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Search and rescue

Search and rescue
For other uses, see Search and rescue (disambiguation).

A Canadian Forces CH-149 Cormorant helicopter hoists a man from a Canadian Coast Guard cutter

a Canadian Forces CH-118 Iroquois SAR helicopter from 417 Combat Support Squadron in the mountains of British Columbia in January 1992 Search and rescue (SAR) is the search for and provision of aid to people who are in distress or imminent danger.[1]

Definitions of Search and Rescue
There are many different definitions of search and rescue, depending on the agency involved. • Canadian Forces: "Search and Rescue comprises the search for, and provision of aid to, persons, ships or other craft which are, or are feared to be, in distress or imminent danger."[1] • United States Coast Guard: "The use of available resources to assist persons or property in potential or actual distress."[2] • United States Defense Department: "An operation normally coordinated by a Rescue Coordination Center (RCC) or rescue sub-center, using available personnel and facilities to locate persons in distress" and rescue is "An operation to retrieve persons in distress, provide for their initial medical or other needs, and deliver them to a place of safety."[3]

SAR vessel "Jenny Wihuri" at the port of Helsinki at dawn

Rescue rope training

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Search and rescue

History
One of the world’s earliest well documented SAR efforts ensued following the 1656 wreck of the Dutch merchant ship Vergulde Draeck off the coast of Australia. Survivors sent for help, and in response three separate SAR missions were conducted, without success.[4]

Standards
With or without formal underlying foundations, numerous SAR organisations develop their own proprietary training curricula and operational protocols, which are available and applicable only to their own members. In the US SAR standards are developed primarily by ASTM International and the US NFPA which are then used by organizations such as the Mountain Rescue Association (MRA), the US National Association of Search and Rescue (NASAR), and the US NFPA to develop training that will meet or exceed those standards.[6] Within ASTM International, most standards of relevance to SAR are developed by Committee F32 on Search and Rescue. Formed in 1988, the committee had 85 current members and jurisdiction of 38 approved standards.[6]

Types of Search and Rescue
Mountain Rescue
Mountain Rescue relates to search and rescue operations specifically in rugged terrain such as mountains, desert and forest. Also referred to as wilderness search and rescue which includes areas such as sea, lakes, rivers or caves.[5]

Urban search and rescue
Urban search and rescue (Also known as Suburban Search and Rescue as USAR Teams often relates to structural collapses and other technical rescue) operations are Search and Rescue operations conducted in a city.[5]

International Divisions of Search and Rescue Responsibility
International Waters
International waters are divided into various regions according to the SOLAS convention. See the map provided by the IMO ocean atlas

Combat Search and Rescue
Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) is a function of special military units during wartime. CSAR consists of operations carried out to retrieve, rescue and provide assistance to downed aircrew or allies behind enemy lines. Dedicated combat search and rescue helicopters include: • HH-3E "Jolly Green Giant" • HH-60 Pave Hawk • MH-47 Chinook • MH-53 Pave Low • Eurocopter AS 535 Cougar • HH-60H Seahawk • UH-1 Iroquois and Bell 412 • CH-149 Cormorant

SAR by nation
Australia
AusSAR, which is part of the Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA), provides a national search and rescue service.[7] AusSAR operates a 24 hour Rescue Coordination Centre (RCC) in Canberra and is responsible for the national coordination of both maritime and aviation search and rescue. AusSAR is also responsible for the management and operation of the Australian ground segment of the Cospas-Sarsat distress beacon detection system. The service that spans the nation and covers 52.8 million square kilometres of the Indian, Pacific and Southern Oceans.[7] AusSAR’s RCC is staffed by SAR specialists who have a naval, merchant marine, air force, civil aviation or police service background. The RCC also coordinates medical

Air Sea Rescue
Air Sea Rescue (ASR) specifically can refer to both the use of aircraft to search for and locate or recover personnel lost at sea and the recovery of downed airmen at sea.

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evacuations, broadcasts maritime safety information and operates the Australian Ship Reporting System (AUSREP).[7] State search and rescue

Search and rescue

Canada

BSAR searchers in the field at Mount Dom Dom State Police in many states operate statebased search and rescue squads, such as the Victoria Police Search and Rescue Squad, which provides specialist expertise, advice and practical assistance in land search and rescue on most terrain including snow and vertical cliff search and rescue.[8] There are also state-based volunteer search and rescue groups such as the Bushwalkers Wilderness Rescue Squad[9] in New South Wales and Bush Search and Rescue[10] in Victoria. These state-based groups draw searchers from bushwalking, mountaineering and specialist rescue clubs within their State. A few groups respond on horseback as mounted search and rescue. The State Emergency Service is also a volunteer based emergency organization that focuses on Storm and Water Damage, but in rural areas they have search and rescue accredited units.

