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									  MANAGEMENT JOB
DESCRIPTION WRITING

       2005
2
   Management Job Description Writing
             Session Objectives
 Review purposes and basic principles of
  effective job descriptions
 Provide brief overview of MJEP and factors
 Clarify sections of MJEP job description form,
  what to include and how the information links
  to MJEP job evaluation factors




                                            3
   Management Job Description Writing
              Job Description
 Written statement identifying key information
  about a specific job within an organization
Uses:
 Job evaluation
 Basis for Writing Recruitment Ads
 Helps Identify core competencies for
  performance assessment
 Human resource planning
 Training and development

                                            4
   Management Job Description Writing
              Basic Principles
 Job information relates to the job not the
  incumbent
 Keep it plain language, simple, and factual
 No relationship between length of description
  and size of job




                                            5
    Management Job Description Writing
 Revised MJEP Job Description Format
A MJEP job description concentrates on:
 Why the job exists in the organization
 The degree to which the job is responsible for
  achieving results
 The importance of the results to the organization




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   Management Job Description Writing

Job Evaluation Plan                     Job Description
INPUT   THROUGHPUT       OUTPUT        Knowledge/Experience (Content
                                       Know-How),
           Problem-
Know-How              Accountability
            Solving                    Relationships/Contacts (HR Skills)
                                       Leadership and Business Know-How
    Content Know-How                   (Leadership and Business Know-How)
                                       Problem Solving (Problem-Solving)
    Leadership and Business
    Know-How                           Specific Accountabilities/Impact and
                                       Magnitude of Job (Accountability,
    Human Relations Skills             Know-How, Problem Solving)


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Management Job Description Writing

         Job Evaluation Plan

    INPUT           THROUGHPUT                       OUTPUT

    Know-How                Problem
                            Solving               Accountability
      Content Know-How: Practical
      procedures and knowledge, specialized
      techniques, and learned skills.
      Leadership and Business Know-How:
      Planning, coordinating, directing or
      controlling the activities and resources.
      Human Relations Skills: Active, practicing,
      person-to-person skills in the area of human
      relationships.

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Management Job Description Writing

      Job Evaluation Plan

  INPUT      THROUGHPUT              OUTPUT

  Know-How      Problem
                Solving           Accountability
                  Thinking Environment: Freedom to
                  think. The extent to which assistance
                  or guidance is available from past
                  practice, policies and guidelines or
                  others.
                   Thinking Challenge: The challenge
                   presented by the thinking to be done.
                   Innovations/enhancements which improve
                   the efficiency of a job or a departments
                   performance. Continuous improvement.
                                                   9
Management Job Description Writing
            Job Evaluation Plan

    INPUT              THROUGHPUT                OUTPUT

    Know-How                   Problem
                               Solving         Accountability
 Freedom to Act: Refers to the degree to
 which personal or procedural control
 exists.
 Magnitude: Refers to the size of the work
 area or function most clearly affected by a
 job.
 Impact: Refers to the degree to which a
 job affects or brings about the results
 expected of the work area or function.

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    Management Job Description Writing
                       Know-How
   Know-How is the sum of every kind of skill, however
    acquired required for acceptable job performance.
   Know-How has three dimensions:
      1. Content Know-How: Practical procedures and
        knowledge, specialized techniques, and learned skills.
     2. Leadership and Business Know-How: Planning,
        coordinating, directing or controlling the activities and
        resources.
     3. Human Relations Skills: Active, practicing,
        person-to-person skills in the area of human
        relationships.


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    Management Job Description Writing
                Problem Solving
  Measure of original thinking.
  Use of knowledge in an environment ranging from
   highly controlled to unstructured.
 Describes the thinking required in the job by
   measuring two dimensions:
  1. Thinking Environment (Freedom to Think). The
      environment in which thinking takes place.
  2. Thinking Challenge (Difference between well
      known and defined responsibilities and those that
      are new and non-recurring). The challenge
      presented by the thinking to be done.

