First_World_War by zzzmarcus

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World War I

World War I
World War I Military wounded: 12,831,500 Military missing: 4,121,000[1]
...further details.

Military wounded: 8,388,000 Military missing: 3,629,000[1]
...further details.

Clockwise from top: Trenches on the Western Front; a British Mark IV tank crossing a trench; Royal Navy battleship HMS Irresistible sinking after striking a mine at the Battle of the Dardanelles; a Vickers machine gun crew with gas masks, and German Albatros D.III biplanes
Date 28 June 1914 – 11 November 1918 (Armistice Treaty) Treaty of Versailles signed 28 June 1919 Europe, Africa and the Middle East (briefly in China and the Pacific Islands) Allied victory; end of the German, Russian, Ottoman, and AustroHungarian Empires; foundation of new countries in Europe and the Middle East; transfer of German colonies to other powers; establishment of the League of Nations.

Location

Result

Belligerents Allied (Entente) Powers Commanders Leaders and commanders Casualties and losses Military dead: 5,525,000 Military dead: 4,386,000 Leaders and commanders Central Powers

World War I (initialized as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Wars, was a global military conflict which involved the majority of the world’s great powers,[2] organized into two opposing military alliances: the Entente Powers and the Central Powers.[3] Over 70 million military personnel were mobilized in one of the largest wars in history.[4] In a state of total war, the major combatants fully placed their scientific and industrial capabilities at the service of the war effort. Over 15 million people were killed, making it one of the deadliest conflicts in human history.[5] The proximate cause for the war was the 28 June 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, by a Bosnian-Serb nationalist, Gavrilo Princip. Austria-Hungary’s resulting demands against the Kingdom of Serbia led to the activation of a series of alliances which within weeks saw all of the major European powers at war. As a consequence of the global empires of many European nations, the war soon spread worldwide. By the war’s end, four major imperial powers—Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire—had been militarily and politically defeated, with the latter two ceasing to exist as autonomous countries.[6] The revolutionized Soviet Union emerged from the Russian Empire, while the map of central Europe was completely redrawn into numerous smaller states.[7] The League of Nations was formed in the hope of preventing another such conflict. The European nationalism spawned by the war, the repercussions of Germany’s defeat, and the Treaty of Versailles would eventually lead to the beginning of World War II in 1939.[8]

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World War I
the fracturing Ottoman Empire. The resulting Treaty of London further shrank the Ottoman Empire, creating an independent Albanian State while enlarging the territorial holdings of Bulgaria, Serbia and Greece. When Bulgaria attacked both Serbia and Greece on 16 June 1913 it lost all of Macedonia to Serbia and Southern Dobruja to Romania in the 33–day Second Balkan War, further destabilizing the region.[14] On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian-Serb student and member of Young Bosnia, assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo.[15] Suspecting Serbian involvement in the assassination,[15] Austria-Hungary delivered the July Ultimatum to Serbia, a series of ten demands aimed at diplomatically undermining Serbia.[16] When Serbia acceded to eight of the ten demands levied against it in the ultimatum, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914. The Russian Empire, unwilling to allow Austria-Hungary to eliminate its influence in the Balkans, ordered a partial mobilization one day later.[9] When the German Empire began to mobilize on 30 July 1914, France—sporting significant animosity over the German conquest of Alsace-Lorraine during the Franco-Prussian War—ordered French mobilization on 1 August. Germany declared war on Russia the same day.[17]

Background
In the 19th century, the major European powers had gone to great lengths to maintain a "balance of power" throughout Europe, resulting in a complex network of political and military alliances throughout the continent.[3] The first of these major alliances formed in 1879, when the German Empire and AustriaHungary signed treaties creating the Dual Alliance, seen as a method of combating Russian influence in the Balkans as the Ottoman Empire continued to weaken.[3] In 1882, this alliance was expanded to include Italy in what became the Triple Alliance.[9] European conflict was averted largely due to a carefully planned network of treaties between the German Empire and the remainder of Europe—orchestrated by Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Bismarck’s system of alliances was gradually deconstructed following the coronation of Kaiser Wilhelm II, with treaties between Germany and Russia ending in 1890. Two years later the Franco-Russian Alliance was signed to counteract the force of the Triple Alliance. In 1907, the British Empire joined France and Russia, signalling the beginning of the Triple Entente.[3] As German industrial power grew, Kaiser Wilhelm II devoted significant economic resources to the establishment of the Kaiserliche Marine, in order to be capable of rivaling the Royal Navy.[10] As a result, both nations strove to outbuild each other in terms of capital ships. With the launch of HMS Dreadnought in 1906, the British Empire gained a significant advantage over their German rivals.[10] The arms race between Britain and Germany eventually extended to the rest of Europe, with all the major powers devoting their industrial base to the production of the equipment and weapons necessary for a pan-European conflict.[11] Between 1908 and 1913, the military spending of the European powers increased by 50%.[12] In 1909, Austria-Hungary annexed BosniaHerzegovina from the Ottoman Empire, greatly angering the Russian Romanov Dynasty and the Kingdom of Serbia, as BosniaHerzegovina contained a significant Slavic Serbian population.[13] Russian political maneuvering in the region destabilized peace accords that were already fracturing in what was known as "the Powder keg of Europe".[13] In 1913, the First Balkan War was fought between the Balkan League and

Chronology
Opening hostilities
Confusion among the Central Powers
The strategy of the Central Powers suffered from miscommunication. Germany had promised to support Austria-Hungary’s invasion of Serbia, but interpretations of what this meant differed. Austro-Hungarian leaders believed Germany would cover its northern flank against Russia. Germany, however, envisioned Austria-Hungary directing the majority of its troops against Russia, while Germany dealt with France. This confusion forced the Austro-Hungarian Army to divide its forces between the Russian and Serbian fronts. On September 9, 1914 the Septemberprogramm, a plan which detailed Germany’s specific war aims and the conditions that Germany sought to force upon the Allied Powers,

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was outlined by German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg.

World War I

African campaigns
Some of the first clashes of the war involved British, French and German colonial forces in Africa. On 7 August, French and British troops invaded the German protectorate of Togoland. On 10 August German forces in South-West Africa attacked South Africa; sporadic and fierce fighting continued for the remainder of the war. German soldiers in a railroad car on the way to the front in 1914. A message on the car spells out "Trip to Paris", early in the war all sides expected the conflict to be a short one. Belgium. Initially, the Germans had great success in the Battle of the Frontiers (14 August–24 August). Russia, however, attacked in East Prussia and diverted German forces intended for the Western Front. Germany defeated Russia in a series of battles collectively known as the First Battle of Tannenberg (17 August – 2 September), but this diversion exacerbated problems of insufficient speed of advance from rail-heads not foreseen by the German General Staff. The Schlieffen Plan called for the right flank of the German advance to converge on Paris, but the French, with some assistance from the British forces finally halted the German advance east of Paris at the First Battle of the Marne (5 September–12 September). The Central Powers were thereby denied a quick victory and forced to fight a war on two fronts. The German army had fought its way into a good defensive position inside France and had permanently incapacitated 230,000 more French and British troops than it had lost itself. Despite this, communications problems and questionable command decisions cost Germany the chance of obtaining an early victory.

