Seoul by zzzmarcus


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Seul redirects here. For other uses, see seul (disambiguation).
Seoul ?? — Metropolitan City — Seoul Special City transcription(s) - Hangul - Hanja - Revised Romanization - McCuneReischauer ?? ??? ?? ??? Seoul Teukbyeolsi Sŏul T’ŭkpyŏlsi
Map of South Korea with Seoul highlighted

Coordinates: 37°33′0″N 126°59′0″E / 37.55°N 126.98333°E / 37.55; 126.98333Coordinates: 37°33′0″N 126°59′0″E / 37.55°N 126.98333°E / 37.55; 126.98333 Country Region Districts South Korea Seoul National Capital Area 25 Dobong District (???; ???) Dongdaemun District (??? ?; ????) Dongjak District (???; ???) Eunpyeong District (???; ???) Gangbuk District (???; ???) Gangdong District (???; ???) Gangnam District (???; ???) Gangseo District (???; ???) Geumcheon District (???; ???) Guro District (???; ???) Gwanak District (???; ???) Gwangjin District (???; ???) Jongno District (???; ???) Jung District (??; ??) Jungnang District (???; ???) Mapo District (???; ???) Nowon District (???; ???) Seocho District (???; ???) Seodaemun District (????; ????) Seongbuk District (???;

1st row from left to right: N Seoul Tower • Cheonggyecheon 2nd row from left to right: Namdaemun • Gangnam 3rd row from left to right: Gyeongbokgung • Han River (Korea)

Flag Emblem of Seoul


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???) Seongdong District (???; ???) Songpa District (???; ???) Yangcheon District (???; ???) Yeongdeungpo District (? ???; ????) Yongsan District (???; ???) Government - Type - Mayor Area - Metropolitan City Population (2007) - Metropolitan City - Density - Metro - Dialect Flower Tree Bird Website Seoul Metropolitan Government Oh Se-hoon 605.25 km2 (233.7 sq mi)

Heritage Sites: Changdeokgung, Hwaseong Fortress and the Jongmyo Shrine.[4] Seoul’s influence as a leading business, financial, technology and cultural center contributes to its status as a major global city.[5] It has hosted many international events, most notably the 1988 Summer Olympics and the 2002 FIFA World Cup. Seoul is one of the world’s top ten financial and commercial cities[6] and is home to some of the world’s largest conglomerates[7] such as Samsung, LG and Hyundai-Kia. In 2008, Seoul was named the world’s sixth most economically powerful city by, ahead of Paris and Los Angeles.[8] It is also the fifth most expensive city in the world and the second most expensive city in Asia.[9] Seoul has one of the world’s most technologically advanced infrastructures,[10] and the Digital Media City in Mapo is the world’s first complex for high-tech technologies and a test-bed for futuristic IT and multimedia applications.[11] Today, Seoul is the only city in the world featuring DMB, a digital mobile TV technology and WiBro, a wireless high-speed mobile internet service, as well as a 100Mbits fast fibre-optic broadband network, which is being upgraded to 1Gbps by 2012.[12] Seoul Station houses 300 km/h KTX bullet trains and the Seoul Subway is currently the third largest in the world, with over 2 billion passengers every year.[13]

10,421,782 17,219/km2 (44,597/ sq mi) 24,472,063 Seoul Forsythia Ginkgo Magpie

Seoul ( listen IPA: [sʌ.ul]) is the capital and largest city of South Korea. With a population of over 10 million, it is one of the world’s largest cities.[1] The Seoul National Capital Area - which includes the major port city of Incheon and satellite towns in Gyeonggi-do, has 24.5 million inhabitants[2] and is the world’s second largest metropolitan area.[3] Almost half of South Korea’s population live in the Seoul National Capital Area, and nearly a quarter in Seoul itself, making it the country’s chief economic, political and cultural center. As a Special City, Seoul is administered directly by the national government and is divided into 25 major districts. The city is located on the basin of the Han River in the country’s north-west. An important settlement for over two millennia, Seoul’s history dates back to 18 BC, when Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, established its capital Wirye-seong in what is now south-east Seoul. Modern Seoul descends from the Goryeo-era city of Namgyeong, which then became the capital of Korea during the Joseon dynasty. The Seoul National Capital Area includes three UNESCO World