                                                  12
     Management Job Description Writing
                       Accountability
 The degree to which a job is responsible for
  achieving results, and the importance of
  those results to the organization. There are
  three dimensions:
1.   Freedom to Act: Freedom to take action or implement
     decisions. The nature and extent of the controls, or the lack of
     them.
2. Magnitude: The extent to which stakeholders are affected
     by the outputs.
3.   Impact: How a job directly affects results.


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   Management Job Description Writing
       MJEP Job Description Form
 Can be found at:
           http://www.chr.alberta.ca/Practitioners/Doclist716.cfm




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     Management Job Description Writing
       MJEP Job Description Form
Includes 12 Sections:
 Job Identification
 Position Summary
 Specific Accountabilities
 Knowledge/Experience
 Leadership and Business Know-How
 Problem Solving
 Relationships/Contacts
 Impact and Magnitude of Job
 Changes Since Last Review
 Comparable Positions
 Organization Chart
 Signatures                         15
   Management Job Description Writing

          Job Identification Section
This section includes:
 Working Title and Name
 Position Number, Reports To (Posn.#, Class, and Level)
 Ministry
 Present Class, Requested Class
 Levels to Deputy Minister
 Dept ID, Program Code, Project Code (if applicable)
 Division, Branch/Unit, and Ministry
 Reports To Position Number, Class and Level


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     Management Job Description Writing

Output Orientation
        In many organizations, job descriptions are task oriented. They
  sum up all tasks that the incumbent of the job has to accomplish. The
  new job descriptions are results oriented, as they give more direction to
  the jobholder as to what kinds of results are expected.


Focus on Core Contribution
       Many incumbents think there is a direct relationship between the
  length of the job description and job size. This has resulted in job
  descriptions over 10 pages. The assumption is wrong. It is not the
  length of the job description, but the quality of its information that
  determines its usefulness for job evaluation purposes. The longer the job
  description, the more difficult it is to distinguish between core and non-
  core elements.


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    Management Job Description Writing
         Guide to Writing a Job Description
 The following chart illustrates 3 important steps to follow in
  building a mgmt. job description. It is a progression that starts
  with defining key management actions, up to end results or outputs
  of the job, and ultimately to the purpose of the job, the position
  summary.
                             JOB DESCRIPTIONS

                                Position Summary


                                 Accountability

                           Actions for Each End Result




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   Management Job Description Writing

         Guide to Writing a Job Description

Step 1: List Key Management Actions (Activities)

 Business plans and/or current job documentation can be used




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   Management Job Description Writing

     Guide to Writing a Job Description

Step 2: Group Actions Into End Results
        (Accountabilities)

  Within what context does the job have to operate
   (legislation, budgets, policies, procedures, processes,
   etc.)


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   Management Job Description Writing
         Guide to Writing a Job Description
                               Step 2 Cont’d
  End Result: At this point the accountability the individual has
   should be described.
                  HOW TO DESCRIBE ACCOUNTABILITY
               What                Within      Outcomes



           Action (Activity)      Context      End Results

For a Director, Human Resources job for instance, the following
illustrates an output of the job description (accountability) showing
what he or she has to do, within what context, and what the end
result will be.
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   Management Job Description Writing
           Guide to Writing a Job Description
                                    Step 2 Cont’d
                          Director, Human Resources
             What                              Within                End Result (Accountability)
Provide direction and leadership   Legislation, human resource    Effective attraction, utilization,
on all human resource matters.     policies and procedures,       retention, development and
                                   Collective Agreements          promotion of Government of
                                                                  Alberta employees.