Haut-Rhin, France, 1917

Serbian campaign
The Serbian army fought the Battle of Cer against the invading Austrians, beginning on 12 August, occupying defensive positions on the south side of the Drina and Sava rivers. Over the next two weeks Austrian attacks were thrown back with heavy losses, which marked the first major Allied victory of the war and dashed Austrian hopes of a swift victory. As a result, Austria had to keep sizable forces on the Serbian front, weakening its efforts against Russia.

Asia and the Pacific
New Zealand occupied German Samoa (later Western Samoa) on 30 August. On 11 September the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force landed on the island of Neu Pommern (later New Britain), which formed part of German New Guinea. Japan seized Germany’s Micronesian colonies and after the Battle of Tsingtao, the German coaling port of Qingdao, in the Chinese Shandong

German forces in Belgium and France
The German attack on the Western Front began with an invasion through neutral

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peninsula. Within a few months, the Allied forces had seized all the German territories in the Pacific.

World War I
employed captured Allied tanks and small numbers of their own design.

A French assault on German positions. Champagne, France, 1917. After the First Battle of the Marne, both Entente and German forces began a series of outflanking maneuvers, in the so-called ’Race to the Sea’. Britain and France soon found themselves facing entrenched German forces from Lorraine to Belgium’s Flemish coast. Britain and France sought to take the offensive, while Germany defended the occupied territories; consequently, German trenches were generally much better constructed than those of their enemy. Anglo-French trenches were only intended to be ’temporary’ before their forces broke through German defenses. Both sides attempted to break the stalemate using scientific and technological advances. In April 1915 the Germans used chlorine gas for the first time (in violation of the Hague Convention), opening a six kilometre (four mile) hole in the Allied lines when British and French colonial troops retreated. Canadian soldiers closed the breach at the Second Battle of Ypres. At the Third Battle of Ypres, Canadian and ANZAC troops took the village of Passchendaele. The British Army endured the bloodiest day in its history, suffering 57,470 casualties and 19,240 dead on 1 July 1916, the first day of the Battle of the Somme. Most of the casualties occurred in the first hour of the attack. The entire Somme offensive cost the British Army almost half a million men.[18] Neither side proved able to deliver a decisive blow for the next two years, though protracted German action at Verdun throughout 1916, combined with the Entente’s failure at the Somme, brought the exhausted French army to the brink of collapse. Futile attempts at frontal assault, a rigid adherence to an ineffectual method, came at a

In the trenches: Infantry with gas masks, Ypres, 1917

Early stages
Trench warfare begins
Military tactics before World War I had failed to keep pace with advances in technology. These changes resulted in the building of impressive defence systems, which out-of-date tactics could not break through for most of the war. Barbed wire was a significant hindrance to massed infantry advances. Artillery, vastly more lethal than in the 1870s, coupled with machine guns, made crossing open ground very difficult. The Germans introduced poison gas; it soon became used by both sides, though it never proved decisive in winning a battle. Its effects were brutal, causing slow and painful death, and poison gas became one of the most-feared and bestremembered horrors of the war. Commanders on both sides failed to develop tactics for breaching entrenched positions without heavy casualties. In time, however, technology began to produce new offensive weapons, such as the tank. Britain and France were its primary users; the Germans

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high price for both the British and the French poilu (infantry) and led to widespread mutinies, especially during the Nivelle Offensive.

World War I
elsewhere. Our wastage had been so high as to cause grave misgivings, and had exceeded all expectation." On the battle of the Menin Road Ridge Ludendorff wrote: "Another terrific assault was made on our lines on the 20 September…. The enemy’s onslaught on the 20th was successful, which proved the superiority of the attack over the defence. Its strength did not consist in the tanks; we found them inconvenient, but put them out of action all the same. The power of the attack lay in the artillery, and in the fact that ours did not do enough damage to the hostile infantry as they were assembling, and above all, at the actual time of the assault."[19]

Canadian troops advancing behind a British Mark II tank at the Battle of Vimy Ridge. Throughout 1915–17, the British Empire and France suffered more casualties than Germany, due both to the strategic and tactical stances chosen by the sides. At the strategic level, while the Germans only mounted a single main offensive at Verdun, the Allies made several attempts to break through German lines. At the tactical level, the German defensive doctrine was well suited for trench warfare, with a relatively lightly defended "sacrificial" forward position, and a more powerful main position from which an immediate and powerful counter-offensive could be launched. This combination usually was effective in pushing out attackers at a relatively low cost to the Germans. In absolute terms, of course, the cost in lives of men for both attack and defense was astounding. Ludendorff wrote on the fighting in 1917, "The 25th of August concluded the second phase of the Flanders battle. It had cost us heavily…. The costly August battles in Flanders and at Verdun imposed a heavy strain on the Western troops. In spite of all the concrete protection they seemed more or less powerless under the enormous weight of the enemy’s artillery. At some points they no longer displayed the firmness which I, in common with the local commanders, had hoped for. The enemy managed to adapt himself to our method of employing counter attacks… I myself was being put to a terrible strain. The state of affairs in the West appeared to prevent the execution of our plans

Officers and senior enlisted men of the Bermuda Militia Artillery’s Bermuda Contingent, Royal Garrison Artillery, in Europe. Around 800,000 soldiers from the British Empire were on the Western Front at any one time. 1,000 battalions, occupying sectors of the line from the North Sea to the Orne River, operated on a month-long four-stage rotation system, unless an offensive was underway. The front contained over 9,600 kilometres (5,965 mi) of trenches. Each battalion held its sector for about a week before moving back to support lines and then further back to the reserve lines before a week outof-line, often in the Poperinge or Amiens areas. In the 1917 Battle of Arras the only significant British military success was the capture of Vimy Ridge by the Canadian Corps under Sir Arthur Currie and Julian Byng. The assaulting troops were able for the first time to overrun, rapidly reinforce and hold the ridge defending the coal-rich Douai [20][21] plain.

Naval war
At the start of the war, the German Empire had cruisers scattered across the globe, some