See also: Names of Seoul The city has been known in the past by the names Wirye-seong (???; ???, Baekje era), Hanju (??; ??, Silla era), Namgyeong (??; ??, Goryeo era), Hanseong (??; ??, Baekje and Joseon era), Hanyang (??; ??, Joseon era), Gyeongseong (??; ??, Joseon and Japanese Occupation era). Its current name originated from the Korean word meaning "capital city," which is believed to be derived from Seorabeol (???; ???), which originally referred to Gyeongju, the capital of Silla.[14] Unlike most place names in Korea, "Seoul" has no corresponding hanja (Chinese characters used in the Korean language). The recently chosen Chinese name for Seoul is ?? (simplified), ?? (traditional) (Shǒuěr), which sounds somewhat similar to "Seoul" when pronounced in Mandarin Chinese.[15]


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Namsan mountain and Seoul Tower. Gyeongbokgung palace. The history of Seoul can be traced back as far as 18 BC, when it was established as a settlement in Baekje, Wirye-seong. It’s believed that the Wirye-seong site is in the boundaries of modern day Seoul and Present Pungnap Toseong or Mongchon Toseong remains believed as the site. It has thereafter been the capital of the Joseon Dynasty. Seoul as a capital of South Korea, has a history of more 610 years since 1394 the year it was designate as a capital of Joseon Dynasty. In the Japanese colonization period in the early 20th century, many historical and traditional parts of Seoul were changed. The city was almost entirely destroyed in the Korean War, but an aggressive economic policy in the 1960s and 1970s helped to rebuild the city very rapidly. In the 1990s, some important historical buildings were restored, including Gyeongbokgung, one of the most royal palaces and the king’s dwelling of the Joseon dynasty. J F M A M J J A S O N D

0.9 1

1.9 3.7 3.6 5.3 15 12 6.7 2

2.1 0.8

34 37 50 63 73 79 84 86 79 68 52 39 19 23 32 45 55 63 72 72 63 50 37 25 average temperatures in °F precipitation totals in inches Seoul is in northwest South Korea. Seoul proper comprises 605.39 km² of area, roughly bisected into northern and southern halves by the Han River. The Han River and its surrounding area played an important role in Korean history. The Three Kingdoms of Korea strove to take control of this land, where the river was used as a trade route to China (via the Yellow Sea). However, the river is no longer actively used for navigation, because its estuary is located at the borders of the two Koreas, barred for entrance by any civilian. The city is bordered by eight mountains, as well as the more level lands of the Han River plain and western areas.

Climate chart for Seoul J F M A M J J A S O N


In common with the rest of South Korea, D Seoul has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dwa), despite the fact that the country is surrounded on three sides by water.[16] Summers are generally 23 25 47 94 92 134 369 294 169 50 53 21 hot and humid, with monsoons taking place 1 3 10 17 23 26 29 30 26 20 11 4 from June until July. August, the hottest -7 -5 0 7 13 17 22 22 17 10 3 -4month, has an average temperature of 72 °F to 86 °F (22°C to 30°C) with higher temperaverage temperatures in °C atures possible. Winters are often very cold precipitation totals in mm with an average January temperature of 19 source: °F to 33 °F (-7°C to 1°C) and are generally Imperial conversion much drier than summers, although there are


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28 days of snow in Seoul in each year on average. • Gangnam District (???; ???) • Gangseo District (???; ???) • Geumcheon District (???; ???) • Guro District (?? ?; ???) • Gwanak District (???; ???) • Gwangjin District (???; ???) • Jongno District (? ??; ???)

• Seongbuk District (???; ???) • Seongdong District (???; ???) • Songpa District (? ??; ???) • Yangcheon District (???; ???) • Yeongdeungpo District (????; ????) • Yongsan District (???; ???)

