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Sex education

Sex education
Sometimes formal sex education is taught as a full course as part of the curriculum in junior high school or high school. Other times it is only one unit within a more broad biology class, health class, home economics class, or physical education class. Some schools offer no sex education, since it remains a controversial issue in several countries, particularly the United States (especially with regard to the age at which children should start receiving such education, the amount of detail that is revealed, and topics dealing with human sexual behavior, eg. safe sex practices, masturbation, premarital sex, and sexual ethics). In 1936, Wilhelm Reich commented that sex education of his time was a work of deception, focusing on biology while concealing excitement-arousal, which is what a pubescent individual is mostly interested in. Reich added that this emphasis obscures what he believed to be a basic psychological principle: that all worries and difficulties originate from unsatisfied sexual impulses.[1] When sex education is contentiously debated, the chief controversial points are whether covering child sexuality is valuable or detrimental; the use of birth control such as condoms and hormonal contraception; and the impact of such use on pregnancy outside marriage, teenage pregnancy, and the transmission of STIs. Increasing support for abstinence-only sex education by conservative groups has been one of the primary causes of this controversy. Countries with conservative attitudes towards sex education (including the UK and the U.S.) have a higher incidence of STIs and teenage pregnancy.[2] The existence of AIDS has given a new sense of urgency to the topic of sex education. In many African nations, where AIDS is at epidemic levels (see HIV/AIDS in Africa), sex education is seen by most scientists as a vital public health strategy. Some international organizations such as Planned Parenthood consider that broad sex education programs have global benefits, such as controlling the risk of overpopulation and the advancement of women’s rights (see also reproductive rights).

An early 20th century post card documents the problem of unwanted pregnancy. Sex education is a broad term used to describe education about human sexual anatomy, sexual reproduction, sexual intercourse, reproductive health, emotional relations, reproductive rights and responsibilities, contraception, and other aspects of human sexual behavior. Common avenues for sex education are parents or caregivers, school programs, and public health campaigns.

Overview
Sex education may also be described as "sexuality education," which means that it encompasses education about all aspects of sexuality, including information about family planning, reproduction (fertilization, conception and development of the embryo and fetus, through to childbirth), plus information about all aspects of one’s sexuality including: body image, sexual orientation, sexual pleasure, values, decision making, communication, dating, relationships, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and how to avoid them, and birth control methods. Sex education may be taught informally, such as when someone receives information from a conversation with a parent, friend, religious leader, or through the media. It may also be delivered through sex self-help authors, magazine advice columnists, sex columnists, or through sex education web sites. Formal sex education occurs when schools or health care providers offer sex education.

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According to SIECUS, the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States, 93% of adults they surveyed support sexuality education in high school and 84% support it in junior high school.[3] In fact, 88% of parents of junior high school students and 80% of parents of high school students believe that sex education in school makes it easier for them to talk to their adolescents about sex.[4] Also, 92% of adolescents report that they want both to talk to their parents about sex and to have comprehensive in-school sex education.[5]

Sex education
community efforts to reduce HIV prevalence and HIV transmission.[6] Egypt teaches knowledge about male and female reproductive systems, sexual organs, contraception and STDs in public schools at the second and third years of the middle-preparatory phase (when students are aged 12–14). A coordinated program between UNDP, UNICEF, and the ministries of health and education promotes sexual education at a larger scale in rural areas and spreads awareness of the dangers of female genital cutting.

Sex education worldwide
Africa

Asia
The state of sex education programs in Asia is at various stages of development. Indonesia, Mongolia, South Korea have a systematic policy framework for teaching about sex within schools. Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand have assessed adolescent reproductive health needs with a view to developing adolescent-specific training, messages and materials. India has programs aimed at children aged nine to sixteen years. In India, there is a huge debate on the curriculum of sex education and when should it be increased. Attempts by state governments to introduce sex education as a compulsory part of the curriculum have often been met with harsh criticism by political parties, who claim that sex education "is against Indian culture" and would mislead children.[5] (Bangladesh, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan have no coordinated sex education programs.[9]) In Japan, sex education is mandatory from age 10 or 11, mainly covering biological topics such as menstruation and ejaculation.[10] In China and Sri Lanka, sex education traditionally consists in reading the reproduction section of biology textbooks. In Sri Lanka they teach the children when they are 17-18 years. However, in 2000 a new fiveyear project was introduced by the China Family Planning Association to "promote reproductive health education among Chinese teenagers and unmarried youth" in twelve urban districts and three counties. This included discussion about sex within human relationships as well as pregnancy and HIV prevention.[11] The International Planned Parenthood Federation and the BBC World Service ran a 12-part series known as Sexwise, which

