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Manmohan Singh

Manmohan Singh
Manmohan Singh ?????? ???? Born 26 September 1932 (1932-09-26) Gah, Punjab, British India now Pakistan Indian National Congress Gursharan Kaur Upinder Singh, Daman Singh, Amrit Singh 7 Racecourse Road, New Delhi Panjab University, Chandigarh, St John’s College, Cambridge, Cambridge University, Nuffield College, Oxford University Economist Sikhism

Political party Spouse Children Prime Minister of India Incumbent Assumed office 22 May 2004 President Preceded by Abdul Kalam Pratibha Patil Atal Bihari Vajpayee Profession Religion Alma mater Residence

External Affairs Minister of India In office 6 November 2005 – 24 October 2006 Preceded by Succeeded by K. Natwar Singh Pranab Mukherjee

Finance Minister of India In office 30 November 2008 – 24 January 2009 Preceded by Succeeded by P. Chidambaram Pranab Mukherjee

In office 21 June 1991 – 16 May 1996 Prime Minister Preceded by Succeeded by P. V. Narasimha Rao Madhu Dandavate Jaswant Singh

Governor of the Reserve Bank of India In office 1982 – 1985 Preceded by Succeeded by I.G. Patel Amitav Ghosh

Member of the Rajya Sabha for Assam Incumbent Assumed office 1995

Manmohan Singh (Hindi: ?????? ????, born 26 September 1932) is the 17th and current Prime Minister of the Republic of India. He is the first person of Sikh faith to hold the office. An economist by profession, Singh was the Governor of the Reserve Bank of India from 1982 to 1985, the Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission of India from 1985 to 1987 and the Finance Minister of India from 1991 to 1996. Singh is a graduate of the Panjab University, the University of Cambridge and the University of Oxford. After serving as the Governor of the Reserve Bank of India and the Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission of India, Singh was appointed as the Union Minister of Finance in 1991 by thenPrime Minister Narasimha Rao. During his tenure as the Finance Minister, Singh was widely credited for initiating economic reforms in India in 1991 which resulted in the end of the infamous Licence Raj system.[1] Following the 2004 general elections, Singh was unexpectedly declared as the Prime Ministerial candidate of the Indian National Congress–led United Progressive Alliance. He was sworn in as the prime minister on May 22, 2004. During its five year term,

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Singh’s administration largely focused on reducing government fiscal deficit, providing debt relief to poor farmers and advancing pro-industry economic and tax policies. Singh is set to be reappointed for a second term after the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance won the 2009 general elections, making him the first Indian Prime Minister since Jawaharlal Nehru to return to power after completing a full five-year term.

Manmohan Singh
appointed the Governor of the Reserve Bank of India and held the post until 1985. He went on to become the deputy chairman of the Planning Commission of India from 1985 to 1987.

Finance Minister of India
In 1991, India’s then-Prime Minister, P.V. Narasimha Rao, chose Singh to be the Finance Minister. At the time, India was facing an economic crisis. Rao and Singh decided to open up the economy and change the socialist economic system to a capitalist economy. The economic reform package included dismantling License Raj that made it difficult for private businesses to exist and prosper, removal of many obstacles for Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and initiating the process of the privatization of public sector companies. These economic reforms are credited with bringing high levels of economic growth in India, and changing the annual 3%, to an average of 8–9% economic growth in the following years. However, in spite of these reforms, Rao’s government was voted out in 1996 due to non-performance of government in other areas.