Canadian Forces CC-115 Buffalo fixed wing SAR aircraft from 442 Transport and Rescue Squadron. Search and rescue duties in Canada are the responsibility of the Canadian Forces and Canadian Coast Guard in conjunction with provincial and municipal governments and private organizations. The Department of National Defence (DND) has overall responsibility for the coordinated search and rescue system. Authority for the provision of maritime SAR is assigned to the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans by the Canada Shipping Act and the Canada Oceans Act.[1] The Canadian Forces has five assigned SAR squadrons: • 103 Search and Rescue Squadron, CFB Gander, CH-149 Cormorant[13] • 413 Transport and Rescue Squadron, CFB Greenwood, CH-149 Cormorant & CC-130 Hercules[14] • 424 Transport and Rescue Squadron, CFB Trenton, CH-149 Cormorant & CC-130 Hercules[15] • 435 Transport and Rescue Squadron, CFB Winnipeg, CC-130 Hercules[16] • 442 Transport and Rescue Squadron, CFB Comox, CH-149 Cormorant & CC-115 Buffalo[17] Plus three Combat Support Squadrons with SAR roles: • 417 Combat Support Squadron, CFB Cold Lake, CH-146 Griffon[18] • 439 Combat Support Squadron, CFB Bagotville, CH-146 Griffon[19] • 444 Combat Support Squadron, CFB Goose Bay, CH-146 Griffon[20] Some municipalities have their own SAR units: • Toronto Police Service Marine Unit

Belgium
Search and rescue duties along the Belgian part of the North Sea are executed by the Belgian Air Component. From its Koksijde Air Base it operates 5 Westland Sea King Mk.48 helicopters.[11]

Brazil
Search and rescue duties in Brazil are the responsibility of the Para-SAR, of the Brazilian Air Force.[12]

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• HUSAR - Toronto There are also volunteer non-profit associations that conduct SAR in Canada: • Civil Air Search and Rescue Association[21] • North Shore Rescue, British Columbia[22]. • Québec Secours, Québec[23]. • River Valley Search and Rescue, New Brunswick[24]

Search and rescue
primarily meant for the ships patrolling the North Atlantic, but also supported the S-55s. In 1964 - 1965 the seven S-55s were replaced with eight Sikorsky S-61A helicopters[28]. This helicopter was originally designed for anti-submarine warfare, but the Danish variant had the heavy dipping sonar equipment removed and extra fuel tanks added, giving the helicopters longer range. In 1977 radar was installed and in 1990 FLIR was added. Further avionics and navigation systems, including GPS, have also been added over time. In 1977 the naval air squadron was re-established as an independent squadron in the navy and had their Alouette IIIs replaced with Westland Lynx helicopters. Their primary operational area was still the North Atlantic, but they continued their support role, although this was reduced with the introduction of the S-61s. In 2006, the first of the S-61s was replaced by one of 14 new AgustaWestland EH101 Merlin helicopters. In 2007 the Danish Defence held a public display in Horsens, to raise awareness about rescue services and maritime safety. Maritime SAR is important because Denmark has a relative long coast line to its land mass.[29][30]. In 2008 the SAR forces in Denmark were equipped with eight EH-101, one or two Lynx, 34 naval home guard vessels and 21 rescue vessels[29] as well as the naval vessels at sea. The EH-101s operate from bases in Aalborg (EKYT), Skrydstrup (EKSP) and Roskilde (EKRK). When the sea water temperatures are low a helicopter is also deployed to the island of Bornholm (EKRN) in the Baltic Sea. The Lynx operates from KARUP (EKKA). Maritime vessels are spread out through the entire coastline and on islands. The S-61s and EH-101s have a crew of six: Two pilots, a navigator, a flight engineer, a physician and a rescue swimmer.