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World War I

The British Grand Fleet of which were subsequently used to attack Allied merchant shipping. The British Royal Navy systematically hunted them down, though not without some embarrassment from its inability to protect Allied shipping. For example, the German detached light cruiser SMS Emden, part of the East-Asia squadron stationed at Tsingtao, seized or destroyed 15 merchantmen, as well as sinking a Russian cruiser and a French destroyer. However, the bulk of the German East-Asia squadron—consisting of the armoured cruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, light cruisers Nürnberg and Leipzig and two transport ships—did not have orders to raid shipping and was instead underway to Germany when it encountered elements of the British fleet. The German flotilla, along with Dresden, sank two armoured cruisers at the Battle of Coronel, but was almost completely destroyed at the Battle of the Falkland Islands in December 1914, with only Dresden and a few auxiliaries escaping, but at the Battle of Más a Tierra these too were destroyed or interned.[22] Soon after the outbreak of hostilities, Britain initiated a naval blockade of Germany. The strategy proved effective, cutting off vital military and civilian supplies, although this blockade violated generally accepted international law codified by several international agreements of the past two centuries.[23] Britain mined international waters to prevent any ships from entering entire sections of ocean, causing danger to even neutral ships.[24] Since there was limited response to this tactic, Germany expected a similar response to its unrestricted submarine warfare.[25] The 1916 Battle of Jutland (German: Skagerrakschlacht, or "Battle of the Skagerrak") developed into the largest naval battle of the war, the only full-scale clash of battleships during the war. It took place on 31 May–1 June 1916, in the North Sea off Jutland. The Kaiserliche Marine’s High Seas A battleship squadron of the Hochseeflotte at sea Fleet, commanded by Vice Admiral Reinhard Scheer, squared off against the Royal Navy’s Grand Fleet, led by Admiral Sir John Jellicoe. The engagement was a standoff, as the Germans, outmaneuvered by the larger British fleet, managed to escape and inflicted more damage to the British fleet than they received. Strategically, however, the British asserted their control of the sea, and the bulk of the German surface fleet remained confined to port for the duration of the war. German U-boats attempted to cut the supply lines between North America and Britain.[26] The nature of submarine warfare meant that attacks often came without warning, giving the crews of the merchant ships little hope of survival.[27] The United States launched a protest, and Germany modified its rules of engagement. After the notorious sinking of the passenger ship RMS Lusitania in 1915, Germany promised not to target passenger liners, while Britain armed its merchant ships, placing them beyond the protection of the "cruiser rules" which demanded warning and placing crews in "a place of safety" (a standard which lifeboats did not meet).[28] Finally, in early 1917 Germany adopted a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, realizing the Americans would eventually enter the war.[29] Germany sought to strangle Allied sea lanes before the U.S. could transport a large army overseas. The U-boat threat lessened in 1917, when merchant ships entered convoys escorted by destroyers. This tactic made it difficult for Uboats to find targets, which significantly lessened losses; after the introduction of hydrophone and depth charges, accompanying destroyers might actually attack a submerged submarine with some hope of success. The convoy system slowed the flow of supplies, since ships had to wait as convoys

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were assembled. The solution to the delays was a massive program to build new freighters. Troop ships were too fast for the submarines and did not travel the North Atlantic in convoys.[30][31] The U-boats had sunk almost 5,000 Allied ships, at a cost of 178 submarines.[32] World War I also saw the first use of aircraft carriers in combat, with HMS Furious launching Sopwith Camels in a successful raid against the Zeppelin hangars at Tondern in July 1918, as well as blimps for antisubmarine patrol.[33]

World War I

Southern theatres
War in the Balkans
Faced with Russia, Austria-Hungary could spare only one third of its army to attack Serbia. After suffering heavy losses, the Austrians briefly occupied the Serbian capital, Belgrade. A Serbian counterattack in the battle of Kolubara, however, succeeded in driving them from the country by the end of 1914. For the first ten months of 1915, AustriaHungary used most of its military reserves to fight Italy. German and Austro-Hungarian diplomats, however, scored a coup by convincing Bulgaria to join in attacking Serbia. The Austro-Hungarian provinces of Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia provided troops for Austria-Hungary, invading Serbia as well as fighting Russia and Italy. Montenegro allied itself with Serbia. Serbia was conquered in a little more than a month. The attack began in October, when the Central Powers launched an offensive from the north; four days later the Bulgarians joined the attack from the east. The Serbian army, fighting on two fronts and facing certain defeat, retreated into Albania, halting only once in order to make a stand against the Bulgarians. The Serbs suffered defeat near modern day Gnjilane in the Battle of Kosovo. Montenegro covered the Serbian retreat toward the Adriatic coast in the Battle of Mojkovac in 6-7 January 1916, but ultimately the Austrians conquered Montenegro, too. Serbian forces were evacuated by ship to Greece. In late 1915 a Franco-British force landed at Salonica in Greece, to offer assistance and to pressure the government to declare war against the Central Powers. Unfortunately for the Allies, the pro-German King Constantine I dismissed the pro-Allied government of

Austrian troops executing captured Serbians in 1917. Eleftherios Venizelos, before the Allied expeditionary force could arrive. After conquest, Serbia was divided between Austro-Hungary and Bulgaria. Bulgarians commenced bulgarization of the Serbian population in their occupation zone, banishing Serbian Cyrillic and the Serbian Orthodox Church. After forced conscription of the Serbian population into the Bulgarian army in 1917, the Toplica Uprising began. Serbian rebels liberated for a short time the area between the Kopaonik mountains and the South Morava river. The uprising was crushed by joint efforts of Bulgarian and Austrian forces at the end of March 1917. The Macedonian Front proved static for the most part. Serbian forces retook part of Macedonia by recapturing Bitola on 19 November 1916. Only at the end of the conflict were the Entente powers able to break through, after most of the German and Austro-Hungarian troops had withdrawn. The Bulgarians suffered their only defeat of the war at the Battle of Dobro Pole but days later, they decisively defeated British and Greek forces at the Battle of Doiran, avoiding occupation. Bulgaria signed an armistice on 29 September 1918.

Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in the war, the secret Ottoman-German Alliance having been signed in August 1914. It threatened Russia’s Caucasian territories and Britain’s communications with India via the Suez Canal. The British and French opened overseas fronts with the Gallipoli (1915) and Mesopotamian campaigns. In Gallipoli, the Turks successfully repelled

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World War I
Silikyan, Andranik, and Mikhail Areshian. Another regular unit was under Colonel Korganian. There were Armenian partisan guerrilla detachments (more than 40,000[36]) accompanying these main units. The Arab Revolt (described in Lawrence of Arabia) was a major cause of the Ottoman Empire’s defeat. The revolts started with the Battle of Mecca by Sherif Hussain of Mecca with the help of Britain in June 1916, and ended with the Ottoman surrender of Damascus. Fakhri Pasha the Ottoman commander of Medina showed stubborn resistance for over two and half years during the Siege of Medina. Along the border of Italian Libya and British Egypt, the Senussi tribe, incited and armed by the Turks, waged a small-scale guerrilla war against Allied troops. According to Martin Gilbert’s The First World War, the British were forced to dispatch 12,000 troops to deal with the Senussi. Their rebellion was finally crushed in mid-1916.

British artillery placements during the Battle of Jerusalem (1917) the British, French and Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZACs). In Mesopotamia, by contrast, after the disastrous Siege of Kut (1915–16), British Imperial forces reorganised and captured Baghdad in March 1917. Further to the west, in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign, initial British setbacks were overcome when Jerusalem was captured in December 1917. The Egyptian Expeditionary Force, under Field Marshal Edmund Allenby, broke the Ottoman forces at the Battle of Megiddo in September 1918. Russian armies generally had the best of it in the Caucasus. Enver Pasha, supreme commander of the Turkish armed forces, was ambitious and dreamed of conquering central Asia. He was, however, a poor commander.[34] He launched an offensive against the Russians in the Caucasus in December 1914 with 100,000 troops; insisting on a frontal attack against mountainous Russian positions in winter, he lost 86% of his force at the Battle of Sarikamis.[35] The Russian commander from 1915 to 1916, General Yudenich, drove the Turks out of most of the southern Caucasus with a string of victories.[35] In 1917, Russian Grand Duke Nicholas assumed command of the Caucasus front. Nicholas planned a railway from Russian Georgia to the conquered territories, so that fresh supplies could be brought up for a new offensive in 1917. However, in March 1917, (February in the pre-revolutionary Russian calendar), the Czar was overthrown in the February Revolution and the Russian Caucasus Army began to fall apart. In this situation, the army corps of Armenian volunteer units realigned themselves under the command of General Tovmas Nazarbekian, with Dro as a civilian commissioner of the Administration for Western Armenia. The front line had three main divisions: Movses