AIDS posters in Côte d’Ivoire Sex education in Africa has focused on stemming the growing AIDS epidemic. Most governments in the region have established AIDS education programs in partnership with the World Health Organization and international NGOs. These programs were undercut significantly by the Global Gag Order, an initiative put in place by President Reagan, suspended by President Clinton, and re-instated by President Bush. The gag order refused government funding for any efforts that promote condom and contraception use in addition to abstinence and monogamy.[6] The Global Gag Order was again suspended as one of the first official acts by United States President Barack Obama.[7] The incidences of new HIV transmissions in Uganda decreased dramatically when Clinton supported a comprehensive sex education approach (including information about contraception and abortion).[8] According to Ugandan AIDS activists, the Global Gag Order undermined

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discussed sex education, family life education, contraception and parenting. It was first launched in South Asia and then extended worldwide.[12]

Sex education
however, it was relatively poor and did not achieved any actual success. After 1989, it practically vanished from the school life - it is currently an exclusive subject (called wychowanie do życia w rodzinie/family life education rather than edukacja seksualna/sex education) in several schools and even their parents much give assents to the headmasters so that their children can attend. It is much due to the strong objection against sex education of the Catholic Church being the most influential institution in Poland.[17] It has, however, been changed and since September 2009 sex education will become an obligatore subject in the number of 14 per school year - unless parents do not want their children to be taught this. They are going to have to write special disagreements.[18]

Europe
Finland
In Finland, sexual education is usually incorporated into various obligatory courses, mainly as part of biology lessons (in lower grades) and later in a course related to general health issues. The Population and Family Welfare Federation provides all 15-year-olds an introductory sexual package that includes an information brochure, a condom and a cartoon love story.

France
In France, sex education has been part of school curricula since 1973. Schools are expected to provide 30 to 40 hours of sex education, and pass out condoms, to students in grades eight and nine. In January 2000, the French government launched an information campaign on contraception with TV and radio spots and the distribution of five million leaflets on contraception to high school students.[13]

The Netherlands
Subsidized by the Dutch government, the “Lang leve de liefde” (“Long Live Love”) package, developed in the late 1980s, aims to give teenagers the skills to make their own decisions regarding health and sexuality. Professor Brett van den Andrews, a medical research scientist who graduated from ISHSS (International School for Humanities and Social Sciences),[19], has suggested that exposing children aged 4-7 to sex education will greatly reduce the risk of future pregnancies and health issues. Of course his theories have been the subject of much scrutiny under the NIGS (Netherlands Institute of Geooracular Sciences). Nonetheless, he is widely appreciated in the medical society and has been featured in many medical journals.[20] Nearly all secondary schools provide sex education as part of biology classes and over half of primary schools discuss sexuality and contraception. The curriculum focuses on biological aspects of reproduction as well as on values, attitudes, communication and negotiation skills. The media has encouraged open dialogue and the health-care system guarantees confidentiality and a non-judgmental approach. The Netherlands has one of the lowest teenage pregnancy rates in the world, and the Dutch approach is often seen as a model for other countries.[21]

Germany
In Germany, sex education has been part of school curricula since 1970. Since 1992 sex education is by law a governmental duty.[14] It normally covers all subjects concerning the growing-up process, body changes during puberty, emotions, the biological process of reproduction, sexual activity, partnership, homosexuality, unwanted pregnancies and the complications of abortion, the dangers of sexual violence, child abuse, and sex-transmitted diseases, but sometimes also things like sex positions. Most schools offer courses on the correct usage of contraception.[15] A sex survey by the World Health Organization concerning the habits of European teenagers in 2006 revealed that German teenagers care about contraception. The birth rate among 15- to 19-year-olds was very low.[16]

Poland
In the Western point of view, sex education in Poland has never actually developed. At the time of the People’s Republic of Poland, since 1973, it was one of the school subject,

Sweden
In Sweden, sex education has been a mandatory part of school education since 1956. The subject is usually started between ages 7 and 10, and continues up through the grades,