Childhood and education
Manmohan Singh was born on 26 September 1932, in Gah, Punjab, (now in Chakwal District, Pakistan) into a Sikh Kukhran Khatri family. After the Partition of India, he migrated to Amritsar. He went to Punjab University to study Economics and attained his bachelor’s and master’s degree in 1952 and 1954 respectively, standing first throughout his academic career. He went on to read for the Economics Tripos at Cambridge University as a member of St John’s College. (In the Oxbridge tradition, holders of the BA degree with honours are entitled in due course to an MA degree.) He won the Wright’s Prize for distinguished performance in 1955 and 1957. He was also one of the few recipients of the Wrenbury scholarship. In 1962, Singh completed his D.Phil from the University of Oxford where he was a member of Nuffield College. The title of his doctoral thesis was "India’s export performance, 1951-1960, export prospects and policy implications", and his thesis supervisor was Dr I M D Little. From this thesis he published the book "India’s Export Trends and Prospects for Self-Sustained Growth".[2] In 1997, the University of Alberta presented him with an Honorary Doctor of Laws. The University of Oxford awarded him an honorary Doctor of Civil Law degree in June 2005, and in October 2006, the University of Cambridge followed with the same honour. St John’s College further honored him by naming a PhD Scholarship after him, the Dr Manmohan Singh Scholarship.

Career in the Rajya Sabha
Singh was first elected to the upper house of Parliament, the Rajya Sabha, in 1995 and was re-elected in 2001 and 2007. From 1998 to 2004, while the Bharatiya Janata Party was in power, Singh was the Leader of the Opposition in the Rajya Sabha. In 1999, he ran for the Lok Sabha from South Delhi but was unable to win the seat.

Prime ministership
After the 2004 general elections, the Indian National Congress stunned the incumbent National Democratic Alliance (NDA) by becoming the political party with the single largest number of seats in the Lok Sabha. In a surprise move, United Progressive Alliance (UPA) Chairperson Sonia Gandhi declared Manmohan Singh, a technocrat, as the UPA candidate for the Prime Minister post. Despite the fact that Singh had never won a Lok Sabha seat, his considerable goodwill and Sonia Gandhi’s nomination won him the support of the UPA allies and the Left Front. During his tenure, Singh’s administration has focused on reducing the fiscal deficit,

Early career
After completing his D.Phil, Dr. Singh worked for UNCTAD (1966–1969). During the 1970s, he taught at the University of Delhi and worked for the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Finance Ministry of India. In 1982, he was

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providing debt relief to poor farmers, extending social programs and advancing the proindustry economic and tax policies that have launched the country on a major economic expansion course since 2002. However, his government has been criticized for not carrying forward the momentum in economic reforms.
Public Enterprises Home Affairs

Manmohan Singh

Shivraj Patil P. Chidambaram

2004–Dec 2008 Dec 2008–Present –

Foreign policy
The Manmohan Singh (14th Lok Sabha) Cabinet Prime Minister Deputy Prime Minister Ministry of Agriculture Chemicals and Fertilizers Coal Commerce and Industry Communications and Information Technology Corporate Affairs Culture Defence Development of North Eastern Region Earth Sciences Environment and Forests External Affairs Finance Manmohan Singh
vacant

Human Resource Development Information and Broadcasting Law and Justice Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises

Arjun Singh

Manmohan Singh Hansraj Bhardwaj Mahavir Prasad Sis Ram Ola A. R. Antulay Vayalar Ravi Mani Shankar Aiyar Vayalar Ravi Manmohan Singh

– – –

2004–present

Name Sharad Pawar Ram Vilas Paswan Manmohan Singh Kamal Nath A. Raja

Term 2004–present – – – –

Mines Minority Affairs Overseas Indian Affairs Panchayati Raj

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Parliamentary Affairs Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions Petroleum and Natural Gas Power Railways Rural Development Science and Technology Shipping, Road Transport and Highways Social Justice and Empowerment Steel Textiles Tourism

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Prem Chand Gupta Ambika Soni A. K. Antony Mani Shankar Aiyar Kapil Sibal Manmohan Singh Pranab Mukherjee Manmohan Singh Pranab Mukherjee

– – – –

Murli Deora Sushilkumar Shinde Lalu Prasad Yadav Raghuvansh Prasad Singh Kapil Sibal T. R. Baalu

– – – – – –

– – – – 24 January 2009– – –

Meira Kumar

–

Health and Family Welfare Heavy Industries and

Dr. Anbumani Ramadoss Sontosh Mohan Dev

Ram Vilas Paswan Shankersinh Vaghela Ambika Soni

– – –

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Tribal Affairs Urban Development Water Resources P. R. Kyndiah S. Jaipal Reddy Saif-ud-din Soz – – –

Manmohan Singh
to Afghanistan for the development of more schools, health clinics, infrastructure, and defense.

