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Pittsburgh

Pittsburgh
This article is about the city in Pennsylvania. For the region, see Pittsburgh metropolitan area. For other uses, see Pittsburgh (disambiguation).
City of Pittsburgh Government - Mayor Area - City - Land - Water - Metro Elevation Luke Ravenstahl (D) 58.3 sq mi (151.1 km2) 55.5 sq mi (143.9 km2) 2.8 sq mi (7.1 km2) 5,343 sq mi (13,839 km2) 1,223 ft (372.77 m)

Population (U.S. Census Estimate, 2006) 312,819 - City 5,636/sq mi (2,174/km2) - Density 2,462,571 - Metro
[1][2]

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Time zone - Summer (DST) Area code(s) FIPS code GNIS feature ID
Coat of arms

EST (UTC-5) EDT (UTC-4) 412, 724, 878 42-61000[3] 1213644[4] www.city.pittsburgh.pa.us

Website

Nickname(s): City of Bridges, Steel City, The ’Burgh, Iron City, The Smokey City, Steel Town, The College City, The City of Champions, Roboburgh, Blitzburgh Motto: Benigno Numine ("With the Benevolent Deity" also translated as "By the favor of heaven")

Location in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania

Coordinates: 40°26′30″N 80°00′00″W / 40.44167°N 80°W / 40.44167; -80 Country Commonwealth County Founded Incorporated Allegheny November 25, 1758 April 22, 1794 (borough) March 18, 1816 (city) United States Pennsylvania

Pittsburgh (pronounced /ˈpɪtsbərɡ/, originally /ˈpɪtsb(ə)rə/) is the county seat of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, United States, and the second largest city in the state. Its population was 334,563 at the 2000 census; by 2006, it was estimated to have fallen to 312,819.[5] The population of the sevencounty metropolitan area is 2,462,571.[6] The city’s Downtown retains substantial economic influence, ranking at 25th in the nation for jobs within the urban core (and is 6th in job density).[7] The characteristic shape of downtown is a triangular tract carved by the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers, where the Ohio River forms. The skyline features 151 high-rise buildings,[8] 446 bridges,[9] two inclined railways, and a prerevolutionary fortification. Pittsburgh is known colloquially as "The City of Bridges" and "The Steel City" for its many bridges and former steel manufacturing base. While the city is historically known for its steel industry, today it is largely based on healthcare, education, technology, robotics, and financial services. The city has made great strides in redeveloping abandoned industrial sites with new housing, shopping and

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offices, such as the SouthSide Works. While Pittsburgh faced economic troubles in the mid 1970s as the steel industry waned, modern Pittsburgh is economically strong. The housing market is relatively stable despite a national subprime mortgage crisis, and Pittsburgh added jobs in 2008 even as the national economy entered a significant jobs recession.[10] This positive economic news is in contrast to the late 1970s, when Pittsburgh lost its manufacturing base as those jobs moved offshore. In 2007, Forbes magazine named Pittsburgh the 10th cleanest city,[11] and in 2008 Forbes listed Pittsburgh as the 13th best city for young professionals to live.[12] The city is consistently ranked high in livability surveys. In 2007, Pittsburgh was named "America’s Most Livable City" by Places Rated Almanac.[13]

Pittsburgh

The Fort Pitt Blockhouse, dating to 1764, is the oldest extant structure in the city of Pittsburgh. The area surrounding the headwaters of the Ohio was inhabited by the tribes of Allegawis, Adena, Hopewell, Delaware, Jacobi, Seneca, Shawnee, and several settled groups of Iroquois. The first European was the French discoverer/trader Sieur de La Salle in his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River from Lake Ontario and Quebec.[17] This discovery was followed by European pioneers, primarily French, in the early 1700s and 1710s. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a manuscript in 1717, and later that year European traders established posts and settlements in the area.[18] In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched a serious expedition to the forks in hopes of uniting French Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers.[18] Governor Dinwiddie of Virginia sent Major George Washington to warn the French to withdraw. During 1753–1754, the British hastily built Fort Prince George, but a larger French expedition forced them to evacuate and constructed Fort Duquesne on the site. With the French citing the 1669 discovery by LaSalle, these events led to the French and Indian War. British General Edward Braddock’s campaign (with Washington as his aide) to take Fort Duquesne failed, but General John Forbes’s subsequent campaign succeeded. After the French abandoned and destroyed Fort Duquesne in 1758, Forbes ordered the construction of Fort Pitt, named after British Secretary of State William Pitt the Elder. He also named the settlement between the rivers "Pittsborough".[19] During Pontiac’s Rebellion, Ohio Valley and Great Lakes tribes besieged Fort Pitt for

Etymology
Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes in honor of the British statesman, Sir William Pitt. Given that Forbes was a Scotsman, it is possible that the intended pronunciation of the settlement was "Pittsbura", similar to the pronunciation of Edinburgh. It was incorporated as a borough in 1794 and chartered as a city in 1816.[14] Pittsburgh was officially named with its present spelling on April 22, 1794, by an act of the Pennsylvania Department, stating, "Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, in General Assembly met, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be, and the same is hereby, erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."[15] Pittsburgh is one of the few American cities to be spelled with an h at the end of a burg suffix. This style is commonly used for many other cities and towns of Western Pennsylvania.[16] While briefly referred to as "Pittsburg" during the late 19th century, the Pittsburgh spelling was officially restored in 1911 after a public campaign by the citizens of the city.[15]

History
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two months. The siege was ended after Colonel Bouquet defeated the native forces in the Battle of Bushy Run just to the east of the forks. In the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix, the descendants of William Penn purchased from the Six Nations western lands that included most of the present site of Pittsburgh. In 1769, a survey was made of the land situated between the two rivers, called the "Manor of Pittsburgh".[20] Both Virginia and Pennsylvania claimed the Pittsburgh area during colonial times and would continue to do so until 1780 when both states agreed to extend the Mason-Dixon Line westward, placing Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania. Following the American Revolution, the village of Pittsburgh continued to grow. One of its earliest industries was building boats for settlers to enter the Ohio Country. In 1784, the laying out of the "Town of Pittsburgh" was completed by Thos. Viceroy of Bedford County and approved by the attorney of the Penns in Philadelphia. The year 1794 saw the short-lived Whiskey Rebellion. The Act of March 5, 1804, which modified the provision of the old charter of the Borough of Pittsburgh in 1794 (the original of which is not known to exist), refers throughout to the "Borough of Pittsburgh".[20]

Pittsburgh
Mountains. A great fire burned over a thousand buildings in 1845, but the city rebuilt. By 1857, Pittsburgh’s 1,000 factories were consuming 22,000,000 bushels of coal yearly. The American Civil War boosted the city’s economy with increased production of iron and armaments. Steel production began by 1875, when Andrew Carnegie founded the J. Edgar Thomson Steel Works in North Braddock, which eventually evolved into the Carnegie Steel Company. The success and growth of Carnegie Steel was attributed to Henry Bessemer, inventor of the Bessemer Process. In 1901, the U.S. Steel Corporation was formed, and by 1911 Pittsburgh was the nation’s eighth largest city, producing between a third and a half of the nation’s steel. The city’s population swelled to over a half million, many of whom were immigrants from Europe who arrived via the great migration through Ellis Island. During World War II, Pittsburgh produced 95 million tons of steel.[19] By this time, the pollution from burning coal and steel production created a black fog (or smog), which even a century earlier had induced author writer James Parton to dub the city "hell with the lid off".[22] Following the war, the city launched a clean air and civic revitalization project known as the "Renaissance." This much-acclaimed effort was followed by the "Renaissance II" project, begun in 1977 and focusing more on cultural and neighborhood development than its predecessor. The industrial base continued to expand through the 1960s, but beginning in the 1970s and 1980s, the steel industry in the region imploded, with massive layoffs and mill closures. Beginning in the 1980s, the city shifted its economic base to education, tourism, and services, largely based on healthcare, medicine, and high technology such as robotics. During this transition, however, the city’s population shrank from 680,000 in 1950 to 330,000 in 2000.[23] On February 3, 2009, Mayor Luke Ravenstahl briefly renamed the city "Sixburgh" in honor of the Pittsburgh Steelers sixth Super Bowl championship.[24]

Monongahela River Scene, 1857[21] The War of 1812 cut off the supply of British goods, stimulating American manufacture. By 1815, Pittsburgh was producing significant quantities of iron, brass, tin and glass products. The Act of March 18, 1816 incorporated the City of Pittsburgh. The original charter was burned when the old Court House was destroyed by fire. In the 1830s, many Welsh people from the steelworks of Merthyr migrated to the city following the civil strife and aftermath of the Merthyr Riots of 1831. By the 1840s, Pittsburgh was one of the largest cities west of the Allegheny

Geography
Pittsburgh is located at 40°26′29″N 79°58′38″W / 40.44139°N 79.97722°W / 40.44139; -79.97722Coordinates: 40°26′29″N

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Pittsburgh
’paper streets’ composed entirely of stairs and many other steep streets with stairs for sidewalks.[26] Many provide views of the Pittsburgh area.[27] The city has established bike and walking trails along its riverfronts and hollows, but steep hills and variable weather can make biking challenging. However, the city will be connected to downtown Washington, D.C. (some 245 mi (394 km) away) by a continuous bike/running trail through the Alleghenies and along the Potomac Valley. Known as the Great Allegheny Passage and Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Towpath, the trail has been completed.

