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Adolescence

Adolescence
Biological,psychological and social Changes in adolescence
Adolescence is a time of rapid and dramatic change. You can see these changes in the way teenagers behave, express their feelings and in the way they interact with their families. Parents need to adapt their parenting style to suit the changing needs of their children. Knowing about the changes that adolescents experience will help you to understand and manage your teenager more effectively. Children entering adolescence face three big challenges: 1. Biological(physical changes) 2. Psychological(changes in thinking and feeling) 3. Social(changes in relationships) The biological challenge With the exception of infancy, the amount and speed of physical growth and change in adolescence is greater than in any other time in a person’s life. The first indication of changes to physical appearance varies from individual to individual. Often referred to as ’puberty’, these changes can start in children as young as 8 or 9 years of age, but will generally occur between the ages of 11 and 15 years. In general, girls start growing rapidly up to 18 months before boys. On average, girls can expect to gain 17 kg and grow 24 cm. Boys can expect to gain 19 kg and grow 25 cm on average during puberty. Most of the growth usually happens in short but rapid bursts called ’growth spurts’. Unfortunately for adolescents, growth patterns are often uneven and unpredictable, and the process can be most unkind. The extremities of adolescent bodies start growing first. Arms,legs, feet and hands reach adult size before the trunk does, making adolescents look gangly and out of proportion for a time. This uneven pattern of growth also occurs in facial features; the nose and ears grow before the head reaches full adult size. A young person can’t even rely on both sides of their body growing at the same rate: one foot, breast, testicle or ear may be noticeably

Japanese teenagers in Fukushima, Japan Adolescence (lat adolescere, (to) grow) is a transitional stage of physical and mental human development that occurs between childhood and adulthood. This transition involves biological (i.e. pubertal), social, and psychological changes, though the biological or physiological ones are the easiest to measure objectively. Historically, puberty has been heavily associated with teenagers and the onset of adolescent development.[1][2] In recent years, however, the start of puberty has had somewhat of an increase in preadolescence (particularly females), as well as an extension beyond the teenage years (typically males). This has made adolescence less simple to discern.[3][4][5] The end of adolescence and the beginning of adulthood varies by country and by function, as even within a single country there will be different ages at which an individual is considered mature enough to be entrusted with particular tasks, such as driving a vehicle, having sexual relations, serving in the armed forces, voting, or marrying. Also, adolescence is usually accompanied by an increased independence allowed by the parents or legal guardians and less supervision, contrary to the preadolescence stage.

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bigger than the other one. These changes in physical appearance can make adolescents feel a little insecure and unsure of themselves. Our society places a high value on physical attractiveness, so it’s not surprising that teenagers can become preoccupied with how they look. Uneven growth can also affect an adolescent’s capacity for physical work and exercise. The adolescent’s heart and lungs grow with the trunk, which lags behind growth in the limbs. So while longer arms and legs may make adolescents look more athletic and capable of longer periods of physical exertion, they may not have the stamina to match their physical appearance. So adolescents are not just being lazy, they do need to rest more than adults. Adolescent bodies also undergo other kinds of physical changes that are not visible. For example, there is a huge increase in the production of hormones associated with sexual development. For boys, testosterone levels increase to 15 times higher than before puberty. For girls, oestrogen levels increase eight-fold compared with pre-puberty. These changes in hormone levels affect the growing adolescent in many ways. Glands in the skin become more active and this can lead to oily skin, sweating, body odour and acne. Hormonal changes lead to sexual growth, including changes in body shape, the full development of sex organs, growth of pubic hair and voice changes in boys. A major development is that girls begin to menstruate and boys experience their first ejaculation. Hormones are often blamed for changes in adolescent behaviour. Whilst hormonal changes can make emotions more unpredictable, the picture is much more complex. There are other important factors that influence adolescent behaviour that we need to consider. Let’s look at these factors now. The psychological challenge Adolescents think in increasingly sophisticated ways. They are able to reason and think more logically. Adolescents become more critical and questioning. They can see new possibilities, and are less likely to accept things the way they are or to believe in something just because an adult says so. Adolescents do a lot of moralising. As a result, they often become more interested in current affairs and political issues. However, despite enormous developments in thinking ability, adolescents can make inaccurate and unhelpful assumptions. For instance,