A renowned economist,[3] Singh is also regarded as one of the "greatest statesmen in Asian history".[4] Shown here are BRIC leaders in 2008 – Manmohan Singh, Dmitry Medvedev, Hu Jintao and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva Manmohan Singh and the External Affairs ministry have continued the pragmatic foreign policy that was started by P.V. Narasimha Rao and was continued by BJP’s Atal Bihari Vajpayee. The Prime Minister has continued the peace process with Pakistan initiated by his predecessor, Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Exchange of high-level visits by top leaders from both countries have highlighted his tenure, as has reduced terrorism and increased prosperity in the state of Kashmir. Efforts have been made during Singh’s tenure to end the border dispute with People’s Republic of China. In November 2006, Chinese President Hu Jintao visited India which was followed by Singh’s visit to Beijing in January 2008. A major development in Sino-Indian ties was the reopening of the Nathula Pass in 2006 after being closed for more than four decades. In 2007, the People’s Republic of China became the biggest trade partner of India, with bilateral trade expected to surpass US$60 billion by 2010. However, there is a growing trade imbalance. Relations with Afghanistan have also improved considerably, with India now becoming the largest regional donor to Afghanistan.[5] During Afghan President Hamid Karzai’s visit to New Delhi in August 2008, Manmohan Singh increased the aid package

Prime Minister Manmohan Singh shakes hands with U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney after delivering a speech to the Joint session of the United States Congress. Singh’s government has worked towards stronger ties with the United States. He visited the United States in July 2005 initiating negotiations over the Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement. This was followed by George W. Bush’s successful visit to India in March 2006, during which the declaration over the nuclear agreement was made, giving India access to American nuclear fuel and technology while India will have to allow IAEA inspection of its civil nuclear reactors. After more than two years for more negotiations, followed by approval from the IAEA, Nuclear Suppliers Group and the US Congress, India and the U.S. signed the agreement on 10 October 2008.[6] During Singh’s tenure as Prime Minister, relations have improved with Japan and European Union countries, like the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. Relations with Iran have continued and negotiations over the Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline have taken place. New Delhi hosted an India–Africa Summit in April 2006 which was attended by the leaders of 15 African states.[7] Relations, have improved with other developing countries, particularly Brazil and South Africa. Singh carried forward the momentum which was established after the "Brasilia Declaration" in 2003 and the IBSA Dialogue Forum was formed.[8] Manmohan Singh’s government has also been especially keen on expanding ties with Israel. Since 2003, the two countries have made significant investments in each other[9]

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and Israel now rivals Russia to become India’s defense partner.[10] Though there have been a few diplomatic glitches between India and Russia, especially over the delay and price hike of several Russian weapons to be delivered to India,[11] relations between the two remain strong with India and Russia signing various agreements to increase defense, nuclear energy and space cooperation.[12]

Manmohan Singh

Economic policy
Dr. Singh, along with the former Finance Minister, P. Chidambaram, have presided over a period where the Indian economy has grown with an 8–9% economic growth rate. Singh has focused on reducing the budget deficit. In June 2007, India became a trillion dollar economy. In 2007, India achieved its highest GDP growth rate of 9% and became the second fastest growing major economy in the world.[13][14] As prime minister, Dr. Singh has continued the economic reforms, that he, and P.V. Narasimha Rao, started in 1991. Singh’s government has continued the Golden Quadrilateral and the highway modernization program that was initiated by Mr. Vajpayee’s government. Singh has also been working on reforming the banking and financial sectors and has been working towards reforming public sector companies. The Finance ministry has been working towards relieving farmers of their debt and has been working towards pro-industry policies. During his tenure, the fiscal deficit has been reduced from 4.5% to 3.1%. In 2005, Singh’s government introduced the VAT tax that replaced the complicated sales tax. In 2007 and early 2008, inflation became a big problem globally[15]. Dr. Singh’s government worked in concert with the Reserve Bank of India. It reached double-digits during June–November 2008 before returning to single digits in November 2008. Manmohan Singh with Indian delegation at the 33rd G8 summit in Heiligendamm. government has also continued the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan programme, begun by his predecessor, Mr. Vajpayee. The programme has included the introduction and improvement of mid-day meals and the opening of schools all over India, especially in rural areas, to fight illiteracy. The ancient Nalanda University shall be restarted in Bihar.