Denmark

Royal Danish Air Force S-61A with its rescue swimmer Search and Rescue operators in Denmark are primarily: Danish air force Squadron 722, Danish navy air squadron, naval home guard and the administration of navigation and hydrography, coordinated by the Joint Rescue Coordination Centre, operated by the navy and air force in the Danish Naval Commands facilities near Aarhus. Internationally the Danish works mainly with Germany, Norway and Sweden. With the two latter, the annual exercises Baltic SAREX[25] and Scan-SAR[26] are conducted. SAR-services in Denmark started in 1957 with seven Sikorsky S-55s. Their piston engines produced only 550 hp (410 kW) and they had limited fuel capacity, so their operational range was short. To increase the operational area, Pembroke twin-engined fixedwing aircraft were employed for search. These aircraft would localize the distressed person(s) and the S-55s would then rescue them. The SAR-service was started for respond to fighter-plane crashes as 79 aircraft crashed, with 62 dead, in the period 1950-1955.[27], but civilian SAR-duties are also conducted. In 1962 eight ship-based Aérospatiale Alouette IIIs were received. These were

Estonia
The Estonian Border Guard (Piirivalve) is the Estonian security authority responsible for the border security. It is the main support organisation for search and rescue missions in Estonia, and operates a small fleet of SAR vessels and helicopters.[31]

Germany
Search and Rescue in German waters is conducted by the Deutsche Gesellschaft zur

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Search and rescue

Iceland

A cruiser of the DGzRS and a SeaKing helicopter of the German Navy Rettung Schiffbrüchiger DGzRS (literally translated: German Society for the Saving of Shipwrecked, more common: German Maritime Rescue Service GMRS) with air support by the Germany Navy and the German Air Force. All incoming requests are coordinated by the Maritime Rescue Coordination Center in Bremen. The DGzRS is a non-governmental organization entirely supported by donations [32]. Besides the offshore Search And Rescue services, the German Air Force provides such as well, using Bell UH-1D "Huey" helicopters.[33]. Inland, there are mounted SAR groups affiliated with Johanniter-Unfall-Hilfe, an organization that provides road-based first responder services; these groups provide comparable services off road, usually at field sporting events.

Icelandic Coast Guard Eurocopter AS-365N Dauphin 2 helicopter Search and Rescue operations in Iceland are mainly handled by the Icelandic Association for Search and Rescue (Slysavarnafélagið Landsbjörg) which operates numerous vehicles and boats across the country, along with the Icelandic Coast Guard which operates SAR helicopters and patrol vessels.[35] The unique thing about Iceland Association for Search and Rescue is that it is operated almost solely on volunteer’s contribution. The rescue units are more than 100 in total and are located in almost every part of the country. All the units contain groups of specially trained individuals.[36]

Ireland
SAR services are provided by a civilian body, the Irish Coast Guard.[37] It has responsibility for the Irish Search and Rescue Region.[37] The Royal National Lifeboat Institution RNLI provide the waterborne element of Search and Rescue around the coast of Ireland from 43 lifeboat stations including inland stations at Enniskillen and Lough Derg.

Hong Kong
SAR operations are conducted by the Government Flying Service and before 1991 by the Royal Hong Kong Auxiliary Air Force. Their fleet consists of nine aircraft including:[34] • 2 BAe Jetstream 41[34] • 3 Eurocopter Super Puma (Super Puma L2)[34] • 4 Eurocopter EC155 B1[34] Mountain rescue operations are carried by the Mountain Search and Rescue Company of Hong Kong Civil Aid Service in conjunction with the Hong Kong Fire Services Dept and the air support from the Government Flying Service. Hong Kong Marine Police vessels and rescue divers from Hong Kong Fire Services Dept work with air support from the Government Flying Service to conduct maritime SAR within Hong Kong waters.

Italy
Search and rescue is the responsibility of the Guardia Costiera.[38]

Malta
The responsibility for SAR at sea in the Malta Search and Rescue Region falls under the Armed Forces of Malta (AFM). It is carried out by maritime patrol aircraft, helicopters and vessels under the co-ordination, command and control of the Rescue Co-ordination Centre.[39]

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Search and rescue

Norway

Italian Guardia Costiera CP-902 U. Diciotti The AFM, in close collaboration with the US Coast Guard, also runs a Search and Rescue Training Centre for International Students[1] in Maritime SAR Mission Co-ordination and Planning.[40] To date more than 30 foreign students from 15 countries including Albania, Cameroon, Croatia, Equatorial Guinea and Kenya have attended these courses.[41][42] Malta is also in talks with Libya about enhancing SAR cooperation between the two countries.[43]

