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Coordinates: 63°38′N 135°46′W / 63.633°N 135.767°W / 63.633; -135.767


Population Total (2009) Density GDP Total (2006) Per capita Abbreviations Postal ISO 3166-2

Ranked 12th 33,442 (est.)[1] 0.065 /km² (0.17 /sq mi) Ranked 12th C$1.596 billion[2] C$51,154 (3rd) YT CA-YT UTC-8 Y Fireweed Subalpine Fir Common Raven www.gov.yk.ca


Coat of arms

Time zone Postal code prefix Flower Tree Bird Website

Motto: none

Rankings include all provinces and territories

Capital Largest city Largest metro Official languages Demonym Government Commissioner Premier Federal representation House seats Senate seats Confederation Area Total Land Water (%)

Whitehorse Whitehorse Whitehorse English, French Yukoner

Geraldine Van Bibber Dennis Fentie (Yukon Party) in Canadian Parliament 1 1 June 13, 1898 (9th) Ranked 9th 482,443 km2 (186,272 sq mi) 474,391 km2 (183,163 sq mi) 8,052 km2 (3,109 sq mi) (1.7%)

Yukon (pronounced /ˈjuːkɒn/) is the westernmost and smallest of Canada’s three federal territories. It was named after the Yukon River, Yukon meaning "Great River" in Gwich’in. Created in 1898 as the Yukon Territory, the federal government’s most recent update of the Yukon Act in 2003 confirmed "Yukon", rather than "Yukon Territory", as the current usage standard.[3] At 5,959 metres (19,551 ft), Yukon’s Mount Logan, in Kluane National Park and Reserve, is the highest mountain in Canada and the second highest of North America (after Mount McKinley in the U.S. state of Alaska).

Geography and ecology
The sparsely populated territory abounds with snow-melt lakes and perennial snowcapped mountains. Although the climate is Arctic and subarctic and very dry, with long, cold winters, the long sunshine hours in short summer allow hardy crops and vegetables, along with a profusion of flowers and fruit to blossom. Most of the territory is covered in boreal forest.


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flowing into the Mackenzie in the Northwest Territories are the Liard River in the southeast and the Peel River and its tributaries in the northeast. Notable widespread tree species within the Yukon are the Black Spruce and White Spruce. The capital, Whitehorse, is also the largest city, with about two-thirds of the population; the second largest is Dawson City, (pop. 1,250) which was the capital until 1952.


Map of the Yukon. The territory is the approximate shape of a right triangle, bordering the U.S. state of Alaska to the west for 1,210 km (752 miles) mostly along longitude 141º W, the Northwest Territories to the east and British Columbia to the south. Its northern coast is on the Beaufort Sea. Its ragged eastern boundary mostly follows the divide between the Yukon Basin and the Mackenzie River drainage basin to the east in the Mackenzie mountains. Its capital is Whitehorse. Canada’s highest point, Mount Logan (5,959 m/19,551 ft), is found in the territory’s southwest. Mount Logan and a large part of the Yukon’s southwest are in Kluane National Park and Reserve, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Other national parks include Ivvavik National Park and Vuntut National Park in the north. Most of the territory is in the watershed of its namesake, the Yukon River. The southern Yukon is dotted with a large number of large, long and narrow glacier-fed alpine lakes, most of which flow into the Yukon River system. The larger lakes include Teslin Lake, Atlin Lake, Tagish Lake, Marsh Lake, Lake Laberge, Kusawa Lake, and Kluane Lake. Bennett Lake on the Klondike Gold Rush trail is a lake flowing into Nares Lake, with the greater part of its area within the Yukon. Other watersheds include the Mackenzie River and the Alsek-Tatshenshini, as well as a number of rivers flowing directly into the Beaufort Sea. The two main Yukon rivers