Downtown Pittsburgh and the Roberto Clemente Bridge from the North Shore 79°58′38″W / 40.44139°N 79.97722°W / 40.44139; -79.97722 (40.441419, -79.977292).[25] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 58.3 sq mi (151 km2), of which, 55.6 sq mi (144 km2) of it is land and 2.8 sq mi (7 km2) of it is water. The total area is 4.75% water. The city is on the Allegheny Plateau, where the confluence of the Allegheny River from the northeast and Monongahela River from the southeast form the Ohio River. The Downtown area between the rivers is known as the Golden Triangle, and the site at the actual convergence, which is occupied by Point State Park, is referred to simply as "the Point." In addition to the downtown Golden Triangle, the city extends northeast to include the Oakland and Shadyside sections, which are home to the University of Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon University, Carnegie Museum and Library, and many other educational, medical, and cultural institutions. Pittsburgh occupies the slopes of the river valley on the opposite side of the Monongahela and the ridges beyond. Many of the city’s neighborhoods, particularly the city’s North Side and those areas south of the Bungalow, are steeply sloped. This topography is often utilized for physical activity. The city has some 712 sets of stairs, comprising 44,645 treads and 24,090 vertical feet (more than San Francisco, Cincinnati, and Portland, Oregon combined) for pedestrians to traverse its many hills. With the drop of pedestrian traffic across much of the city, and the fact that many of these stairs are outside nuclear neighborhoods, many have fallen into disrepair, covered with vines and weeds. There are hundreds of

Climate
Pittsburgh has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) on the Koppen climate classification, because the average January temperature downtown just exceeds the 26.6°F (-3°C) threshold for inclusion in this category.[29] This climate zone is very broad and quite diverse, Pittsburgh features long, cold and snowy winters compared with cities such as Orlando, which only occasionally experiences even frost. Since Pittsburgh is at the northern extreme of the humid subtropical zone in the United States, its climate can be thought of as transitional between humid subtropical (Cfa) and humid continental (Dfa). The city’s climate features abundant precipitation throughout the year and four defined seasons. While there are wide variations in seasonal temperature common to temperate climates, winters are somewhat moderated by both proximity to the Atlantic Ocean and low mountains that to some degree block the advance of cold air from the north. However, Pittsburgh’s average winter temperatures are notably lower than that of Philadelphia. Overall, the city’s climate features cold winters with snow, and warm, humid summers with frequent clouds and precipitation. The warmest month of the year in Pittsburgh, as in most of the northern hemisphere, is July. The average high temperature is 83 °F (28 °C), with overnight low temperatures averaging 62 °F (17 °C). July is often humid, resulting in a considerable heat index. The coldest month of the year is January, when the average high temperature is 35 °F (2 °C). Overnight low temperatures average 20 °F (−7 °C). The moderating influence of Pittsburgh’s proximity to the Atlantic Ocean

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is evident in the fact that Chicago, which is less than 110 mi (177 km) north of Pittsburgh (and about 400 miles (640 km) west), experiences average January temperatures 5°F (4°C) colder on average. The highest temperature ever recorded in Pittsburgh was 103 °F (39 °C), on July 16, 1988, and the coldest temperature ever recorded was −22 °F (−30 °C), on January 19, 1994.[30] Due to its position on the windward side of the Allegheny Mountains, Pittsburgh receives heavy precipitation, and many days are subject to overcast skies. Precipitation is greatest in May, due to frequent thunderstorms and more organized low pressure systems which track up the eastern coast of the United States. On average, 4.04 in (103 mm) of precipitation falls during this month. The driest month of the year is February, when most precipitation falls in the form of low moisture content snow. However, Pittsburgh’s February precipitation, 2.47 in (63 mm), is relatively heavy compared to other cities located further inland, mainly because the city is east enough that it can be impacted by Nor’easters in some way, but usually lighter than in the central and eastern parts of the state.

Pittsburgh
The city can be broken down into the Downtown area, called the Golden Triangle,[31] and four main areas surrounding it. These four surrounding areas are further subdivided into distinct neighborhoods (in total, Pittsburgh contains 90 neighborhoods.[32]) These areas, relative to downtown, are known as the North Side, South Side/South Hills, East End, and West End. Downtown Pittsburgh is tight and compact, featuring many skyscrapers, 9 of which top 500 ft (152 m). U.S. Steel Tower is the tallest at 841 ft (256 m).[33] The Cultural District comprises a 14 block area of downtown along the Allegheny River. It is packed with theaters and arts venues, and is seeing a growing residential segment. Most significantly, the Pittsburgh Cultural Trust is embarking on Riverparc, a 4-block mixed-use "green" community, featuring 700 residential units and multiple towers between 20–30 stories. The Firstside portion of downtown borders the Monongahela River and the historic Mon Wharf. This area is home to the distinctive PPG Place Gothic glass skyscraper complex. This area too, is seeing a growing residential sector, as new condo towers are constructed and historic office towers are converted to residential use. Downtown is serviced by the Port Authority’s light rail and multiple bridges leading north and south.[34] It is also home to Point Park University, The Art Institute of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh Culinary Institute, a Robert Morris University branch campus and Duquesne University which is located on the border of Downtown and Uptown.

The city of Pittsburgh at dawn, as seen from Mt. Washington. The Monongahela River is in the foreground.

Cityscape
See also: List of Pittsburgh neighborhoods

Street in Shadyside, a neighborhood in the East End The North Side is home to various neighborhoods in transition. What is known today as Pittsburgh’s North Side was once known as

Pittsburgh is home to 90 distinct neighborhoods.

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Pittsburgh
has increased in value by about 10 percent annually for the past 10 years. The South Side’s East Carson Street is one of the most vibrant areas of the city, packed with diverse shopping, ethnic eateries, pulsing nightlife and live music venues. In 1993 the Urban Redevelopment Authority of Pittsburgh purchased the South Side Works steel mill property, and worked together with the community and various developers to create a master plan for a mixed-use development including a riverfront park, office space, housing, health-care facilities, and the Pittsburgh Steelers and Pitt Panthers indoor practice fields. Construction began in 1998, and the Southside Works is now open for business with many store, restaurants, offices, and the world headquarters for American Eagle Outfitters.[35] The East End is home to the University of Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon University, Carlow University, Chatham University, The Carnegie Institute’s Museums of Art and Natural History, Frick Art & Historical Center (Clayton and the Frick art museum), Phipps Conservatory, Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hall, and the Pittsburgh Zoo and PPG Aquarium. The neighborhoods of Shadyside and Squirrel Hill are large, wealthy neighborhoods featuring large shopping/business districts. Oakland, heavily populated by undergraduate and graduate students, is home to most of the universities, Schenley Park and the Petersen Events Center. Bloomfield is Pittsburgh’s Little Italy and is known for its Italian restaurants and grocers. Lawrenceville is a revitalizing rowhouse neighborhood popular with artists and designers. The Strip District is an open-air marketplace by day and a clubbing destination by night. The West End includes Mt. Washington, with its famous view of the Downtown skyline and numerous other residential neighborhoods like Sheraden and Elliott. Pittsburgh’s patchwork of neighborhoods still retain an ethnic character reflecting the city’s immigrant history. These include: • African American: Hill District and Homewood • Jewish: Squirrel Hill • Italian: Bloomfield, Morningside, Oakland and Beechview • German: Troy Hill, Mt. Washington, Larimer, and East Allegheny (Deutschtown)

Common rowhouse scene in Lawrenceville

Street in the Mexican War Streets neighborhood Allegheny City and operated as a city independently of Pittsburgh. Allegheny City merged with Pittsburgh under great protest from its citizens. The North Side is primarily composed of residential neighborhoods and is noteworthy for well-constructed and architecturally interesting homes. Many buildings date from the 19th century and are constructed of brick or stone and adorned with decorative woodwork, ceramic tile, slate roofs and stained glass. The North Side is also home to many popular attractions such as Heinz Field, PNC Park, Carnegie Science Center, National Aviary, Andy Warhol Museum, Mattress Factory installation art museum, Children’s Museum of Pittsburgh, Penn Brewery and Allegheny Observatory. The South Side was once an area composed primarily of dense inexpensive housing for mill workers, but has in recent years become a local Pittsburgher destination. In fact, South Side is one of the most popular neighborhoods in which to own a home in Pittsburgh. The value of homes in the South Side

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• Polish and other Eastern European: South Side, Lawrenceville, and Polish Hill Several neighborhoods on the edges of the city are less urban, featuring tree-lined streets, yards and garages giving a more characteristic suburban feel, while other aforementioned neighborhoods, such as Oakland, the South Side, the North Side, and the Golden Triangle are characterized by a more diverse, urban feel.