Adolescence
adolescents can make the mistake of over estimating the amount of influence they have on what happens around them. As a result, they can take things too personally and blame themselves unnecessarily when things do not go according to plan. Adolescents may also fall into the trap of ’mind-reading’. Innocent actions of others may be taken as personal criticisms as the adolescent jumps to conclusions about what others are thinking and feeling. This does not work in reverse, however, and adolescents often refuse to believe that anybody, particularly their parents, can understand the new and intense feelings they are experiencing. Adolescents also assume that they are invincible and that nothing bad will happen to them. This is one reason why adolescents engage in risk taking. They might know about the consequences of risky behaviour, but will assume that these consequences will not happen to them. Adolescents are capable of making good decisions. At times they can pleasantly surprise their parents by showing sound judgement and mature behaviour. However, adolescents tend to give more weight to immediate rather than long-term consequences. Take the issue of smoking as an example. An adolescent is more likely to be impressed by the possibility of looking cool, than the possibility of getting cancer. Immediate negative outcomes, such as having less money to spend on CDs, or their teeth becoming yellow, exert a greater influence an adolescent’s choice not to smoke. Adolescents need help from their parents to make decisions that have long term implications and risks. The psychological challenge also involves adolescents trying to work out what kind of person they will be, and how they will fit into the world. Adolescence is a time when children are working out their beliefs and values. In our society, adolescents also have to make big decisions, like what they will study and what kind of employment they will prepare themselves for. As they notice the changes in themselves, adolescents tend to question whether they are like everyone else and whether others will accept them. It is very important to adolescents to be seen as normal and to fit in. It has been said that being an adolescent is like living with a constant imaginary audience. This intense self-consciousness and critical selfevaluation means that children in the early stages of adolescence are very vulnerable to feelings of low self-esteem. Finally,

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adolescents aspire to be more independent. They are driven to have more say in what they do, and to make more of their own decisions. This is a natural part of growing up into a responsible and independent adult. At the same time, parents have to weigh up the amount of freedom they give their adolescent with their adolescent’s level of maturity. Conflict can occur when adolescents press for more freedom --than parents are willing to give. To make it even more confusing for parents, the demand for independence can seesaw. Adolescents can go from demanding autonomy at one moment to being very needy the next. The social challenge Adolescence is a time when relationships with families and peers also undergo significant change. One of the most common concerns for parents is the influence of the peer group. It’s unfortunate that peer groups have been given a lot of ’bad press’. The term ’peer’ has negative associations, and the role of friends in an adolescent’s life tends to be viewed with suspicion. Contrary to popular opinion, however, friends provide a lot of positives for adolescents; they act as a kind of self-help group and provide important social support. Being part of a group of friends also helps a young person form a clearer sense of who they are and what kind of person they want to become. Generally speaking, the negative power of peers is greatly exaggerated. Despite the common belief that peers can corrupt a teenager, friends do not have the power to force teenagers to do things that they really do not want to do. In any case, adolescents tend to select friends who are like themselves. It is unlikely that a young person, particularly one with a trouble-free past, will develop persistent social problems purely from being in contact with friends who do have problems. What influence peers have is strongest in early adolescence, that is, up until around 14 years of age. After this period, peer influence begins to diminish considerably. Despite children becoming more focussed on their friends during adolescence, families remain an important influence. Ultimately, adolescents tend to follow their parent’s lead, and end up being more similar than dissimilar to parents in their values, beliefs and behaviour. For example, adolescents tend to copy their parents’ attitudes and behaviour in relation to alcohol and drug use. Most teenagers report a positive relationship