Administrative divisions
Seoul is divided into 25 gu (?; ?) (district).[17] The gu vary greatly in area (from 10 to 47 km²) and population (from less than 140,000 to 630,000). Songpa has the most people, while Seocho, the largest area. The government of each gu handles many of the functions that are handled by city governments in other jurisdictions. Each gu is divided into "dong" (?; ?) or neighbourhoods. Some gu have only a few dong while others like Jongno-gu have a very large number of distinct neighborhoods. Gu of Seoul consist of 522 administrative dongs (???) in total.[17] Dong are also sub-divided into 13,787 tong (?; ?), which are further divided into 102,796 ban in total.

Nearly all of Seoul’s residents are Korean, with some small Chinese and Japanese minorities. A rapidly growing population of international residents now represent about 2% of the total population.[18] The city’s population surpassed 10,421,000 as of the end of 2007 and the number of foreigners was 229,000, constituting 2.2 percent of the population.[19] The two major religions in Seoul are Buddhism and Christianity. Other religions include Shamanism and Confucianism, the latter seen more as a pervasive social philosophy rather than a religion.


Seoul Districts • Dobong District (???; ???) • Dongdaemun District (????; ????) • Dongjak District (???; ???) • Eunpyeong District (???; ???) • Gangbuk District (???; ???) • Gangdong District (???; ???) • Jung District (??; ??) • Jungnang District (???; ???) • Mapo District (?? ?; ???) • Nowon District (?? ?; ???) • Seocho District (?? ?; ???) • Seodaemun District (????; ????)

Seocho Samsung Town. As the headquarters for Samsung, LG, Hyundai and Kia, Seoul has become a major business hub in Asia. Although Seoul accounts for only 0.6 percent of South Korea’s land area, it generates 21 percent of the country’s entire GDP.[20] With a GDP of over $200 billion, It is the fourth largest in Asia


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N Seoul Tower. and one of the top twenty largest in the world.[21]

Teheranno, colloquially known as “Teheran Valley”.

Financial hub
As a major business and financial center, Seoul ranks sixth in the world in terms of the number of transnational companies headquartered there.[22] Many international banks have branches in Seoul, including Citigroup,Deutsche Bank,HSBC and Mizuho Financial Group. One of the largest exchange banks, the Korea Exchange Bank, is also headquartered in Seoul.

• Dongdaemun Market - The largest shopping center in South Korea. • Namdaemun Market - The oldest continually running and the largest retail market in Seoul. • Myeongdong - It has mid to high priced retail stores and international brand outlets. • Insadong - A traditional street where you can see many art and antique stores.

Sejongno. • Apgujeong-dong - It contains many upscale department stores, shops, boutiques and restaurants. • Itaewon - International shops and restaurants as well as having traditional antique stores. • Sinchon - A shopping area that caters mainly to a young crowd and university students.


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Yeouido banking and financial district. Galleria department store.

Gangnam. Central Seoul, Jongno.

Yeouido at night. • Yongsan Electronics Market - The largest electronics market in the whole of Asia. • Hwanghak-dong Flea Market • Changanpyeong Antique Market • Noryangjin Fisheries Wholesale Market • Garak Market • Gasan Digital Complex The largest market in South Korea, the Dongdaemun Market, is located in Seoul. Myeongdong is a shopping and entertainment area in downtown Seoul which contains some of the city’s top stores and fashion boutiques. Apgujeong. Nearby is the Namdaemun Market named after the Namdaemun Gate. Insadong is the cultural art market of Seoul, where traditional and modern Korean artworks, such as paintings, sculptures and calligraphy are sold. Itaewon is another notable shopping district in the city lined with boutiques and stores, mainly catering to foreign tourists and American soldiers based in the city. Shinchon is particularly popular with young


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Yongsan digital plaza.


