VIEWS: 50 PAGES: 2 CATEGORY: Fashion POSTED ON: 11/19/2010
Is a ring worn on the finger decorative jewelry. Women and men can wear the ring material can be metal, precious stones, plastic, wood or bone. Ever, the ring is considered a token of love. Wearing the ring on his left ring finger is considered to be a wedding ring. Wedding ring on his right hand on the ring finger of the countries and regions to become less and less. Worn in many areas are considered to woo the left index finger, middle finger, said in love, the little finger that we do not love or life single. In ancient Rome, as a seal ring is a symbol of the right.
Brown Ring Patch J.E. Kaminski, Department of Plant Science & F.P. Wong, Department of Plant Pathology, University of California Pat Gradoville, Palos Verdes Golf Club Figure 1 INTRODUCTION Brown ring patch, also known as Waitea patch, is a “new” disease of annual bluegrass putting greens that has recently appeared in the western, Midwestern and northeastern United States. The disease is caused by a species closely related to Rhizoctonia oryzae and R. zeae, which are known to cause sheath and leaf spot or high-temperature brown patch in the United States. The formal name of the pathogen (named after its observed sexual state) is Waitea circinata var. circinata (Wcc). Figure 2 The disease has been reported in numerous locations across the country, including California, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, Nevada, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Rhode Island and Washington. SYMPTOMS Initial symptoms on greens begin as diffuse, thin yellow rings or crescents (a few inches to a foot in diameter) that can turn golden-brown under hot or wet conditions (Fig. 1). Often, the rings will be uneven and have a “scalloped” appearance (Fig. 2). On low fertility greens, sometimes a green halo can Figure 3 be seen surrounding or inside of the yellow rings (Fig. 3). Symptoms can be confused with those of Eric Ullrich, Lakeside Golf Club yellow patch, fairy ring or necrotic ring spot. CAUSAL AGENT Abundant mycelia can be seen on the foliage, down in the crowns, stolons and in the thatch when the soil is moist (Fig. 4). The pathogen tends to colonize both the above-ground parts of the plant and the thatch, which can result in sunken rings where the thatch has broken down. The mycelia can www.turf.uconn.edu TURFGRASS DISEASE Brown Ring Patch be rather fluffy and extensive under wet conditions. suppressed mycelium growth. Like its closely related relative, R. zeae, Wcc appears to be The disease has been observed at daytime naturally resistant to the benzimidazole fungicides. temperatures ranging from 50ºF to 90ºF, with optimal temperatures of 70ºF to 85ºF. Because it can actively Superintendents have reported mixed results for colonize thatch, the disease may be more severe on Wcc control with fungicides; ProStar, Heritage, putting greens with excessive organic matter Medallion and Endorse fungicides seem to accumulation. consistently provide the greatest level of control. Since Wcc is often in the thatch layer, adequate During the spring and early summer months, application volume (≥ 2 gallons of water per 1000 disease symptoms appear as yellow rings ranging ft2) and/or watering-in materials into the upper from a few inches up to a foot in diameter. Although thatch layer is important. If the disease is already infected annual bluegrass generally does not entirely well established in the thatch or turf, multiple collapse, turfgrass thinning and/or plant death can applications may be needed to completely stop the occur. Under hot and dry conditions, disease pathogen. In severe cases, recovery from damage symptoms generally disappear. The disease, is slow due to the amount of crown damage and however, may recur as temperatures favoring growth thatch degradation. Preventive or early curative of the pathogen develop in the autumn months. The control is likely most effective. disease symptoms remained visible until treated with an effective fungicide. Figure 4 MANAGEMENT Recommendations for control are based on in vitro testing of fungicides in the lab, a limited field study in California, and anecdotal evidence and reports from superintendents. In the lab, a number of isolates of the pathogen were screened on Petri plates against Chipco 26 GT®, Banner MAXX®, Cleary’s 3336®, Heritage® and ProStar® fungicides. With the exception of Cleary’s 3336®, all fungicides evaluated in this study effectively The information in this material is for educational purposes. Any reference to commercial products, trade or brand names is for information only, and no endorsement or approval is intended. All agrochemicals/pesticides listed are registered for suggested uses in accordance with federal and Connecticut state laws and regulations as of the date of printing. Read and follow all instructions and safety precautions on labels. The user of this information assumes all risks for personal injury or prop- erty damage. The Connecticut Cooperative Extension System offers its programs to persons regardless of race, color, national origin, sex, age or disability and is an equal opportunity employer.
"Brown Ring Patch - BRS Update"