Richardson Mountains in the background Long before the arrival of Europeans, central and northern Yukon escaped glaciation as it was part of Beringia (Bering land bridge). Remains of human inhabitation were found near Old Crow appearing to be the oldest in North America. Around AD 800, the volcanic eruption of Mount Churchill near the Alaska border blanketed southern Yukon with a layer of ash which can still be seen along the Klondike Highway. Coastal and interior First Nations already had extensive trading networks and European incursions into the area only began early in the 19th century with the fur trade, followed by missionaries and the Western Union Telegraph Expedition. By the latter end of the 19th century gold miners were trickling in on rumours of gold, creating a population increase justifying the setting up of a police force, just in time for 1897’s start of the Klondike Gold Rush. The increased population coming with the gold rush led to the separation of the Yukon district from the Northwest Territories and the formation of the separate Yukon Territory in 1898.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Yukon’s eight First Nations linguistic groupings and 14 tribes/clans[5] Linguistic Grouping Gwich’in Han Upper Tanana Northern Tutchone Tribe Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation, Old Crow Tr’ondëk Hwëch’in First Nation, Dawson City White River First Nation, Beaver Creek Small communities near Tok ( Alaska) Selkirk First Nation Little Salmon/Carmacks First Nation First Nation of Nacho Nyak Dun, Mayo Champagne and Aishihik First Nations, Haines Junction Kluane First Nation, Burwash Landing Ta’an Kwach’an Council, Lake Laberge Kwanlin Dün First Nation, Whitehorse Ross River Dena Council, Ross River Liard River First Nation, Watson Lake Teslin Tlingit Council Carcross/Tagish First Nation English French German Chinese Tagalog Dutch Spanish Vietnamese Hungarian Punjabi Gwich’in Tlingit 25,655 1,105 775 260 145 140 130 105 80 80 75 70 85.69% 3.69% 2.59% 0.87% 0.48% 0.47% 0.43% 0.35% 0.27% 0.27% 0.25% 0.23%


Southern Tutchone

Kaska Inland Tlingit Tagish 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

According to the 2001 Canadian census,[4] the largest ethnic group in Yukon is English (27.1%), followed by First Nations (22.3%), Scottish (21.9%), Irish (19.1%), German (14.3%), and French (13.4%) - although over a quarter of all respondents also identified their ethnicity as "Canadian."

The 2006 Canadian census showed a population of 30,372. Of the 29,940 singular responses to the census question concerning ’mother tongue’ the most commonly reported languages were:

There were also 130 responses of both English and a ’non-official language’; 10 of both French and a ’non-official language’; 110 of both English and French; and about 175 people who either did not respond to the question, or reported multiple non-official languages, or else gave some other unenumerated response. The Yukon’s official languages are shown in bold. Figures shown are for the number of single-language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses.[6] The Language Act of the Yukon "recognizes the significance" of aboriginal languages in the Yukon; however, only English and French are available for laws, court proceedings, and legislative assembly proceedings.[7]


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Yukon’s tourism motto is "Larger than life".[9] The Yukon’s major appeal is its nearly pristine nature. Tourism relies heavily on this, and there are many organised outfitters and guides available to hunters and anglers and nature lovers of all sorts. Sports enthusiasts can paddle lakes and rivers with canoes and kayaks, ride or walk trails, ski or snowboard in an organized setting or access the backcountry by air or snowmobile, climb the highest peaks of North America or take a family hike up smaller mountains, or try ice climbing and dog sledding. The Yukon also has a wide array of cultural and sporting events and infrastructures that attract artists, participants and tourists from all parts of the world (Yukon International Storytelling Festival, Frostbite Music Festival,[10] Dawson Music Festival,[11] Yukon Quest, Sourdough Rendezvous, the Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre,[12] Northern Lights Centre,[13] Klondike Gold Rush memorials and activities, "Takhini Hot Springs", and the Whitehorse fish ladder.[14] There are many opportunities to experience pre-colonial lifestyles by learning about Yukon’s First Nations.[15] Wildlife and nature observation is exceptional and a wide variety of large mammals, birds, and fish are easily accessible, whether or not within Yukon’s many territorial[16] parks (Herschel Island Qikiqtaruk Territorial Park,[17] Tombstone Territorial Park,[18] Fishing Branch Ni’iinlii’njik Park,[19] Coal River Springs Territorial Park)[20] and national parks (Kluane National Park and Reserve, Vuntut National Park, Ivvavik National Park) and reserves, or nearby Liard River Hot Springs Provincial Park in British Columbia. On the long cold clear nights of winter, nature provides the ultimate natural spectacle in the form of aurora borealis.