The veteran Norwegian rescue ship Biskop Hvoslef Norsk Selskab til Skibbrudnes Redning, also called the Redningsselskapet (English: Norwegian Society for Sea Rescue (NSSR)), is Norway’s maritime rescue service. They have 43 search and rescue boats based from Oslo in the south to Båtsfjord in the north. Thirteen of these boats are operated by volunteers.[47] The NSSR was founded on 9 July 1891, with a clearly defined goal – to save lives at sea. The NSSR is a humanitarian organization aiming at saving lives and recovering property at sea. Maintaining rescue services along the Norwegian coast, and neighbouring sea areas where such services may be necessary. The NSSR also runs an information service and educational programs designed to improve safety for boaters. The first rescue boats, the Colin Archer-class, were introduced in 1893. They were powered by only by sails and oars. NSSR’s boats and crew have saved over 6,200 people. More than 500,000 people have received assistance.[47] The search and rescue helicopters are operated by the Royal Norwegian Air Force (RNoAF), who fly 12 Westland Sea Kings. These are scheduled to be replaced by the NHI NH90.[48] Norwegian Red Cross (Røde Kors Hjelpekorps) have a large number of local SAR teams spread across the country. These are all manned with volunteer SAR workers. With 13,500 members in 320 local teams, this is by far the largest SAR organisation in Norway. Missions include assisting the police searching for missing people in woodlands and the mountains, search and rescue in

Netherlands
SAR responsibility in the Netherlands is held by the Dutch Coast Guard, carried out by vessels and aircraft from various organisations among which the Koninklijke Nederlandse Redding Maatschappij, the Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management and the Navy and Air Force.[44]

New Zealand
New Zealand’s Search and Rescue Region extends from the South Pole to the southern border of the Honolulu region, including Norfolk, Tonga, Samoa, and Cook Islands.[45] Smaller searches are controlled by the local police, who call on LandSAR for land-based operations, such as for lost hikers, and the Royal New Zealand Coastguard for coastal maritime incidents. Larger maritime search and rescue events, as well as reports of overdue aircraft, fall under the control of the National Rescue Coordination Centre, based in Wellington, which coordinates response from local coastguard, helicopter operators, merchant marine, air force and naval resources.[45][46]

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lakes, rivers and at sea, and finally assisting skiers and holiday makers in the mountains during winter time. All volunteers have an extended First Aid education and certification, most are certified on HeartStart machines and trained in search techniques. Many of the local teams also operates ambulances and have crews trained for this. The Norsk Luftambulanse-group (Norwegian Air Ambulance), and the company Lufttransport provides medical evacuation services throughout the country.

Search and rescue
coordination is carried out by the UK Aeronautical Rescue Coordination Centre (ARCC) based at RAF Kinloss in the north of Scotland. The centre is responsible for tasking and coordinating all of the UK’s search and rescue helicopter and RAF mountain rescue teams.[50] In 2006, the government announced controversial plans to effectively privatise provision of search and rescue helicopters in order to replace the aging Sea Kings currently in use, although they have suggested that crews may, at least partially, still be made up of military personnel.[51] Linconshire Fire & Rescue USAR Urban Search & Rescue, in hostile urban environments, specialist emergency service units, trained and volunteer for duties which also include search and rescue of casulties in environments with risk of secondary devices. http://usar-lincolnshire.org/default.aspx

South Africa
The South African Search and Rescue Organization (SASAR), is a voluntary organization that functions under the auspices of the Department of Transport. SASAR is responsible for responding to aviation and maritime incidents. Its main role is to search for, assist and carry out rescue operations for the survivors of aircraft or vessel accidents.[49] Depending on the nature of the accident, the RCC’s (ARCC or MRCC) coordinate the search and rescue missions. These operations are carried out by other government departments, non governmental organizations, commercial/private organizations and voluntary organizations.[49]

United States of America
In January of 2008, the United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) released the National Response Framework (NRF) which, serves as the guiding document for a federal response during a national emergency. In addition to the NRF there are 15 annexes relating to Emergency Support Functions (ESF) which, includes other federal agencies that contain resources or expertise to support an emergency. Search and Rescue is included as ESF-9 and divides SAR into 4 primary elements, while assigning a federal agency with the lead role for each of the 4 elements. • Structural Collapse-USAR / Department of Homeland Security-Federal Emergency Management Agency, United States Homeland Emergency Response Organization (US-HERO) • Waterborne / United States Coast Guard, United States Coast Guard Auxiliary • Inland-wilderness / United States Department of Interior-National Park Service • Aeronautical / United States Air Force-Air Force Rescue Coordination Center, United States Air Force Pararescue