Security and home affairs
Dr. Singh’s government has been criticised by opposition parties for revoking POTA and for the many bomb blasts in various cities, like in Mumbai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Delhi, Jaipur, etc. and for not being able to reduce the Naxal terrorism that is menacing rural areas in Eastern and Central India. Singh’s government has, however, extended the ban on the radical Islamic terror group Student’s Islamic Movement of India (SIMI). Terrorism in Kashmir has, however, reduced significantly during the Singh administration.

Legislation
The important NREGA act and the RTI act were passed by the Parliament in 2005 during his tenure. While the effectiveness of the NREGA has been successful at various degrees, in various regions, the RTI act has proved crucial in India’s fight against corruption.

Healthcare and education
In 2005, Prime Minister Singh and his government’s health ministry started the National Rural Health Mission, which has mobilized half a million community health workers. Dr. Singh has announced that eight more Indian Institutes of Technology will be opened in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Orissa, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh. The Singh

Criticism
Some opposition parties have criticized Singh’s election as a Rajya Sabha member from Assam, arguing that he was not eligible

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Manmohan Singh
by the opposition leader Lal Krishna Advani to conduct live TV debate.[20]

Personal life
Singh married Gursharan Kaur in 1958 and they have three daughters.[21] His eldest daughter, Upinder Singh is a professor of history at St. Stephen’s College and author of six books including, Ancient Delhi (1999) and A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India (2008).[22] His second daughter, Daman Singh, is a graduate of St. Stephen’s College, New Delhi and Institute of Rural Management, Anand, Gujarat, and author of The Last Frontier: People and Forests in Mizoram and a novel Nine by Nine.[23] Singh’s youngest daughter Amrit Singh is a staff attorney at American Civil Liberties Union[24] and is married to Barton Beebe, an Associate Professor of Law who specializes in intellectual property law. Singh has a history of heart ailment and underwent coronary bypass surgery in 1990 and angioplasty in 2004. Singh also underwent a second bypass surgery at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) on 24 January 2009, in which doctors replaced three older grafts. A team of doctors led by surgeon Ramakant Panda and assisted by AIIMS doctors successfully performed a redo (repeat) bypass.[25] Singh resumed his duties on 4 March 2009.

Manmohan Singh received strong criticism from India’s Communist Parties for his role in the implementation of the Indo-US civilian nuclear agreement. Shown here are Manmohan Singh and 43rd President of the United States George W. Bush exchanging handshakes in New Delhi in 2006. to become a Member of Parliament from a state where he does not reside. Manmohan Singh has been criticized by the Leader of Opposition and prominent member of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), Lal Krishna Advani, for being the "weakest Prime Minister until now".[16] Opposition parties in India, particularly the BJP, allege that Sonia Gandhi, the current Chairperson of the United Progressive Alliance, enjoys greater say in government affairs than the Prime Minister. Manmohan Singh and government officials have strongly rebuked the charge.[17][18] On 22 July 2008 the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) faced its first confidence vote in the Lok Sabha after the Communist Party of India (Marxist) led Left Front withdrew support from the government over India approaching the IAEA for Indo-US nuclear deal. The President had asked Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to prove the majority. The UPA won the trust vote with 275–256, after two days of debate and deliberations. The vote was delayed by one hour due to allegations from the opposition BJP party that certain coalition allies of the government had bribed certain opposition parliamentarians to abstain from the confidence vote. See also: 2008 Lok Sabha vote of confidence and Notes-for-Vote scandal In his five years as PM he only addressed one formal press conference and never takes journalists with him when he travels across the country.[19] He has also avoided the offer