Adolescence
with their families. This is in contrast to the widely held picture of adolescents having major conflict with parents over issues such as drugs and sex. Although there is an increase in the amount of squabbling that occurs at this time, most arguments in families with adolescents are over relatively minor issues like homework, chores and television. They may be wearing, but arguments are a sign that the adolescent is doing their job of growing up, seeking independence, developing confidence and taking responsibility. After all, arguing in a family situation teaches young people how to express and assert themselves in a safe environment, before they assert themselves in the outside world. So you can expect more bickering in your household as your child enters adolescence. But how much conflict is too much and when should parents be concerned? This is a difficult question to answer. According to research, the average amount of conflict ranges between three to four disputes a week. Squabbling peaks at around 13 years of age, and declines by the age of 16. However, if you or your teenager are feeling distressed or upset from constant fighting, or if you are struggling with serious problems such as drug abuse, depression, truancy, violence or inappropriate sexual behaviour, then consider seeking professional advice. SOURCES Berger, K.S. & Thompson, R.A. (1995). The developing person: Through childhood and adolescence. New York: Worth Publishers. Feek, W. (Ed). (1990). On-Line: The drugs learning package. London: The Commonwealth Secretariat. Fuller, A. (2000). Raising real people: A guide for parents of teenagers. Melbourne, Australia: The Australian Council for Educational Research. Patterson, G., & Forgatch, M. (1987). Parents and adolescents living together, part 1: The basics. Eugene: Castalia. Source: Rafiullah Khalil [2]

Puberty
Puberty is a period of several years in which rapid physical growth and psychological changes occur, culminating in sexual maturity. The average onset of puberty is at 10 for girls and age 12 for boys.[6] Every person’s individual timetable for puberty is influenced primarily by heredity, although

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Adolescence
beard.[9] As with most human biological processes, this specific order may vary among some individuals. Facial hair is often present in late adolescence, around ages 17 and 18, but may not appear until significantly later.[10][11] Some men do not develop full facial hair for 10 years after puberty.[10] Facial hair will continue to get coarser, darker and thicker for another 2-4 years after puberty.[10] The major landmark of puberty for males is the first ejaculation, which occurs, on average, at age 13.[12] For females, it is menarche, the onset of menstruation, which occurs, on average, between ages 12 and 13.[13] The age of menarche is influenced by heredity, but a girl’s diet and lifestyle contribute as well.[13] Regardless of genes, a girl must have certain proportion of body fat to attain menarche.[13] Consequently, girls who eat high-fat diet and who are not physically active begin menstruating earlier, on average, than girls whose diet contains less fat and whose activities involve fat reducing exercise (e.g ballet and gymnastics).[13] Girls who experience malnutrition or in societies in which children are expected to perform physical labor also begin menstruating at later ages.[13] The timing of puberty can have important psychological and social consequences. Early maturing boys are usually taller and stronger than their friends.[14] They have the advantage in capturing the attention of girls and in becoming hand-picked for sports. Pubescent boys often tend to have a good body image, are more confident, secure, and more independent.[15] Late maturing boys can be less confident because of poor body image when comparing themselves to already developed friends and peers. However, early puberty is not always positive for boys; early sexual maturation in boys can be accompanied by increased aggressiveness due to the surge of hormones that affect them.[15] Because they appear older than their peers, pubescent boys may face increased social pressure to conform to adult norms; society may view them as more emotionally advanced, despite the fact that their cognitive and social development may lag behind their appearance.[15] Studies have shown that early maturing boys are more likely to be sexually active and are more likely to participate in risky behaviors.[16]

Teenage boy. Though the facial structure resembles more an adult’s than a child’s, he has not yet achieved beard growth. environmental factors, such as diet and exercise, also exert some influence.[6] Puberty begins with a surge in hormone production, which in turn, causes a number of physical changes.[6] It is also the stage of the lifespan in which a child develops secondary sex characteristics (for example, a deeper voice and larger adam’s apple in boys, and development of breasts and more curved and prominent hips in girls) as his or her hormonal balance shifts strongly towards an adult state. This is triggered by the pituitary gland, which secretes a surge of hormones, such as testosterone (boys) or estrogen and progesterone (girls) into the blood stream and begins the rapid maturation of the gonads: the girl’s ovaries and the boy’s testicles. Some boys may develop gynecomastia due to an imbalance of sex hormones, tissue responsiveness or obesity.[7][8] Put simply, puberty is the time when a child’s body starts changing into an adult’s body.[6] Facial hair in males normally appears in a specific order during puberty: The first facial hair to appear tends to grow at the corners of the upper lip, typically between 14 to 16 years of age.[9][10] It then spreads to form a moustache over the entire upper lip. This is followed by the appearance of hair on the upper part of the cheeks, and the area under the lower lip.[9] The hair eventually spreads to the sides and lower border of the chin, and the rest of the lower face to form a full