Pittsburgh
is approximately 22% German, and 16% Italian, and 12% Irish. Pittsburgh has one of the largest Italian communities in the nation,[36] and also has the nation’s fifth largest Ukrainian community.[37] There were 143,739 households out of which 21.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.2% were married couples living together, 16.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 48.4% were non-families. 39.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.95. In the city the population was spread out with 19.9% under the age of 18, 14.8% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 90.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,588, and the median income for a family was $38,795. Males had a median income of $32,128 versus $25,500 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,816. About 15.0% of families and 20.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.5% of those under the age of 18 and 13.5% ages 65 or older. In 2002, it was estimated that Pittsburgh ranked 22nd of 69 urban places in the U.S. in terms of number of residents 25 years or older who had completed a Bachelor’s degree, with 31% of such people having completed the degree.[38] The same study ranked Pittsburgh 15th of the 69 places in terms of number of residents 25 years or older who have completed a high school degree, with a figure of 84.7%.[39]

Demographics
Historical populations Census Pop. %± 4,768 — 1810 1820 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 7,248 12,568 21,115 46,601 49,221 86,076 156,389 238,617 321,616 533,905 588,343 669,817 671,659 676,806 604,332 520,117 423,938 369,879 52.0% 73.4% 68.0% 120.7% 5.6% 74.9% 81.7% 52.6% 34.8% 66.0% 10.2% 13.8% 0.3% 0.8% −10.7% −13.9% −18.5% −12.8%

334,563 −9.5% 2000 As of the census of 2000,[3] there were 334,563 people, 143,739 households, and 74,169 families residing in the city. The population density was 6,019.0 people per square mile (2,324.1/km²). There are 163,366 housing units at an average density of 2,939.1/mi² (1,134.9/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 67.63% White, 27.12% African American, 0.19% Native American, 2.75% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.66% from other races, and 1.61% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.32% of the population. The five largest ethnic groups in the city of Pittsburgh are German (19.7%), Irish (15.8%), Italian (11.8%), Polish (8.4%), and English (4.6%), while the metropolitan area

Crime
Despite the high poverty rate, Pittsburgh once had one of the lowest property crime rates and a lower-than-average violent crime rate among cities of similar size.[40] However, recent crime statistics show violent crime has risen, although most of the rising crime statistics reflect crimes committed by known assailants.[41] As of 2003, statistics indicate that the Pittsburgh murder rate is 2.61 times the national average, which is considered high for a city

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of its size. Overall, the "violent crime" rate for the city is about twice the national average, while the "property" or non-violent crime rate is about 1.11 times the national average.[42] (See 2009 Pittsburgh police shooting.)

Pittsburgh

Economy
The growth of Pittsburgh and its economy was caused by the extensive trade in steel. Pittsburgh has since adapted to the collapse of the region’s steel industry. The primary industries have shifted more to high technology, such as robotics, health care, nuclear engineering, tourism, biomedical technology, finance, and services. The total annual payroll of the region’s technology industries, when taken in aggregate, exceeds $10.8 billion.[43] Education is also a major employer, from primary through magnet schools, specialized professional institutes and highlyranked universities. In fact, Pittsburgh still maintains its status as a corporate headquarters city, with eight Fortune 500 companies calling the city home. This ranks Pittsburgh in a tie for the eighth-most Fortune 500 headquarters in the nation.[44] In 2006, Expansion Magazine ranked Pittsburgh among the top 10 metropolitan areas in the nation for climates favorable to business expansion.[45]

PPG Place • 448 Allegheny Technologies • 462 Mylan Laboratories • 497 CONSOL Energy Pittsburgh is also home to Bayer USA and the operations center of Alcoa. Other major employers include Bank of New York Mellon, GlaxoSmithKline and Lanxess. Pittsburgh and the neighboring townships serve as the Northeast U.S. regional headquarters for Nova Chemicals, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu, FedEx Ground, Ariba, Rand, and National City. Guru.com, 84 Lumber, Giant Eagle, Highmark, Rue 21, and GENCO Supply Chain Solutions are major non-public companies with headquarters in the region. Other major companies headquartered in Pittsburgh include General Nutrition Center (GNC) and CNX Gas (CXG), a subsidiary of Consol Energy.

Major employers
See also: List of major corporations in Pittsburgh Pittsburgh has grown its industry base in recent years to include technology, retail, finance and medicine. The largest employer in the city is the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (48,000 employees) and the University of Pittsburgh (10,700 employees).[46] 2009 Fortune 500 Corporations [47] • 105 U.S. Steel • 161 PPG Industries • 267 H. J. Heinz Company • 278 PNC Financial Services • 406 WESCO International 2009 Fortune 1000 Corporations • 541 Dick’s Sporting Goods • 690 American Eagle Outfitters • 732 Kennametal • 867 Atlas America

Culture
In the 19th and 20th centuries, wealthy businessmen and nonprofit organizations donated millions of dollars to create educational and

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Pittsburgh
quarterly Gallery Crawl in the downtown area’s cultural district that is free and open to the public to enjoy the local art scene as well as the Three Rivers Arts Festival, which takes place in the same downtown area annually during the summer. In theater, the Pittsburgh Playhouse of Point Park University has four resident companies of professional actors. Other companies include Attack Theatre, Bricolage Theater, Pittsburgh Playwrights Theater, City Theatre, Pittsburgh Irish and Classical Theatre, Pittsburgh Musical Theater, Pittsburgh Public Theater, and Quantum Theater. The city’s longest-running theater show, Friday Nite Improvs, is an improv jam that has been performed in the Cathedral of Learning and other locations for 17 years.

Carnegie Museum of Natural History cultural institutions. As a result, Pittsburgh is rich in art and culture. Among the professional music venues, the Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra performs in Heinz Hall, and the Pittsburgh Opera performs in the Benedum Center. Both The Benedum Center and Heinz Hall provide venues for other groups, such as the River City Brass Band and the Pittsburgh Youth Symphony Orchestra. Pittsburgh has a long tradition of jazz, blues and bluegrass music. Pittsburgh also has a large indie and punk rock scene. Additionally the National Negro Opera Company was founded in Pittsburgh, and was the first all African-American opera company in the United States. This led to the prominence of African-American singers like Leontyne Price in the world of opera. Pittsburgh Dance Council and the Pittsburgh Ballet Theater host a variety of dance events. Polka, folk, square and round dancing have a long history in the city and are celebrated by the internationally famous Duquesne University Tamburitzans, a multicultural academy dedicated to the preservation and presentation of folk songs and dance. Pittsburgh museums include the Andy Warhol Museum, the Carnegie Museum of Art, the Frick Art & Historical Center and the Mattress Factory. Installation art is featured outdoors at ArtGardens of Pittsburgh. The Carnegie Museum of Natural History has extensive dinosaur collections and an Ancient Egypt wing. The Carnegie Science Center is technology oriented. The Senator John Heinz Pittsburgh Regional History Center and Western Pennsylvania Sports Museum are located in the Strip District. The unusual and eclectic Bayernhof Music Museum is six miles (9 km) from downtown. There is a