Core Activities
   Promote and Model Healthy Workplace Strategies i.e. Work, Life, Balance.
   Monitor the delivery of all human resource services to managers and employees.
   Review Recruitment and Selection Practices for Attraction Incentives
   Direct professional staff in the delivery of a complete spectrum of human resource
      programs.
   Provide Leadership in Development of New Ministry Performance Management
      Program
   Evaluate the effectiveness of departmental human resource policies and programs
    and adjust these to client needs.                                                      22
    Management Job Description Writing

          Specific Accountabilities
                    Step 2 Cont’d
 What are the most important end results or outcomes
  of this position and how are they achieved?
 Normally a position has 4-8 core end results.
 For each end result approximately 3 major activities
  should be described.
 Describe what added value the end result provides




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        Management Job Description Writing
              Specific Accountabilities
                          Step 2 Cont’d
                            Example #1
Parks District Manager
Community Development
1.   Land base conservation programs are effectively implemented by.
•    utilizing project management techniques,
•     involving key stakeholders in the implementation process, and by
•     evaluating program outcomes and applying continuous learning
     techniques.
     This ensures special and outstanding natural landscapes and features
     are protected for future generations.
2.   Land and water base recreation activities are managed and
     implemented effectively on a year round basis by:
•    identifying program needs,
•    setting priorities, and
•    developing program budgets for each specific Provincial Park and
     Provincial Recreation Area within the District.
     This ensures quality services and facilities are being provided.
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      Management Job Description Writing
              Specific Accountabilities
               Step 2 - Example #1 Cont’d

3.   Effective delivery of all recreation and conservation programs
     within the the District by:
•    Directing technical and administrative staff,
•    Developing and implementing staff training programs,
•    Providing on-the-job training, and
•    Providing regular feedback and evaluation.
     This ensures Departmental goals and objectives are being achieved
     effectively, and financial and human resources are being expended
     within policy and budget.
4.   Business areas receive “quality” services in all areas of technology
     through:
•    Applying proven quality assurance methodologies and practices
•    Facilitating regular meetings and communications with users
•    Ensuring staff are trained and competent in the delivery of services.
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         Management Job Description Writing
                 Specific Accountabilities
                         Step 2 - Example #2
Executive Director
Royalty & Tenure Policy, Energy
1.  Directs the work of the Division including: policy-related research, analysis,
    policy advice, issues management and implementation by setting priorities;
    ensuring policy recommendations take direction from the Minister,
    Deputy Minister, Executive Committee, and stakeholders and staff
    members; setting timelines for deliverables; managing the resources
    allocated to the Division; and maintaining and coaching a fully
    competent staff complement to meet the policy needs of the Ministry.
    This work affects a principle pillar of Alberta’s economy, and directly
    impacts the energy industry.
   Timely and effective provision of analysis, advice and regulatory intervention by
    overseeing the assessment of market, supply and infrastructure issues, reviewing the
    forecasting of energy prices, production, and non-renewable resource revenues,
    analyzing of tax and fiscal issues facing the industry, and interventions regulatory
    proceedings that impinge on market access and valuation of Alberta’s petroleum
    resources. This work directly enhances the value of Alberta’s energy and mineral
    resources.
                                                                                  26
     Management Job Description Writing
                 Specific Accountabilities
                Step 2 - Example #2 Cont’d
   Oversees the development, implementation and maintenance of policy and
    legislative frameworks by developing timely and proactive policy responses and
    legislative amendments to current and emerging tax and regulatory issues and trends
    affecting the electric sector. This ensures a policy regime that fosters a competitive
    and effective electric sector.
   Provides high quality advice with respect to environmental and land access issues
    affecting the energy industry This is done through ensuring that policy advice issues,
    concerns and trends are identified, analyzed, and responded to in appropriate and
    effective ways. It also involves ensuring that, where appropriate, the department
    works with other provincial departments (especially Environmental Protection), inter
    governmentally and with industry and other stakeholders to improve the cost
    effectiveness of related measures and expenditures. These actions help steer the
    province toward sustainable development.



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   Management Job Description Writing


Step 3: Summarize End Results and Actions
        (Activities) in a Position Summary

   Once the End Results and Actions (Activities) are clear, you
    have to summarize the overall purpose of the job. Again you
    have to write:
      What is the overall purpose covering the responsibilities that are
       grouped? (Why does the job exist?)
      Within what context has the job to operate (legislation, budgets,
       policies, procedures, processes, etc.)
      End Result: at this point the purpose of the job has to be described.

