SPM_Lecture01 by shivakantmanch

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									Software Project Management
            Lecture 01

     Introduction to SPM




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Course Objectives
   Understand the fundamental principles of Software Project
    management & will also have a good knowledge of responsibilities
    of project manager and how to handle these.

   Be familiar with the different methods and techniques used for
    project management.

   By the end of this course student will have good knowledge of the
    issues and challenges faced while doing the Software project
    Management and will also be able to understand why majority of the
    software projects fails and how that failure probability can be
    reduced effectively. Will be able to do the Stepwise Project
    Scheduling, tracking, Project Evaluation,Risk analysis, Quality
    management and Project Cost estimation using different techniques.




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Syllabus
Unit-1: Introduction to Software Project Management (SPM):
   Definition of a Software Project(SP), SP Vs. other types of projects activities
   covered by SPM, categorizing SPs, project as a system, management control,
   requirement specification, information and control in organization.
Unit-2: Stepwise Project planning: Introduction, selecting a project,
   identifying project scope and objectives, identifying project infrastructure,
   analyzing project characteristics, identifying project products and activities,
   estimate efforts each activity, identifying activity risk, allocate
   resources,review/ publicize plan.
Unit-3: Project Evaluation & Estimation: Cost benefit analysis, cash flow
   forecasting, cost benefit evaluation techniques, risk evaluation. Selection of an
   appropriate project report; Choosing technologies, choice of process model,
   structured methods, rapid application development.Water-fall and various
   models,prototyping,Albrecht function pt analysis.




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Contd…
Unit-4: Activity planning & Risk Management: Objectives of activity
  planning, project schedule,projects and activities, sequencing and scheduling
  activities, network planning model, representation of lagged activities, adding
  the time dimension, backward and forward pass, identifying critical
  path,activity throat, shortening project , precedence networks.
  Risk Management: Introduction, the nature of risk, managing risk, risk
  identification, risk analysis,reducing the risks, evaluating risks to the schedule,
  calculating the z values..
Unit-5: Resource allocation &Monitoring the control: Introduction, the
  nature of resources,identifying resource requirements, scheduling resources
  creating critical paths, counting the cost,being specific, publishing the
  resource schedule, cost schedules, the scheduling sequence.Monitoring the
  control: Introduction, creating the frame work, collecting the data, visualizing
  progress, cost monitoring, earned value, prioritizing monitoring, getting the
  project back to target,change control.




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Contd…
Unit-6: Managing contracts and people:               Introduction, types of contract,
   stages in contract,placement, typical terms of a contract, contract
   management, acceptance, Managing people andorganizing terms: Introduction,
   understanding behavior, organizational behavior: a back ground,selecting the
   right person for the job, instruction in the best methods, motivation, working in
   groups,becoming a team, decision making, leadership, organizational
   structures, conclusion, further exercises..
Unit-7: Software quality: Introduction, the place of software quality in project
   planning, the importance of software quality, defining software quality, ISO
   9126, Practical software quality measures, product versus process quality
   management, external standards, techniques to help enhance software quality.

Unit-8: Study of Any Software Project Management software:                    viz
   Project 2000 or equivalent




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Text Book:
Software Project Management (2nd Edition), by Bob Hughes and Mike
 Cotterell, 1999, TMH

Reference Books:
  Software Engineering – A Practitioner’s approach, Roger S.
  Pressman (5th edi), 2001, MGH
  Software Project Management, Walker Royce, 1998, Addison
  Wesley.
  Project Management 2/c. Maylor
  Managing Global software Projects, Ramesh, 2001, TMH.




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SPM Study Unit-1
 Introduction to SPM - Study Topics
 1.   Definition of Software Project
 2.   SP vs. Other Types of Project activities covered
      by SPM
 3.   Categorizing SPs
 4.   Project as a system
 5.   Management Control
 6.   Requirement Specification
 7.   Information and control in organization


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1.What is a Project
   Daily, organizations are asked to accomplish tasks
    that do not fit neatly into business-as-usual

       A software group may be asked to develop an application
        program that will access Government data on certain
        commodity prices and generate records on the value of the
        commodity inventories held by the firm; the software must
        be available for use on 26 Nov 2008.
       The Ministry of Health may require an annually updated
        census of all Punjab resident children, aged 17 years or
        younger, living with an illiterate parents; the census must
        happen in 18 months.
       Develop a web page within the next four days that provides
        information about the departmental timetable to new
        incoming students.

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Project – Definition
   In the broadest sense, a project is a specific,
    finite task to be accomplished. Any activity
    that results in a deliverable or a product.

   Projects always begin with a problem. The
    project is to provide the solution to this
    problem.

   When the project is finished it must be
    evaluated to determine whether it satisfies
    the objectives and goals.

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Another Definition of Project
   A project is a temporary endeavor
    undertaken to accomplish a unique purpose

   Attributes of projects
       unique purpose
       require resources, often from various areas
       should have a primary sponsor and/or customer
       involve uncertainty




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Example of IT Projects
   Northwest Airlines developed a new
    reservation system called ResNet
   Many Organizations upgrade hardware,
    software and networks via projects
   Organizations develop new software or
    enhance existing systems to perform many
    business functions

    Note: “IT projects” refers to projects involving
    hardware, software and networks
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What is Management?
   Management can be defined as all activities and
    tasks undertaken by one or more persons for the
    purpose of planning and controlling the activities of
    others in order to achieve objectives or complete an
    activity that could not be achieved by others acting
    independently.
       Management functions can be categorized as
           Planning- deciding what is to be done
           Organizing – making arrangements
           Staffing – selecting right people for job
           Directing – giving instructions
           Controlling – taking actions to remedy the hold ups


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Software Project Management
 Concerned with activities involved in ensuring
 that software is delivered:
  on schedule
  on time
  in accordance with the requirements of the
   organization developing and procuring the
   software




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2.S/W Projects vs. Other types of Projects
    Following char.of s/w project make them
    different from other projects.
   Invisibility
   Complexity
   Conformity
   Flexibility




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3.Activities covered by SPM
Basically there are three successive processes.
         Feasibility Study



                              Plan



                                Project Execution




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Contd….
Project Life Cycle
    Requirement Analysis


                     Specification

                                     Design


                                                 Coding


                                          Verification and validation


                                                    Implementation/Installation


                                                                  Maintenance


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Categorizing Software Projects
    Based on the applicability and various other
    reasons,s/w projects can be categorized
    into following two categories.

   Information systems/Embedded Systems
   Objective Driven/Project Driven




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Requirement Specification
    In product –driven projects, requirements are
    carefully specified in terms of functionality,
    quality and resources.
   Functional Requirement:Defines-what the
    end-product of project is to do.
   Quality Requirement:Defines-how the system
    does and include quality measures like-
    response time,ease of using the system.
   Resource Requirement:Defines-how much
    the organization will spend on the system.
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Management control
 Management can be seen as the process of
 setting objectives for a system and then
 monitoring the system to see what its true
 performance is.
 Here is one diagram showing the project
 control cycle.




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                                                         action
                                        Real world




                                       Data collection


Data objectives
                                               Data

                                       Data processing

                                                information
  Modeling
                                       Making decision/plans

                                                 decision

                                        Implementation



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