Writing
Pittsburgh’s most famous native writer was Rachel Carson, a Chatham College (now Chatham University) graduate from the Pittsburgh suburb of Springdale, Pennsylvania. Modern writers include Pulitzer Prize winning playwright August Wilson and Michael Chabon with his Pittsburgh-focused commentary on student and college life. Twotime Pultizer Prize winner and recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, David McCullough was born and raised in Pittsburgh.[48] Annie Dillard, a Pultizer Prize winning writer, was born and raised in Pittsburgh. New writers include Chris Kuzneski who attended the University of Pittsburgh and mentions Pittsburgh in his books. Pittsburgh’s unique literary style extends to playwrights,[49] as well as local graffiti and hiphop artists. There is a Pittsburgh fantasy, macabre and science fiction genre popularized by film director George Romero, television personality Bill Cardille’s Chiller Theatre,[50] film director and writer Rusty Cundieff[51] and makeup effects guru Tom Savini.[52] Today, the genre continues through the PARSEC writers organization[53] and several local Writer’s Workshops including Write or Die,[54] The Pittsburgh SouthWrites,[55] and the Pittsburgh Worldwrights[56] founded by Mary Soon Lee[57] and continued by protegees Barton Paul Levenson, Kenneth Chiacchia, Pete Butler, Chris Ferrier, Robert L. Nansel and the poet Elizabeth Penrose. Mark Menold[58] showcases the classic Pittsburgh

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zombie tradition through cinematic and televised works on The It’s Alive Show and by holding the annual "Zombie Fest". Pittsburgh – art and natural history Carnegie Science Center – hands on science center including the Omnimax theater Cathedral of Learning – part of the University of Pittsburgh, well known for its "Nationality Rooms", also the tallest educational building in the Western Hemisphere Phipps Conservatory & Botanical Gardens The Botanic Garden of Western Pennsylvania Rodef Shalom Biblical Botanical Garden Lord Venkateswara Temple – one of the largest Hindu temples in the country[61] Primanti Brothers Mattress Factory – museum of contemporary installation art Frick Art & Historical Center – art museum, Clayton- the restored Frick mansion, car and carriage museum Frick Park – third largest park within the city limits in the country U.S. Steel Tower Petersen Events Center – home of

Pittsburgh
• PNC Park – home of the Pittsburgh Pirates • Mellon Arena – home of the Pittsburgh Penguins • A.J. Palumbo Center – home of the Duquesne Dukes basketball team and a concert venue • The South Side – home to many bars, cultural events, historic churches, eateries, and entertainment • Church of the Immaculate Heart of Mary in Pittsburgh – an opulently decorated edifice in the Polish Cathedral style • The Strip District – a neighborhood near downtown that is home to farmers’ markets, wholesale vendors, bars, and clubs[62] • Children’s Museum of Pittsburgh • Andy Warhol Museum • Great Allegheny Passage – a rail trail connecting Pittsburgh and Washington D.C. • The Waterfront Shopping and entertainment complex built on redevelopment of Andrew Carnegie’s steel mill where the

Local dialect
The Pittsburgh English dialect, popularly referred to as "Pittsburghese", derives from influences from the Scottish-Irish, Welsh, German, Central European and Eastern European immigrants. Locals who speak in this dialect are sometimes referred to as "Yinzers" (from the local word "yunz" [var. yinz], a blended form of "you ones" similar to "y’all" and "you all" in the South). The dialect has some tonal similarities to other nearby regional dialects (ie, Erie, Baltimore), but is noted for its somewhat staccato rhythms. The staccato qualities of the Pittsburgh dialect have been suggested to originate either from Welsh or from Eastern European immigrants. It also has so many local peculiarities that the New York Times described Pittsburgh as, "the Galapagos Islands of American dialect".[59] The lexicon itself contains notable cognates borrowing from Croatian and other Slavic and European languages. Examples include babushka, pierogi, and halušky.[60]

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Attractions
Pittsburgh is home to many nationally and internationally-renowned attractions: • Duquesne Incline • Pittsburgh Zoo & • Monongahela PPG Aquarium Incline • Point State Park • Gateway Clipper • Point Park Fleet – river University cruises Downtown’s only • Fort Duquesne not-for-profit • Fort Pitt college • Kennywood – • PPG Place historic • Station Square amusement park and Southside • Sandcastle Works – Waterpark entertainment • Point Park complexes University • Heinz History Downtown’s only Center – including not-for-profit the Sports university Museum • National Aviary – • Heinz Field – the country’s home of the national and most Pittsburgh prominent aviary Steelers and Pitt • Carnegie Panthers football Museums of team

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the Pitt Panthers basketball team homestead strike occurred • Rivers Casino under construction • Pittsburgh Glass Center

Pittsburgh
Health Department, since data from only one of Pittsburgh’s 20 air quality monitors were used by the ALA. Furthermore, the monitor used is located downwind of U.S. Steel’s Clairton Coke Works, the nation’s largest coke plant.[65]

Livability

Sports
Pittsburgh’s dedication to sports has a long history. Pittsburgh is the only city where all major sports teams—the Steelers of the NFL, the Penguins of the NHL, and the Pirates of the MLB—all share the same team colors, black and gold. The Pittsburgh Passion of the IWFL use these colors as well. The black-andgold color scheme has since become closely associated with the city: its official flag is a tricolor of black and gold, and its police department and fire department also make use of this color combination.

Pittsburgh at night from the West End Overlook Pittsburgh often places high in lists of the nation’s most livable cities. After placing fourth and first in the first two editions of Places Rated Almanac, Pittsburgh went on to finish third in 1989, fifth in 1993, 14th in 1997 and 12th in 2000, before reclaiming the number one spot in 2007.[63] The survey’s primary author, David Savageau, has noted that Pittsburgh is the only city to finish in the top 20 of every edition. In 2005, The Economist ranked Pittsburgh and Cleveland the top most livable cities in the United States, and tied the cities for 26th worldwide. Pittsburgh ranked #28 in the book Cities Ranked and Rated (2004) by Bert Sperling and Peter Sander. Livability rankings typically consider factors such as cost of living, crime, and cultural opportunities. Pittsburgh has a low cost of living compared to other cities in the northeastern U.S. The average price for a 3to 4-bedroom, 2-bath family home in Pittsburgh is $162,000, which is well below the national average of $264,540, as of October 2004, according to the Federal Housing Finance Board. In 2008, the American Lung Association ranked the Pittsburgh area as the nation’s third most polluted metropolitan area, behind Los Angeles and Bakersfield, CA.[64] This ranking is disputed by the Allegheny County

Baseball

PNC Park, home of the Pittsburgh Pirates. The Pittsburgh Pirates play in the Central Division of the National League, and are fivetime World Series Champions. The Pirates are also often referred to as the Bucs or sometimes the Buccos (derived from buccaneer). The franchise has won five World Series with the last being won in 1979 against the Baltimore Orioles. PNC Park is annually ranked as one of the best if not the best Major League parks.[66] Pittsburgh has a rich history in Negro League baseball teams with the former Pittsburgh Crawfords and the Homestead Grays (credited with as many as 14 titles between them and with 11 hall of famers). Pittsburgh Pirates was then the first Major League Baseball team to field an all-black lineup in 1971, "no city is more synonymous with black baseball than Pittsburgh."[67]

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championship in 2006 and a sixth championship in 2009. The Pittsburgh region also has developed several NFL quarterbacks, giving Western Pennsylvania the nickname "Cradle of Quarterbacks."[69] Dan Marino, Joe Montana, Joe Namath, Jim Kelly, Marc Bulger, George Blanda, Jeff Hostetler, Johnny Unitas, Bruce Gradkowski, Gus Frerotte, and recent Pittsburgh Steelers backup quarterback Charlie Batch are from the area. Several famous running backs, including Tony Dorsett, Curtis Martin, Kevan Barlow, Mercury Morris, Larry Brown, Ernie Davis, Cookie Gilchrist and Joe Marconi are also from Pittsburgh. Several former offensive line greats, including Jim Covert, Russ Grimm, Reggie Wells, and Bill Fralic also hail from the area. Several notable defensive players are from the Pittsburgh area, including Pro Hall of Famers Joe Schmidt and Randy White, defensive end Jason Taylor, cornerback Ty Law and linebacker LaVar Arrington. Several current NFL Players grew up in the Greater Pittsburgh, including Shawntae Spencer and Steve Breaston in addition to the aforementioned Ty Law, Jason Taylor and Charlie Batch. There is also a long list of baseball stars such as Ken Griffey, Jr., Ken Griffey, Sr., Stan Musial, and Honus Wagner, as well as numerous Olympic gold medalists such as wrestler Kurt Angle, Roger Kingdom and John Woodruff and was where Jim Furyk and Arnold Palmer learned to play golf. Pittsburgh also claims many professional sports coaching legends as its own including George Karl, Marvin Lewis, Mike Ditka, Marty Schottenheimer, Mike McCarthy, Bill Cowher, Dave Wannstedt, Joe Walton, Barry Alvarez, Chuck Knox, Terry Francona, Chuck Daly, Ken Macha, Dick Nolan, Sean Miller, Chuck Tanner and Art Howe.