Myeongdong. people perhaps due to its proximity to some of Seoul’s universities. The Gangnam district is one of the most affluent areas in Seoul and has popular modern shopping spots such as the fashionable and upscale Apgujeong-dong area and the COEX Mall.


There is a large number of universities in Seoul. Most of the country’s most prestigious universities are located in Seoul.



Historical structures and museums
The Joseon Dynasty built "Five Grand Palaces" in Seoul : • Changdeokgung (???; ???) • Changgyeonggung (???; (???) • Deoksugung (???; ???) • Gwangtonggwan (Hangul: ???; Hanja: ???) • Gyeongbokgung (???; ???)



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Sookmyung Women’s University.

Hana Square, Korea University.

National Folk Museum of Korea. Confucian shrine Jongmyo, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. • Gyeonghuigung (???; ???) Korean royal residence : • Unhyeongung (???; ???) Other Historial Places : • Pungnap Toseong (????; ????) - A flat earthen wall built at the edge of the Han River, widely believed to be the site of Wiryeseong. • Mongchon Toseong (????; ????) - A earthen wall built during Baekje period, located inside the Olympic Park, Seoul. • Seodaemun Prison (??? ???; ??????) - A museum and former prison during the rule of Japan over Korea. • Amsa-dong Preshistoric Settlement Site (? ?? ?????; ????????) - In which Neolithic remains were excavated and accidentally discovered by a flood in 1925 in Amsadong. • Sungnyemun (???; ???) - A historic and the oldest wooden gate located in the heart of Seoul. • Heunginjimun (????; ????) - A prominent landmark in central Seoul near the largest shopping center Dongdaemun Market.


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National Museum of Korea.

Seoul Olympic Park.

World Peace Gate.

Seoul World Cup Stadium.

COEX Convention & Exhibition Center. • Castle Walls of Seoul (?? ??; ????) - A remaining walls of Seoul (Hanseong; Han castle) during Joseon Dynasty. • Independence Gate (???; ???) - Built for desire towards inspiring the spirit of independence, in 1897. • Myeongdong Cathedral (????; ????) - A neighborhood landmark and a symbol of

Lotte World. Christianity in Korea and of political dissidents. • Wongudan (???; ???) - The Korean equivalent of the Chinese Temple of Heaven. • Bank of Korea (????; ????) - Established on June 12, 1950 under the Bank of Korea Act.


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• Seoul Station (???; ???) - Opened in 1900 as "Gyeongseong Station," and resembles Tokyo Station Building.

In addition, Seoul is also home to the world’s largest indoor amusement park, Lotte World. Other recreation centres include the former Olympic and World Cup stadiums and the City Hall’s public lawn.

• National Museum of Korea (???????; ????? ??) • National Folk Museum (???????; ???????) • War Memorial (?????; ?????) Outside the metropolitan area: • Namhan sanseong (????; ????) • Bukhan sanseong (????; ????) • Namsan Park (????; ????)

Seoul hosted the 1986 Asian Games, 1988 Olympic Games and Paralympic Games. It also served as one of the host cities of the 2002 FIFA World Cup. Seoul World Cup Stadium hosted the opening ceremony and first game of the tournament. Taekwondo is Korea’s national sport and Seoul is the location of the Kukkiwon, also known as the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF), the world headquarters of taekwondo.

Temples and shrines
• • • • • • Jongmyo (??; ??) Dongmyo (??; ??) Munmyo (??; ??) Jogyesa (???; ???) Hwagyesa (???; ???) Bongeunsa (???; ???)

The city is home to three baseball clubs in the KBO: Doosan Bears, LG Twins and Seoul Heroes. Seoul is also home to two basketball clubs in the KBL: Seoul Samsung Thunders and Seoul SK Knights. There is one professional football club in Seoul, FC Seoul, which plays in the KLeague. Two K3 League teams are based in the capital, Seoul United and Seoul Martys. Seoul also has a professional volleyball club Seoul Woori Capital, which will debut in 2009-2010 season.

