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Rome

Rome
Roma Area - City Elevation 1,285.3 km2 (496.2 sq mi) +20 m (66 ft)

Population (31 January 2009)[1] 2,722,907 - City 2,118/km2 (5,487/sq mi) - Density 3,457,690 - Urban 3,700,000 - Metro Time zone - Summer (DST) Postal codes Area code(s) Patron saints Website
Flag

CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) 00121 to 00199 06 Saint Peter and Saint Paul comune.roma.it

Coat of arms

Nickname(s): The Eternal City Motto: Senātus Populusque Rōmānus (SPQR) (Latin)

Roma Coordinates: 41°54′N 12°30′E / 41.9°N 12.5°E / 41.9; 12.5Coordinates: 41°54′N 12°30′E / 41.9°N 12.5°E / 41.9; 12.5 Country Region Province Founded Government - Mayor Italy Lazio Rome (RM) 21 April, 753 BC (traditional) Gianni Alemanno

Rome (pronounced /roʊm/; Italian: Roma, pronounced [ˈroma]; Latin: Roma) is the capital of Italy and the country’s largest and most populous city, with over 2.7 million residents in a municipality of some 1,285.3 km2 (496.3 sq mi), while the population of the urban area is estimated by Eurostat to be 3.46 million.[2] The metropolitan area of Rome is estimated by OECD to have a population of 3.7 million[3]. It is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber river. Rome’s history as a city spans over two and a half thousand years, as one of the founding cities of Western Civilisation. It was the centre of the Roman Empire, which dominated Europe, North Africa and the Middle East for four hundred years from the 1st Century BC till the 4th Century AD. Rome has a significant place in Christianity and is the present day home of the Roman Catholic Church and the site of the Vatican City, an independent city-state run by the Catholic Church as an enclave of Rome. As one of the few major European cities that escaped World War II relatively unscathed, central Rome remains essentially Renaissance and Baroque in character. Rome is the third-most-visited tourist destination in the European Union,[4] and its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.[5] As a modern city it has been capital of

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the unified Italy since 1870, and grew mainly in two periods either side of World War II.

Rome
Sea, while its population surpassed one million inhabitants.[9] For almost a thousand years, Rome was the most politically important, richest, and largest city in the Western world. After the Empire started to decline and was split, it lost its capital status to Milan and then to Ravenna, and was surpassed in prestige by the Eastern capital Constantinople.

History
From founding to Empire

Fall of the Empire and Middle Ages

Capitoline Wolf suckles the infant twins Romulus and Remus Rome’s early history is shrouded in legend. According to Roman tradition, the city was founded by the twins Romulus and Remus on 21 April 753 BC.[6] Archaeological evidence supports the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built in the area of the future Roman Forum. While some archaeologists argue that Rome was indeed founded in the middle of the 8th century BC, the date is subject to controversy.[7] The original settlement developed into the capital of the Roman Kingdom (ruled by a succession of seven kings, according to tradition), and then the Roman Republic (from 510 BC, governed by the Senate), and finally the Roman Empire (from 27 BC, ruled by an Emperor). This success depended on military conquest, commercial predominance, as well as selective assimilation of neighbouring civilisations, most notably the Etruscans and Greeks. From its foundation Rome, although losing occasional battles, had been undefeated in war until 386 BC, when it was briefly occupied by the Gauls.[8] According to the legend, the Gauls offered to deliver Rome back to its people for a thousand pounds of gold, but the Romans refused, preferring to take back their city by force of arms rather than ever admitting defeat, after which the Romans recovered the city in the same year. Roman dominance expanded over most of Europe and the shores of the Mediterranean

Fifteenth-century miniature depicting the Sack of Rome of 410 With the reign of Constantine I, the Bishop of Rome gained political as well as religious importance, eventually becoming known as the Pope and establishing Rome as the centre of the Catholic Church. After the Sack of Rome in 410 AD by Alaric I and the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD, Rome alternated between Byzantine and Germanic control. Its population declined to a mere 20,000 during the Early Middle Ages, reducing the sprawling city to groups of inhabited buildings interspersed among large areas of ruins and vegetation. Rome remained nominally part of the Byzantine Empire until 751 AD, when the Lombards finally abolished the Exarchate of Ravenna. In 756, Pepin the Short gave the Pope temporal jurisdiction over Rome and surrounding areas, thus

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creating the Papal States. In 846, Muslim Arabs invaded Rome and looted St. Peter’s Basilica.[10] Rome remained the capital of the Papal States until its annexation by the Kingdom of Italy in 1870; the city became a major pilgrimage site during the Middle Ages and the focus of struggles between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire starting with Charlemagne, who was crowned its first emperor in Rome in 800 by Pope Leo III. Apart from brief periods as an independent city during the Middle Ages, Rome kept its status as Papal capital and "holy city" for centuries, even when the Papacy briefly relocated to Avignon (1309–1377).