Degrees and posts held
• First Class Honours degree in Economics, University of Cambridge, St John’s College, Cambridge (1957) • BA (Hons) in Economics 1952; MA First Class in Economics, 1954 Panjab University, Chandigarh, India • Senior Lecturer, Economics (1957–1959) • Professor of International Trade (1969–1971) • Reader (1959–1963) • Professor (1963–1965) • D. Phil in Economics, Nuffield College at University of Oxford, (1962) • Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi • Honorary Professor (1996) • Chief, Financing for Trade Section, UNCTAD, United Nations Secretariat, New York

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• 1966 : Economic Affairs Officer 1966 • Economic Advisor, Ministry of Foreign Trade, India (1971–1972) • Chief Economic Advisor, Ministry of Finance, India, (1972–1976) • Honorary Professor, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi (1976) • Director, Reserve Bank of India (1976–1980) • Director, Industrial Development Bank of India (1976–1980) • Secretary, Ministry of Finance (Department of Economic Affairs), Government of India, (1977–1980) • Governor, Reserve Bank of India (1982–1985) • Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission of India, (1985–1987) • Advisor to Prime Minister of India on Economic Affairs (1990–1991) • Finance Minister of India, (21 June 1991 – 15 May 1996) • Leader of the Opposition in the Rajya Sabha (1998–2004) • Prime Minister of India (22 May 2004 – 22 May 2009) • Prime Minister of India (23 May 2009 – Present)

Manmohan Singh

[5] Bajoria, Jayshree (2008-10-23). "IndiaAfghanistan Relations". Council on Foreign Relations. http://www.cfr.org/ publication/17474/ indiaafghanistan_relations.html. Retrieved on 11 December 2008. [6] "U.S., India ink historic civilian nuclear deal". People’s Daily. 2008-10-11. http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/ 90777/90852/6513319.html. Retrieved on 11 December 2008. [7] "Several African leaders to attend AfricaIndia summit, AU says". African Press International. 2008-03-28. http://africanpress.wordpress.com/2008/ 03/28/several-african-leaders-to-attendafrica-india-summit-au-says/. Retrieved on 11 December 2008. [8] Beri, Ruchita (2008-12-10). "IBSA Dialogue Forum: A Strategic Partnership". The African Executive. http://www.africanexecutive.com/ modules/magazine/ articles.php?article=3708. Retrieved on 11 December 2008. [9] Halarnkar, Samar (2007-10-23). "India and Israel: The great seduction". Hindustan Times. http://www.hindustantimes.com/ StoryPage/ StoryPage.aspx?id=ea163747-b106-4e32-b231-7eb64 • Gursharan Kaur, his wife Retrieved on 11 December 2008. • Amrit Singh, his youngest daughter, a [10] Waldman, Amy (2003-09-07). "The Bond staff attorney at the ACLU Between India and Israel Grows". New • Upinder Singh, daughter York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/ • Dr Manmohan Singh Scholarship gst/ • Economic reforms under Dr Manmohan fullpage.html?res=9B0DE3DD163BF934A3575AC0A Singh Retrieved on 11 December 2008. [11] Dikshit, Sandeep (2008-04-17). "Centre admits to problems in naval deals". The Hindu. http://www.hindu.com/2008/04/ [1] Biswas, Soutik (2005-10-14). "India’s 17/stories/2008041761781200.htm. architect of reforms". BBC News. Retrieved on 11 December 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/ [12] Roychowdhury, Amitabh (2006-12-06). south_asia/3725357.stm. Retrieved on 11 "India, Russia sign agreements to further December 2008. strengthen ties". Outlook. [2] "Curriculum Vitae" (PDF). Prime http://www.outlookindia.com/ Minister’s Office. http://pmindia.nic.in/ pti_news.asp?id=339943. Retrieved on cv.pdf. Retrieved on 11 December 2008. 11 December 2008. [3] Watson, Paul (2004-05-24). "Economist [13] https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/ chosen to become next prime minister of the-world-factbook/geos/in.html#Econ India". The Seattle Times. [14] "The India Report". Astaire Research. http://community.seattletimes.nwsource.com/ http://www.ukibc.com/ukindia2/files/ archive/?date=20040520&slug=india20. India60.pdf. Retrieved on 11 December 2008. [15] http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/02/12/ [4] Strengthen Team India - The Australian business/inflate.php