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incorporated into different subjects such as biology and history. [10]

Sex education
children to delay sex until marriage, and does not cover contraception, and as such is a form of abstinence-only sex education.[24]

Switzerland
In Switzerland, the content and amount of sex education is decided at the cantonal level. In Geneva, courses have been given at the secondary level since the 1950s. Interventions in primary schools were started more recently, with the objective of making children conscious of what is and isn’t allowed, and able to say "No". In secondary schools (age 13-14), condoms are shown to all pupils, and are demonstrated by unfolding over the teacher’s fingers. For this, classes are usually separated into girl-only and boyonly subgroups. Condoms are not distributed, however, except among older adolescents engaged in state-run non-compulsory education (age 16-17).

Cuba
Dr.Antonio Archuleta, born in Tijuana, Mexico is a graduate of CPoly, also known as Cuban Polytechnic University. After receiving his bachelor’s degree in Cuba, he traveled to the United States where he received his doctorate in Sexual Education. Since his graduation in 1995, Dr. Archuleta has been conducting research in Havana. More recently, his research findings have been published in such medical journals as the New England Medical Journal and the Journal of the American Medical Association. His methods, very similar to those practiced and taught in United States public schools have been widely praised in the medical community.[25]

United Kingdom
In England and Wales, sex education is not compulsory in schools as parents can refuse to let their children take part in the lessons. The curriculum focuses on the reproductive system, fetal development, and the physical and emotional changes of adolescence, while information about contraception and safe sex is discretionary[22] and discussion about relationships is often neglected. Britain has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in Europe and sex education is a heated issue in government and media reports. In a 2000 study by the University of Brighton, many 14 to 15 year olds reported disappointment with the content of sex education lessons and felt that lack of confidentiality prevents teenagers from asking teachers about contraception.[13] In a 2008 study conducted by YouGov for Channel 4 it was revealed that almost three in ten teenagers say they need more sex and relationships education.[23] In Scotland, the main sex education program is Healthy Respect, which focuses not only on the biological aspects of reproduction but also on relationships and emotions. Education about contraception and sexually transmitted diseases are included in the program as a way of encouraging good sexual health. In response to a refusal by Catholic schools to commit to the program, however, a separate sex education program has been developed for use in those schools. Funded by the Scottish Government, the program Called to Love focuses on encouraging

United States
See also: Adolescent sexuality in the United States and Abstinence-only sex education Almost all U.S. students receive some form of sex education at least once between grades 7 and 12; many schools begin addressing some topics as early as grades 5 or 6.[26] However, what students learn varies widely, because curriculum decisions are so decentralized. Many states have laws governing what is taught in sex education classes or allowing parents to opt out. Some state laws leave curriculum decisions to individual school districts.[27] For example, a 1999 study by the Guttmacher Institute found that most U.S. sex education courses in grades 7 through 12 cover puberty, HIV, STIs, abstinence, implications of teenage pregnancy, and how to resist peer pressure. Other studied topics, such as methods of birth control and infection prevention, sexual orientation, sexual abuse, and factual and ethical information about abortion, varied more widely.[28] Two main forms of sex education are taught in American schools: comprehensive and abstinence-only. Comprehensive sex education covers abstinence as a positive choice, but also teaches about contraception and avoidance of STIs when sexually active. A 2002 study conducted by the Kaiser Family Foundation found that 58% of secondary school principals describe their sex education curriculum as comprehensive.[27]