Rome

Giuseppe Garibaldi defends the Roman Republic in 1849 that Italian troops were able to capture Rome.

Renaissance Rome
The latter half of the 15th century saw the seat of the Italian Renaissance move to Rome from Florence. The Papacy wanted to equal and surpass the grandeur of other Italian cities and to this end created ever more extravagant churches, bridges, and public spaces, including a new Saint Peter’s Basilica, the Sistine Chapel, Ponte Sisto (the first bridge to be built across the Tiber since antiquity), and Piazza Navona. The Popes were also patrons of the arts engaging such artists as Michelangelo, Perugino, Raphael, Ghirlandaio, Luca Signorelli, Botticelli, and Cosimo Rosselli. The period was also infamous for papal corruption, with many Popes fathering children, and engaging in nepotism and simony. The corruption of the Popes and the extravagance of their building projects led, in part, to the Reformation and, in turn, the Counter-Reformation.

20th century
After a victorious World War I, Rome witnessed the rise to power of Italian Fascism guided by Benito Mussolini, who marched on the city in 1922, eventually declaring a new Empire and allying Italy with Nazi Germany. This was a period of rapid growth in population, from 212,000 people at the time of unification to more than 1,000,000, but this trend was halted by World War II, during which Rome was damaged by both Allied forces bombing and Nazi occupation. After the execution of Mussolini and the end of the war, a 1946 referendum abolished the monarchy in favour of the Italian Republic. Rome grew momentously after the war, as one of the driving forces behind the "Italian economic miracle" of post-war reconstruction and modernisation. It became a fashionable city in the 1950s and early 1960s, the years of la dolce vita ("the sweet life"), and a new rising trend in population continued till the mid-1980s, when the commune had more than 2,800,000 residents; after that, population started to slowly decline as more residents moved to nearby suburbs.

Towards the reunification of Italy
Italy became caught up in the nationalistic turmoil of the 19th century and twice gained and lost a short-lived independence. Rome became the focus of hopes of Italian reunification when the rest of Italy was reunited under the Kingdom of Italy with a temporary capital at Florence. In 1861, Rome was declared the capital of Italy even though it was still under the control of the Pope. During the 1860s, the last vestiges of the Papal States were under French protection. And it was only when this was lifted in 1870, owing to the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War,

Administration
Capital of Italy
Rome is the national capital of Italy and is the seat of the Italian Government. The official residences of the President of the Italian Republic and the Italian Prime Minister, the seats of both houses of the Italian Parliament

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Rome

Administrative divisions
Rome is divided into 19 administrative areas, called municipi or municipalities. They were created for administrative reasons to increase decentralisation in the city. Each municipality is governed by a president and a council of four members who are elected by the residents of the municipality every five years. The municipalities frequently cross the boundaries of the traditional, non-administrative divisions of the city. Rome is also divided into differing types of non-administrative divisions. The historic centre is divided into 22 rioni, all of which are located within the Aurelian Walls except Prati and Borgo. After the designation of the newest and last rione, Prati, newer districts of the city were designated as quarters. There are 35 of these and they go all the way to the sea at Ostia, where they are called marine quarters. Rome also has six officially designated suburban zones and 52 agricultural zones. Many of the latter, however, have actually been subject to considerable development.

Rome City Hall and that of the Italian Constitutional Court are located in the historic centre. The state ministries are spread out around the city; these include the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which is located in Palazzo della Farnesina near the Olympic stadium.

City Government

Geography
Location
Rome is in the Lazio region of central Italy on the Tiber river (Italian: Tevere). The original settlement developed on hills that faced onto a ford beside the Tiber island, the only natural ford of the river. The historic centre of Rome was built on seven hills: the Aventine Hill, the Caelian Hill, the Capitoline Hill, the Esquiline Hill, the Palatine Hill, the Quirinal Hill, and the Viminal Hill. The city is also crossed by another river the Aniene which joins the Tiber north of the historic centre. Although the city centre is about 24 km (14.9 mi) inland from the Tyrrhenian Sea, the city territory extends to the shore, where the south-western district of Ostia is located. The altitude of the central part of Rome ranges from 13 m (43 ft) above sea level (at the base of the Pantheon) to 139 m (456 ft) above sea level (the peak of Monte Mario).[11] The Commune of Rome covers an overall area of about 1,285 km2 (496 sq mi), including many green areas.

The 19 municipi of Rome Rome constitutes one of Italy’s 8,101 communes, albeit the largest both by extent and by population. It is governed by a Mayor, currently Gianni Alemanno, and a city council. The seat of the commune is in on the Capitoline Hill the historic seat of government in Rome. The local administration in Rome is commonly referred to as "Campidoglio", the name of the hill in the Roman dialect.

Topography
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Rome
reserves, and for agricultural use. The Province of Rome is the largest by area in Italy. At 5,352 km², its dimensions are comparable to the region of Liguria.