Basketball
Professional basketball has also played a role in the city’s sports landscape since the 1960s. The Pittsburgh Pipers, Pittsburgh Condors, Pittsburgh Rens, Pittsburgh Hard Hats, Pittsburgh Piranhas, Pittsburgh Pit Bulls, and the Pittsburgh Xplosion have all called the Steel City their home. The Dukes of Duquesne University had much basketball success in the first half of the 20th century and again in the 60s and 70s. The most successful basketball team in Pittsburgh is the University of Pittsburgh Panthers. The Pitt Panthers are currently ranked 4th in the nation in the Associated Press and Coaches polls (3/16/09),[68] are a current #1 seed in the NCAA Men’s Division I Basketball Championship and are a perennial top 15 NCAA team. The Panthers have made 8 straight NCAA tournament trips leading into this year. Pitt plays at the state of the art Peterson Events Center, and has a strong local and national following. The “Pete” has sold out every season since its opening.

Football

Heinz Field pregame practice before a Pittsburgh Steelers game. Football is by far the most popular sport in the region, with high school games routinely getting over 10,000 fans per game as well as extensive press coverage. College football is also popular, with residents supporting the local Pittsburgh Panthers, as well as the teams of Penn State or West Virginia. The NFL’s Pittsburgh Steelers have been owned by the Rooney family since the team’s founding in 1933. The team won four Super Bowls in a six-year span in the 1970s, a fifth

Hockey
The Pittsburgh Penguins have won three Eastern Conference championships in 1991, 1992, and 2008, and Stanley Cup championships in 1991 and 1992. They are owned by Mario Lemieux, who was on the team from 1984–2006. They play their home games at Mellon Arena, the oldest arena in the NHL, but is being replaced by the Consol Energy Center, slated to open for the 2010–2011 NHL season. Notable NHL players from the Pittsburgh area include Ryan Malone of the Tampa Bay Lightning and R.J. Umberger of the Columbus Blue Jackets.

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Club Pittsburgh Pirates Pittsburgh Steelers Pittsburgh Penguins League Sport MLB NFL NHL Baseball American Football Ice Hockey Venue

Pittsburgh
Established Championships 1909, 1925, 1960, 1971, 1979 1974, 1975, 1978, 1979, 2005, 2008 1991, 1992

PNC Park 1882 Heinz Field Mellon Arena 1933 1967

Other sports
Pittsburgh has been home to the Pittsburgh Marathon hosts the Great Race 5 & 10K run and walk. Pittsburgh has multiple mountain biking areas close to the city in area parks and in the surrounding suburbs. Frick Park has biking trails and Hartwood Acres Park has many miles of single track trails. A recent project, "Rails to Trails", has converted miles of former railroads to recreational trails.

Media and popular culture
There are two major daily newspapers in Pittsburgh; the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette and the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Alternative weekly papers in the region include the Pittsburgh City Paper, Pittsburgh Catholic, The Jewish Chronicle of Pittsburgh, The New People, and the Pittsburgh Courier. Independent student-written university based newspapers include The Pitt News of the University of Pittsburgh, The Tartan of Carnegie Mellon University, and The Globe of Point Park University. The Pittsburgh metro area is served by many local television and radio stations. The Pittsburgh designated market area (DMA) is the 22nd largest in the U.S. with 1,163,150 homes (1.045% of the total U.S.).[70] The major network television affiliates are KDKA-TV 2 (CBS), WTAE 4 (ABC), WPXI 11 (NBC), WPGH-TV 53 (FOX), WPCW 19 (CW), WQEX 16 (ShopNBC), WPMY 22 (MyNetworkTV), and WPCB 40 (Cornerstone). WBGN 59 is an independent station owned and operated by the Bruno-Goodworth Network. WQED 13 is the local PBS station in Pittsburgh. It was established on April 1, 1954, and was the first community-sponsored television station and the fifth public station in the United States. The station has produced

much original content for PBS, including Mr. Rogers’ Neighborhood, several National Geographic specials, and Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?[71] There are a wide variety of radio stations serving the Pittsburgh market. The first was KDKA 1020 AM, which is also the first commercially-licensed radio station in the United States, receiving its license on October 27, 1920.[72] Other popular stations include KQV 1410 AM (news), WEAE 1250 AM (sports), WKST-FM 96.1 FM (pop and hiphop), WZPT 100.7 FM (adult contemporary), WDVE 102.5 FM (album rock), WPGB 104.7 FM (talk), WXDX 105.9 FM (modern rock), and WAMO 106.7 (hip-hop, rap). There are also three public radio stations in the area; including WDUQ 90.5 FM (National Public Radio affiliate operated by Duquesne University), WQED 89.3 FM (classical), and WYEP 91.3 FM (adult alternative). Three non-commercial stations are run by Carnegie Mellon University (WRCT 88.3 FM), the University of Pittsburgh (WPTS 92.1 FM), and Point Park University (WPPJ 670 AM) According to the Pittsburgh Film Office, over 123 major motion pictures have been filmed, in whole or in part, in Pittsburgh, including the The Mothman Prophecies, Wonder Boys, Dogma, Hoffa, The Silence of the Lambs, and Zack and Miri Make a Porno.[73][74] Showtime Networks, a premium cable and satellite tv content provider, made Pittsburgh the setting of the hugely popular and groundbreaking series Queer as Folk. The series now runs edited versions on the Logo Network. While Queer as Folk was filmed in nearby Toronto, Ontario, Canada; the setting in Pittsburgh has given the city noticed publicity in the gay community.

Government and politics
See also: List of mayors of Pittsburgh

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Pennsylvania House of Representatives include Jake Wheatley (19th District), Don Walko (20), Lisa Bennington (21), Chelsa Wagner (22), Dan Frankel (23), Joseph Preston, Jr. (24), Thomas C. Petrone (27), Paul Costa (34), and Harry Readshaw (36). In the United States House of Representatives, Pittsburgh is included in one Congressional District, the 14th District, and is represented by Mike Doyle (D). The Pittsburgh Police Bureau is the law enforcement arm of the city and the Pittsburgh Fire Bureau is a major emergency response unit in Western Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh EMS provides heavy rescue and river rescue services to the city. As of April 4, 2008, the city and Allegheny County, are discussing a plan to merge as early as 2009 in the interests of consolidating government and enhancing the status of the region.[80] If approved, the city of Pittsburgh will annex the entire land of Allegheny County in a Metropolitan Government, and the population will stand at 1.4 million making it the 7th largest city in the United States.

Henry Hornbostel’s Pittsburgh City-County Building From the American Civil War to the 1930s, Pittsburgh was a Republican stronghold. Democratic candidates have been elected consecutively to either the mayor’s office or city council since 1933, when David L. Lawrence was able to lead the party to power due to the alleged corruption and fraction of the Pittsburgh Republican Party and the election of President Roosevelt whose New Deal began the recovery from the Great Depression, by which the workers of Pittsburgh were especially hard hit.[75] Today, the ratio of Democratic to Republican registrations within the city limits is 5 to 1.[76] The mayor, like the nine-member council, serves a four-year term. The seat of government is the Pittsburgh City-County Building. After the death of Mayor Bob O’Connor in September 2006, City Council President Luke Ravenstahl was sworn as the new mayor of Pittsburgh. Sworn in at age 26, he is the youngest mayor in the history of any major American city.[77] He served in this position until a special mayoral election was held in November 2007, when he was reelected.[78] City council members are chosen by plurality elections in each of nine districts. The current members of the city council are: Darlene Harris (1), Theresa Kail-Smith (2), Bruce Kraus (3), Jim Motznik (4), Douglas Shields (5), Tonya Payne (6), Patrick Dowd (7), Bill Peduto (8), and Rev. Ricky Burgess (9).[79] Pittsburgh is represented in the Pennsylvania General Assembly by three Senate Districts and nine House Districts. Pittsburgh’s State Senators include Jim Ferlo (38th District), Wayne D. Fontana (42), and Jay Costa (43). Representatives in the

Education
See also: List of colleges and universities in Pittsburgh The City of Pittsburgh is home to many colleges, universities and research facilities, the most well known of which are Carnegie Mellon University, Duquesne University, and the University of Pittsburgh. Also located in the city are Carlow University, Chatham University, Point Park University, The Art Institute of Pittsburgh, and a branch campus of suburban Robert Morris University as well as the Community College of Allegheny County and the Pittsburgh Institute of Mortuary Science. The greater Pittsburgh region boasts even more colleges and universities, including LaRoche College, Slippery Rock University and Grove City College north of the city, Robert Morris University and Geneva College west of the city, Washington & Jefferson College and California University of Pennsylvania to the south, and Seton Hill University, Saint Vincent College and Indiana University of Pennsylvania – the biggest state university to the east. The campuses of Carlow University, Carnegie Mellon University, and the University of Pittsburgh are located adjacent

