Pesticide Formulations - Crop Profiles for North Carolina Agriculture by pengtt


									     Pesticide Formulations

Stephen J. Toth, Jr.              Wayne G. Buhler
Department of Entomology          Department of Horticultural Science
North Carolina State University   North Carolina State University
                                       Photograph from U. S. Department of Agriculture
            Pesticide Formulations
• A pesticide formulation is a mixture of active and inert
  (inactive) ingredients
• Some formulations are
  ready-to-use; others
  must be further diluted
  with water, a petroleum-
  based solvent, or air
  before they are applied
                                                  Tim McCabe
          Purpose of Formulations
• Increase pesticide effectiveness in the field
  (availability to pests, persistence)
• Improve safety features
  of pesticide (diminish
  the hazards to user or
• Enhance the handling
  qualities of pesticide
  (equipment, storage)
                                                  Tim McCabe
    Considerations for Choosing
      a Pesticide Formulation
• Do you have the necessary equipment to apply
  the formulation properly?
• Can the formulation be applied safely in the area
  and under the conditions of application?
• Will the formulation reach the target and stay in
  place long enough to control the pest?
• Will the formulation harm the surface on which
  it is applied?
    Types of Pesticide Formulations
• Liquid Formulations         • Dry Formulations
  Emulsifiable Concentrates     Dusts
  Solutions                     Baits
  Liquid Flowables              Granules or Pellets
  Aerosols                      Wettable Powders
                                Soluble Powders
• Fumigants                     Microencapsulated
                                Dry Flowables
• Adjuvants
  Emulsifiable Concentrate (EC or E)
• Contains a liquid active ingredient, solvent and agent to
  allow formulation to mix with water to form an emulsion
     Product                       Diluted

                     North Carolina Pesticide Applicator Training Program
Emulsifiable Concentrate (EC or E)
• Used: in agriculture, ornamentals, turf and forestry,
  and for livestock, structural and public health pests
• Advantages: easy to handle, transport and store;
  little agitation required; not abrasive; doesn’t clog
  nozzles; and leaves little residue on treated surfaces
• Disadvantages: mixing and calibration required;
  toxic to plants and humans (easily absorbed through
  the skin); can deteriorate metal and rubber; and is
                     Solution (S)
• Contains an active ingredient dissolved in a liquid solvent
  (water or petroleum-based); either a concentrate (must be
  further diluted) or ready-to-use formulation
    Product                             Diluted

                    North Carolina Pesticide Applicator Training Program
                   Solution (S)
• Used: for structural pests, livestock and poultry pests,
  space sprays, shade tree pests, and mosquito control
• Advantages: no agitation needed
• Disadvantages: a limited number of formulations of
  this type available

                Dana Downey
          Liquid Flowable (F or L)
• Contains insoluble, finely-ground solid active ingredient
  mixed with a liquid (and inert ingredient) to form a
    Product                         Diluted

                    North Carolina Pesticide Applicator Training Program
         Liquid Flowable (F or L)
• Used: same pest control operations as emulsifiable
• Advantages: easy to handle and apply; seldom clogs
• Disadvantages: require
  moderate agitation and
  may leave a viable
  residue on surfaces

                                            Bill Tarpenning
                  Aerosol (A)
• Contains one or more active ingredients and solvent
  (usually petroleum distillate); packaged in a ready-to-
  use pressurized container, or applied in a smoke or
  fog generator
• Used: space spraying, crack and crevice treatments
  for structural and household pest control
• Advantages: convenient; the user can purchase small
  quantities of pesticide; easily stored; and does not
  lose activity
• Disadvantages: limited uses; difficult to confine to
  target site or pest; and risk of inhalation injury
                       Dust (D)
• Ready-to-use dry formulation that contains a low
  percentage of the active ingredient plus a dry, inert
  carrier (talc, chalk, clay, ash, etc.); used dry
• Used: to treat seed, control indoor pests (crack and
  crevice and spot treatments) and parasites on pets and
  livestock, and used for pests in home gardens
• Advantages: usually ready-to-use, no mixing; requires
  simple equipment; effective in hard-to-reach areas
• Disadvantages: drifts off-target; residues easily moved
  off target by air and water (rain); doesn’t stick as well as
  liquids; uneven distribution; irritates eyes, nose, throat
                       Bait (B)
• Contains a small amount of dry active ingredient mixed
  with food or some other attractant; pests ingest pesticide