Climate
Rome enjoys a typical Mediterranean climate that is characteristic of the Mediterranean coasts of Italy. It is at its most comfortable from April through June, and from midSeptember to October; in particular, the Roman ottobrate (which can be roughly translated as the "beautiful October days") are famously known as sunny and warm days. By August, the temperature during the heat of the day often exceeds 32 °C (90 °F). Traditionally, many businesses closed during August, and Romans abandoned the city for holiday resorts. In more recent years, however, in response to growing tourism and changing work habits, the city is increasingly staying open for the whole summer. The average high temperature in December is about 13 °C (55 °F), but subzero lows are not uncommon.

Rome seen from satellite Throughout the history of Rome, the urban limits of the city were considered to be the area within the city walls. Originally, these consisted of the Servian Wall, which was built twelve years after the Gaulish sack of the city in 390 BC. This contained most of the Esquiline and Caelian hills, as well as the whole of the other five. Rome outgrew the Servian Wall, but no more walls were constructed until almost 700 years later, when, in 270 AD, Emperor Aurelian began building the Aurelian Walls. These were almost 19 km (12 mi) long, and were still the walls the troops of the Kingdom of Italy had to breach to enter the city in 1870. Modern Romans frequently consider the city’s urban area to be delimited by its ring-road, the Grande Raccordo Anulare, which circles the city centre at a distance of about 10 km. The Commune of Rome, however, covers considerably more territory and extends to the sea at Ostia, the largest town in Italy that is not a commune in its own right. The Commune covers an area roughly three times the total area within the Raccordo and is comparable in area to the entire provinces of Milan and Naples, and to an area six times the size of the territory of these cities. It also includes considerable areas of abandoned marsh land which is suitable neither for agriculture nor for urban development. As a consequence, the density of the Commune is not that high, the communal territory being divided between highly-urbanised areas and areas designated as parks, nature

Demographics

St. Peter’s Basilica from the River Tiber. The iconic dome dominates the skyline of Rome At the time of the Emperor Augustus, Rome was the largest city in the world, and probably the largest built until the 19th century. Estimates of its peak population range from 450,000 to over 3.5 million people, with 1 to 2 million being most popular with historians. Estimates have been made using the weight and consumption of imported grain and the free dole to 20% of the population. In the 1st and 2nd centuries, this suggests an 800,000 1.2 million inhabitants based on various per captia consumption figures. The figure 25.5

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million modii of grain (400 million pounds) in storage in the time of emperor Septimius Severus is taken from the late 4th century Historia Augusta. The city population may have been as high as 600,000 until the loss of the richest North African Provinces in the 430s, 440s, and 450s. Thereafter, the population fell rapidly without grain imports (except for some from Sicily and Sardinia) and the unwillingness of the upper classes to support the continued cost to them after the loss of many of their own estates outside Italy. Moreover, it was not worth the effort to maintain an artificially large population. However, every effort was made to keep the area of the Palatine and Forum intact as well as the largest Baths and some other amenities for a smaller population of 90-150,000. After the fall of the Roman Empire, the city’s population fell dramatically to less than 50,000 people, and continued to either stagnate or shrink until the Renaissance. When the Kingdom of Italy annexed Rome in 1870, the city had a population of about 200,000, which rapidly increased to 600,000 by the eve of World War I. The Fascist regime of Mussolini tried to block an excessive demographic rise of the city, but failed to prevent it from reaching one million people by 1931. After the Second World War, growth continued, helped by a post-war economic boom. A construction boom also created a large number of suburbs during the 1950s and 1960s. Year Population 350 BC 250 BC 44 BC 120 330 410 530 650 30,000 150,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 800,000 700-800,000 90-150,000 70,000 Year Population 1600 100,000 1750 156,000 1800 163,000 1820 139,900 1850 175,000 1853 175,800 1858 182,600 1861 194,500 1871 212,432 1881 273,952 1901 422,411 1911 518,917

Rome
greater Rome area), located in the province of Rome, Lazio, of whom 47.2% were male and 52.8% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled 17.00 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 20.76 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age of a Roman resident is 43 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Rome grew by 6.54 percent, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.56 percent.[13] The current birth rate of Rome is 9.10 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births.

Ethnic Groups
As of 2006, 92.63% of the population was Italian, either born in Rome or coming from other cities in the country. The largest ethnic minority groups came from other European countries (mostly from Romania and Poland): 3.14%, East Asia (mostly Filipino): 1.28%, and the Americas (mostly from Argentina): 1.09%.