Yukon’s population is highly secularized. The largest denominations by number of adherents according to the 2001 census were the Roman Catholic Church with 5,985 (21 %); the Anglican Church of Canada with 3,795 (13 %); and the United Church of Canada with 2,105 (7 %).[8]

The Yukon’s historical major industry has been mining (lead, zinc, silver, gold, asbestos and copper). The government acquired the land from the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1870 and split it from the Northwest Territories in 1898 to fill the need for local government created by the population influx of the gold rush. Thousands of these prospectors flooded the territory, creating a colourful period recorded by authors such as Robert W. Service and Jack London. The memory of this period and the early days of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, as well as the territory’s scenic wonders and outdoor recreation opportunities, makes tourism the second most important industry. Manufacturing, including furniture, clothing, and handicrafts, follows in importance, along with hydroelectricity. The traditional industries of trapping and fishing have declined. Today, the government sector is by far the biggest employer in the territory, directly employing approximately 5,000 out of a labour force of 12,500.


Before modern forms of transportation, the rivers and mountain passes were the main transportation routes for the coastal Tlingit people trading with the Athabascans of which the Chilkoot Pass and Dalton Trail, as well as the first Europeans. From the Gold Rush until the 1950s, riverboats plied the Yukon River, mostly between Whitehorse and Dawson City, with some making their way further to Alaska and over to the Bering Sea, and other tributaries of

The Yukon Sign


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Yukon River such as the Stewart River. Most of the riverboats were owned by the BritishYukon Navigation Company, an arm of the White Pass and Yukon Route, which also operated a narrow gauge railway between Skagway, Alaska, and Whitehorse. The railway ceased operation in the 1980s with the first closure of the Faro mine. It is now run during the summer months for the tourism season, with operations as far as Carcross. Today, major land routes include the Alaska Highway, the Klondike Highway (between Skagway and Dawson City), the Haines Highway (between Haines, Alaska, and Haines Junction), and the Dempster Highway (linking Inuvik, Northwest Territories to the Klondike Highway), all paved except for the Dempster. Other highways with less traffic include the "Robert Campbell Highway" link ing Carmacks (on the Klondike Highway) to Watson Lake (Alaska Highway) via Faro and Ross River, and the "Silver Trail" linking the old silver mining communities of Mayo, Elsa and Keno City to the Klondike Highway at the Stewart River bridge. Air travel is the only way to reach the far north community of Old Crow. Whitehorse International Airport serves as the air transport infrastructure hub, with direct flights to Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, Fairbanks, and Frankfurt (summer months). Every Yukon community is served by an airport. The communities of Dawson City, Old Crow, and Inuvik, have regular passenger service through Air North. Air charter businesses exist primarily to serve the tourism and mining exploration industries.


Chief Isaac of the Han, Yukon Territory, ca. 1898 day to day role in governing the territory. The elected Territorial Council had a purely advisory role. In 1979, a significant degree of power was devolved from the federal government and commissioner to the territorial legislature which, in that year, adopted a party system of responsible government. This was done through a letter from Jake Epp, the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development rather than through formal legislation. In preparation for responsible government, political parties were organised and ran candidates to the Yukon Legislative Assembly for the first time in 1978. The Progressive Conservatives won these elections and formed the first party government of Yukon in January 1979. The Yukon New Democratic Party (NDP) formed the government from 1985 to 1992 under Tony Penikett and again from 1996 under Piers McDonald until being defeated in 2000. The conservatives returned to power in 1992 under John Ostashek after having renamed themselves the Yukon Party. The Liberal government of Pat Duncan was defeated in elections in November 2002, with Dennis Fentie of the Yukon Party forming the government as Premier. The Yukon Act, passed on April 1, 2003, formalised the powers of the Yukon government and devolved additional powers to the territorial government (e.g., control over land and natural resources). As of 2003, other than criminal prosecutions, the Yukon government has much of the same powers as provincial governments, and the other two territories are looking to obtaining the same