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Abstinence-only sex education tells teenagers that they should be sexually abstinent until marriage and does not provide information about contraception. In the Kaiser study, 34% of high-school principals said their school’s main message was abstinence-only. The difference between these two approaches, and their impact on teen behavior, remains a controversial subject. In the U.S., teenage birth rates had been dropping since 1991, but a 2007 report showed 3% increase from 2005 to 2006.[29] From 1991 to 2005, the percentage of teens reporting that they had ever had sex or were currently sexually active showed small declines.[30] However, the U.S. still has the highest teen birth rate and one of the highest rates of STIs among teens in the industrialized world.[31] Public opinion polls conducted over the years have found that the vast majority of Americans favor broader sex education programs over those that teach only abstinence, although abstinence educators recently published poll data with the opposite conclusion.[32][33][34] Proponents of comprehensive sex education, which include the American Psychological Association,[35] the American Medical Association,[36] the National Association of School Psychologists,[37] the American Academy of Pediatrics,[38] the American Public Health Association,[39] the Society for Adolescent Medicine[40] and the American College Health Association,[40] argue that sexual behavior after puberty is a given, and it is therefore crucial to provide information about the risks and how they can be minimized; they also claim that denying teens such factual information leads to unwanted pregnancies and STIs. On the other hand, proponents of abstinence-only sex education object to curricula that fail to teach their standard of moral behavior; they maintain that a morality based on sex only within the bounds of marriage is "healthy and constructive" and that value-free knowledge of the body may lead to immoral, unhealthy, and harmful practices. Within the last decade, the federal government has encouraged abstinence-only education by steering over a billion dollars to such programs.[41] Some 25 states now decline the funding so that they can continue to teach comprehensive sex education.[42][43][44][45] Funding for one of the federal government’s two main abstinency-only funding programs, Title V, was extended only

Sex education
until December 31, 2007; Congress is debating whether to continue it past that date.[46] The impact of the rise in abstinence-only education remains a question. To date, no published studies of abstinence-only programs have found consistent and significant program effects on delaying the onset of intercourse.[31] In 2007, a study ordered by the U.S. Congress found that middle school students who took part in abstinence-only sex education programs were just as likely to have sex (and use contraception) in their teenage years as those who did not.[47] Abstinence-only advocates claimed that the study was flawed because it was too narrow and began when abstinence-only curricula were in their infancy, and that other studies have demonstrated positive effects.[48] It is estimated that more than half of all new HIV infections occur before the age of 25 and most are acquired through unprotected sex. According to the experts on AIDS, many of these new cases come about because young people don’t have the knowledge or skills to protect themselves. To try and resolve this problem the American Psychological Association (APA) is recommending that comprehensive sex education and HIV prevention programs become more available to the youth. The young people need this to help protect them from HIV/AIDS and other STDs they might get if they decide to have sex. Willenz, Pam. "COMPREHENSIVE SEX EDUCATION IS MORE EFFECTIVE AT STOPPING THE SPREAD OF HIV

INFECTION." APA. 23 Feb. 2005. 28 Apr. 200 sexeducation.html>.

Morality of sex education
One approach to sex education is to view it as necessary to reduce risk behaviours such as unprotected sex, and equip individuals to make informed decisions about their personal sexual activity. Another viewpoint on sex education, historically inspired by sexologists like Wilhelm Reich and psychologists like Sigmund Freud and James W. Prescott, holds that what is at stake in sex education is control over the body and liberation from social control. Proponents of this view tend to see the political question as whether society or the individual

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should teach sexual mores. Sexual education may thus be seen as providing individuals with the knowledge necessary to liberate themselves from socially organized sexual oppression and to make up their own minds. In addition, sexual oppression may be viewed as socially harmful. To another group in the sex education debate, the question is whether the state or the family should teach sexual mores. They believe that sexual mores should be left to the family, and sex-education represents state interference. They claim that some sex education curricula break down pre-existing notions of modesty and encourage acceptance of practices that those advocating this viewpoint deem immoral, such as homosexuality and premarital sex. They cite web sites such as that of the Coalition for Positive Sexuality as examples. Naturally, those that believe that homosexuality and premarital sex are a normal part of the range of human sexuality disagree with them. Many religions teach that sexual behavior outside of marriage is immoral, so their adherents feel that this morality should be taught as part of sex education. Other religious conservatives believe that sexual knowledge is unavoidable, hence their preference for curricula based on abstinence.[49]