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For girls, early maturation can sometimes lead to increased self-consciousness, though a typical aspect in maturing females.[17] Because of their bodies developing in advance, pubescent girls can become more insecure.[17] Consequently, girls that reach sexual maturation early are more likely than their peers to develop eating disorders. Nearly half of all high school girls diet to lose weight.[17] In addition, they may have to deal with sexual advances from older boys before they are emotionally and mentally mature.[18] In addition to having earlier sexual experiences and more unwanted pregnancies than late maturing girls, early maturing girls are more exposed to alcohol and drug abuse.[19] Those who have had such experiences tend to perform less well in school than their "inexperienced" age mates.[20] By age 16, girls have usually reached full physical development.[17] At this age, boys are close to completing their physical growth, which is usually attained by age 17 or 18.[17] Teenage and early adult males may continue to gain natural muscle growth even after puberty.[15]

Adolescence
when he/she is seven years old or so, but during adolescence, it may become progressively worse, for example, the child may now be using drugs or becoming intolerably violent among other classmates. If the concepts and theory behind right or wrong were not established early on in a child’s life, the lack of this knowledge may impair a teenager’s ability to make beneficial decisions as well as allowing his/her impulses to control his/her decisions. In the search for a unique social identity for themselves, adolescents are frequently confused about what is ’right’ and what is ’wrong.’ G. Stanley Hall denoted this period as one of "Storm and Stress" and, according to him, conflict at this developmental stage is normal and not unusual. Margaret Mead, on the other hand, attributed the behavior of adolescents to their culture and upbringing.[22] However, Piaget, attributed this stage in development with greatly increased cognitive abilities; at this stage of life the individual’s thoughts start taking more of an abstract form and the egocentric thoughts decrease, hence the individual is able to think and reason in a wider perspective.[23] Positive psychology is sometimes brought up when addressing adolescent psychology as well. This approach towards adolescents refers to providing them with motivation to become socially acceptable and notable individuals, since many adolescents find themselves bored, indecisive and/or unmotivated.[24] Adolescents may be subject to peer pressure within their adolescent time span, consisting of the need to have sex, consume alcoholic beverages, use drugs, defy their parental figures, or commit any activity in which the person who is subjected to may not deem appropriate, among other things. Peer pressure is a common experience between adolescents and may result briefly or on a larger scale. If it results on a larger scale, the adolescent needs medical advice or treatment.[25] It should also be noted that adolescence is the stage of a psychological breakthrough in a person’s life when the cognitive development is rapid[26] and the thoughts, ideas and concepts developed at this period of life greatly influence the individual’s future life, playing a major role in character and personality formation.[27]

Psychology
Adolescent psychology is associated with notable changes in mood sometimes known as mood swings. Cognitive, emotional and attitudinal changes which are characteristic of adolescence, often take place during this period, and this can be a cause of conflict on one hand and positive personality development on the other. Because the adolescents are experiencing various strong cognitive and physical changes, for the first time in their lives they may start to view their friends, their peer group, as more important and influential than their parents/guardians. Because of peer pressure, they may sometimes indulge in activities not deemed socially acceptable, although this may be more of a social phenomenon than a psychological one.[21] This overlap is addressed within the study of psychosociology. The home is an important aspect of adolescent psychology: home environment and family have a substantial impact on the developing minds of teenagers, and these developments may reach a climax during adolescence. For example, abusive parents may lead a child to "poke fun" at other classmates

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Struggles with adolescent identity and depression usually set in when an adolescent experiences a loss. The most important loss in their lives is the changing relationship between the adolescent and their parents. Adolescents may also experience strife in their relationships with friends. This may be because of things their friends do, such as smoking, that they feel if they don’t do, they’ll lose their friendship. Teen depression can be extremely intense at times because of physical and hormonal changes but emotional instability is part of being a teenager. Their changing mind, body and relationships often present themselves as stressful and that change, they assume, is something to be feared.[28] Views of family relationships during adolescence are changing. The old view of family relationships during adolescence put an emphasis on conflict and disengagement and thought storm and stress was normal and even inevitable. However, the new view puts emphasis on transformation or relationships and maintenance of connectedness.