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Shadyside neighborhood, but also maintains a 400-acre Eden Hall Farm campus located in the North Hills. Duquesne University, a private Catholic university, is located in the Bluff neighborhood of Pittsburgh and is noted for its song and dance company, the Tamburitzans, as well as programs in law, business, and pharmacy. Point Park University, which recently announced a major expansion of its downtown campus, is the youngest university in the city and well known for its Conservatory of Performing Arts and its operation of the Pittsburgh Playhouse. Robert Morris University is based in the suburb of Moon Township, Pennsylvania and maintains a satellite center in downtown Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh Public School teachers are paid well relative to their peers, ranking 17th in 2000 among the 100 largest cities by population for the highest minimum salary offered to teachers with a BA ($34,300). Pittsburgh ranked fifth in the highest maximum salary offered to teachers with an MA ($66,380). Local public schools include many charter and magnet schools, including City Charter High School (computer and technology focused), Pittsburgh Montessori School (formerly Homewood Montessori), Pittsburgh Gifted Center, Frick International Studies Academy, Rogers Middle School for the Creative and Performing Arts, Pittsburgh High School for the Creative and Performing Arts, and several schools for blind, deaf, or otherwise challenged children. Private schools in Pittsburgh include Bishop Canevin High School, Seton-La Salle Catholic High School, Central Catholic High School, Oakland Catholic High School, Winchester Thurston School, and The Ellis School. Shady Side Academy, whose main campuses are located in Fox Chapel, has a junior high school in the neighborhood of Point Breeze. The city also has an extensive library system, both public and university. Most notable are the Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh and the University of Pittsburgh’s University Library System, which rank 9th largest (public) and 18th largest (academic) in the nation, respectively.[88]

Carnegie Mellon University campus, with the University of Pittsburgh’s Cathedral of Learning in the background to each other in the Oakland neighborhood that is the traditional cultural and education center of the city. Carnegie Mellon University is a private research university founded by Andrew Carnegie and is ranked #22 overall on US News & World Report list of America’s Best National Universities.[81] Carnegie Mellon is known primarily for its computer science, engineering, business and economics, public policy and information systems, and fine arts programs. The University of Pittsburgh, established in 1787 and popularly referred to as "Pitt", is a state-related school with one of the country’s largest research programs.[82][83] Pitt is ranked as the 19th national public university by US News & World Report and 57th overall, and is known for its programs in philosophy, international studies, information science, engineering, business, law, medicine, and other biomedical and health-related sciences.[81][84][85][86][87] Carlow University is a small private Roman Catholic university that while coeducational, has traditionally educated women. Chatham University, a liberal arts women’s college with coeducational graduate programs, is located in the nearby

Transportation
Pittsburgh is a city of bridges—446 in total.[9] Pittsburgh has more bridges than Venice, Italy, which has historically held the title of

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The city is served by Pittsburgh International Airport (IATA: PIT) about 10 miles (16 km) to the west in Findlay Township.[92] The airport also promotes the region as a focus city for US Airways and has been a major operation for the airline since the company’s inception in the 1940s with the city being chosen by the airline to house its entire dispatch center, relocating it from its headquarters in Phoenix, Arizona. Art deco style Allegheny County Airport (AGC) handles 139,000 general aviation flights a year, and is located south-southeast of the city in West Mifflin. There are a few smaller airports located near the city as well. Rock Airport is a small airport located northeast of Pittsburgh in Tarentum, and is used primarily for corporate jets and private aircraft. Pittsburgh-Monroeville Airport is another airfield located east of the city in Monroeville, Pennsylvania.

Looking NE up the Allegheny River towards the 40th St. Bridge (a.k.a. Washington Crossing Bridge), from Herr’s Island (formerly Washington Landing). "City of Bridges". Around 40 bridges cross the three rivers near the city. The southern "entrance" to Downtown is through the Fort Pitt Tunnel and over the Fort Pitt Bridge. The Panhandle Bridge carries the Port Authority’s 42-S/47-L/52 subway lines across the Monongahela River. Over 2,000 bridges dot the landscape of Allegheny County.[89] The main highway connecting Pittsburgh to the Pennsylvania Turnpike (I-76) on the east is I-376, locally known as the "Parkway East", while I-279 (called either the "Parkway North" or the "Parkway West", depending on its location relative to Downtown) connects the city with points north and west. I-76 (Pennsylvania Turnpike), I-79, and I-70, roughly form a triangular-shaped "beltway". Navigation around Pittsburgh can also be accomplished via the Pittsburgh/Allegheny County Belt System. A planned highway system called the MonFayette/Southern Beltway project would allow access from the south and southwest of the city via a limited-access tolled expressway system.[90] The projects are in the planning stages with some sections already open to traffic. The projects are being planned by The Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission.[91]

Public transportation
Port Authority of Allegheny County, commonly known as the Port Authority, but sometimes referred to by its former nickname "PAT" or "PAT Transit", is the region’s mass transit system. While serving only a portion of the Pittsburgh area’s 20th largest metro area it is the 11th largest transit agency in the nation. Port Authority runs a network of inter- and intracity bus routes, the Monongahela Incline funicular railway (more commonly known as "inclines") on Mount Washington, a light rail system that runs mostly above-ground in the suburbs and underground as a subway in the city, and one of the nation’s largest busway systems.[93] The Duquesne Incline is operated by a non-profit preservation trust,[94] but it does accept Port Authority passes and charge standard Port Authority tolls. The city has Amtrak intercity rail service at Pennsylvania Station, as well as various freight railroads. Current railroads include Norfolk Southern, CSX and Amtrak.

Airports

Sister cities
Pittsburgh has sixteen sister cities:[95][96] • • Pittsburgh International Airport • Bilbao, Spain Da Nang, Vietnam Donetsk, Ukraine • • • Omiya, Aichi, Japan Ostrava, Czech Republic Prešov, Slovakia

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• • • • • Fernando de • Saitama la Mora, Paraguay (Urawa-ku), Japan • San Isidro, Karmiel, Nicaragua Israel • Sheffield, Matanzas, England, United Cuba Kingdom Misgav, Israel • Sofia, Bulgaria Novokuznetsk, • Wuhan, Russia People’s Republic Astana, of China Kazakhstan • Zagreb, Croatia

Pittsburgh

•

See also
• 484 Pittsburghia • 2009 Pittsburgh police shooting • Allegheny, Pennsylvania • Cities and towns of Allegheny County • List of cities and towns along the Ohio River • List of fiction set in Pittsburgh • List of hospitals in Pittsburgh • List of people from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area • List of the Most Populated cities in Pennsylvania • Pittsburgh buildings • Pittsburgh Coalfield • Pittsburgh Council for International Visitors

Notes
[1] "Population Estimates for Places Over 100,000: 2000 to 2006". U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. 2007-06-27. http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/ SUB-EST2006.html. Retrieved on 2007-08-14. [2] "Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas". U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. 2007-04-04. http://www.census.gov/population/www/ estimates/CBSA-est2006-annual.html. Retrieved on 2007-08-14. [3] ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved on 2008-01-31. [4] "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. http://geonames.usgs.gov. Retrieved on 2008-01-31.

[5] "US Census Bureau 2006 city estimate". http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/ tables/SUB-EST2006-01.csv. [6] "US Census Bureau 2006 CSA estimate". http://www.census.gov/population/www/ estimates/metro_general/2006/CBSAEST2006-02.csv. [7] Miller, Harold (2008-08-03). "Regional Insights: Pittsburgh is a national player in jobs per square mile but needs more population". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/08216/ 901307-432.stm. Retrieved on 2008-08-06. [8] ""High-rise Buildings of Pittsburgh"". Emporis.com. http://www.emporis.com/ en/wm/ci/bu/sk/?id=101313. Retrieved on 2009-04-11. [9] ^ Pitt Chronicle: "Venice, Schmenice" [10] Napsha, Joe (2008-08-02). "Growth of jobs locally bucks nationwide trend". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. http://www.pittsburghlive.com/x/ pittsburghtrib/business/s_580675.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-06. [11] "World’s Cleanest Cities". http://www.forbes.com/2007/04/16/ worlds-cleanest-cities-biz-logisticscx_rm_0416cleanest_slide_16.html. [12] "Top 40 Cities for Professionals". http://www.forbes.com/2008/07/09/citiesprofessionals-young-forbeslifecx_mw_0709youngprofessionals_slide_29.html?thisSp [13] Majors, Dan (2007-04-26). "Pittsburgh rated ’most livable’ once again". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/07116/ 781162-53.stm. Retrieved on 2007-09-16. [14] "Pittsburgh Facts". Pittsburgh PostGazette. http://www.post-gazette.com/ pg/03001/700027-209.stm. Retrieved on 2007-10-21. [15] ^ "How to Spell Pittsburgh". Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh. http://www.carnegielibrary.org/exhibit/ hname2.html. Retrieved on 2006-09-22. [16] "Most Misspelled Cities in America". http://www.epodunk.com/top10/ misspelled/index.html. Retrieved on 2007-10-21. [17] "friendsoftheriverfront.org". Friendsoftheriverfront.org. http://www.friendsoftheriverfront.org/ new_pages/historical.htm. Retrieved on 2009-01-05.