Religion
See also: Churches of Rome

1000 20,000 1400 20,000 1526 50,000–60,000 1528 20,000

In 2007, there were 2,718,768 people resident in Rome (some 4 million live in the

Year Population St. Peter’s Square in the Vatican City Map 1921 660,235 de1931 930,926 rest of Italy, Rome is predomMuch like the pictinantly Roman ing 1936 1,150,589 Catholic. Although Rome is late home to the Vatican City and St. Peter’s Ba1951 1,651,754 ansilica, Rome’s cathedral is the Basilica of St. 1961 Lateran, located to the south-east of the cient John 2,188,160 Rome 1971 2,781,993 city-centre. There are around 900 churches in Rome in total, 1981 2,840,259 aside from the cathedral itself, some others of note include: the Basilica 1991 2,775,250 di Santa Maria Maggiore, the Basilica of 2001 2,663,182 Saint Paul Outside the Walls, the Basilica di San 2,718,768 2007 Clemente, San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane and the Church of the Gesu. There are also the ancient Catacombs of Rome underneath the city. Numerous highly important religious educational institutions are also in Rome, such as the Pontifical Lateran University, Pontifical Biblical Institute, Pontifical Gregorian University, and Pontifical Oriental Institute.

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Rome

Cityscape

The Colosseum and the Arch of Constantine

Ancient Rome

Basilica of St. John Lateran, the cathedral of Rome The territory of Vatican City is part of the Mons Vaticanus, and of the adjacent former Vatican Fields, where St. Peter’s Basilica, the Apostolic Palace, the Sistine Chapel, and museums were built, along with various other buildings. The area was part of the Roman rione of Borgo until 1929. Being separated from the city, on the west bank of the Tiber river, the area was an outcrop of the city that was protected by being included within the walls of Leo IV, and later expanded by the current fortification walls of Paul III/Pius IV/Urban VIII. When the Lateran Treaty of 1929 that gave the state its present form was being prepared, the boundaries of the proposed territory was influenced by the fact that much of it was all but enclosed by this loop. For some tracts of the frontier, there was no wall, but the line of certain buildings supplied part of the boundary, and for a small part of the frontier a modern wall was constructed. The territory includes Saint Peter’s Square, distinguished from the territory of Italy only by a white line along the limit of the square, where it touches Piazza Pio XII. St. Peter’s Square is reached through the Via della Conciliazione, which runs from the Tiber River to St. Peter’s. This grand approach was constructed by Benito Mussolini after the conclusion of the Lateran Treaty. According to the Lateran Treaty, certain properties of the Holy See that are located in Italian territory, most notably Castel Gandolfo and the major basilicas, enjoy extraterritorial status similar to that of foreign embassies.

The Pantheon

Bridge of Angels which leads to Castel Sant’Angelo

The Trevi Fountain

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Rome
Torre dei Conti, both next the Roman Forum, and the huge staircase leading to the basilica of Santa Maria in Ara Coeli.

Renaissance and Baroque
Rome was a major world centre of the Renaissance, second only to Florence, and was profoundly affected by the movement. The most impressive masterpiece of Renaissance architecture in Rome is the Piazza del Campidoglio by Michelangelo, along with the Palazzo Senatorio, seat of the city government. During this period, the great aristocratic families of Rome used to build opulent dwellings as the Palazzo del Quirinale (now seat of the President of the Italian Republic), the Palazzo Venezia, the Palazzo Farnese, the Palazzo Barberini, the Palazzo Chigi (now seat of the Italian Prime Minister), the Palazzo Spada, the Palazzo della Cancelleria, and the Villa Farnesina. Rome is also famous for her huge and majestic squares (often adorned with obelisks), many of which were built in the 17th century. The principal squares are Piazza Navona, Piazza di Spagna, Campo de’ Fiori, Piazza Venezia, Piazza Farnese and Piazza della Minerva. One of the most emblematic examples of Baroque art is the Fontana di Trevi by Nicola Salvi. Other notable 17th-century baroque palaces are the Palazzo Madama, now the seat of the Italian Senate and the Palazzo Montecitorio, now the seat of the Chamber of Deputies of Italy.

The Quirinal Palace

Galleria Borghese One of the symbols of Rome is the Colosseum (70–80 AD), the largest amphitheatre ever built in the Roman Empire. Originally capable of seating 60,000 spectators, it was used for gladiatorial combat. A list of important monuments of ancient Rome includes the Roman Forum, the Domus Aurea, the Pantheon, Trajan’s Column, Trajan’s Market, the Catacombs, the Circus Maximus, the Baths of Caracalla, Castel Sant’Angelo, the Mausoleum of Augustus, the Ara Pacis, the Arch of Constantine, the Pyramid of Cestius, and the Bocca della Verità.

Neoclassicism
In 1870, Rome became the capital city of the new Kingdom of Italy. During this time, neoclassicism, a building style influenced by the architecture of antiquity, became a predominant influence in Roman architecture. During this period, many great palaces in neoclassical styles were built to host ministries, embassies, and other governing agencies. One of the best-known symbols of Roman neoclassicism is the Monument of Vittorio Emanuele II or "Altar of the Fatherland", where the Grave of the Unknown Soldier, that represents the 650,000 Italians that fell in World War I, is located.