Adolescence
young women engaged in free sexual activity had no such adolescent turmoil. In a 2008 study conducted by YouGov for Channel 4 20% of 14−17-year-olds surveyed revealed that they had their first sexual experience at 13 or under.[29] The age of consent to sexual activity varies widely between international jurisdictions, ranging from 12 to 21 years.

Culture
In commerce, this generation is seen as an important target. Mobile phones, contemporary popular music, movies, television programs, web sites, sports, video games and clothes are heavily marketed and often popular amongst adolescents.

Sexuality
Adolescent sexuality refers to sexual feelings, behavior and development in adolescents and is a stage of human sexuality. Sexuality and sexual desire usually begins to intensify along with the onset of puberty. The expression of sexual desire among adolescents (or anyone, for that matter), might be influenced by family values and the culture and religion they have grown up in (or as a backlash to such), social engineering, social control, taboos, and other kinds of social mores. In contemporary society, adolescents also face some risks as their sexuality begins to transform. Whilst some of these such as emotional distress (fear of abuse or exploitation) and sexually transmitted diseases (including HIV/AIDS) may not necessarily be inherent to adolescence, others such as pregnancy (through failure or non-use of contraceptives) are seen as social problems in most western societies. In terms of sexual identity, all sexual orientations found in adults are also represented among adolescents. According to anthropologist Margaret Mead and psychologist Albert Bandura, the turmoil found in adolescence in Western society has a cultural rather than a physical cause; they reported that societies where Teenage boy wearing Emo fashions. In the past (and still in some cultures) there were ceremonies that celebrated adulthood, typically occurring during adolescence. Seijin shiki (literally "adult ceremony") is a Japanese example of this. Upanayanam is a coming of age ceremony for males in the Hindu world. In Judaism, 12-year-old girls and 13-year-old boys become Bat or Bar Mitzvah, respectively, and often have a celebration to mark this coming of age. Among some denominations of Christianity, the rite or sacrament of Confirmation is received by adolescents and may be considered the time at which adolescents become members of the church in their own right. (There is also a Confirmation ceremony in some Reform Jewish temples, although the bar or bat mitzvah ceremony appears to have precedence.) African boys also have a coming of age ceremony in which, upon reaching adolescence, the males state a promise to never do anything to shame their families or their village. This was also continued among African-

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American slaves in the early days of slavery before the practice was outlawed. In United States, girls will often have a "sweet sixteen" party to celebrate turning the aforementioned age, a tradition similar to the quinceañera in Latin culture. In modern western society, events such as getting your first driver’s license, high school and later on college graduation and first career related job are thought of as being more significant markers in transition to adulthood. Adolescents have also been an important factor in many movements for positive social change around the world. The popular history of adolescents participating in these movements may perhaps start with Joan of Arc, and extend to present times with popular youth activism, student activism, and other efforts to make the youth voice heard.

Adolescence
from 12 to 21 years, although 14 to 16 years is more usual. In a 2008 study of 14−17-yearolds conducted by YouGov for Channel 4, it was revealed that one in three 15-year-olds were sexually active.[29] Sexual intercourse with a person below the local age of consent is treated as the crime of statutory rape. Some jurisdictions allow an exemption where both partners are close in age; for example, a 16-year-old and an 18-year-old. The age at which people are allowed to marry also varies, from 9 in Yemen to 22 for males and 20 for females in China. In Western countries, people are typically allowed to marry at 18, although they are sometimes allowed to marry at a younger age with parental or court consent. In developing countries, the legal marriageable age does not always correspond with the age at which people actually marry; for example, the legal age for marriage in Ethiopia is 18 for both males and females, but in rural areas most girls are married by age 16. In most democratic countries, a citizen is eligible to vote at 18. For example, in the United States, the Twenty-sixth amendment decreased the voting age from 21 to 18. In a minority of countries, the voting age is 17 (for example, Indonesia) or 16 (for example, Brazil). By contrast, some countries have a minimum voting age of 21 (for example, Singapore) whereas the minimum age in Uzbekistan is 25. Age of candidacy is the minimum age at which a person can legally qualify to hold certain elected government offices. In most countries, a person must be 18 or over to stand for elected office, but some countries such as the United States and Italy have further restrictions depending on the type of office.

