Introduction to Biological Psychology by pengxuebo

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									Psychological Science
  Michael Gazzaniga and Todd Heatherton




        Chapter Four:
 The Brain and Consciousness
Overview of Chapter Questions:

  What Are the Basic Brain Structures and
  Their Functions?

   How Does the Brain Change?

   How Is the Brain Divided?

   Can We Study Consciousness?

   What Is Sleep?
What Are the Basic Brain Structures
      and Their Functions?
   The Spinal Cord Is Capable of Autonomous
    Function.
   The Brainstem Houses the Basic
     Programs of Survival.
   The Cerebellum Is Essential for Movement.
   Subcortical Structures Control Basic
    Drives and Emotions.
   The Cerebral Cortex Underlies Complex
     Mental Activity.
The Spinal Cord Is Capable of
Autonomous Function

   Grey Matter

   White Matter

   Spinal Reflexes

       Example: The Stretch Reflex
The Brainstem Houses the Basic
  Programs of Survival
   A complement of survival reflexes:

       Gagging, breathing, swallowing, etc.


   Brainstem uses spinal reflexes to produce
    useful behavior:

   The reticular formation and sleep
The Cerebellum Is Essential for
Movement

   Cerebellum = “little brain”

   Role in motor learning

   Beyond motoric training:
       Multiple cognitive processes
       Empathy
Subcortical Structures Control
Basic Drives and Emotions
   The limbic system separates the “older” and
    “newer” parts of the brain.

       Hypothalamus

       Thalamus

       Hippocampus and Amygdala

       Basal Ganglia
The Cerebral Cortex Underlies
Complex Mental Activity
   Frontal Lobe

   Parietal Lobe

   Temporal Lobe

   Occipital Lobe
How Does the Brain Change?

   The Interplay of Genes and the Environment
    Wires the Brain.

   The Brain Rewires Itself throughout Life.

   The Brain Can Recover from Injury.
The Interplay of Genes and the
Environment Wires the Brain

   The Importance of plasticity

   Chemical signals guide growing connections.

   Experience fine-tunes neural connections.

       Plasticity has “critical periods.”
        The Brain Rewires Itself
            throughout Life
   Change in the strength of connections
    underlies learning

       Hebbian learning: “fire together, wire together”


   Changes in use distort cortical maps
The Brain Can Recover from Injury


   Remapping after injury reflects plasticity

   The promise of transplanting stem cells
      How Is the Brain Divided?

   The Hemispheres Can Be Separated.

   The Separate Hemispheres Can Be Tested.

   The Hemispheres Are Specialized.

   The Mind Is a Subjective Interpreter.
Can We Study Consciousness?

   Definitions of Consciousness Allow
    Its Empirical Study

   Unconscious Processing Influences
    Awareness

   Awareness Has Many Seats in the Brain
Definitions of Consciousness
Allow Its Empirical Study

   Subjectivity and “qualia”

   Access to Information
Unconscious Processing
Influences Awareness
   The case for unconscious influence:

       Priming effects

       The “Freudian Slip”


   The Illusion of conscious will
        Awareness Has Many
         Seats in the Brain
   “Blindsight”

   Neuronal Workspace
What Is Sleep?

   Sleep Is an Altered State of
    Consciousness.

   Sleep Is an Adaptive Behavior.

   Sleep and Wakefulness Are Regulated by
    Multiple Neural Mechanisms.

   People Dream while Sleeping.
Sleep Is an Altered State
of Consciousness
   Stages of sleep

   REM sleep
Sleep Is an Adaptive Behavior
   Restoration and Sleep Deprivation:
       Microsleeps


   Circadian Rhythms

   Facilitation of Learning
Sleep and Wakefulness Are
Regulated by Multiple Neural
Mechanisms
   Brainstem and arousal

   REM Sleep
People Dream while Sleeping

   What do dreams mean?

   Activation-synthesis hypothesis

   Evolved threat-rehearsal strategies
          Student Website:
           Study Smarter
   www.wwnorton.com/psychsci
   Diagnostic Quizzes
   Chapter Reviews
   Vocabulary Flashcards
   Studying the Mind videos
   Animations and Activities
Concept Quiz
1.Franz decided to go on some of the rides at a
  fair. Unfortunately, a piece of the carousel
  broke and punctured his skull in Broca's area.
  We know that when he recovers, he is going
  to have difficulty with the:
     a.   production of language
     b.   understanding of language
     c.   hearing of language
     d.   control of his emotions
Concept Quiz
2.Roger is suffering from severe epilepsy. To
  control it, he opts to have this brain area
  severed thus separating the two hemispheres
  of the brain.
     a.     corpus callosum
     b.     frontal lobe
     c.     hypothalamus
     d.     amygdala
Concept Quiz
3.Mike, a split-brain patient, is shown a key in
  his left visual field and a ring in his right visual
  field. He is asked what he sees. Which of
  the following is most likely his answer?
     a.     nothing
     b.     a key
     c.     a ring
     d.     a key ring
Concept Quiz
4. Larry has lost his vision following a couple of
   strokes. However, when he takes he kids to the
   mall he amazes them by guessing fairly accurately
   the expressions of people without actually seeing
   them. This phenomenon of visual processing
   without visual awareness is known as:
      a.     qualia
      b.     subliminal perception
      c.     blindsight
      d.     unconscious awareness
Concept Quiz
5. For revenge, Joe wants to put shaving
  cream on his roommates face and write
  "STUPID" on his forehead. Which sleep
  stage should he pick for his roommate to be
  least likely to detect this?
    a.     Stage 1
    b.     Stage 2
    c.     REM
    d.     Stage 4
Concept Quiz
6. Nancy has been depressed throughout the winter.
   She tries something new and cuts her sleep in half
   for a week. Amazingly, this helps lift her spirits.
   This effect likely works because sleep deprivation
   leads to increased activation of __________
   receptors.
       a.    acetylcholine
       b.    dopamine
       c.    serotonin
       d.    GABA

								
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