Medieval
Often overlooked, Rome’s medieval heritage is one of the largest in Italian cities. Basilicas dating from the Paleochristian age include Santa Maria Maggiore and San Paolo Fuori le Mura (the latter largely rebuilt in the 19th century), both housing precious 4th century AD mosaics. Later notable medieval mosaic and fresco art can be also found in the churches of Santa Maria in Trastevere, Santi Quattro Coronati, and Santa Prassede. Lay buildings include a number of towers, the largest being the Torre delle Milizie and the

Fascist architecture
See also: Fascist architecture The Fascist regime that ruled in Italy between 1922 and 1943 developed an architectural style that was characterised by its

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links with ancient Roman architecture. The most important Fascist site in Rome is the E.U.R district, designed in 1938 by Marcello Piacentini. It was originally conceived for the 1942 world exhibition, and was called "E.42" ("Esposizione 42"). The world exhibition, however, never took place because Italy entered the Second World War in 1940. The most representative building of the Fascist style at E.U.R. is the Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana (1938–1943), the iconic design of which has been labelled the cubic or Square Colosseum. After World War II, the Roman authorities found that they already had the seed of an off-centre business district of the type that other capitals were still planning (London Docklands and La Défense in Paris). Also the Palazzo della Farnesina, the current seat of Italian Foreign Ministry, was designed in 1935 in Fascist style.

Rome

Eni’s headquarters in EUR, Rome’s business district it is largely dominated by services, high-technology companies (IT, aerospace, defense, telecommunications), research, construction and commercial activities (especially banking), and the huge development of tourism are very dynamic and extremely important to its economy. Rome’s international airport, Fiumicino, is the largest in Italy, and the city hosts the head offices of the vast majority of the major Italian companies, as well as the headquarters of three of the world’s 100 largest companies: Enel, Eni, and Telecom Italia.[16] Universities, national radio and television and the movie industry in Rome are also important parts of the economy: Rome is also the hub of the Italian film industry, thanks to the Cinecittà studios, working since the 1930s. The city is also a centre for banking and insurance as well as electronics, energy, transport, and aerospace industries. Numerous international companies and agencies headquarters, government ministries, conference centres, sports venues, and museums are located in Rome’s principal business districts: the Esposizione Universale Roma (EUR); the Torrino (further south from the EUR); the Magliana; the Parco de’ MediciLaurentina and the so-called Tiburtina-valley along the ancient Via Tiburtina. Tourism is inevitably one of Rome’s chief industries, with numerous notable museums including the Vatican Museum, the Borghese Gallery, and the Musei Capitolini: in 2005 the city registered 19.5 million of global visitors, up of 22.1% from 2001.[15] In 2006 Rome has been visited by 6.03 million of international tourists, reaching the 8th place in the ranking of the world’s 150 most visited cities.[17]

Parks and gardens
Public parks and nature reserves cover a large area in Rome, and the city has one of the largest areas of green space amongst European capitals.[14] The most notable part of this green space is represented by the large number of villas and landscaped gardens created by the Italian aristocracy. While many villas were destroyed during the building boom of the late 19th century, a great many remain. The most notable of these are Villa Borghese, Villa Ada, and Villa Doria Pamphili. Rome has a number of regional parks of much more recent origin including the Pineto Regional Park and the Appian Way Regional Park. There are also nature reserves at Marcigliana and at Tenuta di Castelporziano.

Economy
With a 2005 GDP of €94.376 billion (US$121.5 billion),[15] the city produces 6.7% of the national GDP (more than any other single city in Italy), and its unemployment rate, lowered from 11.1% to 6.5% between 2001 and 2005, is now one of the lowest rates of all the European Union capital cities.[15] Rome grows +4,4% annually and continues to grow at a higher rate in comparison to any other city in the rest of the country.[15] Although the economy of Rome is characterized by the absence of heavy industry and

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Rome

Culture
Historic Centre of Rome, the Properties of the Holy See in that City Enjoying Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo Fuori le Mura* UNESCO World Heritage Site

Music
Rome is an important centre for music. It hosts the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia (founded in 1585), for which new concert halls have been built in the new Parco della Musica, one of the largest musical venues in the world. Rome also has an opera house, the Teatro dell’Opera di Roma, as well as several minor musical institutions. The city also played host to the Eurovision Song Contest in 1991 and the MTV Europe Music Awards in 2004.

Cinema
Type Criteria Reference Region** Cultural i, ii, iii, iv, vi 91 Europe and North America

Inscription history Inscription Extensions 1980 (4th Session) 1990

* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List. ** Region as classified by UNESCO.

Education
Rome is a nation-wide centre for higher education. Its first university, La Sapienza (founded in 1303), is the largest in Europe and the second-largest in the world, with more than 150,000 students attending. Two new public universities were founded: Tor Vergata in 1982, and Roma Tre in 1992, although the latter has now become larger than the former. Rome also contains a large number of pontifical universities and institutes, including the Pontifical Gregorian University (The oldest Jesuit university in the world, founded in 1551), the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas, and many others. The city also hosts various private universities, such as the LUMSA, the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Roman centre), the LUISS, Istituto Europeo di Design, the St. John’s University, the John Cabot University, the IUSM, the American University of Rome, the Scuola Lorenzo de’ Medici, the Link Campus of Malta, the S. Pio V University of Rome, and the Università Campus Bio-Medico. Rome is also the location of the John Felice Rome Center, a campus of Loyola University Chicago.