Legal issues, rights and privileges
Internationally, those over a certain age (often 18, though this varies) are legally considered to have reached the age of majority and are regarded as adults and are held to be responsible for their actions. People below this age are considered minors or children. A person below the age of majority may gain adult rights through legal emancipation. Those who are under the age of consent, or legal responsibility, may be considered too young to be held accountable for criminal action. This is called doli incapax or the defense of infancy. The age of criminal responsibility varies from 7 in India to 18 in Belgium. After reaching the initial age, there may be levels of responsibility dictated by age and type of offense, and crimes committed by minors may be tried in a juvenile court. The legal working age in Western countries is usually 14 to 16, depending on the number of hours and type of employment. In the United Kingdom and Canada, for example, young people between 14 and 16 can work at certain types of light work with some restrictions to allow for schooling; while youths over 16 can work full-time (excluding night work). Many countries also specify a minimum school leaving age, ranging from 10 to 18, at which a person is legally allowed to leave compulsory education. The age of consent to sexual activity varies widely between jurisdictions, ranging

A sign outside a sex shop reads "Must Be 18 To Enter" in Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

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The sale of selected items such as cigarettes, alcohol, and videos with violent or pornographic content is also restricted by age in most countries. In the U.S, the minimum age to buy an R-rated movie, M-rated game or an album with a parental advisory label is 17 (in some states 18). In practice, it is common that young people engage in underage smoking or drinking, and in some cultures this is tolerated to a certain degree. In the United States, teenagers are allowed to drive between 14-18 (each state sets its own minimum driving age of which a curfew may be imposed), in the US, adolescents 17 years of age can serve in the military. In Europe it is more common for the driving age to be higher (usually 18) while the drinking age is lower than that of the US (usually 16 or 18). In Canada, the drinking age is 18 in some areas and 19 in other areas. In Australia, universally the minimum drinking age is 18, unless a person is in a private residence or is under parental supervision in a licensed premises. The driving age varies from state to state but the more common system is a graduated system of "L plates" (a learning license that requires supervision from a licensed driver) from age 16, red "P plates" (probationary license) at 17, green "P plates" at 18 and finally a full license, i.e. for most people around the age of 20. The legal gambling age also depends on the jurisdiction, although it is typically 18. The minimum age for donating blood in the U.S is 17 although it may be 16 with parental permission in some states such as New York and Pennsylvania. A number of social scientists, including anthropologist Margaret Mead and sociologist Mike Males, have noted the contradictory treatment of laws affecting adolescents in the United States. As Males has noted, the US Supreme Court has, "explicitly ruled that policy-makers may impose adult responsibilities and punishments on individual youths as if they were adults at the same time laws and policies abrogate adolescents’ rights en masse as if they were children." The issue of youth activism affecting political, social, educational, and moral circumstances is of growing significance around the world. Youth-led organizations around the world have fought for social justice, the youth vote seeking to gain teenagers the right to vote, to secure more youth rights, and

Adolescence
demanding better schools through student activism. Since the advent of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1989 (children defined as under 18), almost every country (except the U.S. & Somalia) in the world has become voluntarily legally committed to advancing an anti-discriminatory stance towards young people of all ages. This is a legally binding document which secures youth participation throughout society while acting against unchecked child labor, child soldiers, child prostitution, and pornography.