Sex education
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, (LGBT) youth, and those with other sexual practices, are often ignored in sex education classes, including a frequent lack of discussion about safer sex practices for manual, oral, and anal sex, despite these activities’ different risk levels for sexually transmitted diseases. Some people do not agree with comprehensive sexual education that references or discusses such practices, believing that including this additional information might be seen as encouraging homosexual behavior. Proponents of such comprehensive curricula hold that by excluding discussion of these issues or the issues of homosexuality, bisexuality, or transgenderedness, feelings of isolation, loneliness, guilt and shame as well as depression are made much worse for students who belong or believe they may belong to one of these categories, or are unsure of their sexual identity. Supporters of including LGBT issues as an integral part of comprehensive sexuality education argue that this information is still useful and relevant and reduces the likelihood of suicide, sexually transmitted disease, ’acting out’ and maladaptive behavior in these students. In the absence of such discussion, these youths are said to be de facto forced to remain in the closet, while youths are left without guidance on dealing with their own possible samegender attractions and with their LGBT classmates. Supporters of comprehensive sex education programs argue that abstinence-only curricula (that advocate that youth should abstain from sex until marriage) ignore and marginalize lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth, who are often unable to marry a partner due to legal restrictions. Proponents of abstinence-only education often have a more conservative view of homosexuality and bisexuality and are against them being taught as normal, acceptable orientations or placed in equal footing to heterosexual acts/relations, and so they generally do not see this as a problem. Supporters of comprehensive programs feel that this is a major problem as it could lead LGBT youth to feel even more alienated and ashamed of their sexual orientation.

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth

Youth seeking his father’s advice on love From the Haft Awrang of Jami, in the story A Father Advises his Son About Love. His counsel is to choose that lover who desires him for his inner beauty. See Sufi outlook on male love Freer and Sackler Galleries, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.

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Sex education
and cannabis if they taught a combination of social resistance skills and general life skills, were properly implemented, and included at least two years of booster sessions. Few sexual health interventions are designed with input from adolescents. Adolescents have suggested that sex education should be more positive with less emphasis on anatomy and scare tactics; it should focus on negotiation skills in sexual relationships and communication; and details of sexual health clinics should be advertised in areas that adolescents frequent (for example, school toilets, shopping centres)."[50] Also, a U.S. review, "Emerging Answers", by the National Campaign To Prevent Teenage Pregnancy examined 250 studies of sex education programs.[53] The conclusion of this review was that "the overwhelming weight of evidence shows that sex education that discusses contraception does not increase sexual activity".

Scientific study of sex education
The debate over teenage pregnancy and STDs has spurred some research into the effectiveness of different approaches to sex education. In a meta-analysis, DiCenso et al. have compared comprehensive sex education programs with abstinence-only programs.[50] Their review of several studies shows that abstinence-only programs did not reduce the likelihood of pregnancy of women who participated in the programs, but rather increased it. Four abstinence programs and one school program were associated with a pooled increase of 54% in the partners of men and 46% in women (confidence interval 95% 0.95 to 2.25 and 0.98 to 2.26 respectively). The researchers conclude: "There is some evidence that prevention programs may need to begin much earlier than they do. In a recent systematic review of eight trials of day care for disadvantaged children under 5 years of age, long term follow up showed lower pregnancy rates among adolescents. We need to investigate the social determinants of unintended pregnancy in adolescents through large longitudinal studies beginning early in life and use the results of the multivariate analyses to guide the design of prevention interventions. We should carefully examine countries with low pregnancy rates among adolescents. For example, the Netherlands has one of the lowest rates in the world (8.1 per 1000 young women aged 15 to 19 years), and Ketting & Visser have published an analysis of associated factors.[51] In contrast, the rates are: • 93.0 per 1000 in the United States (85.8/1000 in 1996) • 62.6 per 1000 in England and Wales • 42.7 per 1000 in Canada • 15.1 per 1000 in Belgium (1996)[52] We should examine effective programs designed to prevent other high risk behaviors in adolescents. For example, Botvin et al. found that school based programs to prevent drug abuse during junior high school (ages 12–14 years) resulted in important and durable reductions in use of tobacco, alcohol,

See also
• • • • About Your Sexuality Adolescent sexuality Facts of Life Harmful to Minors, a book by Judith Levine, which deals with sexual morality and sex education in the United States Harm reduction Our Whole Lives Permissive society Promiscuity Refusal skills Section 28 (UK) Sex manual Sexual morality Sexual orientation Sexual revolution Social conservatism The birds and the bees

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Notes
[1] Reich (1936) Die Sexualität im Kulturkampf. Part one "the failure.." 6. The puberty problem - (3°) "A reflection.." - c. sexual relationships of