Italian participation

Austro-Hungarian mountain corps in Tyrol Italy had been allied with the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires since 1882 as part of the Triple Alliance. However, the nation had its own designs on Austrian territory in

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Trentino, Istria and Dalmatia. Rome had a secret 1902 pact with France, effectively nullifying its alliance. At the start of hostilities, Italy refused to commit troops, arguing that the Triple Alliance was defensive in nature, and that Austria-Hungary was an aggressor. The Austro-Hungarian government began negotiations to secure Italian neutrality, offering the French colony of Tunisia in return. The Allies made a counter-offer in which Italy would receive the Alpine province of South Tyrol and territory on the Dalmatian coast after the defeat of Austria-Hungary. This was fomalised by the Treaty of London. Further encouraged by the Allied invasion of Turkey in April 1915, Italy joined the Entente and declared war on Austria-Hungary on May 23. Fifteen months later Italy declared war on Germany. Militarily, the Italians had numerical superiority. This advantage, however, was lost, not only because of the difficult terrain in which fighting took place, but also because of the strategies and tactics employed. Field Marshal Luigi Cadorna, a staunch proponent of the frontal assault, had dreams of breaking into the Slovenian plateau, taking Ljubljana and threatening Vienna. It was a Napoleonic plan, which had no realistic chance of success in an age of barbed wire, machine guns, and indirect artillery fire, combined with hilly and mountainous terrain. On the Trentino front, the Austro-Hungarians took advantage of the mountainous terrain, which favoured the defender. After an initial strategic retreat, the front remained largely unchanged, while Austrian Kaiserschützen and Standschützen (German wikipedia) engaged Italian Alpini in bitter hand-tohand combat throughout the summer. The Austro-Hungarians counter-attacked in the Altopiano of Asiago, towards Verona and Padua, in the spring of 1916 (Strafexpedition), but made little progress. Beginning in 1915, the Italians under Cadorna mounted eleven offensives on the Isonzo front along the Isonzo River, northeast of Trieste. All eleven offensives were repelled by the Austro-Hungarians, who held the higher ground. In the summer of 1916, the Italians captured the town of Gorizia. After this minor victory, the front remained static for over a year, despite several Italian offensives. In the autumn of 1917, thanks to the improving situation on the Eastern front, the Austrians received large numbers of

World War I
reinforcements, including German Stormtroopers and the elite Alpenkorps. The Central Powers launched a crushing offensive on 26 October 1917, spearheaded by the Germans. They achieved a victory at Caporetto. The Italian army was routed and retreated more than 100 km (60 miles) to reorganise, stabilizing the front at the Piave River. Since in the Battle of Caporetto Italian Army had heavy losses, the Italian Government called to arms the so called ’99 Boys (Ragazzi del ’99), that is, all males who were 18 years old. In 1918, the Austro-Hungarians failed to break through, in a series of battles on the Asiago Plateau, finally being decisively defeated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto in October of that year. Austria-Hungary surrendered in early November 1918.[37][38][39] Further information: Battles of the Isonzo

Fighting in India
The war began with an unprecedented outpouring of loyalty and goodwill towards the United Kingdom from within the mainstream political leadership, contrary to initial British fears of an Indian revolt. India under British rule contributed massively to the British war effort by providing men and resources. This was done by the Indian Congress in hope of achieving self-government as India was very much under the control of the British. The United Kingdom disappointed the Indians by not providing self-governance, leading to the Gandhiian Era in Indian history. About 1.3 million Indian soldiers and labourers served in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, while both the Indian government and the princes sent large supplies of food, money, and ammunition. In all 140,000 men served on the Western Front and nearly 700,000 in the Middle East. 47,746 Indian soldiers were killed and 65,126 wounded during World War I.[40] Indian independence movement Bengal and Punjab remained hotbeds of anticolonial activities. Terrorism in Bengal, increasingly closely linked with the unrests in Punjab, was significant enough to nearly paralyse the regional administration. Also from the beginning of the war, expatriate Indian population, notably in Germany, United States and Canada, headed by the Indian Independence Committee and the Ghadar Party respectively, attempted to trigger insurrections in India on the lines of the 1857

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uprising with Irish Republican, German and Turkish help in a massive conspiracy that has since come to be called the Hindu German conspiracy. The conspiracy also made attempts to rally the Amir of Afghanistan against British India, starting a political process in that country that culminated three years later in the assassination of Amir Habibullah and precipitation of the Third Anglo-Afghan war. A number of failed attempts at mutiny were made in India, of which the February mutiny plan and the Singapore mutiny remain most notable. This movement was suppressed by means of a massive international counter-intelligence operation and draconian political acts (including the Defence of India act 1915) that lasted nearly ten years.[41][42][43] The Ghadarites also attempted to organise incursions from the western border of India, recruiting Indian prisoners of war from Turkey, Germany, Mesopotamia. Ghadarite rebels, led by Sufi Amba Prasad, fought along with Turkish forces in Iran and in Turkey. Plans were made in Constantinopole to organise a campaign from Persia, through Baluchistan, to Punjab. These forces were involved skirmishes that captured the frontier city of Karman, taking into custody the British consul. Percy Sykes’s campaign in Persia was directed mostly against these composite forces. It was at this time that the Aga Khan and his brother were recruited into the British War effort. However, the Aga Khan’s brother was captured and shot dead by the rebels, who also successfully harassed British Forces in Sistan in Afghanistan, confining British forces to Karamshir in Baluchistan, later moving towards Karachi. They were able to take control of the coastal towns of Gawador and Dawar. The Baluchi chief of Bampur, having declared his independence from the British rule, also joined the Ghadarite forces. It was not before the war in Europe turned for the worse for Turkey and Baghdad was captured by the British forces that the Ghadarite forces, their supply lines starved, were finally dislodged. They retreated to regroup at Shiraz, where they were finally defeated after a bitter fight. Amba Prasad Sufi was killed in this battle. The Ghadarites carried on guerrilla warfare along with the Iranian partisans till 1919.[44][45][46][47] Although the conflict in India was not explicitly a part of the First World War, it was

World War I
part of the wider strategic context. The British attempt to subjugate the rebelling tribal leaders drew away much needed troops from other theaters, in particular, of course, the Western Front, where the real decisive victory would be made. The reason why some Indian and Afghani tribes rose up simply came down to years of discontent which erupted, probably not coincidentally, during the First World War. It is likely that the tribal leaders were aware that Britain would not be able to field the required men, in terms of either number or quality, but underestimated the strategic importance of India to the British. Despite being far from the epicenter of the conflict, India provided a bounty of men for the fronts. Its produce was also needed for the British war effort and many trade routes running to other profitable areas of the Empire ran through India. Therefore, although the British were not able to send the men that they wanted, they were able to send enough to mount a gradual but effective counter-guerrilla war against the tribesmen. The fighting continued into 1919 and in some areas lasted even longer. See also: Third Anglo-Afghan War and HinduGerman Conspiracy

Eastern Front

World War I Russian infantry.