Government and politics
In the 19th century, Yukon was a segment of the Hudson’s Bay Company-administered North-Western Territory and then the Canadian-administered Northwest Territories. It only obtained a recognizable local government in 1895 when it became a separate district of the Northwest Territories.[21] In 1898, it was made a separate territory with its own commissioner and appointed Territorial Council.[22] Prior to 1979, the territory was administered by the commissioner who was appointed by the federal Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. The commissioner used to chair and had a role in appointing the territory’s Executive Council and had a


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Government Carcross/Tagish First Nation Champagne and Aishihik First Nations First Nation of Nacho Nyak Dun Kluane First Nation Kwanlin Dün First Nation Liard River First Nation Little Salmon/Carmacks First Nation Ross River Dena Council Selkirk First Nation Ta’an Kwach’an Council Teslin Tlingit Council Tr’ondëk Hwëch’in First Nation Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation White River First Nation Seat Carcross Haines Junction Mayo Burwash Landing Whitehorse Watson Lake Carmacks Ross River Pelly Crossing Whitehorse Teslin Dawson City Old Crow Beaver Creek Chief


Khà Shâde Héni Mark Wedge Diane Strand Simon Mervyn Robert Dickson Mike Smith Liard McMillan Eddie Skookum Jack Caesar Darren Isaac Ruth Massie Peter Johnston Darren Taylor Joe Linklater David Johnny

powers. Today the role of commissioner is analogous to that of a provincial lieutenant governor; however, unlike lieutenant-governors, commissioners are not formal representatives of the Queen but are employees of the federal government. Although there has been discussion in the past about Yukon becoming Canada’s 11th province, it is generally felt that its population base is too sparse for this to occur at present. At the federal level, the territory is presently represented in the Parliament of Canada by a single Member of Parliament and one senator. Canadian territories’ members of Parliament are full and equal voting representatives and residents of the territory enjoy the same rights as other Canadian citizens. One Yukon Member of Parliament — Erik Nielsen — was the Deputy Prime Minister under the government of Brian Mulroney, while another — Audrey McLaughlin — was the leader of the federal New Democratic Party. Yukon was one of nine jurisdictions in Canada to offer same-sex marriage before the passage of Canada’s Civil Marriage Act.

Previous Members of Parliament include Louise Hardy (NDP, 1997-2000), Audrey McLaughlin (NDP, 1987-1997), Erik Nielsen (Progressive Conservative Party of Canada, 1957-1987), James Aubrey Simmons (Liberal, 1949-1957). Yukon has been represented by two Senators since the position was created in 1975. The Senate of Canada position is currently held by Daniel Lang, who was appointed on 22 December 2008.[23][24] It was previously filled by Ione Christensen, representing the Liberal Party. Appointed to the Senate in 1999 by Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, Mrs. Christensen resigned in December 2006 to help her ailing husband. From 1975 to 1999, Paul Lucier (Liberal) served as Senator for the Yukon. Lucier was appointed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau.

First Nations governments
Much of the population of the territory is First Nations. An umbrella land claim agreement representing 7,000 members of fourteen different First Nations was signed with the federal government in 1992. Each of the individual First Nations then has to negotiate a specific land claim and a self-government agreement. As of December 2005, eleven of the 14 First Nations had a signed agreement. The fourteen First Nation governments are: The territory once had an Inuit settlement, located on Herschel Island off the Arctic coast. This settlement was dismantled in

Federal government representation
In the Canadian House of Commons, Yukon is represented by Larry Bagnell, representing the Liberal Party. Mr. Bagnell was first elected to the House of Commons in 2000.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Community Whitehorse Dawson Watson Lake Haines Junction Carmacks Mount Lorne¹ Mayo Ross River Pelly Crossing Ibex Valley¹ 2001 Population 19,058(city) 21,405(metro) 1,251 912 531 431 379 366 337 328 315 1996 Population 19,157(city) 21,808(metro) 1,287 993 574 466 399 324 352 238 322


1987 and its inhabitants relocated to the neighboring Northwest Territories. As a result of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement, the island is now a territorial park and is known officially as Qikiqtaruk Territorial Park, Qikiqtaruk being the name of the island in Inuvialuktun. There are also 14 First Nations that speak 8 different languages.