United Kingdom

Royal Air Force Westland Sea King See also: RAF Search and Rescue Force In the UK, maritime search and rescue is coordinated by HM Coastguard, while landbased operations are usually coordinated by the local Police force. The operation itself is carried out with aircraft from the Royal Navy, Royal Air Force or Coastguard, RNLI lifeboats and police, military or volunteer mountain rescue or ALSAR (Association of Lowland Search and Rescue) teams. Aircraft

Virginia
Virginia is one of the few states that benefits from a state-coordinated system of training

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and response under the Virginia Department of Emergency Management (VDEM). Under Title 44 of the Code of Virginia, VDEM develops and maintains the Commonwealth of Virginia Emergency Operations Plan (COVEOP) that includes the ESF-9 Annex for Search and Rescue. Similar to the federal version of ESF-9 under the National Response Framework (NRF), VDEM divides SAR into 4 primary elements. While VDEM functions as the lead for ESF-9, many agencies, departments and volunteer organizations routinely responds to and supports SAR operations in the Commonwealth of Virginia.[52][53] Aeronautical Search and rescue services for downed, missing, or overdue aircraft and Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs). Organizations include: • Civil Air Patrol[54] • Virginia State Police, Aviation Division[55] Inland/Wilderness For search and rescue of lost and missing persons in a wide variety of circumstances and environments, resources include: • Amherst County • Mid-Atlantic Search and D.O.G.S. Search Rescue[56] and Rescue[67] • Angel Search and • Old Dominion Rescue[57] Search and • Appalachian Rescue[68] Professional • Piedmont Tracking Group[58] Search and • Appalachian Search Rescue[69] and Rescue • Rockingham Conference[59] Augusta Search • Black Diamond & Rescue[70] Search and Rescue • Search and Council[60] Rescue Dogs of • Blue and Gray Maryland[71] Search and Rescue • Search and Dogs[61] Rescue • Commonwealth Tracking Search and Institute[72] Rescue[62] • Southwest • DOGS-East Search Virginia and Rescue[63] Mountain • Eastern-Region of Rescue the National Cave Group[73] Rescue • Top-of-Virginia Commission[64] Search and • Greater Atlantic Rescue[74] Rescue Dogs[65] • Tidewater • K-9 Alert Search and Search and Rescue[66] Rescue[75]

Search and rescue
• TROTSAR Mounted Search and Rescue[76] • Virginia Search and Rescue Dog Association[77] Maritime/Waterborne Providing search and rescue for vessels in distress in coastal and inland waters, resources include: • Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries[78] • Virginia Marine Resource Commission[79] • United States Coast Guard USAR/Disaster To provide response in the event of collapsed structures and significant events, organizations include: • Virginia Task Force 1[80] • Virginia Task Force 2[81] • Region 1 to 7 Technical Rescue Teams

See also
• • • • • • • • Avalanche Cave rescue Cospas-Sarsat International Search and Rescue Advisory Group Mountain rescue Mounted search and rescue Search and rescue dog Search and Rescue Optimal Planning System (SAROPS)

Groups
• • • • • • • • • • • • • Air Force Rescue Coordination Center Arapahoe Rescue Patrol Brothers to the Rescue Cardiff and Vale Rescue Association Coast Guard Emergency Locator Transmitter for missing aircraft Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB) Explorer Search and Rescue Long Beach Search & Rescue Maryland State Police Mercia Inshore Search and Rescue Multnomah County Sheriff’s Office Search and Rescue National Association of Volunteer Search and Rescue Teams (NAVSAR)

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• North Carolina Canine Emergency Response Team (NCCERT) • Scarborough and Ryedale mountain rescue team • Ski patrol • Snohomish County Volunteer Search and Rescue • Superstition Search and Rescue • US Search And Rescue Task force • Westpac Life Saver Rescue Helicopter