Initial actions
While the Western Front had reached stalemate, the war continued in East Europe. Initial Russian plans called for simultaneous invasions of Austrian Galicia and German East Prussia. Although Russia’s initial advance into Galicia was largely successful, they were driven back from East Prussia by Hindenburg and Ludendorff at Tannenberg and the

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Masurian Lakes in August and September 1914. Russia’s less developed industrial base and ineffective military leadership was instrumental in the events that unfolded. By the spring of 1915, the Russians had retreated into Galicia, and in May the Central Powers achieved a remarkable breakthrough on Poland’s southern frontiers. On 5 August they captured Warsaw and forced the Russians to withdraw from Poland.

World War I
In March 1917, demonstrations in Petrograd culminated in the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the appointment of a weak Provisional Government which shared power with the Petrograd Soviet socialists. This arrangement led to confusion and chaos both at the front and at home. The army became increasingly ineffective. The war and the government became more and more unpopular. Discontent led to a rise in popularity of the Bolshevik party, led by Vladimir Lenin. He promised to pull Russia out of the war and was able to gain power. The triumph of the Bolsheviks in November was followed in December by an armistice and negotiations with Germany. At first the Bolsheviks refused the German terms, but when Germany resumed the war and marched across Ukraine with impunity, the new government acceded to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918. It took Russia out of the war and ceded vast territories, including Finland, the Baltic provinces, parts of Poland and Ukraine to the Central Powers. The manpower required for German occupation of former Russian territory may have contributed to the failure of the Spring Offensive, however, and secured relatively little food or other war materiel. With the Bolsheviks’ accession to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the Entente no longer existed. The Allied powers led a smallscale invasion of Russia to stop Germany from exploiting Russian resources and, to a lesser extent, to support the Whites in the Russian Civil War. Allied troops landed in Archangel and in Vladivostok. Further information: North Russia Campaign

Ukrainian oppression
Further information: Ukraine in World War I

Russian Revolution
Dissatisfaction with the Russian government’s conduct of the war grew, despite the success of the June 1916 Brusilov offensive in eastern Galicia. The success was undermined by the reluctance of other generals to commit their forces to support the victory. Allied and Russian forces were revived only temporarily with Romania’s entry into the war on 27 August. German forces came to the aid of embattled Austrian units in Transylvania and Bucharest fell to the Central Powers on 6 December. Meanwhile, unrest grew in Russia, as the Tsar remained at the front. Empress Alexandra’s increasingly incompetent rule drew protests and resulted in the murder of her favourite, Rasputin, at the end of 1916.

1917–1918

Vladimir Illyich Lenin

Taking photographs during the war required the use of a helmet.

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World War I
The victory of Austria-Hungary and Germany at the Battle of Caporetto led the Allies at the Rapallo Conference to form the Supreme War Council to coordinate planning. Previously, British and French armies had operated under separate commands. In December, the Central Powers signed an armistice with Russia. This released troops for use in the west. Ironically, German troop transfers could have been greater if their territorial acquisitions had not been so dramatic. With German reinforcements and new American troops pouring in, the final outcome was to be decided on the Western front. The Central Powers knew that they could not win a protracted war, but they held high hopes for a quick offensive. Furthermore, the leaders of the Central Powers and the Allies became increasingly fearful of social unrest and revolution in Europe. Thus, both sides urgently sought a decisive victory.[50]

In the trenches: Royal Irish Rifles in a communications trench on the first day on the Somme, 1 July 1916. Events of 1917 proved decisive in ending the war, although their effects were not fully felt until 1918. The British naval blockade began to have a serious impact on Germany. In response, in February 1917, the German General Staff convinced Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg to declare unrestricted submarine warfare, with the goal of starving Britain out of the war. Tonnage sunk rose above 500,000 tons per month from February to July. It peaked at 860,000 tons in April. After July, the reintroduced convoy system became extremely effective in neutralizing the U-boat threat. Britain was safe from starvation and German industrial output fell. On 3 May 1917 during the Nivelle Offensive the weary French 2nd Colonial Division, veterans of the Battle of Verdun, refused their orders, arriving drunk and without their weapons. Their officers lacked the means to punish an entire division, and harsh measures were not immediately implemented. There upon the mutinies afflicted 54 French divisions and saw 20,000 men desert. The other Allied forces attacked but received massive casualties.[48] However, appeals to patriotism and duty, as well as mass arrests and trials, encouraged the soldiers to return to defend their trenches, although the French soldiers refused to participate in further offensive action.[49] Robert Nivelle was removed from command by 15 May, replaced by General Philippe Pétain, who suspended large-scale attacks. The French would go on the defensive for the next year, leaving the burden of attack to Britain, her Empire and other allies, and subsequently the United States.

In December 1916, the Germans attempted to negotiate peace with the Allies, declaring themselves the victors. The Allies rejected the offer. This German poster from January 1917 quotes a speech by Kaiser Wilhelm II lambasting them for their decision.

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World War I
Lusitania in 1915, with 128 Americans aboard, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson vowed, "America is too proud to fight" and demanded an end to attacks on passenger ships. Germany complied. Wilson unsuccessfully tried to mediate a settlement. He repeatedly warned the U.S. would not tolerate unrestricted submarine warfare, in violation of international law and U.S. ideas of human rights. Wilson was under pressure from former president Theodore Roosevelt, who denounced German acts as "piracy".[51] Wilson’s desire to have a seat at negotiations at war’s end to advance the League of Nations also played a role.[52] Wilson’s Secretary of State, William Jennings Bryan, resigned in protest at what he felt was the President’s decidedly warmongering diplomacy. Other factors contributing to the U.S. entry into the war include the suspected German sabotage of both Black Tom in Jersey City, New Jersey, and the Kingsland Explosion in what is now Lyndhurst, New Jersey. Making the case In January 1917, after the Navy pressured the Kaiser, Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare. Britain’s secret Royal Navy cryptanalytic group, Room 40, had broken the German diplomatic code. They intercepted a proposal from Berlin (the Zimmermann Telegram) to Mexico to join the war as Germany’s ally against the United States, should the U.S. join. The proposal suggested, if the U.S. were to enter the war, Mexico should declare war against the United States and enlist Japan as an ally. This would prevent the United States from joining the Allies and deploying troops to Europe, and would give Germany more time for their unrestricted submarine warfare program to strangle Britain’s vital war supplies. In return, the Germans would promise Mexico support in reclaiming Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.[53] U.S. declaration of war on Germany After the British revealed the telegram to the United States, President Wilson, who had won reelection on his keeping the country out of the war, released the captured telegram as a way of building support for U.S. entry into the war. He had previously claimed neutrality, while calling for the arming of U.S. merchant ships delivering munitions to combatant Britain and quietly supporting the

Entry of the United States

President Wilson before Congress, announcing the break in official relations with Germany on 3 February 1917

An American doughboy, circa 1918 Isolationism The United States originally pursued a policy of isolationism, avoiding conflict while trying to broker a peace. This resulted in increased tensions with Berlin and London. When a German U-boat sank the British liner