Set of Gangs of New York in Cinecittà studios, Rome Rome hosts the Cinecittà Studios, the largest film and television production facility in continental Europe and the centre of the Italian cinema, where a large number of today’s biggest box office hits are filmed. The 99-acre (40-ha) studio complex is 5.6 miles (9 km) from the centre of Rome and is part of one of the biggest production communities in the world, second only to Hollywood, with well over 5,000 professionals — from period costume makers to visual effects specialists. More than 3,000 productions have been made on its lot, from recent features like The Passion of the Christ, Gangs of New York, HBO’s Rome, The Life Aquatic and Dino De Laurentiis’ Decameron, to such cinema classics as Ben-Hur, Cleopatra, and the films of Federico Fellini. Founded in 1937 by Benito Mussolini, the studios were bombed by the Western Allies during the Second World War. In the 1950s, Cinecittà was the filming location for several large American film productions, and subsequently became the studio most closely

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associated with Federico Fellini. Today Cinecittà is the only studio in the world with preproduction, production, and full post-production facilities on one lot, allowing directors and producers to walk in with their script and "walk out" with a completed film.

Rome

Language
The original language of Rome was Latin, which evolved during the Middle Ages into Italian. The latter emerged as the confluence of various regional dialects, among which the Tuscan dialect predominated, but the population of Rome also developed its own dialect, the Romanesco. The ancient romanesco, used during the Middle Ages, was a southern Italian dialect, very close to the Neapolitan. The influence of the Florentine culture during the renaissance, and, above all, the immigration to Rome of many Florentines, amongst them the two Medici Popes (Leo X and Clement VII) and their suite, caused a major shift in the dialect, which began to resemble more the Tuscan varieties (the immigration of Florentines was mainly due to the Sack of Rome in 1527 and the subsequent demographic decrease). This remained largely confined to Rome until the 19th century, but then expanded to other zones of Lazio (Civitavecchia, Latina), from the beginning of the 20th century, thanks to the rising population of Rome and to better transportation systems. As a consequence, Romanesco abandoned its traditional forms to mutate into the dialect spoken within the city, which is more like standard Italian, although it remains distinct from the other Romanesco-influenced local dialects of Lazio. Dialectal literature in the traditional form Romanesco includes the works of such authors as Giuseppe Gioachino Belli, Trilussa, and Cesare Pascarella. Contemporary Romanesco is mainly represented by popular actors such as Aldo Fabrizi, Alberto Sordi, Nino Manfredi, Anna Magnani, Gigi Proietti, Enrico Montesano, and Carlo Verdone.

Stadio Olimpico stadium for local Serie A clubs A.S. Roma and S.S. Lazio, whose rivalry has become a staple of Roman sports culture. Indeed, famous footballers who play for these teams and are also born in the city tend to become especially popular, as has been the case with players such as Francesco Totti and Daniele De Rossi (both for A.S. Roma). While far from being as popular as football, Rugby union is gaining wider acceptance. The Stadio Flaminio is the home stadium for the Italy national rugby union team, which has been playing in the Six Nations Championship since 2000, albeit with less than satisfactory performances, as they have never won the championship so far. Rome is home to local rugby teams, such as Unione Rugby Capitolina, Rugby Roma, and S.S. Lazio. Every May, Rome hosts the ATP Masters Series tennis tournament on the clay courts of the Foro Italico. Cycling was immensely popular in the post-WWII period, although its popularity has faded in the last decades; Rome has hosted the final portion of the Giro d’Italia twice, in 1989 and 2000. Rome is also home to many other sports teams, including basketball (Virtus Roma), volleyball (M. Roma Volley), handball or waterpolo.

Sports
Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics and is an official candidate to hosting the 2020 Summer Olympics. Football is the most popular sport in Rome, as in the rest of the country. The Olympic Stadium hosted the final game of the 1990 FIFA World Cup; it is also the home

Transportation
Rome is at the centre of the radial network of roads that roughly follow the lines of the ancient roman roads that began at the Capitoline Hill and connected Rome with its empire. Today Rome is circled, at a distance of about 10 km (6 mi), by the ring-road called the Grande Raccordo Anulare.

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Rome
creation of night-time ZTLs in those districts, and there are also plans to create another night-time ZTL in Testaccio.