See also

References

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Rajya Sabha Preceded by ’ Political offices Preceded by I. G. Patel Preceded by Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao Preceded by Yashwant Sinha Preceded by Atal Bihari Vajpayee Preceded by Atal Bihari Vajpayee Preceded by Natwar Singh Preceded by P. Chidambaram Member for Assam 1991 – present

Manmohan Singh

Incumbent

Governor of the Reserve Bank of Succeeded by Amitav Ghosh India 1982–1985 Deputy Chairperson of the Planning Commission of India 1985–1987 Finance Minister of India 1991–1996 Prime Minister of India 2004 – present Chairperson of the Planning Commission of India 2004 – present Minister for External Affairs of India 2005–2006 Finance Minister of India Dec 2008 – Jan 2009 Succeeded by Punjala Shiv Shankar Succeeded by Jaswant Singh Incumbent Incumbent

Succeeded by Pranab Mukherjee Succeeded by Pranab Mukherjee

[16] "Manmohan Singh India’s weakest prime minister: Advani". Rediff. 2007-10-13. http://in.rediff.com/news/2007/oct/ 13ndeal1.htm. Retrieved on 11 December 2008. [17] "Manmohan to Advani: Change your astrologers, stop abuse against me". Thaindian News. 2008-07-22. http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/ south-asia/manmohan-to-advani-changeyour-astrologers-stop-abuse-againstme_10074778.html. Retrieved on 2008-07-23. [18] "Manmohan takes on Advani: Babri destruction his only contribution". Southasia Times. 2009-03-25. http://www.southasiatimes.com.au/news/ ?p=935. Retrieved on 2009-03-28. [19] India Today – Manmohan is media shy [20] "Medium is the Message" India Today [21] "Dr. Manmohan Singh: Personal Profile". Prime Minister’s Office, Government of India. http://www.pmindia.nic.in/ meet.htm. Retrieved on 2009-04-04. [22] Raote, Rrishi (2008-10-10). "This Singh is King of History". Business Standard. http://www.business-standard.com/india/ storypage.php?autono=330920&chkFlg=. Retrieved on 2009-04-04.

[23] "Meet Dr. Singh’s daughter". Rediff.com. 2009-01-28. http://specials.rediff.com/ news/2009/jan/28slid1-dr-manmohansinghs-daughter-daman-singh-turnsauthor.htm. Retrieved on 2009-04-04. [24] Rajghatta, Chidanand (2007-12-21). "PM’s daughter puts White House in the dock". Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/ articleshow/ msid-2639327,prtpage-1.cms. Retrieved on 2008-10-13. [25] "One graft successfully performed on Manmohan Singh". The Hindu. 2009-01-24. http://www.hindu.com/ thehindu/holnus/000200901241640.htm. Retrieved on 2009-01-24.

External links
Government of India links • Prime Minister’s Office Official page includes Profile and Curriculum Vitae • Prime Minister’s profile at the Government of India website • List of current Union Ministers, includes the portfolios held by the Prime Minister.

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Manmohan Singh

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manmohan_Singh" Categories: 1932 births, Alumni of Nuffield College, Oxford, Alumni of St John's College, Cambridge, Current national leaders, Fellows of St John's College, Cambridge, Fellows of Nuffield College, Oxford, Finance Ministers of India, Governors of the Reserve Bank of India, Indian bankers, Indian civil servants, Indian economists, Indian National Congress, Indian Sikhs, Living people, Members of the Cabinet of India, Ministers for External Affairs of India, Outstanding Parliamentarian Award recipients, People from Assam, People from Chandigarh, Prime Ministers of India, Punjabi politicians, Rajya Sabha Members This page was last modified on 21 May 2009, at 23:59 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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