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									Students with Special Needs

           Class # 7 – Chapter 11 –
                   Autism



               Karen Gatto & Roni Kramer
                           Winter 2009
            Language of Us/Them
We like things / They fixate on objects
We try to make friends / They display attention
       seeking behavior
We take breaks / They display off-task behavior
We stand up for ourselves / They are non-compliant
We have hobbies / They self-stim
We choose out friends wisely / They display poor peer
       socialization
We persevere / They perseverate
We love people / They have dependencies on people
We go for a walk / They run away
We insist / They tantrum
We change our minds / They are disoriented and hor
       short attention spans
We have talents / They have splinter skills
We are human / They are…?

                                     Meyer Shevin
  AUTISM – Part 200 Definition
 A developmental disability significantly affecting
  verbal and nonverbal communication and social
  interaction, generally evident before age 3, that
  adversely affects a student’s education
  performance. Other characteristics often
  associated with Autism are engagement in
  repetitive activities and stereotyped movements,
  resistance to environmental change or change in
  daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory
  experiences. The term does not apply if a
  student’s education performance is adversely
  affected primarily because the student has an
  emotional disturbance as defined in paragraph 4
  of the subdivision. A student who manifests the
  characteristics of autism after age 3 could
  diagnosed as having autism if the criteria in this
  paragraph are otherwise satisfied.                 3
DSM-IV:Pervasive Developmental
Disorder
 Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)
   Autism Disorder – Children who present with
    delays or differences in social interaction,
    communication and imaginative play prior to 3
    years old.
   Asperger’s Syndrome/Disorder – Children who o
    not have delays in language development and tend
    to score in the average or above average range
    cognitively. They often have challenges in more
    subtle communicative abilities, social concerns and
    limited or repetitive interests.
   Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not
    Otherwise Specified – A catchall category for
    children who display many of the characteristics
    of autism but do not meet the full or exact
    criteria
                                                          4
   DSM-IV: PDD continued

 Rett’s Syndrome – Primarily occurs in
  girls who initially develop normally, then
  between the ages of one and four begin to
  lose communication and social skills. Motor
  ability deteriorates and repetitive hand
  movements replace purposeful use of the
  hands.
 Childhood Disintegrative Disorder –
  Children who develop normally for at least
  two years and then lose some or most of
  their communication and social skills prior
  to the age of ten.
  Core Characteristics of Autism

 Onset is before 3 years of age
 Language Disorders
 Socialization Disorders
 Behavioral Disorders
 Sensory Processing Disorders




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         CHARACTERISTICS

LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENTS
   Atypical language development
    - broad range of language abilities
     • echolalia – normal for most children
       until the age of 3, for those with
       autism it can be delayed or immediate
     • delayed language – with early
       intervention many may learn to speak.
       Today, 85-90% can learn to speak with
       good intervention before the age of 5
     • May process language longer than the
       time frame in a typical conversation
   common problems: attends to one topic
    only, few interactions, reverse
    pronouns, poor eye contact
CHARACTERISTICS (CONT’D)
 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
    impaired use of nonverbal behavior
    lack of peer relationships
    lack of reciprocity
    lack of spontaneously enjoying others
 REPETITIVE BEHAVIOR
    obsessions, tics, perseveration, self
     stimulatory
 PROBLEM BEHAVIOR
    self injurious, self stimulatory, aggression
       Characteristics (cont’d)
 RITUALISTIC
    Need for sameness or environmental
    predictability– routines are important
   May get stuck in a particular motor pattern
 SENSORY AND MOVEMENT DISORDERS
    abnormal movements and posture
    May have unusual responses to sensory
    stimulation
   May be unable to plan specific motor
    sequences
   May demonstrate extreme sensitivities
    particularly to touch and sound
 COGNITIVE ABILITY
                  CAUSES
 Biomedical causes – abnormalities in brain
  development, neuro-chemistry, genetics
 Small number of case are linked to genetic
  disorders: i.e. Fragile X
 Prevalence has increased over past 10 years
    Current data estimates that 1 in every 150
     children are diagnosed with Autism.
    Government statisics suggest the rate of
     increase is 10-17 percent annually.
 Males outnumber females 4:1
   Asperger Syndrome boys to girls is 10:1
   One out of every 94 boys is diagnosed with an
    autism spectrum disorder.
           EVALUATION

Although Autism is biological there is not a
  medical test for it. A medical diagnosis is
  based upon:
 ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR SCALES ARE
  SIGNIFICANTLY LOW
 AUTISM SPECIFIC SCALES
 OBSERVATION
       TREATMENT AND
         EDUCATION
 ABA- THAT FOCUSES ON
  GENERALIZATION
 MOST STUDENTS NEED VISUAL
  INFORMATION
    Schedules
    Templates
    Written directions
 PRIORITIZING BEHAVIOR CHANGE
 INCIDENTAL TEACHING
 PRIORITIZING COMMUNICATION
 POSITIVE BEHAVIOR STRATEGIES
 FUNCTIONAL SKILL DEVELOPMENT
            Educational needs

 Environmental supports or modifications
 Curriculum adaptations
 ―learning to learn‖ strategies – i.e., mnemonic,
  keyword, letter, and pegword strategies
 Promoting friendships – including students
  with autism in gen ed settings, person
  centered planning, conflict resolution,
  general friendship skills, positive interaction
  style, taking perspective of others, etc.
MODELS OF INSTRUCTION
 ABA –Applied Behavior Analysis. Emphasis
  on assessment, systematic instructions and
  reinforcement, and generalization of skills
 Treatment and Education of Autistic and
  Related Communication Handicapped
  Children (TEACCH)
  TEACCH is a structured teaching approach
  based on the idea that the environment
  should be adapted to the child with autism,
  not the other way around. The goal of the
  TEACCH approach is to provide the child
  with the necessary skills to understand his or
  her world and other people’s behavior.
  TEACCH tends to build upon skills children
  with autism already have, it is amore
  congenial or ―congruent‖ approach than the
  more structured ABA
   MODELS OF INSTRUCTION
            cont.
 INCIDENTAL TEACHING :i.e. FLOORTIME
  -instruction in naturalistic environments
 Picture Exchange Communication Systems
  (PECS) One of the main areas affected by
  autism is the child’s ability to communicate.
  PECS helps get basic language underway as
  well as provides a way of communicating for
  those children that do not talk. PECS uses
  ABA-based methods to teach children to
  exchange a picture for something they
  want—such as an item or activity. This
  approach enables a child with autism to
  communicate more easily.
 PRIORITIZING INSTRUCTION
 BEHAVIOR INTERVENTION
         SOCIAL STORIES
 Describe social situations, social cues and
  appropriate responses to the cues – creative
  approach
 4 different types of sentences
    Descriptive – define where a situation
      occurs, who is involved, what they are
      doing, and why
    Perspective – describe another person’s
      feelings, beliefs, thoughts, etc.
    Directive – define what is expected as a
      response
    Control – written by student to identify
      strategies the student may use
      POSITIVE BEHAVIOR
        SUPPORT PLAN
 See page 268
 Positive behavior support on a school wide
  basis:
 clearly defined behavioral expectations
 each expectation should be explicitly taught
 frequently acknowledge appropriate behavior
 analyze problems on an ongoing basis
 targeted support for students who need
  more intense support

								
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