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[18] ^ "Pittsburgh Chronology". Company, Pittsburgh, ISBN Digital.library.pitt.edu. 0-9711835-6-2 http://digital.library.pitt.edu/cgi-bin/ [28] "Seasonal Temperature and Precipitation chronology/ Information". http://www.weather.gov/ chronology_driver.pl?searchtype=dbrowse&year=1717&year2=1749. climate/ Retrieved on 2009-04-11. local_data.php?wfo=pbzfrom=36hr_bottomnav_unde [19] ^ Lorant, Stefan (1999). Pittsburgh, The Retrieved on 2009-03-01. Story of an American City (5th ed.). [29] "Monthly Averages for Pittsburgh, PA Esselmont Books, LLC.. weather.com". Weather.com. [20] ^ Chamber of Commerce of Pittsburgh http://www.weather.com/outlook/travel/ (1921). Pittsburgh First, the Official businesstraveler/wxclimatology/monthly/ Organ of The Chamber of Commerce of USPA1290. Retrieved on 2009-01-05. Pittsburgh. [30] "Seasonal Temperature and Precipitation [21] Ballou’s Pictorial, issue of 21 February Information". http://www.weather.com/ 1857 weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/ [22] Kalson, Sally (2003-11-19). "Cartoonist USPA1290?from=36hr_bottomnav_undeclared. draws, fires a blank with Pittsburgh Retrieved on 2009-01-18. joke". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. [31] "Golden Triangle (Pittsburgh)". http://www.post-gazette.com/columnists/ Emporis.com. http://www.emporis.com/ 20031119sally104col2p2.asp. en/wm/bo/?id=102614. Retrieved on [23] Note: Although medical research is often 2009-04-11. cited as a recent addition to Pittsburgh’s [32] "Pittsburgh Neighborhoods". City of economic portfolio, major advances go Pittsburgh Portal. back several decades. Working at the http://www.city.pittsburgh.pa.us/portal/ University of Pittsburgh in the 1950s, neighborhoods.html. Retrieved on Jonas Salk developed the first successful 2007-07-17. vaccine for large-scale immunization [33] "U.S. Steel Tower, Pittsburgh". Emporis against poliomyelitis (a.k.a. polio or Buildings. http://www.emporis.com/en/ infantile paralysis). Also, several types of wm/bu/?id=usouthsteeltower-pittsburghorgan transplants were pioneered in pa-usa. Retrieved on 2007-07-17. Pittsburgh by Dr. Thomas Starzl [34] http://www.portauthority.org/PAAC/ beginning in 1983. Pittsburgh’s hospitals Portals/Capital/NorthShore/images/bigand universities remain the hosts for new-map.JPG some of the premier medical research [35] "American Eagle Outfitters Announces facilities in the world. Pittsburgh’s SouthSide Works Location [24] "Pittsburgh Steelers get huge parade for As New Corporate Headquarters". Super Bowl win - ESPN". Business Wire. 2005-10-21. Sports.espn.go.com. 2009-02-03. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/ http://sports.espn.go.com/nfl/ mi_m0EIN/is_2005_Oct_21/ playoffs2008/news/story?id=3881434. ai_n15726879. Retrieved on 2007-10-21. Retrieved on 2009-04-11. [36] "Statistics". 64.233.169.104. 2009-03-29. [25] "US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990". http://64.233.169.104/ United States Census Bureau. search?q=cache:0eQjgx5x1eQJ:www.niaf.org/ 2005-05-03. http://www.census.gov/geo/ research/ www/gazetteer/gazette.html. Retrieved statistics2.asp+u.s.+cities+italian+population&hl=e on 2008-01-31. aPittsburgh. Retrieved on 2009-04-12. [26] Patricia Lowry (2004-03-16). "Learning [37] Wolowyna, Oleh (January 9, 2000). the steps: Pitt researcher fell for city’s "Demographic, social, cultural stairs and has published a book that characteristics of persons of Ukrainian maps them". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. ancestry in Chicago". The Ukrainian http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/04076/ Weekly No. 2, Vol. LXVIII. 286278.stm. http://www.ukrweekly.com/old/archive/ [27] "The Steps of Pittsburgh: Portrait of a 2000/020012.shtml. Retrieved on City" by Bob Regan, photos by Tim 2008-05-16. (based on 1990 US Census) Fabian, published by The Local History [38] "U.S. Census Bureau: American Community Survey (ACS): Percent of

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People 25 Years and Over Who Have pg/06350/746640-44.stm. Retrieved on Completed a Bachelor’s Degree: 2008-06-08. Population 25 years and over (Place [49] "The write stuff". Post-gazette.com. level)". Census.gov. 2007-08-22. 1998-10-11. http://www.posthttp://www.census.gov/acs/www/ gazette.com/magazine/ Products/Ranking/2002/R02T160.htm. 19981011playw2.asp. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2009-04-11. 2009-01-05. [39] "U.S. Census Bureau: American [50] "Welcome to Chiller Theater Memories!". Community Survey (ACS): Percent of Chillertheatermemories.com. People 25 Years and Over Who Have http://www.chillertheatermemories.com. Completed High School (Including Retrieved on 2009-01-05. Equivalency): Population 25 years and [51] "Rusty Cundieff". Nndb.com. 2003-12-30. over (Place level)". Census.gov. http://www.nndb.com/people/361/ 2007-08-22. http://www.census.gov/acs/ 000045226. Retrieved on 2009-01-05. www/Products/Ranking/2002/ [52] "SAVINI.COM: The Official Tom Savini R13T160.htm. Retrieved on 2009-04-11. Home page". Savini.com. [40] Data and Demographics - Character of http://www.savini.com. Retrieved on Life/Public Safety (December 7, 2005). 2009-01-05. Pittsburgh Regional Alliance. Last visited [53] "PARSEC: Pittsburgh’s Premiere Science June 11, 2006. Fiction Organization". Parsec-sff.org. [41] "Pittsburgh Crime Statistics (PA)". 2006-11-05. http://www.parsec-sff.org/ http://www.cityrating.com/ links.html. Retrieved on 2009-01-05. citycrime.asp?city=Pittsburgh&state=PA. [54] http://word.pghfree.net/ Write or Die Retrieved on 2007-09-20. [55] "Pittsburgh South Writes Homepage". [42] "Pittsburgh Crime Statistics (PA) Interzone.com. CityRating.com". Cityrating.com. http://www.interzone.com/~jafriedl/SW/ http://www.cityrating.com/ sowrites.htm. Retrieved on 2009-01-05. citycrime.asp?city=Pittsburgh&state=PA. [56] "Pittsburgh Worldwrights". Cs.cmu.edu. Retrieved on 2009-01-05. 2005-05-27. http://www.cs.cmu.edu/ [43] About Our Region Pittsburgh Technology ~mslee/pw.html/. Retrieved on Council 2009-01-05. [44] "Fortune 500: Cities with Five or More [57] Rodger Turner, Webmaster. "The SF Fortune 500 Headquarters". Fortune. Site: A Conversation With Mary Soon April 2007. http://money.cnn.com/ Lee". Sfsite.com. http://www.sfsite.com/ magazines/fortune/fortune500/2007/ 02b/msl122.htm. Retrieved on cities/. 2009-01-05. [45] "2006 MAYOR’S CHALLENGE: Where [58] "Revenant: The Premiere Zombie Are the Best Metros for Future Business Magazine - Features". Locations?". Expansion Magazine. Revenantmagazine.com. 2006-08-07. http://www.revenantmagazine.com/ http://www.expansionmanagement.com/ MarkMenoldinterview.htm. Retrieved on smo/newsviewer/ 2009-01-05. default.asp?cmd=articledetail&articleid=17713&st=3. Tim (2006-03-17). "It’s Not the [59] Sultan, [46] "Top Private Employers". Pittsburgh Sights, It’s the Sounds". New York Regional Alliance. Times: p. 2. http://travel2.nytimes.com/ http://www.alleghenyconference.org/ 2006/03/17/travel/escapes/ public/cfm/d_and_d/index.cfm?. 17accent.html?pagewanted=2. Retrieved Retrieved on 2007-04-14. on 2007-08-14. [47] "Pittsburgh Has A New Fortune 500 [60] "Overview". Pittsburgh Speech and Company". WTAE-TV. April 20, 2009. Society. http://english.cmu.edu/ http://www.thepittsburghchannel.com/ pittsburghspeech/overview.html. money/19228756/detail.html. Retrieved on 2007-08-14. [48] Sherman, Jerome L. (2006-12-16). [61] "Sri Venkateswara Temple, Pittsburgh". "Presidential biographer gets Svtemple.org. http://www.svtemple.org/ presidential medal". Pittsburgh Posttemple/index.shtml. Retrieved on Gazette. http://www.post-gazette.com/ 2009-01-05.