Korean Traditional Villages
• Bukchon Hanok Village (??????; ??????) • Namsangol Hanok Village (???????; ?????? ?) In the Seoul Metropolitan Area • Korean Folk Village (?? ???; ?????)

See also: List of parks in Seoul • Namsan (Seoul) - It offers some hiking, recreation and views of downtown Seoul’s skyline. The N Seoul Tower is located. • Olympic Park, Seoul - An Olympic Park built to host the 1988 Summer Olympics. • Tapgol Park - A small (19,599 m²) public park and it has the Wongaksa Pagoda 10 tier pagoda (National Treasure No.2). • Tancheon - It is a stream and the near area serves as a large park with paths for both walkers and cyclists. • Cheonggyecheon - is a nearly 6 km long in downtown Seoul and a very popular place among Seoul residents and tourists. Seoul’s metropolitan area accommodates six major parks, including Seoul Forest, which opened in mid-2005. The Seoul National Capital Area also contains a green belt aimed to prevent the city from sprawling out over the neighboring Gyeonggi Province. These areas are frequently sought after by people resting on the weekend and during vacations.

Seoul’s transportation dates back to the era of the Korean Empire, when the first streetcar lines were laid and a railroad linking Seoul and Incheon was completed. Seoul hosts more than three million registered vehicles and widespread traffic congestion is common.

Seoul’s bus system is operated by the Seoul Metropolitan Government, with four primary bus configurations available servicing most of the city. Seoul has many big intercity/express bus terminals. These buses are connecting Seoul and cities all around Korea. Major bus terminals are • Seoul Express Bus Terminal in Seocho-gu • Central City in Seocho-gu • Seoul Nambu Terminal, also in Seocho-gu


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Express Bus Terminal on Seoul Subway Line 9.

Yongsan Station. Seoul has a comprehensive subway network that interlinks every district of the city with one another and the surrounding area. With more than 8 million passengers a day, Seoul has one of the busiest subway systems in the world. The Seoul Metropolitan Subway has 12 lines which serves Seoul, Incheon, Gyeonggi province and northern Chungnam province. In addition, in order to cope with all of these transportation modes, Seoul’s metropolitan government employs several mathematicians to coordinate the subway, bus, and traffic schedules into one timetable. The various lines are run by Korail, Seoul Metro and Seoul Metropolitan Rapid Transit Corporation.

Natural Gas powered New Super AeroCity Bus. • Dong Seoul Bus Terminal in Gwangjin-gu • Sangbong Terminal in Jungnang-gu To reduce air pollution in the city, the government is planning to change over seven thousand of Seoul’s diesel engine buses with natural gas by 2010.[23]



KTX bullet train on Seoul Station. Seoul is connected to every major city in Korea by railroad. Seoul is also linked to most major Korean cities by the KTX highspeed train, which has a normal operation speed of more than 300 km/h. Major railroad stations include:

Seoul Subway Line 2.


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AREX train connecting Incheon and Gimpo Airport. • Seoul Station, Jung-gu - Gyeongbu line (KTX/Saemaul/Mugunghwa-ho), Gyeongui line (Saemaul/Commuter) • Yongsan Station, Yongsan-gu - Honam line (KTX/Saemaul/Mugunghwa), Jeolla/ Janghang lines (Saemaul/Mugunghwa) • Yeongdeungpo Station, Yeongdeungpo-gu - Gyeongbu/Honam/Janghang lines (Saemaul/Mugunghwa) • Cheongnyangni Station, Dongdaemun-gu Gyeongchun/Jungang/Yeongdong/Taebaek lines (Mugunghwa)

Gimpo International Airport. Incheon changed the role of Gimpo Airport significantly. Incheon is now responsible for almost all international flights and some domestic flights, while Gimpo serves only domestic flights with the exception of flights to Tokyo International Airport (Haneda) in Tokyo, Osaka Kansai International Airport and Hongqiao Airport in Shanghai. This has led to a significant drop in flights from Gimpo Airport. Meanwhile, Incheon International Airport has become, along with Hong Kong and Singapore, a major transportation center for East Asia. The 2005 AETRA passenger survey, jointly administered by the IATA and Airports Council International, voted it the best airport in the world.[24] It was named by Skytrax as the world’s 5th best airport for 2006.[25] Incheon and Gimpo are linked to Seoul by highways, and Gimpo is also linked by subway (line #5). The Incheon International Airport Railroad, a rail line connecting Incheon Airport to Gimpo Airport opened in March 2007, but the line to Seoul Station in central Seoul will take at least a year more to open. Shuttle buses transfer passengers between Incheon and Gimpo airports.