Search and rescue

[13] Air Force Public Affairs / Department of National Defence (September 2006). "103 Search and Rescue Squadron". http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/9wing/ squadron/103_e.asp. Retrieved on 2008-10-15. [14] Air Force Public Affairs / Department of National Defence (June 2007). "413 Transport and Rescue Squadron". http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/14wing/ squadron/413_e.asp. Retrieved on 2008-10-15. [15] Air Force Public Affairs / Department of [1] ^ Canadian Forces (May 1998). National Defence (June 2006). "424 [http://www.casaraontario.ca/ Transport and Rescue Squadron". ~webmaster1/Manuals/ http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/8wing/ NationalSARmanual_full_english.pdf squadron/424_e.asp. Retrieved on "B–GA–209–001/FP–001 DFO 5449 2008-10-15. NATIONAL SAR MANUAL"] (PDF). [16] Air Force Public Affairs / Department of http://www.casaraontario.ca/ National Defence (December 2007). "435 ~webmaster1/Manuals/ Transport and Rescue Squadron". NationalSARmanual_full_english.pdf. http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/17wing/ Retrieved on 2008-07-12. squadron/435_e.asp. Retrieved on [2] USCG CHAPTER 9 SEARCH AND 2008-10-15. RESCUE [17] Air Force Public Affairs / Department of [3] U.S. Department of Defense (January National Defence (June 2006). "442 2006). "U.S. Department of Defense Transport and Rescue Squadron". DIRECTIVE NUMBER 3003.01" (PDF). http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/19wing/ http://www.uscg.mil/hq/g-o/g-opr/nsarc/ squadron/442_e.asp. Retrieved on DOD%20Support%20to%20Civil%20SAR%203003.pdf. 2008-10-15. Retrieved on 2008-07-12. [18] Air Force Public Affairs / Department of [4] Major, R. H. (editor) (1859) Early National Defence (June 2007). "417 Voyages to Terra Australis, Now Called Combat Support Squadron". Australia, The Hakluyt Society, London http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/4wing/ (2001 facimile edition on Google Books) squadron/417_e.asp. Retrieved on [5] ^ North Shore Rescue (2009). "North 2008-10-15. Shore Rescue - Mountain Search and [19] Air Force Public Affairs / Department of Rescue". National Defence (February 2008). "439 http://www.northshorerescue.com/ Combat Support Squadron". services.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-21. http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/3wing/ [6] ^ O’Toole, Thomas F. (undated). squadron/439_e.asp. Retrieved on "Committee F32 on Search and Rescue". 2008-10-15. http://www.astm.org/cgi-bin/ [20] Air Force Public Affairs / Department of SoftCart.exe/COMMIT/COMMITTEE/ National Defence (June 2007). "444 F32.htm?L+memberstore+ooef3203+1171348303. Combat Support Squadron". Retrieved on 2008-02-24. http://www.airforce.forces.gc.ca/5wing/ [7] ^ AusSAR squadron/squadron_e.asp. Retrieved on [8] Victoria Police Search and Rescue Squad 2008-10-15. [9] Bushwalkers Wilderness Rescue Squad [21] Civil Air Search and Rescue Association [10] Bush Search and Rescue (2006). "Civil Air Search and Rescue [11] mil.be (Dutch) Association National Website". [12] PARA-SAR (undated). "NOSSA MISSÃO http://www.casara.ca/. Retrieved on (in Portugese)". 2009-05-11. http://www.eas.aer.mil.br/pag/ [22] North Shore Rescue (2009). "North missao.htm. Retrieved on 2008-12-27. Shore Rescue".