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British blockading of German ports and mining of international waters, preventing the shipment of food from America and elsewhere to combatant Germany. After submarines sank seven U.S. merchant ships and the publication of the Zimmerman telegram, Wilson called for war on Germany, which the U.S. Congress declared on 6 April 1917.[54]

World War I
Act. Germany had miscalculated, believing it would be many more months before they would arrive and that the arrival could be stopped by U-boats.[56]

M1905 Howitzer used by Allied Forces The United States Navy sent a battleship group to Scapa Flow to join with the British Grand Fleet, destroyers to Queenstown, Ireland and submarines to help guard convoys. Several regiments of U.S. Marines were also dispatched to France. The British and French wanted U.S. units used to reinforce their troops already on the battle lines and not waste scarce shipping on bringing over supplies. The U.S. rejected the first proposition and accepted the second. General John J. Pershing, American Expeditionary Force (AEF) commander, refused to break up U.S. units to be used as reinforcements for British Empire and French units. As an exception, he did allow African-American combat regiments such as the Harlem Hellfighters to be used in French divisions.[57]AEF doctrine called for the use of frontal assaults, which had long since been discarded by British Empire and French commanders because of the large loss of life.[58]

African-American soldiers marching in France.[55] Crucial to U.S. participation was the massive domestic propaganda campaign executed by the Committee on Public Information overseen by George Creel. The campaign included tens of thousands of government-selected community leaders giving brief carefully scripted pro-war speeches at thousands of public gatherings. Along with other branches of government and private vigilante groups like the American Protective League, it also included the general repression and harassment of people either opposed to American entry into the war or of German heritage. Other forms of propaganda included newsreels, photos, large-print posters (designed by several well-known illustrators of the day, including Louis D. Fancher and Henry Reuterdahl), magazine and newspaper articles, etc. First active U.S. participation The United States was never formally a member of the Allies but became a self-styled "Associated Power". The United States had a small army, but it drafted four million men and by summer 1918 was sending 10,000 fresh soldiers to France every day. In 1917, the U.S. Congress gave U.S. citizenship to Puerto Ricans when they were drafted to participate in World War I, as part of the Jones

German Spring Offensive of 1918
German General Erich Ludendorff drew up plans (codenamed Operation Michael) for the 1918 offensive on the Western Front. The Spring Offensive sought to divide the British and French forces with a series of feints and advances. The German leadership hoped to strike a decisive blow before significant U.S. forces arrived. The operation commenced on 21 March 1918 with an attack on British forces near Amiens. German forces achieved an unprecedented advance of 60 kilometers (40 miles).[59] British and French trenches were penetrated using novel infiltration tactics, also named Hutier tactics, after General Oskar

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World War I

British 55th (West Lancashire) Division troops blinded by tear gas during the Battle of Estaires, 10 April 1918 For most of World War I, Allied forces were stalled at trenches on the Western Front von Hutier. Previously, attacks had been characterised by long artillery bombardments and massed assaults. However, in the Spring Offensive, the German Army used artillery only briefly and infiltrated small groups of infantry at weak points. They attacked command and logistics areas and bypassed points of serious resistance. More heavily armed infantry then destroyed these isolated positions. German success relied greatly on the element of surprise. The front moved to within 120 kilometers (75 mi) of Paris. Three heavy Krupp railway guns fired 183 shells on the capital, causing many Parisians to flee. The initial offensive was so successful that Kaiser Wilhelm II declared 24 March a national holiday. Many Germans thought victory was near. After heavy fighting, however, the offensive was halted. Lacking tanks or motorised artillery, the Germans were unable to consolidate their gains. The sudden stop was also a result of the four AIF (Australian Imperial Forces) divisions that were "rushed" down, thus doing what no other army had done and stopping the German advance in its tracks. During that time the first Australian division was hurriedly sent north again to stop the second German breakthrough. American divisions, which Pershing had sought to field as an independent force, were assigned to the depleted French and British Empire commands on 28 March. A Supreme War Council of Allied forces was created at the Doullens Conference on 5 November 1917.[60] General Foch was appointed as supreme commander of the allied forces. Haig, Petain and Pershing retained tactical control of their respective armies; Foch assumed a coordinating role, rather than a directing role and the British, French and U.S. commands operated largely independently.[60] Following Operation Michael, Germany launched Operation Georgette against the northern English channel ports. The Allies halted the drive with limited territorial gains for Germany. The German Army to the south then conducted Operations Blücher and Yorck, broadly towards Paris. Operation Marne was launched on 15 July, attempting to encircle Reims and beginning the Second Battle of the Marne. The resulting Allied counterattack marked their first successful offensive of the war. By 20 July the Germans were back at their Kaiserschlacht starting lines, having achieved nothing. Following this last phase of the war in the West, the German Army never again regained the initiative. German casualties between March and April 1918 were 270,000, including many highly trained stormtroopers. Meanwhile, Germany was falling apart at home. Anti-war marches become frequent and morale in the army fell. Industrial output was 53% of 1913 levels.

New states under war zone
In 1918, the internationally recognized Democratic Republic of Armenia and Democratic Republic of Georgia bordering the Ottoman Empire were established, as well as the unrecognized Centrocaspian Dictatorship and South West Caucasian Republic. In 1918, the Dashnaks of the Armenian national liberation movement declared the Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA) through the Armenian Congress of Eastern

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Armenians (unified form of Armenian National Councils) after the dissolution of the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Tovmas Nazarbekian became the first Commander-in-chief of the DRA. Enver Pasha ordered the creation of a new army to be named the Army of Islam. He ordered the Army of Islam into the DRA, with the goal of taking Baku on the Caspian Sea. This new offensive was strongly opposed by the Germans. In early May 1918, the Ottoman army attacked the newly declared DRA. Although the Armenians managed to inflict one defeat on the Ottomans at the Battle of Sardarapat, the Ottoman army won a later battle and scattered the Armenian army. The Republic of Armenia was forced to sign the Treaty of Batum in June 1918.

World War I
resistance on the British Fourth Army front at Amiens stiffened, after an advance as far as 14 miles (23 km) and brought the battle there to an end, the French Third Army lengthened the Amiens front on 10 August, when it was thrown in on the right of the French First Army, and advanced 4 miles (6 km) liberating Lassigny in fighting which lasted until the 16th. South of the French Third Army General Mangin (The Butcher) drove his French Tenth Army forward at Soissons on 20 August to capture eight thousand prisoners, two hundred guns and the Aisne heights overlooking and menacing the German position north of the Vesle.[65] Another "Black day" as described by Ludendorff. Meanwhile General Byng of the Third British Army, reporting that the enemy on his front was thinning in a limited withdrawal, was ordered to attack with 200 tanks toward Bapaume, opening what is known as the Battle of Albert with the specific orders of "To break the enemy’s front, in order to outflank the enemies present battle front" (opposite the British Fourth Army at Amiens).[19] Allied leaders had now realized that to continue an attack after resistance had hardened was a waste of lives and it was better to turn a line than to try and roll over it. Attacks were being undertaken in quick order to take advantage of the successful advances on the flanks and then broken off when that attack lost its initial impetus.[65] The British Third Army’s 15-mile (24 km) front north of Albert progressed after stalling for a day against the main resistance line to which the enemy had withdrawn.[66] Rawlinson’s Fourth British Army was able to battle its left flank forward between Albert and the Somme straightening the line between the advanced positions of the Third Army and the Amiens front which resulted in recapturing Albert at the same time.[65] On 26 August the British First Army on the left of the Third Army was drawn into the battle extending it northward to beyond Arras. The Canadian Corps already being back in the vanguard of the First Army fought their way from Arras eastward 5 miles (8 km) astride the heavily defended Arras-Cambrai before reaching the outer defenses of the Hindenburg line, breaching them on the 28th and 29th. Bapaume fell on the 29th to the New Zealand Division of the Third Army and the Australians, still leading the advance of the Fourth Army, were again able to push forward at