                     North Carolina Pesticide Applicator Training Program
                      Bait (B)
• Used: inside buildings for control of ants, roaches,
  flies, rodents; outdoors for control of rodents, other
  mammals, birds, slugs, snails and insects
• Advantages: ready-to-use with no mixing; little hazard
  to applicator; even distribution not necessary; controls
  mobile pests; can be removed when pests not present
• Disadvantages: can be attractive to children, pets and
  wildlife; pests may prefer crop to bait; dead pests may
  cause odor problem or secondary poisoning of wildlife
            Granule (G) or Pellet (P)
• Ready-to-use, dry formulations prepared by applying liquid
  active ingredient to coarse, absorptive material such as clay;
  pellets are larger, more uniform in shape
• Used: granular formulations used for soil pests, larval
  mosquitoes, aquatic pests, and for aerial application to avoid
  drift; pellets used as pelleted seed, fumigants
• Advantages: particles settle quickly (low drift); little hazard
  to applicator; simple application equipment (e.g., spreaders);
  slow release of pesticide
• Disadvantages: do not stick to foliage or surfaces; may need
  to incorporate in soil; may require moisture to activate
  pesticide; non-target wildlife may use as feed
       Wettable Powder (WP or W)
• Dry, finely-ground formulation with active ingredient
  mixed with clay or talc; formulation mixed with water
  to form a suspension for application
    Product                      Diluted

                    North Carolina Pesticide Applicator Training Program
       Wettable Powder (WP or W)
• Used: widely used, commercial applications for most
  pest problems
• Advantages: easy to store, transport and handle; less
  likely than EC formulation to harm plants, animals
  and surfaces; less skin and eye absorption than EC
• Disadvantages: inhalation hazard to mixers; requires
  good agitation, will settle out of solution; abrasive to
  pumps and nozzles; leaves visible residues on surfaces
            Soluble Powder (SP)
• Similar to wettable powder, but dissolves readily and
  forms a true solution; few pesticides available in this
• Advantages: has all of the advantages of the wettable
  powders; non-abrasive to pumps and nozzles; constant
  agitation not required
• Disadvantages: inhalation hazard during mixing
    Microencapsulated Pesticide (M)
• Particles of pesticide active ingredient (liquid or dry)
  surrounded in a plastic coating; formulated product
  mixed with water and applied as spray; following
  application the capsule slowly releases the pesticide
• Advantages: increased safety to applicator; easy to
  mix, handle and apply; slow release of pesticide
• Disadvantages: constant agitation required; bees may
  pick capsules and take back to their hive
              Dry Flowable (DF)
• Active ingredient is prepared as dry, granular-sized
  particles; granules mixed with water, where they break
  into fine particles and form a suspension for application
 Product                      Diluted

                     North Carolina Pesticide Applicator Training Program
              Dry Flowable (DF)
• Advantages: more easily measured and mixed than
  wettable powders; less inhalation hazard to mixers
• Disadvantages: requires constant agitation to keep the
  formulation in solution
                   Fumigant (F)
• Pesticides that form poisonous gases when applied;
  formulated as liquids or solids; can be released under
  pressure, high humidity or water vapor
• Used: agriculture (soil, greenhouses, bins); structural
  pest control; regulatory pest control (ports, borders)
• Advantages: toxic to wide range of pests; can penetrate
  very small areas; usually requires a single treatment
• Disadvantages: highly toxic to humans and non-target
  organisms; requires use of specialized application
  equipment and protective equipment (respirator); the
  treatment area must be enclosed or covered
• Chemical (inert) added to a pesticide formulation
  or tank mix to increase the effectiveness or safety
• Includes wetting agents, emulsifiers, spreaders,
  stickers, foaming agents, thickeners, safeners,
  compatibility agents, buffers, and anti-foaming

North Carolina Pesticide
Applicator Training Program
• Applying Pesticides Correctly: A Guide for
  Private and Commercial Applicators. Unit 3:
  Formulations. pp. 29-37.

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