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[62] Kadushin, Raphael (August 2003). [75] Weber, Michael P. (1988). Don’t Call Me "15222: Come Hungry". National Boss: David L. Lawrence: Pittsburgh’s Geographic: 114–122. Renaissance Mayor. Pittsburgh: http://magma.nationalgeographic.com/ University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN ngm/0308/feature6/index.html/. 0-8229-3565-1. OCLC 16090036. Retrieved on 2007-08-26. [76] "Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania - Transatlantic [63] Dan Majors (April 26, 2007). "Pittsburgh Cities Network". The German Marshall rated ’most livable’ once again". Fund of the United States. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. http://posthttp://www.gmfus.org/template/ gazette.com/pg/07116/781162-53.stm. page.cfm?page_id=481. Retrieved on [64] The Most Polluted Places in America - 3 2009-05-06. Living Green - Your Life - MSN Lifestyle [77] "Ravenstahl Among Youngest Mayors [65] Heinrichs, Allison. "Region passes L.A. Ever" (video). KDKA-TV. 2006-09-04. on pollution list". Pittsburgh Tribune http://kdka.com/video/ Review. http://www.pittsburghlive.com/x/ ?id=19751@kdka.dayport.com. pittsburghtrib/news/cityregion/ Retrieved on 2007-08-20. s_565183.html. Retrieved on [78] Gary Rotstein (2006-10-13). "Ravenstahl 2008-08-10. must run next year". Pittsburgh Post[66] Jim Caple. "Pittsburgh’s gem rates the Gazette. http://www.postgazette.com/pg/ best". ESPN.com. http://espn.go.com/ 06286/729694-182.stm. Retrieved on page2/s/ballparks/pncpark.html. 2007-08-20. Retrieved on 2008-07-09. [79] "City Council." City of Pittsburgh (official [67] John Perrotto (2006-08-14). "Baseball website). Retrieved on May 19, 2008. Plog". Beaver County Times. [80] "kdka.com - Local Officials Look For http://www.timesonline.com/site/ Ways To Improve City-County Merger news.cfm?newsid=17047895&BRD=2305&PAG=461&dept_id=478568&rfi=6. Recommendation". Kdka.com. [68] "NCAA College Basketball Polls, College 2008-04-04. http://kdka.com/politics/ Basketball Rankings, NCAA Basketball Pittsburgh.Allegheny.County.2.692217.html. Polls - ESPN". Sports.espn.go.com. Retrieved on 2009-01-05. http://sports.espn.go.com/ncb/rankings. [81] ^ "National Universities: Top Schools". Retrieved on 2009-03-16. US News & World Report. 2008. [69] Mike White (2005-08-25). "Tradition of http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/ Western Pennsylvania quarterbacks usnews/edu/college/rankings/brief/ continues". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. t1natudoc_brief.php. Retrieved on http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/05238/ 2008-05-02. 558775.stm. [82] "R&D expenditures at universities and [70] Holmes, Gary. "Nielsen Reports 1.1% colleges, ranked by all R&D expenditures increase in U.S. Television Households for the first 200 institutions, by source of for the 2006-2007 Season." Nielsen funds: FY 2006" (PDF). National Science Media Research. September 23, 2006. Foundation. TABLE 31. Retrieved on January 26, 2008. http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf08300/ [71] Hoover, Bob; Kalson, Sally; Vancheri, pdf/tab31.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-04-29. Barbara. "WQED at 50: Born in [83] ""Pitt No. 6 in NIH funding"". University television’s Golden Age, Pittsburgh’s Times. University of Pittsburgh. public broadcasting station pioneered 2008-01-24. http://mac10.umc.pitt.edu/u/ educational programming." Pittsburgh FMPro?-db=ustory&-lay=a&Post-Gazette. March 28, 2004. Retrieved format=d.html&storyid=7904&-Find. on January 26, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-04-29. [72] "KDKA, First Commercial Radio Station." [84] Hart, Peter (2007-08-30). "University IEEE Global History Network. Retrieved Times". http://mac10.umc.pitt.edu/u/ on January 26, 2008. FMPro?-db=ustory.fp5&[73] "Filmography." Pittsburgh Film Office. format=d.html&-lay=a&Retrieved on January 26, 2008. sortfield=issueid%3a%3aissuedate&[74] Powell, Kimberly; Powell, Albrecht. sortorder=descend&keywords=U.S.%20News&"Movies Made in Pittsburgh." About.com. max=50&-recid=39345&-find=. Retrieved on January 26, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-05-23.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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[85] Leiter, Brian (2006-11-10). "Welcome to [93] http://www.apta.com/research/stats/ the 2006–2008 Philosophical Gourmet ridership/riderep/documents/ Report". 07q1bus.pdf http://www.philosophicalgourmet.com/. [94] "Duquesne Incline, historic cable car Retrieved on 2008-04-29. railway serving commuters and tourists [86] Gill, Cindy (Fall 2007). ""The Company since 1877, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania". We Keep"". Pitt. University of Pittsburgh. Incline.pghfree.net. 2008-10-14. http://www.pittmag.pitt.edu/fall2007/ http://incline.pghfree.net/. Retrieved on feature1.html. Retrieved on 2008-04-29. 2009-01-05. [87] Hart, Peter (2007-04-05). "U.S. News [95] "Sister Cities Online Directory: ranks Pitt grad schools". University Pennsylvania, USA." Sister Cities Times. http://mac10.umc.pitt.edu/u/ International. Retrieved on January 26, FMPro?-db=ustory.fp5&2008. format=d.html&-lay=a&[96] "Pittsburgh Has New Vietnamese Sister sortfield=issueid%3a%3aissuedate&City". WTAE-TV. 2008-12-02. sortorder=descend&keywords=School%20of%20Public%20Health%20ranked&http://www.thepittsburghchannel.com/ max=50&-recid=39152&-find=. money/18188538/detail.html. Retrieved Retrieved on 2008-03-24. on 2008-12-03. [88] "Nation’s Largest Libraries". LibrarySpot. 1996\u20131998. http://www.libraryspot.com/lists/ listlargestlibs.htm. Retrieved on Official 2007-10-21. • City of Pittsburgh Government [89] "Bruce S. Cridlebaugh’s website: Bridges • Pittsburgh Convention and Visitors and Tunnels of Allegheny County and Bureau - Tourism Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania". • Pittsburgh History & Landmarks Pghbridges.com. 2004-08-11. Foundation http://www.pghbridges.com/articles/ • Pittsburgh’s Intergovernmental fieldnote_howmany.htm. Retrieved on Cooperation Authority 2009-04-11. [90] "PA Turnpike Construction - Mon/Fayette Other & Southern Beltway Projects". Paturnpike.com. 2008-11-14. • Pittsburgh travel guide from Wikitravel http://www.paturnpike.com/MonFaySB/. • Historic Pittsburgh Maps Collection Retrieved on 2009-01-05. • Bridges of Pittsburgh and Allegheny [91] "The Pennsylvania Turnpike". County Paturnpike.com. • Pittsburgh Independent Media Center http://www.paturnpike.com. Retrieved on • German Heritage Sites in Pittsburgh 2009-01-05. [92] Pittsburgh Pennsylvania Convention and Visitors Bureau

External links

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pittsburgh" Categories: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh metropolitan area, Cities in Pennsylvania, Settlements on the Ohio River, Settlements established in 1758, 1794 establishments, County seats in Pennsylvania, Towns and cities with limited zerofare transport, Port settlements in the United States This page was last modified on 21 May 2009, at 15:35 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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