Allied victory: summer and autumn 1918

U.S. engineers returning from the front during the Battle of Saint-Mihiel in September 1918 The Allied counteroffensive, known as the Hundred Days Offensive, began on 8 August 1918. The Battle of Amiens developed with III Corps Fourth British Army on the left, the First French Army on the right, and the Australian and Canadian Corps spearheading the offensive in the centre through Harbonnières.[61][62] It involved 414 tanks of the Mark IV and Mark V type, and 120,000 men. They advanced 12 kilometers (7 miles) into German-held territory in just seven hours. Erich Ludendorff referred to this day as the "Black Day of the German army".[61][63] The Australian-Canadian spearhead at Amiens, a battle that was the beginning of Germany’s downfall,[64] helped pull the British armies to the north and the French armies to the south forward. While German

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Amiens to take Peronne and Mont St. Quentin on August 31. Further south the French First and Third Armies had slowly fought forward while the Tenth Army, who had by now crossed the Ailette and was east of the Chemin des Dames, was now near to the Alberich position of the Hindenburg line.[67] During the last week of August the pressure along a 70-mile (113 km) front against the enemy was heavy and unrelenting. From German accounts, "Each day was spent in bloody fighting against an ever and again on-storming enemy, and nights passed without sleep in retirements to new lines."[65] Even to the north in Flanders the British Second and Fifth Armies during August and September were able to make progress taking prisoners and positions that were previously denied them.[67]

World War I
repercussions all along the Western Front. That same day OHL had no choice but to issue orders to six armies for withdrawal back into the Hindenburg line in the south, behind the Canal Du Nord on the Canadian-First Army’s front and back to a line east of the Lys in the north, giving up without a fight the salient seized in the previous April.[68] According to Ludendorff “We had to admit the necessity…to withdraw the entire front from the Scarpe to the Vesle.”[69] In nearly four weeks of fighting since 8 August over 100,000 German prisoners were taken, 75,000 by the BEF and the rest by the French. Since "The Black Day of the German Army" the German High Command realized the war was lost and made attempts for a satisfactory end. The day after the battle Ludenforff told Colonel Mertz "We cannot win the war any more, but we must not lose it either." On 11 August he offered his resignation to the Kaiser, who refused it and replied, "I see that we must strike a balance. We have nearly reached the limit of our powers of resistance. The war must be ended." On 13 August at Spa, Hindenburg, Ludendorff, Chancellor and Foreign minister Hintz agreed that the war could not be ended militarily and on the following day the German Crown Council decided victory in the field was now most improbable. Austria and Hungary warned that they could only continue the war until December and Ludendorff recommended immediate peace negotiations, to which the Kaiser responded by instructing Hintz to seek the Queen of Holland’s mediation. Prince Rupprecht warned Prince Max of Baden "Our military situation has deteriorated so rapidly that I no longer believe we can hold out over the winter; it is even possible that a catastrophe will come earlier." On 10 September Hindenburg urged peace moves to Emperor Charles of Austria and Germany appealed to Holland for mediation. On the 14th Austria sent a note to all belligerents and neutrals suggesting a meeting for peace talks on neutral soil and on 15 September Germany made a peace offer to Belgium. Both peace offers were rejected and on 24 September OHL informed the leaders in Berlin that armistice talks were inevitable.[67] September saw the Germans continuing to fight strong rear guard actions and launching numerous counter attacks on lost positions, with only a few succeeding and then only

Close-up view of an American major in the basket of an observation balloon flying over territory near front lines. On 2 September the Canadian Corps outflanking of the Hindenburg line, with the breaching of the Wotan Position, made it possible for the Third Army to advance and sent

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temporarily. Contested towns, villages, heights and trenches in the screening positions and outposts of the Hindenburg Line continued to fall to the Allies as well as thousands of prisoners, with the BEF alone taking 30,441 in the last week of September. Further small advances eastward would follow the Third Army victory at Ivincourt on 12 September, the Fourth Armies at Epheny on the 18th and the French gain of Essigny Le Grand a day later. On the 24th a final assault by both the British and French on a four mile (6 km) front would come within two miles (3 km) of St. Quentin.[67] With the outposts and preliminary defensive lines of the Siegfried and Alberich Positions eliminated the Germans were now completely back in the Hindenburg line. With the Wotan position of that line already breached and the Siegfried position in danger of being turned from the north the time had now come for an assault on the whole length of the line. The Allied attack on the Hindenburg Line began on 26 September. 260,000 U.S. soldiers went "over the top". All initial objectives were captured; the U.S. 79th Infantry Division, which met stiff resistance at Montfaucon, took an extra day to capture its objective. The U.S. Army stalled due to supply problems because its inexperienced headquarters had to cope with large units and a difficult landscape.[70] At the same time, French units broke through in Champagne and closed on the Belgian frontier. The most significant advance came from Commonwealth units, as they entered Belgium. The last Belgian town to be liberated before the armistice was Ghent, which the Germans held as a pivot until Allied artillery was brought up.[71][72] The German army had to shorten its front and use the Dutch frontier as an anchor to fight rear-guard actions. By October, it was evident that Germany could no longer mount a successful defence. They were increasingly outnumbered, with few new recruits. Rations were cut. Ludendorff decided, on 1 October, that Germany had two ways out — total annihilation or an armistice. He recommended the latter at a summit of senior German officials. Allied pressure did not let up. Meanwhile, news of Germany’s impending military defeat spread throughout the German armed forces. The threat of mutiny was rife. Admiral Reinhard Scheer and Ludendorff decided to launch a last attempt

World War I
to restore the "valour" of the German Navy. Knowing the government of Max von Baden would veto any such action, Ludendorff decided not to inform him. Nonetheless, word of the impending assault reached sailors at Kiel. Many rebelled and were arrested, refusing to be part of a naval offensive which they believed to be suicidal. Ludendorff took the blame—the Kaiser dismissed him on 26 October. The collapse of the Balkans meant that Germany was about to lose its main supplies of oil and food. The reserves had been used up, but U.S. troops kept arriving at the rate of 10,000 per day.[73] Having suffered over 6 million casualties, Germany moved toward peace. Prince Max von Baden took charge of a new government as Chancellor of Germany to negotiate with the Allies. Negotiations with President Wilson began immediately, in the vain hope that better terms would be offered than with the British and French. Instead Wilson demanded the abdication of the Kaiser. There was no resistance when the social democrat Philipp Scheidemann on 9 November declared Germany to be a republic. Imperial Germany was dead; a new Germany had been born: the Weimar Republic.[74]

Allied superiority and the stab-in-theback legend, November 1918
In November 1918 the Allies had ample supplies of men and materiel; continuation of the war would have meant the invasion of Germany. This had unforeseeable consequences; some Allied decision-makers felt the war should be "finished," not just stopped, and many voices on both sides voiced the opinion that the war was not really over. But most Allied decision-makers were eager to see the end of hostilities. Berlin was almost 900 miles (1,400 km) from the Western Front; no Allied soldier had ever set foot on German soil in anger, and the Kaiser’s armies retreated from the battlefield in good order. Thus many veterans who had fought for the Central Powers, including Adolf Hitler, were convinced their armies had not really been defeated, resulting in the stab-in-the-back legend.