References

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Search and rescue

http://www.northshorerescue.com/. [35] Icelandic Coast Guard (undated). "The Retrieved on 2009-03-21. Icelandic Coast Guard". [23] Québec Secours (2009). "Québec http://www.lhg.is/english. Retrieved on Secours". 2008-03-07. http://www.quebecsecours.qc.ca/. [36] Slysavarnafélaginu Landsbjörg Retrieved on 2009-05-08. (undated). "ICE-SAR A Tale of Great [24] Nocturne Communications (2004). "River Achievements". http://www.landsbjorg.is/ Valley Ground Search and Rescue". category.aspx?catID=250. Retrieved on http://emergencyplanning.ca/rvgsar/. 2008-03-07. Retrieved on 2009-04-07. [37] ^ Department of Transport (2002). "Irish [25] "Bornholms Marinedistrikt: SAREX ’07". Coast Guard IRCG". http://forsvaret.dk/BHM/Nyt+og+Presse/ http://www.transport.ie/marine/IRCG/ Sarex.htm. Retrieved on 2008-07-07. index.asp?lang=ENG&loc=2029. (Danish) Retrieved on 2008-02-24. [26] "Flyvertaktisk kommando: Scan-SAR [38] Capitanerie di porto - Guardia Costiera ’06". http://forsvaret.dk/FTK/ (2006). "Capitanerie di porto - Guardia Nyt+og+Presse/Nyhedsarkiv/ Costiera". http://www.guardiacostiera.it/ Pressemeddelelser/2006/ en/. Retrieved on 2008-11-11. f%C3%A6lles+%C3%B8velse.htm. [39] Search and Rescue Training Centre Retrieved on 2008-07-07. (Danish) Armed Forces of Malta (2004). "Search [27] "Flyvevåbnets historie". and Rescue (SAR) in Malta". http://www.flv.dk/flyvevaabnet/ http://www.sarmalta.gov.mt/ historie_flyvevaabnet.htm. Retrieved on sar_in_Malta.htm. Retrieved on 2008-07-09. (Danish) 2008-03-13. [28] "Danish air force S-61A fact sheet" [40] Search and Rescue Training Centre (PDF). http://forsvaret.dk/NR/rdonlyres/ Armed Forces of Malta (2004). "Search C605235C-4851-457Band Rescue Training Centre - AFM". BFDA-75C3473573CF/0/ http://www.sarmalta.gov.mt/ HS61ASEAKING.pdf. Retrieved on sar_training_centre_malta.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-09. (Danish) on 2008-03-13. [29] ^ "Temadag om søredning og [41] U.S. Department of State. (November badesikkerhed". http://forsvaret.dk/SOK/ 2007). "AFM SAR TC Graduation". Nyt+og+Presse/2007-07-04.htm. http://malta.usembassy.gov/saramb.html. Retrieved on 2008-07-09. (Danish) Retrieved on 2008-03-13. [30] "Pictures from the public display". [42] Brincat, Erika F. (undated). "Search and http://forsvaret.dk/FTK/Nyt+og+Presse/ rescue training certificates awarded". Billeder+fra+s%C3%B8redningsdagen+2007.htm. http://www.independent.com.mt/ Retrieved on 2008-07-09. news.asp?newsitemid=61285. Retrieved [31] "Piirivalve ajalugu ja sümboolika (In on 2008-03-13. Estonian language)". http://www.pv.ee/ [43] MaltaMedia News. (January 2008). laane/index.php?page=316. "Search & Rescue meeting between [32] "German Maritime Search and Rescue Libya and Malta". Service (DGzRS)". http://www.dgzrs.de/ http://www.maltamedia.com/artman2/ index.php?id=265. Retrieved on publish/govt_politics/article_4810.shtml. 2008-08-27. Retrieved on 2008-03-15. [33] Team www.rth.info (2002). "Bundeswehr [44] NLMARFOR (May 2008). "VGSQ 7 (in German language)". (Dutch language article)". http://www.rth.info/betreiber/ http://www.marine.nl/nlmarfor/ betreiber.php?show=bw. Retrieved on helikopters/marheli/vsq7/nieuws/. 2008-05-22. Retrieved on 2008-05-30. [34] ^ Government of the Hong Kong Special [45] ^ Civil Aviation Auithority of New Administrative Region (2006). "About Zealand (undated). "AIPA New Zealand Government Flying Service". GEN 3.6 Search and Rescue". http://www.gfs.gov.hk/aboutgfs.htm. http://www.aip.net.nz/. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2008-11-13. 2008-02-24.

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[46] "NZ Search and Rescue – Who Does What?" (PDF). Maritime New Zealand. June 2004. http://www.maritimenz.govt.nz/ publications/sar/whodoeswhat.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-10-03. [47] ^ Redningsselskapet (November 2008). "Redningsselskapet (in the Norwegian language)". http://www.nssr.no/. Retrieved on 2008-11-13. [48] Royal Norwegian Air Force (undated). "Royal Norwegian Air Force - A Modern Force". http://www.mil.no/luft/start/ RNoAF/. Retrieved on 2008-11-13. [49] ^ SASAR (undated). "Who are we?". http://www.sasar.gov.za/. Retrieved on 2008-11-13. [50] ARCC Kinloss (2005). "Aeronautical Rescue Coordination Centre". http://www.kinlossrescue.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-24. [51] BBC (May 2006). "Private bids plan for air rescue". http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/ uk/4753961.stm. Retrieved on 2008-02-24. [52] Virginia Department of Emergency Management (2009). "vaemergency.com". http://www.vaemergency.com. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [53] Virginia Department of Emergency Management (2009). "Commonwealth of Virginia Emergency Operations Plan". http://www.vaemergency.com/library/ plans/index.cfm. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [54] Virginia Wing, Civil Air Patrol (2003). "Virginia Wing Headquarters Civil Air Patrol". http://www.vawg.cap.gov/. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [55] Virginia Department of State Police (2009). "Aviation Unit". http://www.vsp.state.va.us/ BFO_Aviation.shtm. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [56] Amherst County Search and Rescue (undated). "Amherst County Search and Rescue". http://www.acsar.org/. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [57] Angel Search & Rescue (2008). "Welcome to the Angel Search & Rescue web site!". http://www.morgancomm.com/asar/. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [58] Burleson, Randall C. (2009). "Appalachian Professional Tracking