Incheon International Airport. There are two international airports that serve Seoul. Gimpo International Airport, formerly in Gimpo but annexed to Seoul in 1963, was the only international airport for Seoul since its original construction during the Korean War. Other domestic airports were built around the time of the war, including at Yeouido. Upon opening in March 2001, Incheon International Airport on Yeongjong island in

The traditional heart of Seoul is the old Joseon Dynasty city, which is now the downtown area, where most palaces, government offices, corporate headquarters, hotels, and traditional markets are located. This area occupies the valley of Cheonggyecheon, a stream that runs from west to east through the valley before emptying into the Han River. For many years, the stream had been


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A view overlooking Gangnam.

N Seoul Tower at night.

World Trade Center Seoul. Samsung Tower Palace. covered by concrete, but was recently restored through an urban revival project. To the north of downtown is Bukhan Mountain, and to the south is the smaller Namsan. Further south are the old suburbs of Yongsan-gu and Mapo-gu, and the Han River. Across the Han River are the newer and wealthier areas of Gangnam-gu,Seocho-gu and surrounding neighborhoods. The World Trade Center of Korea is located in Gangnam-gu and this is where many expositions and conferences are held. Also in Gangnam-gu is the COEX Mall, a large indoor

A view of Yeouido at dawn.


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The most historically significant street in Seoul is Jongno (??; ??), meaning "Bell Street," on which one can find Bosingak, a pavilion containing a large bell. The bell signaled the different times of the day and therefore controlled the four major gates to the city. The only time it is normally rung nowadays is at midnight on New Year’s Eve, when it is rung thirty-three times. It was, however, rung on the day that President Kim Dae-jung took office. Seoul’s most important streetcar line ran along Jongno until it was replaced by Line 1 of the subway system in the early 1970s. Other notable streets in downtown Seoul include Euljiro (???; ???), Teheranno (????, Tehran Street), Sejongno (???; ???), Chungmuro (???; ???), Yulgongno (???; ???), and Toegyero (???; ???).

Han River at night. shopping and entertainment complex. Downstream from Gangnam-gu is Yeouido, a large island that is home to the National Assembly, major broadcasting studios, and a number of large office buildings, as well as the Korea Finance Building and the world’s largest Pentecostal church. Adjacent to Yeouido is Bamseom an uninhabited island in the middle of the river. The Olympic Stadium, Olympic Park, and Lotte World are located in Songpagu, on the south side of the Han River, upstream from Gangnam-gu. South of the sprawling Gangnam area are Namhan Mountain,Cheonggye Mountain and Gwanak Mountain. Major modern landmarks include the Korea Finance Building, N Seoul Tower, the World Trade Center, the 63 Building and the six-skyscraper residence Tower Palace. These and various high-rise office buildings, like the Seoul Star Tower and Jongno Tower, dominate the city’s skyline. Due to its high density, Seoul has been equipped with a grand appearance of skyscrapers and the city council is now planning on building a series of highrises, including 580-meter business center in Sangam Digital Media City district and an 800-meter Lotte World 2 Tower in the Jamsil (pronounced "Jam-shil") district of Songpa-gu and Gangdong-gu. Urban and civil planning was a key concept when Seoul was first designed to serve as a capital in the late 14th century. The Royal Palaces of the Joseon Dynasty still remain in Seoul, with the main palace, Gyeongbokgung currently being restored to its original form. Today, there are eight major subway lines stretching for more than 250 kilometers, with a ninth and tenth line being planned, and also some other miscellaneous lines.