See also
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Precocious puberty Delayed puberty Juvenile Delinquency Adolescent medicine Fear of youth Images of young people Rite of passage Sex education Student voice Teen Dating Violence Teen drama - (List of teen dramas) Teen sitcom - (List of Teen sitcoms) Teen film - (List of teen films) Teen idol Teen magazine Teen pop Youth Youth culture Youth voice Young worker safety and health Ephebophilia - a sexual preference in which an adult is primarily or exclusively sexually attracted to mid to late adolescents • Timeline of children’s rights in the United Kingdom • Timeline of children’s rights in the United States

Human development and psychology
• • • • Educational psychology Developmental psychology Human development Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development particularly stages 5 & 6 • Kohlberg’s stages of moral development particularly stage 3

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Adolescence
[9] ^ "Puberty -- Changes for Males". pamf.org. http://www.pamf.org/teen/ health/puberty/physicalchanges.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-20. [10] ^ "Getting The Facts: Puberty". ppwr. http://www.ppwr.on.ca/03_07.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-20. [11] "The No-Hair Scare". PBS. http://pbskids.org/itsmylife/body/puberty/ article7.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-20. [12] (Jorgensen & Keiding 1991). [13] ^ (Tanner, 1990). [14] Abbassi V (1998). "Growth and normal puberty". Pediatrics 102 (2 Pt 3): 507–11. PMID 9685454. [15] ^ Garn, SM. Physical growth and development. In: Friedman SB, Fisher M, Schonberg SK. , editors. Comprehensive Adolescent Health Care. St Louis: Quality Medical Publishing; 1992. Retrieved on 2009-02-20 [16] Susman, EJ; Dorn, LD; Schiefelbein, VL. Puberty, sexuality, and health. In: Lerner MA, Easterbrooks MA, Mistry J. , editors. Comprehensive Handbook of Psychology. New York: Wiley; 2003. Retrieved on 2009-02-20 [17] ^ "Teenage Growth & Development: 15 to 17 Years". pamf.org. http://www.pamf.org/teen/parents/ health/growth-15-17.html. Retrieved on 2009-02-20. [18] (Peterson, 1987). [19] (Caspi et al.1993: Lanza and Collins, 2002) [20] (Stattin & Magnussion, 1990). [21] Adolescence: Change and Continuity: Peer Groups [22] "Margaret Mead (1901-1978, The United States)". Mnsu.edu. http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/ anthropology/Mead.html. Retrieved on 2008-11-22. [23] ReCAPP: Theories & Approaches: Adolescent Development [24] Thomas Kelly, Positive psychology and adolescent mental health: false promise or true breakthrough?, 2004 [25] Teens: Addressing Substance Abuse [26] Do Long-Term Memories Survive Cognitive Transition [27] [1] [28] Adolescent Identity and Depression: Why and What To Do

Compare with
• • • • • Adult Aging Child Peter Pan syndrome Young adult

Literature
• Tennessee Williams: a description of the emotional impact of puberty and adolescence is to be found in The Resemblance Between a Violin and a Coffin • Jon Savage: a (pre)history of the development of the teenager is to be found in Teenage (Chatto and Windus, 2007)

References
[1] Christie, Deborah. "Clinical review: ABC of adolescence Adolescent development". www.bmj.com. http://www.bmj.com/cgi/ content/full/330/7486/301. Retrieved on 2008-03-09. [2] Hill, Mark. "UNSW Embryology Normal Development - Puberty". embryology.med.unsw.edu.au. http://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/ Child/puberty.htm. Retrieved on 2008-03-09. [3] "Onset of Breast and Pubic Hair Development in 1231 Preadolescent Lithuanian Schoolgirls". adc.bmj.com. http://adc.bmj.com/cgi/content/abstract/ adc.2004.057612v1. Retrieved on 2007-12-06. [4] "American Boys Are Reaching Puberty Early". VRP Staff. http://www.vrp.com/ articles.aspx?ProdID=art677&zTYPE=2. Retrieved on 2009-02-21. [5] Ritter, Jim (2000-08-02). "Parents worried by girls’ earlier start of puberty". Chicago Sun-Times. [6] ^ (Chumlea, 1982). [7] Slap, Gail B.. "Breast Enlargement in Adolescent Boys". M.D. University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/ mi_g2602/is_0001/ai_2602000106. Retrieved on 2009-02-20. [8] "Gynecomastia in adolescent boys". ncbi. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 14480779. Retrieved on 2009-02-20.

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Preceded by Preadolescence Stages of human development Adolescence Succeeded by Young adult

Adolescence

[29] ^ "Teen Sex Survey". Channel 4. 2008. http://sexperienceuk.channel4.com/teensex-survey. Retrieved on 2008-09-11.

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