Roma Termini railway station Due to its location in the centre of the Italian peninsula, Rome is a principal railway node for central Italy. Rome’s main train station, Termini, is one of the biggest train stations in Europe and the most heavily-used in Italy, with around 400 thousand travellers passing through every day. The secondlargest station in the city, Roma Tiburtina, is currently being redeveloped as a high-speed rail terminus.[18] Rome is also served by three airports. The intercontinental Leonardo Da Vinci International Airport is Italy’s chief airport and is more commonly known as "Fiumicino Airport", as it is located within the nearby Commune of Fiumicino, south-west of Rome. The older Rome Ciampino Airport is a joint civilian and military airport. It is more commonly referred to as "Ciampino Airport", as it is located beside Ciampino, south-east of Rome. A third airport, the Aeroporto dell’Urbe, is a small, low-traffic airport located about 6 km north of the city centre, which handles most helicopter and private flights. The city suffers from considerable traffic problems largely due to this radial street pattern, making it difficult for Romans to move easily from the vicinity of one of the radial roads to another without going into the historic centre or using the ring-road. Problems that are not helped by limited size of Rome’s metro system when compared to other cities of similar size. In addition, Rome has only 21 taxis for every 10,000 inhabitants, far below other major European cities.[19] Chronic congestion caused by cars during the 1970s and 1980s led to restrictions being placed on vehicle access to the inner city-centre during the hours of daylight. Areas where these restriction apply are known as Limited Traffic Zones (Zona a Traffico Limitato (ZTL) in Italian). More recently, heavy night-time traffic in Trastevere and San Lorenzo has led to the

Metropolitana of Rome A 2-line metro system called the Metropolitana operates in Rome. Construction on the first branch started in the 1930s. The line had been planned to quickly connect the main train station with the newly-planned E42 area in the southern suburbs, where the 1942 World Fair was supposed to be held. The event never took place because of war. The area was later partly redesigned and renamed EUR (Esposizione Universale di Roma: Rome Universal Exhibition) in the 1950s to serve as a modern business district. The line was finally opened in 1955, and it is now part of the B Line. The A line opened in 1980 from Ottaviano to Anagnina stations, later extended in stages (1999 – 2000) to Battistini. In the 1990s, an extension of the B line was opened from Termini to Rebibbia. This underground network is generally reliable (although it may become very congested at peak times and during events, especially the A line) as it is relatively short. As of 2005, its total length is 38 km (24 mi). The two existing lines, A & B, intersect at Roma Termini station. A new branch of the B line (B1) is under construction with an estimated cost of €500 million. It is scheduled to open in 2010. B1 will connect to line B at Piazza Bologna and will have 4 stations over a distance of 3.9 km (2 mi). A third line, line C, is under construction with an estimated cost of €3 billion and will have 30 stations over a distance of 25.5 km (16 mi). It will partly replace the existing Rail Road line, Termini-Pantano. It will feature full automated, driverless trains.[20] The first section is due to open in 2011 and the final sections in 2015, but archaeological findings often delay

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underground construction work. A fourth line, line, is also planned. It will have 22 stations over a distance of 20 km (12 mi). The first section is projected to open in 2015 and the final sections before 2035. Above-ground public transport in Rome is made up of a bus and tram network. This network is run by Trambus S.p.A. under the auspices of ATAC S.p.A. (which originally stood for the Bus and Tram Agency of the Commune, Azienda Tranvie ed Autobus del Comune in Italian). The bus network is currently made up of in excess of 350 bus lines and over 8 thousand bus stops, whereas the more-limited tram system currently has 39 km of track and 192 stops.[21]

Rome
(FAO), and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). Rome has traditionally been heavily involved in the process of European political integration. In 1957, the city hosted the signing of the Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community (predecessor to the European Union), and also played host to the official signing of the proposed European Constitution in July 2004. Rome is the seat of the NATO Defence College and is the place where the Statute of the International Criminal Court was formulated.

Sister and partner cities
Rome has one sister city, and a number of partner cities:

International entities, organisations and involvement

Sister city
• Paris, France (French: Seule Paris est digne de Rome; seule Rome est digne de Paris; Italian: Solo Parigi è degna di Roma; solo Roma è degna di Parigi; English: Only Paris is worthy of Rome; only Rome is worthy of Paris).[22]

Partner cities
• Achacachi, Bolivia. FAO headquarters in Rome Rome is unique in having a sovereign state located entirely within its city limits, the Vatican City. The Vatican is a enclave of Rome and a sovereign possession of the Holy See, the supreme government of the Roman Catholic Church. Rome hosts foreign embassies to both Italy and the Holy See, although frequently the same ambassador is accredited to both. Another body, the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), took refuge in Rome in 1834 after having lost Malta to Napoleon. It is sometimes classified as having sovereignty but does not claim any territory in Rome or anywhere else, hence leading to dispute over its actual sovereign status. Rome is also the seat of significant international organisations of the United Nations, such as the World Food Programme (WFP), the Food and Agriculture Organization • Marbella, Spain. • Algiers, Algeria. • Beijing, China. • Belgrade, Serbia. • Brasília, Brazil. • Montreal, Canada. • New York City, United States. • Tongeren, Belgium. • • London, United Kingdom. • Tokyo, Japan. • • Cincinnati, United States. Kiev, Ukraine. • Seoul, South Korea. • Sydney, Australia. Cairo, Egypt. • Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