Sister cities
Seoul has many sister cities. The year each relationship was formed is shown in parentheses below.[26] • Taipei, Republic of China (Taiwan) (1968) • Caracas, Venezuela (1992) • Mexico City, Mexico (1993) • Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia (1995) Hanoi, Vietnam (1996) • Warsaw, Poland (1996) Cairo, Egypt (1997) • Ottawa, Canada (1997) • Rome, Italy (2000) • Astana, Kazakhstan (2004) • • Athens, Greece (2006) • •


Ankara, Turkey (1971) • Guam, U.S. territory (1973) • Honolulu, United States (1973) • San Francisco, United States (1976) São Paulo, Brazil (1977) • Tehran, Iran (1977)[27] • • • • Bogota, Colombia (1982) Jakarta, Indonesia (1984) Tokyo, Japan (1988) •

Moscow, Russia (1991) • New South Wales, Australian state (1991)

Bangkok, Thailand (2006) • Washington, D.C., United States (2006) • Vancouver, Canada (2007)


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[13] See Metro systems by annual passenger rides. [14] yahoo • Beijing, [15] People’s Republic [16] BBC Weather - Country Guide of China (1992) [17] ^ "Administrative Districts". Seoul Metropolitan Government. organ_03adm.htm. Retrieved on • Geography of South Korea 2008-05-02. • Mayor of Seoul [18] Park, Chung-a (2007-07-24). "Foreign • List of Korea-related topics Population in Seoul Stands at 175,000". • List of cities in South Korea Korea Times. • Seoul gallery at Wikimedia Commons nation/ nation_view.asp?newsIdx=7073&categoryCode=117 Retrieved on 2008-01-06. [1] Thomas Brinkhoff, [19] [1]; South Korea, [20] Welcome to KTC The registered population of the South [21] Korean provinces and urban richest-cities-2005.html municipalities Registered population [22] 2007-12-31. Retrieved on 2008-12-31. fortune/global500/2008/cities/ [2] ????:??? ?? ?? ?? [23] "Seoul More Enjoyable For a Day" [3] R.L. Forstall, R.P. Greene, and J.B. Pick, accessed 2008-07-30 "Which are the largest? Why published [24] "Airport Service Excellence Awards for populations for major world urban areas 2005". ACI. 2006-03-07. vary so greatly", City Futures Conference, (University of Illinois at main/ Chicago, July 2004) – Table 5 (p.34) aci_content.jsp?zn=aci&cp=1-7-46%5E6702_9_2__. [4] "Lists: Republic of Korea". UNESCO. Retrieved on 2006-08-25. [25] "Airport of the Year 2006". World Airport kr. Retrieved on 2008-12-27. Awards. Skytrax. [5] cms.php?story_id=4509&page=1 Awards-2006/AirportYear-2006.htm. [6] Retrieved on 2007-02-25. financial-cities.html [26] Seul Metropolitan Government. [7] See List of companies by revenue. "International Cooperation: Sister [8] Cities". economic-growth-gdp-bizcooper/coo_02sis.html. cx_jz_0715powercities_slide_7.html?thisSpeed=15000 [27] The Many Lives of Tehran Road [9] "Cost of living - The world’s most expensive cities". City Mayors. cost_survey.html. [10] "KOREA: Future is now for Korean infoOfficial sites tech". AsiaMedia (Regents of the • Seoul Metropolitan Government University of California). 14 June 2005. Tourism and living information article.asp?parentid=25697. Retrieved • Seoul travel guide from Wikitravel on 2009-02-24. • Seoul Highlights - The Official Korea Tourism [11] Guide Site overview.jsp Maps [12] • Seoul Map Browser (from Seoul south-koreans-could-see-1gbps-webMetropolitan Government web site) connections-by-2012/ • Paris, France (1991)

See also


External links


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Seoul subway map (pdf in zip format)


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