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  Management Job Description Writing
            Position Summary
                Step 3 Cont’d
 Describe the main purpose of your position.
  Why does this position exist for the most
  part?




                                          29
   Management Job Description Writing
                  Position Summary
                     Step 3 Cont’d
An example of a Summary of the Human Resource
Director job, based on the identified responsibilities
follows:
 Reporting to the Deputy Minister, and within the scope of
  legislative and Government of Alberta HR policies, this
  position provides direction and leadership on all human
  resource matters including employee relations, staffing,
  classification, personnel systems, payroll, performance
  management, staff development, and occupational health and
  safety. The focus of the position is in ensuring the effective
  attraction, utilization, retention, development and promotion of
  Government of Alberta employees who are committed to
  providing excellent client service.                          30
   Management Job Description Writing
                Position Summary
                      Step 3 Cont’d
                       Example #1
     Reporting to the Executive Director, the Regional Manager,
Community Development Field Services, Central Region directs
and controls all regional activities for planning and delivering a
broad range of community development programs, training, and
management services to local government systems, community
organizations and the general public, within a large region. The
position actively promotes local problem solving, conflict
resolution and self-reliance by coordinating and providing
leadership to a diverse group of highly effective professionals who
help communities and community agencies and sectors move from
dependence to independence and interdependence.
                                                              31
 Management Job Description Writing

             Position Summary
                  Step 3 Cont’d
                   Example #2
    Reporting to the Executive Director, Human
Resources, this position is responsible for managing all
the Human Resources Consultants in the effective
delivery of human resource services including
employee relations, staffing/redeployment, and
classification to a large and diverse department.
Position ensures through a proactive consultative
approach that HR Programs and Services meet client
needs and are responsive to the changing
environment.
                                                  32
 Management Job Description Writing

     Describe Knowledge and Experience
 Here you should list the Knowledge and Experience that is
  required for the job and not of the incumbent. It is not
  necessary to provide an extensive list, but a list of the most
  important knowledge factors, and experience required to do the
  job. This includes knowledge about practical procedures,
  specialized techniques, etc.; analytical and conceptual skills. If
  a specific training is a legal requirement for the job, it should be
  listed. Other than that, we are asking for information on
  knowledge, and experience required to do the job, and not
  focusing only on diplomas or degrees.


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  Management Job Description Writing
     Knowledge and Experience
    Knowledge refers to all knowledge, skills and
abilities required for acceptable job performance. It
does not refer only to formal education, but to all
knowledge however acquired.

    Experience refers to all practical hands-on work
experience that is directly transferable to the
requirements of the position to ensure achievement of
results.



                                                   34
    Management Job Description Writing
                Knowledge and Experience

                   Examples of Knowledge and Experience:
                        Human Resource Director
Extensive knowledge of all HR functions including employee relations,
 staffing, classification, organizational analysis
Knowledge of policies, procedures and collective agreements with respect to
 Human Resources and Budgeting.
Effective communication skills, (verbal, non-verbal and written), project
 management skills, and proven skills in working with senior level government
 staff on HR related issues.
A related university degree or recognized diploma supplemented by six years
 progressively responsible experience in a large HR environment. Related
 experience or education may be considered as an equivalency on a one-for-one
 basis.
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   Management Job Description Writing

           Knowledge and Experience
                              Example # 1
      Position must have in depth knowledge of information technology trends and issues
required for the support of a major complex computer processing environment, including
financial and asset management, operating system software and network software
configuration maintenance and support. A solid understanding gained through extensive
practical experience of the functioning of government, budget, and policy making is a
requirement.

       Effective communication skills, (verbal, non-verbal and written), project
management skills, and proven skills in working with senior level government staff on IT
related issues is required.

      A related university degree supplemented by six years progressively responsible
experience in a large IT environment.


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   Management Job Description Writing

           Knowledge and Experience
                               Example #2
      This position must have a broad knowledge of all aspects of the Ministry business
and extensive knowledge of all facets of human resource management, and management.