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pubescents - paragraph 4.a (pp.198-9 of italian edition) [2] "Joy of sex education" by George Monbiot, The Guardian, 11 May 2004 [3] SIECUS Report of Public Support of Sexuality Education(1999)SIECUS Report Online [4] Sex Education in America.(Washington, DC: National Public Radio, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, and Kennedy School of Government, 2004), p. 5. [5] Sari Locker, (2001) Sari Says: The real dirt on everything from sex to school. HarperCollins: New York. [6] ^ Health Gap: Pepfar Policies [7] Funding Restored to Groups That Perform Abortions, Other Care [8] Uganda reverses the tide of HIV/AIDS [9] Adolescents In Changing Times: Issues And Perspectives For Adolescent Reproductive Health In The ESCAP Region United Nations Social and Economic Commission for Asia and the Pacific [10] ^ Sex Has Many Accents TIME [11] Sex education begins to break taboos China Development Brief, 2005-06-03 [12] Involve The Young! Interview with Dr Pramilla Senanayake, assistant directorgeneral of the International Planned Parenthood Federation [13] ^ Britain: Sex Education Under Fire UNESCO Courier [14] Sexualaufklärung in Europa (German) [15] Sexualkunde-Schmutzige Gedanken (German) [16] EUROPEAN SEX SURVEY [17] Edukacja seksualna w polityce władz centralnych po transformacji ustrojowej [18] O seksie obowiązkowo w szkole [19] [1] [20] [2] [21] The Dutch model UNESCO Courier [22] Education Act 1996 [23] "Teen Sex Survey". Channel 4. 2008. http://sexperienceuk.channel4.com/teensex-survey. Retrieved on 2008-09-11. [24] Cardinal praises "dedication and commitment" of Catholic teachers [25] [3] [26] "Sexuality Education in Fifth and Sixth Grades in U.S. Public Schools, 1999". Family Planning Perspectices 32 (5). September/October 2000. http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/

Sex education
journals/3221200.html. Retrieved on 2007-05-23. [27] ^ "Sex Education in the U.S.: Policy and Politics" (PDF). Issue Update. Kaiser Family Foundation. October 2002. http://www.kff.org/youthhivstds/upload/ Sex-Education-in-the-U-S-Policy-andPolitics.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-05-23. [28] "Changing Emphases in Sexuality Education In U.S. Public Secondary Schools, 1988-1999". Family Planning Perspectives 32 (6). September/October 2000. http://www.guttmacher.org/tables/ 3220400t.html#t3. See especially Table 3. [29] CDC National Center for Health Statistics (2007-12-05). Teen Birth Rate Rises for First Time in 14 Years. Press release. http://www.cdc.gov/od/oc/media/ pressrel/2007/r071205.htm. Retrieved on 2007-12-05. "The report shows that between 2005 and 2006, the birth rate for teenagers aged 15-19 rose 3 percent, from 40.5 live births per 1,000 females aged 15-19 in 2005 to 41.9 births per 1,000 in 2006. This follows a 14-year downward trend in which the teen birth rate fell by 34 percent from its all-time peak of 61.8 births per 1,000 in 1991." [30] "National Youth Risk Behavior Survey: 1991-2005" (PDF). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Centers for Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/YRBS/ pdf/trends/ 2005_YRBS_Sexual_Behaviors.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-05-25. [31] ^ Hauser, Debra (2004). "Five Years of Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage Education: Assessing the Impact". Advocates for Youth. http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/ publications/stateevaluations/index.htm. Retrieved on 2007-05-23. [32] Dailard, Cynthia (February 2001). "Sex Education: Politicians, Parents, Teachers and Teens". The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy. Guttmacher Institute. http://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/tgr/04/ 1/gr040109.html. Retrieved on 2007-05-23. [33] "On Our Side: Public Support for Comprehensive Sexuality Education" (Fact Sheet). SIECUS. http://www.siecus.org/policy/