10 Largest Communities by population ¹ Part of "Metro" Whitehorse Census Agglomeration

See also
• • • • • • • • • • • • • Prefecture Apostolic of Yukon List of premiers of Yukon List of Yukon commissioners List of communities in Yukon List of Yukon general elections Yukon Members of Parliament List of Yukoners Yukon College Scouting in Yukon Yukon Energy Corporation History of the west coast of North America Yukon Quest Yukon Field Force

[1] Statistics Canada. "Canada’s population estimates 2009-26-03". http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/ 090326/t090326a2-eng.htm. Retrieved on 2009-07-04.

[2] Gross domestic product, expenditurebased, by province and territory [3] CanLII - Federal - S.C. 2002, c. 7 [4] Population by selected ethnic origins, by province and territory (2001 Census) (Yukon Territory) [5] Council of Yukon First Nations [6] Detailed Mother Tongue (186), Knowledge of Official Languages (5), Age Groups (17A) and Sex (3) (2006 Census) [7] Language Act, Statues of the Yukon (2002) [8] http://www12.statcan.ca/english/ census01/products/highlight/Religion/ Page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo=PR&View=1a&Code=60&T [9] Travel Yukon [10] Frostbite Music Festival [11] Dawson Music Festival [12] Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre [13] Northern Lights Centre [14] Whitehorse fish ladder [15] Yukon First Nation Tourist Association [16] Territorial Parks [17] Herschel Island Qikiqtaruk Territorial Park [18] Tombstone Territorial Park [19] Fishing Branch Ni’iinlii’njik Park [20] Coal River Springs Territorial Park [21] Coates and Morrison, p.74 [22] Coates and Morrison, p.103 [23] "Senators - Detailed Information". Parliament of Canada. http://www.parl.gc.ca/common/ senmemb/senate/ isenator_det.asp?senator_id=2815&sortord=N&Lang Retrieved on 2008-12-23. [24] Former Yukon MLA named to Senate seat


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

in the Yukon Territory, Canada, and portions of Alaska and British Columbia during the Klondike gold rush. • Henry M. Sarvant Photographs 212 photographs by Henry Mason Sarvant depicting his climbing expeditions to Mt. Rainier and scenes of the vicinity from 1892-1912. Also included are images of his trip to the Klondike gold fields in 1897 documenting his journey over the Chilkoot Pass and subsequent mining activities in the vicinity of Dawson, Yukon Territory. CBC Digital Archives - Territorial Battles: Yukon Elections, 1978-2002 CBC Digital Archives - The Berger Pipeline Inquiry An article on the Yukon Territory from The Canadian Encyclopedia Dempster Highway & Yukon roadtrip article on the Economist’s More Intelligent Life website

• Ken S. Coates and William R. Morrison (1988). Land of the Midnight Sun: A History of the Yukon. Hurtig Publishers, Edmonton. ISBN 0-88830-331-9

External links
• • • • • • • • • • • Yukon Government The 1898 Yukon Act The 2002 Yukon Act Yukon Attraction & Service Guides General Information Site Historic Air Force Building Yukon Romance: Virtual Exhibit Tall Tales and True Stories of the Yukon Immigration Yukon Yukon Convention Bureau University of Washington Libraries: Digital Collections: • William E. Meed Photographs Photographs (ca. 1898-1907) of scenes

• • • •

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yukon" Categories: Yukon, Provinces and territories of Canada, Census divisions of the Canadian territories, Beaufort Sea, 1898 establishments This page was last modified on 21 May 2009, at 09:08 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers


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