Search and rescue
Group, Inc.". http://aptg.org/. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [59] Appalachian Search & Rescue Conference (undated). "Welcome to ASRC". http://www.asrc.net/asrc/ DesktopDefault.aspx. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [60] Black Diamond Search and Rescue Council (2008). "Black Diamond Search and Rescue Council". http://www.bdsarco.org/. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [61] Blue and Gray Search and Rescue (January 2009). "Welcome to Blue and Gray Search and Rescue". http://blueandgraysearchdogs.com/. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [62] Commonwealth Search and Rescue (2006). "Commonwealth Search and Rescue". http://www.commonwealthsar.org/. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [63] DOGS-East Search and Rescue (undated). "DOGS-East Search and Rescue". http://www.dogseast.org/. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [64] Eastern Region of the National Cave Rescue Commission (2008). "Eastern Region of the National Cave Rescue Commission". http://www.er-ncrc.org/. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [65] Greater Atlantic Rescue Dogs (2009). "Greater Atlantic Rescue Dogs". http://www.gardk9.org/. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [66] K-9 Alert Search and Rescue Dogs, Inc (undated). "K-9 Alert". http://www.k9alert.org/. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [67] Mid-Atlantic D.O.G.S. Search and Rescue (undated). "Mid-Atlantic D.O.G.S. Search and Rescue". http://www.midatlanticdogs.org/. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [68] Old Dominion Search and Rescue (undated). "Old Dominion Search and Rescue". http://olddominionsearchandrescue.tripod.com/. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [69] piedmontsar.org (2009). "piedmontsar.org". http://piedmontsar.org/. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [70] Rockingham Augusta Search & Rescue (undated). "Rockingham Augusta Search

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
& Rescue". http://www.rasar.org/. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [71] Search and Rescue Dogs of Maryland (SARDOM) (2008). "SARDOM". http://www.sardom.org/. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [72] Search and Rescue Tracking Institute (2008). "Welcome to the Search and Rescue Tracking Institute". http://www.sarti.us/. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [73] Blacksburg Volunteer Rescue Squad (2005). "Blacksburg Volunteer Rescue Squad". http://tob.bev.net/rescue/ sar.php. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [74] North Mountain Volunteer Fire and Rescue Company (undated). "Top of Virginia Search and Rescue Group". http://www.tovsar.org/. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [75] Tidewater Search and Rescue (2009). "Welcome to TSAR". http://www.tsar.org/. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [76] TROTSAR Inc (2009). "TROTSAR Mounted Search and Rescue Team Inc.". http://www.trot-md.org/sar.htm. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [77] Virginia Search and Rescue Dog Association (2009). "Virginia Search and Rescue Dog Association". http://www.vsrda.org/. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [78] Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (2009). "Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries".

Search and rescue
http://www.dgif.virginia.gov/. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [79] Virginia Marine Resources Commission (2009). "Virginia Marine Resources Commission". http://www.mrc.state.va.us/MP/ leoverview.shtm. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [80] Fairfax County Urban Search & Rescue (2009). "Welcome to VATF1.org". http://www.vatf1.org/. Retrieved on 2009-05-10. [81] Virginia Task Force 2 (April 2009). "Virginia Task Force 2". http://www.vatf2.com/. Retrieved on 2009-05-10.

External links
• Search and rescue at the Open Directory Project • Rotary rescue Extract from Jane’s Defence Weekly article (3 August 2006) • InternetSAR.org Volunteer Project • NASAR.org National Association for Search and Rescue (U.S.) • South African Search and Rescue Organization • New York Search And Rescue • National Association of Volunteer Search And Rescue Teams • Wilderness Search and Rescue (Cape Town South Africa) • Royal National Lifeboat Institution (United Kingdom and Ireland - Waterborne SAR)

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