See also
• • • • Churches of Rome Glocal Forum, headquartered in Rome Large Cities Climate Leadership Group List of ancient monuments in Rome

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• Shopping areas and markets in Rome

Rome

[14] "Green Areas". RomaPerKyoto.org. http://www.romaperkyoto.org/ index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=35& Retrieved on 2008-11-09. [1] ISTAT. "Monthly demographic balance [15] ^ Rapporto Censis 2006 January-November 2008". [16] DeCarlo, Scott (2006-03-30). "The http://demo.istat.it/bilmens2008gen/ World’s 2000 Largest Public index_e.html. Retrieved on 2009-04-27. Companies". Forbes. [2] "Urban Audit". Urbanaudit.org. http://www.forbes.com/2006/03/29/ http://www.urbanaudit.org/ 06f2k_worlds-largest-publicDataAccessed.aspx. Retrieved on companies_land.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-03. 2007-01-16. [3] OECD. "Competitive Cities in the Global [17] Caroline Bremner (2007-10-11). "Top Economy". http://213.253.134.43/oecd/ 150 City Destinations: London Leads the pdfs/browseit/0406041E.PDF. Retrieved Way". Euromonitor International. on 2009-04-30. http://www.euromonitor.com/ [4] "Top 150 City Destinations London Leads Top_150_City_Destinations_London_Leads_the_Way. the Way". Euromonitor International. Retrieved on 2008-08-03. This article Caroline Bremner. has the complete list of 150 cities http://www.euromonitor.com/ [18] — Entry on Roma Tiburtina station on Top_150_City_Destinations_London_Leads_the_Way. official website of the Italian highthe Retrieved on 2008-11-09. speed rail service (in Italian) [5] "Historic Centre of Rome, the Properties [19] "Central Rome Streets Blocked by Taxi of the Holy See in that City Enjoying Drivers". New York Times. 2007-11-30. Extraterritorial Rights and San Paolo http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/30/ Fuori le Mura". UNESCO World Heritage world/europe/ Center. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/91. 30rome.html?scp=93&sq=Rome&st=nyt. Retrieved on 2008-06-08. Retrieved on 2008-02-10. [6] "Rome: Pre-20th-Century History". [20] Kington, Tom (2007-05-14). "Roman Lonely Planet. remains threaten metro". Guardian. http://www.lonelyplanet.com/worldguide/ http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/ italy/rome/history. Retrieved on may/14/italy.artnews. Retrieved on 2008-07-04. 2008-08-10. [7] Wilford, John Nobel (2007-06-12). "More [21] The figures are from the ATAC website Clues in the Legend (or Is It Fact?) of (in Italian). Romulus". New York Times. [22] "International relations: Special http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/12/ partners". Portal of the City of Paris. science/12rome.html. Retrieved on http://www.v1.paris.fr/EN/ 2008-08-11. city_government/international/ [8] Livy, Book 5. special_partners.asp. Retrieved on [9] Population crises and cycles in history. A 2008-11-09. review of the book Population Crises and Population cycles by Claire Russell and W.M.S. Russell. [10] Italian Peninsula, 500–1000 A.D., The • Lucentini, Mario (2002) (in Italian). La Metropolitan Museum of Art Grande Guida di Roma. Rome: Newton & [11] Ravaglioli, Armando (1997) (in Italian). Compton Editori. ISBN 88-8289-053-8. Roma anno 2750 ab Urbe condita. Rome: • Spoto, Salvatore (1999) (in Italian). Roma Tascabili Economici Newton. ISBN Esoterica. Rome: Newton & Compton 888183670X. Editori. ISBN 88-8289-265-4. [12] "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for • Richard Brilliant (2006). Roman Art. An Rome". http://www.weatherbase.com/ American’s View. Rome: Di Renzo Editore. weather/ ISBN 88-8323-085-X. weatherall.php3?s=124261&refer=&units=metric. [13] Statistiche demografiche ISTAT

References

Notes

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Rome
• Rome Museums — Official site (Italian) • Vatican Museums (English) • Capitoline Museums (English) Other • Rome travel guide from Wikitravel • Rome travel guides at the Open Directory Project • City models of Ancient Rome

Documentaries
• The Holy Cities: Rome produced by Danae Film Production, distributed by HDH Communications; 2006.

External links
Official • Official site of the City of Rome (Italian) • APT (official Tourist Office) of the City of Rome (English)

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rome" Categories: Rioni of Rome, Cities and towns in the Lazio, Communes of the Province of Rome, Host cities of the Summer Olympic Games, World Heritage Sites in Italy, Rome, Capitals in Europe, Settlements established in the 8th century BC, Ancient cities, Holy cities This page was last modified on 17 May 2009, at 16:44 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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