      Effective communication skills, verbal, non-verbal and written, effective
interpersonal and management skills, and proven skills in problem solving, decision
making, conflict resolution and mediation are required.

      A university degree in a field related to Human Resource Management e.g.
Business, Social Sciences, Administration, Education with a preference for programs
containing work in human or labour relations management. Extensive experience in all
aspects of the human resource field is a requirement of the position.



                                                                               37
Management Job Description Writing

Leadership and Business Know-How

    This refers to the activities required to produce
 the results expected of group(s) or function(s). The
 directive or consultative activities involve some
 combinations of visioning, creating, planning,
 organizing, integrating, evaluating, coaching,
 staffing, and meeting client needs in a continuous
 improvement environment.




                                                38
 Management Job Description Writing

 Leadership and Business Know-How
                   Example # 1
    The position must coordinate and organize the
branch’s activities by providing direction to staff on
policies, procedures, and legislation; ensuring the
branch’s direction is consistent with overall
government direction. Position facilitates relationships
on behalf of branch staff with other government
departments, the public and other stakeholders.
Position is also responsible for evaluating the branch’s
performance and deliverables.

                                                  39
  Management Job Description Writing

Leadership and Business Know-How
                  Example # 2
     Position is a leader in applying knowledge of
 mathematical statistics, calculus, matrix algebra, and
 other investment related mathematics to coordinate
 financial information for GoA. It is looked upon by
 executives in all Ministries to provide advice and
 evaluate national and global investment opportunities,
 current trends, and implications for GoA.



                                                 40
     Management Job Description Writing

                 Problem Solving

     The job description asks you to:

1)   describe difficult or challenging situations and
     complex problems the position is routinely expected
     to solve;
2)   the degree of originality of the solutions; and
3)   the assistance available.

 Recent examples should be provided.

                                                   41
  Management Job Description Writing

                  Problem Solving
                       Example #1
     The Senior Team Leader, Health Surveillance faces
challenges in path finding situations where the problems are
unknown. For example, design and re-development of public
health laboratory services in toxicology and genetics involves
many stakeholders with divergent interests. The challenge for the
position is creating a paradigm shift from the old win-lose to the
win-win way of thinking while establishing a system which can
integrate public health laboratory support, epidemiologic
surveillance research, and development, service delivery,
education and training.



                                                           42
  Management Job Description Writing

                 Problem Solving
                      Example #2
     The Branch Head, Contract Accounting, Environmental
Protection position is required to utilize unique financial
arrangements to fund specialized programs. Solutions are found
within the framework of the Financial Administration Act. The
position introduced a new net budgeting process for the
department requiring a complete conversion of existing
accountable advance authorities to a net program budget. It also
developed a unique ledger coding structure to accommodate the
new amalgamated department.




                                                          43
    Management Job Description Writing

           Relationships/Contacts
      All jobs have contacts. This section includes:
 The main contacts the position interacts with (both
  internal and external) and indicate the frequency, and
  purpose and nature of those contacts ie. how are
  contacts affected by recommendations, decision-
  making and action(s) taken?




                                                   44
   Management Job Description Writing
               Relationships/Contacts
                           Example # 1
Clients               Frequency   Expected Results
Internal
Program Mgrs          Weekly      Advice/recommendations
Administrators        Daily       Resolution of processing problems
ADM’s/Directors       Monthly     Advice/recommendations
External
Vendors               Daily       Timely and accurate payments
Treasury              Monthly     Timely and accurate accounting information
Auditor General       Yearly      Facilitation of audits
Environment Council   Quarterly   Accounting services/advice
Federal Government    Quarterly   Partnerships on bilateral cost sharing issues




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   Management Job Description Writing
           Relationships/Contacts
                       Example # 2
     On a daily basis, position seeks input from and liaises and
co-ordinates work with Associates in other parts of the Energy
Ministry e.g., Minister of Energy, Executive Assistant to Minister,
Board Members of the AEUB.
     On a bi-annual basis, position coordinates and integrates
environmental concerns in economic development policies with
Associates in other provincial departments e.g. Finance,
Environment, Economic Development and Trade, and IIR.
     As required, but not less then twice per year, participates in
setting and communicating the strategic direction for the
department with Internal Department Committees such as
Executive Committee, and Sustainable Development Coordinating
Committee.


