Jamaica, in Queens [14] Geoffrey Mohan (Staff Writer) (2007). County; the town of Westchester, in "Nassau’s Difficult Birth; Eastern Westchester County, and all that portion factions of Queens win the fight to of the towns of East Chester and Pelham separate after six decades of wrangling". which lies south of a straight line drawn Newsday. http://www.newsday.com/ from a point where the northerly line of community/guide/lihistory/ny-historythe City of New-York meets the centre hs615a,0,7026626.story?page=4. line of the Bronx River, to the middle of Retrieved on 2007-12-31. "North the channel between Hunter’s and Glen Hempstead, Oyster Bay and the rest of Islands, in Long Island Sound, and that Hempstead were excluded from the part of the town of Hempstead, in vote." Queens County, which is westerly of a [15] http://www.forbes.com/lists/2005/05/04/ straight line drawn from the southcz_05bestplaces_bestcrimeslide.html easterly point of the town of Flushing in [16] http://mta.info/lirr/pubs/aboutlirr.htm a straight line to the Atlantic Ocean." [17] Main campus is in Queens, branch [9] "Vote for Greater New York". The New campus in Suffolk County St. John’s York Times. 1894-10-16 (before election). University: Oakdale Campus http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ [18] "Jones Beach Amphitheater". abstract.html?res=9D06E0D91131E033A25755C1A9669D94659ED7CF. http://www.jonesbeach.com/. Retrieved Retrieved on 2007-12-28. on 2009-05-18. [10] "NEW-YORK’S PLACE IN DANGER; [19] "About the SCMEA". CONSOLIDATION DEFEATED, SHE http://www.scmea.org/about.cfm. MUST YIELD TO CHICAGO.". The New Retrieved on 2009-05-18. York Times. 1894-11-04 (before election). [20] "NYSSMA Zone Map". http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ http://www.nyssma.org/ abstract.html?res=9A0DE3D71131E033A25757C0A9679D94659ED7CF. zonemaps.cfm?subpage=62. Retrieved Retrieved on 2007-12-28. on 2009-05-18. [11] "GREATER NEW-YORK IN DOUBT; THE [21] "Lou Reed". CITY VOTE IS FOR IT AND BROOKLYN http://www.rollingstone.com/artists/ IS UNCERTAIN". NY Times. 1894-11-08 loureed. Retrieved on 2009-05-18. (before results of Queens vote known). [22] "Sounding Off in Suburbia". http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ http://www.newsday.com/community/ abstract.html?res=9403E0D61531E033A2575BC0A9679D94659ED7CF. guide/lihistory/nyRetrieved on 2007-12-28. "The increase starring_li_pop,0,1403302.story. in area and population that New-York Retrieved on 2009-05-18. will acquire if consolidation becomes a [23] "Long Island Music Hall of Fame fact will become evident by a glance at Inductees". the following table... Flushing... *Part of http://www.limusichalloffame.org/ the town of Hempstead... Jamaica... Long

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inductees_00.html. Retrieved on 2009-05-18.

Long Island
• Long Island travel guide from Wikitravel Coordinates: 40°48′N 73°18′W / 40.8°N 73.3°W / 40.8; -73.3

External links
• Geology of Long Island

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long_Island" Categories: Long Island, Proposed states and territories of the United States, Islands of New York City This page was last modified on 18 May 2009, at 14:24 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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