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Sex education

public_support.pdf. Retrieved on February 2007. 2007-05-23. http://www.legalmomentum.org/site/ [34] "NAEA Executive Summary of Key DocServer/ Findings". National Abstinence overviewofabs.pdf?docID=493. Retrieved Education Association. 2007-05-03. on 2007-05-25. [4] http://www.abstinenceassociation.org/ [46] Mixon, Melissa (2007-10-06). newsroom/ "Abstinence programs brace for major 050307_zogby_key_findings.html. funding cut". Austin AmericanRetrieved on 2007-05-24. Statesman. http://www.statesman.com/ [35] Comprehensive Sex Education is More news/content/news/stories/local/10/06/ Effective at Stopping the Spread of HIV 1006abstinence.html. Retrieved on Infection 2007-10-17. [36] AMA Policy Finder - American Medical [47] "Study: Abstinence programs no Association guarantee". CNN.com (Associated [37] NASP Position Statement on Sexuality Press). 2007-04-14. http://www.cnn.com/ Education 2007/EDUCATION/04/13/ [38] Sexuality Education for Children and abstinence.study.ap/ Adolescents - Committee on Psychosocial index.html?eref=rss_education. Aspects of Child and Family Health and Retrieved on 2007-04-18. Committee on Adolescence 108 (2): 498 [48] National Abstinence Education Pediatrics Association (2007-04-13). Mathematica [39] APHA: Policy Statement Database Findings Too Narrow. Press release. [40] ^ http://www.google.com/ http://www.abstinenceassociation.org/ url?sa=t&ct=res&cd=8&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.adolescenthealth.org%2FPositionPaper_Abstinen newsroom/pr_041307_mathematica.html. [41] "Abstinence-Only Programs: Harmful to Retrieved on 2007-05-25. Women & Girls: Federal Funding for [49] PBS, February 4, 2005 Religion & Ethics Abstinence-Only Programs". Legal Newsweekly, Episode 823 Accessed Momentum. http://legalmomentum.org/ 2006-12-30 legalmomentum/programs/ [50] ^ DiCenso A. et al.: Interventions to sexualityandfamilyrights/2006/09/ Reduce Unintended Pregnancies Among federal_funding_for_abstinence_1.php. Adolescents: Systematic Review of Retrieved on 2007-05-25. Randomized Controlled Trials. British [42] States that decline abstinence-only Medical Journal 2002;324:1426. funding include California, Colorado, [51] Ketting, E. & Visser, A., Contraception in Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, the Netherlands: the low abortion rate Minnesota, Montana, New Jersey, New explained. Patient Education and Mexico, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Rhode Counseling 23 Island, Virginia, Washington, and [52] www.ethesis.net {in Dutch) Wisconsin. [53] Douglas Kirby, Ph. D.: Emerging [43] "Maine Declines Federal Funds for Answers: Research Findings on Abstinence-Only Sex Education Programs to Reduce Teen Pregnancy. Programs, Says New Guidelines Prohibit National Campaign to Prevent Teen ’Safe-Sex’ Curriculum". Medical News Pregnancy, 2001. Homepage of the Today. 2005-09-23. study. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/ medicalnews.php?newsid=30992. Retrieved on 2007-05-24. • Sexuality Information and Education [44] Huffstutter, P.J. (2007-04-09). "States Council of the United States (SIECUS) refraining from abstinence-only sex • Facts on Sex Education in the United education". Boston Globe (Los Angeles States From the Guttmacher Institute Times). http://www.boston.com/news/ • Teachers’ TV Sex and relationship nation/articles/2007/04/09/ education states_refraining_from_abstinence_only_sex_education/. site for schools • Doinitright.org Place where teens can ask Retrieved on 2007-05-23. anonymous questions about sexual health [45] "An Overview of Federal Abstinence-Only Funding" (PDF). Legal Momentum.

External links

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• Patterns of Deceit Raise Concerns About Teenage Sex Surveys in The New York Times, about virginity pledges • The Dutch model UNESCO Courier on the success of the Netherlands. • Sex information website by the "Nederlandse Vereniging voor Seksuele Hervorming" (Dutch Society for Sexual Reform) • Sexwise Sex information for teenagers in the UK • Youth-Policy Youth reproductive health and HIV/AIDS policy in developing countries • Project Growing Up Sexually • Free downloadable slide presentations for teaching sexual education • TeenSource.org Sex education site for teens

Sex education
• Sex, Etc. The national magazine and Web site written by teens, for teens, on sexual health issues. • UCSB’s SexInfo A website where anyone can ask a question about sex. Also has many articles on sex related topics. • The SexEdLibrary A comprehensive resource for sexuality education teachers. • Sex and the CDC, The Indypendent • An example of sex education for adults using flash animation and video • "No Matter the Approach, Sex Ed Works" • Sex ed needs a push An article written by a journalism student in HK • Lamar Collins (2008) A Model Middle School Sex Education Program. The program emphasizes abstinence and incorporates a comprehensive approach. http://ecommons.txstate.edu/arp/285/ • Free Nonprofit Research Collection on Sex Education Published on IssueLab

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