                                                             46
 Management Job Description Writing

     Impact and Magnitude of Job
    Impact refers to the degree to which a job affects
or brings about the results expected of the unit or
department, and how the results affect stakeholders.
     Magnitude refers to the size of the unit or
function most clearly affected by a job.




                                                  47
    Management Job Description Writing
   Impact and Magnitude of the Job
                       Example #1
     The Manager, Human Resources position is responsible for
results that affect the entire department on a regular basis,
e.g.disciplines, staffing, job evaluation, employee relations,
compensation; and the government as a whole on an occasional
basis e.g. workforce reduction, position abolishment,
redeployment. The position has the freedom to initiate reviews or
investigations into financial matters that come to the departments
attention. The position is responsible for keeping the HR Director
and the Deputy Minister apprised of major issues that may arise.
The strategies and processes that are developed and implemented
by this position have a significant impact on the overall
accountability of the Ministry.




                                                            48
  Management Job Description Writing

   Impact and Magnitude of the Job
                       Example #2
     The Senior Manager, Industry Programs & Standards
Branch, has extensive autonomy to commit the government to
major investment decisions. There are strict rules, guidelines and
an investment framework that provide the overall constraints for
the types of investments and dollar amounts. Poor investment
decisions directly affect the profits in key stakeholder groups e.g.
pensions, endowments and in Heritage trust funds. Incorrect
decisions can lead to substantial losses and increased present
and future costs. Ongoing responsibilities and day to day
management of the area are done independently. Changes that
require legislative amendments, or major policy amendments are
handled at a higher level. Where a change to one trade may
possible impact another, recommendations are made and put
forward to the Board for consideration.
                                                             49
    Management Job Description Writing
         Changes Since Last Review

 Required to be completed if the job description is being
  submitted for evaluation (reclassification).
 Should be completed for any subsequent evaluation
  (reclassification) requests under MJEP.




                                                    50
 Management Job Description Writing

       Changes Since Last Review
                Example
    The position now has responsibility for all
application development and system support across
the department. Previously the SFS suite of systems
was separate, but with the outsourcing of this area,
the position now provides advice and consultation on
the standards/feasibility/estimate/technology
platform as required by the Learner Assistance
Division.


                                                51
      Management Job Description Writing
            Comparable Positions
                   (Benchmarks)
 Benchmarks are reference points against which other
  jobs are measured to ensure cross-government
  consistency.
 Comparing positions to benchmarks is an integral part
  of the job evaluation process.
 Review the jobs on the benchmark list and select
  similar sized/comparable jobs.
 Indicate which factors in the comparable jobs you see
  as comparable and provide an explanation.
 Indicate a benchmark that is stronger then the
  position being rated and one that is weaker and why.


                                                  52
   Management Job Description Writing
                Organization Chart
  An organization chart places your job in context of the
   organization. It is critical that an updated and accurate
   organization chart is attached to the job description you are
   submitting for classification. Information that should be
   contained on the organization chart is: supervisor, supervisor’s
   position #, class and level, peers, employees supervised (specify
   whether they are wage, permanent, temporary or contract), and
   their position number(s), class(es) and level(s).

ABSOLUTELY ESSENTIAL


                                                              53
    Management Job Description Writing
                Signature Section
  All job descriptions must be signed by:
 The manager of the position
 The Division Director/ADM
    NOTE: The Division Director/ADM’s signature
     confirms that the job description is an accurate
     reflection of the duties assigned to that position by
     the Ministry.




                                                     54
Management Job Description Writing
         MJEP Review
     Process and Timelines




                                55
   Management Job Description Writing
        Where to Find Assistance?

 Your HR Shop
 CHR Website:   http://www.chr.alberta.ca/




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