End of war
The collapse of the Central Powers came swiftly. Bulgaria was the first to sign an armistice on 29 September 1918 at

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World War I
Armistice with Austria was signed in the Villa Giusti, near Padua, on 3 November. Austria and Hungary signed separate armistices following the overthrow of the Habsburg monarchy. Following the outbreak of the German Revolution, a republic was proclaimed on 9 November. The Kaiser fled to the Netherlands. On 11 November an armistice with Germany was signed in a railroad carriage at Compiègne. At 11 a.m. on 11 November 1918 — the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month — a ceasefire came into effect. Opposing armies on the Western Front began to withdraw from their positions. Canadian, Private George Lawrence Price, is traditionally regarded as the last soldier killed in the Great War: he was shot by a German sniper at 10:57 and died at 10:58.[77] A formal state of war between the two sides persisted for another seven months, until signing of the Treaty of Versailles with Germany on 28 June 1919. Later treaties with Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire were signed. However, the latter treaty with the Ottoman Empire was followed by strife (the Turkish Independence War) and a final peace treaty was signed between the Allied Powers and the country that would shortly become the Republic of Turkey, at Lausanne on 24 July 1923. Some war memorials date the end of the war as being when the Versailles treaty was signed in 1919; by contrast, most commemorations of the war’s end concentrate on the armistice of 11 November 1918. Legally the last formal peace treaties were not signed until the Treaty of Lausanne. Under its terms, the Allied forces abandoned Constantinople on 23 August 1923.

In the forest of Compiègne after reaching an agreement for the armistice that ended World War I, Foch is seen second from the right. The carriage seen in the background, where the armistice was signed, later was chosen as the symbolic setting of Pétain’s June 1940 armistice. It was moved to Berlin as a prize, but due to Allied bombing it was eventually moved to Crawinkel, Thuringia, where it was deliberately destroyed by SS troops in 1945[75]. Saloniki.[76] On 30 October the Ottoman Empire capitulated at Mudros.[76] On 24 October the Italians began a push which rapidly recovered territory lost after the Battle of Caporetto. This culminated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, which marked the end of the Austro-Hungarian Army as an effective fighting force. The offensive also triggered the disintegration of Austro-Hungarian Empire. During the last week of October declarations of independence were made in Budapest, Prague and Zagreb. On 29 October, the imperial authorities asked Italy for an armistice. But the Italians continued advancing, reaching Trento, Udine and Trieste. On 3 November Austria-Hungary sent a flag of truce to ask for an Armistice. The terms, arranged by telegraph with the Allied Authorities in Paris, were communicated to the Austrian Commander and accepted. The

Technology
See also: Technology during World War I See also: Weapons of World War I The First World War began as a clash of 20th century technology and 19th century tactics, with inevitably large casualties. By the end of 1917, however, the major armies, now numbering millions of men, had modernised and were making use of telephone, wireless communication, armoured cars, tanks, and aircraft. Infantry formations were reorganised, so that 100-man companies were no longer the main unit of maneuver. Instead, squads of 10 or so men, under the command of a

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World War I
Cambrai, the Somme, Verdun, and Gallipoli. The Haber process of nitrogen fixation was employed to provide the German forces with a constant supply of gunpowder, in the face of British naval blockade. Artillery was responsible for the largest number of casualties and consumed vast quantities of explosives. The large number of head-wounds caused by exploding shells and fragmentation forced the combatant nations to develop the modern steel helmet, led by the French, who introduced the Adrian helmet in 1915. It was quickly followed by the Brodie helmet, worn by British Imperial and U.S. troops, and in 1916 by the distinctive German Stahlhelm, a design, with improvements, still in use today.

British Army Vickers machine gun. junior NCO, were favoured. Artillery also underwent a revolution. In 1914, cannons were positioned in the front line and fired directly at their targets. By 1917, indirect fire with guns (as well as mortars and even machine guns) was commonplace, using new techniques for spotting and ranging, notably aircraft and (often overlooked) field telephone. Counter-battery missions became commonplace, also, and sound detection was used to locate enemy batteries.

French Nieuport 17 C.1 fighter, 1917 There was chemical warfare and smallscale strategic bombing, both of which were outlawed by the 1907 Hague Conventions, and both proving of limited effectiveness,[79] though they captured the public imagination.[80] The widespread use of chemical warfare was a distinguishing feature of the conflict. Gases used included chlorine, mustard gas and phosgene. Only a small proportion of total war casualties were caused by gas. Effective countermeasures to gas attacks were quickly created, such as gas masks. The most powerful land-based weapons were railway guns weighing hundreds of tons apiece. These were nicknamed Big Berthas, even though the namesake was not a railway gun. Germany developed the Paris Gun, able to bombard Paris from over 100 km (60 mi), though shells were relatively light at 94 kilograms (210 lb). While the Allies had railway guns, German models severely out-ranged and out-classed them.

RAF Sopwith Camel. Germany was far ahead of the Allies in utilizing heavy indirect fire. She employed 150 and 210 mm howitzers in 1914 when the typical French and British guns were only 75 and 105 mm. The British had a 6 inch (152 mm) howitzer, but it was so heavy it had to be assembled for firing. Germans also fielded Austrian 305 mm and 420 mm guns, and already by the beginning of the war had inventories of various calibers of Minenwerfer ideally suited for trench warfare.[78] Much of the combat involved trench warfare, where hundreds often died for each yard gained. Many of the deadliest battles in history occurred during the First World War. Such battles include Ypres, the Marne,

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Fixed-wing aircraft were first used militarily by the Italians in Libya 23 October 1911 during the Italo-Turkish War for reconnaissance, soon followed by the dropping of grenades and aerial photography the next year. By 1914 the military utility was obvious. They were initially used for reconnaissance and ground attack. To shoot down enemy planes, anti-aircraft guns and fighter aircraft were developed. Strategic bombers were created, principally by the Germans and British, though the former used Zeppelins as well. Towards the end of the conflict, aircraft carriers were used for the first time, with HMS Furious launching Sopwith Camels in a raid against the Zeppelin hangars at Tondern in 1918.

World War I
1917), blimps, hunter-killer submarines (HMS R-1, 1917), forward-throwing anti-submarine weapons, and dipping hydrophones (the latter two both abandoned in 1918).[81] To extend their operations, the Germans proposed supply submarines (1916). Most of these would be forgotten in the interwar period until World War II revived the need. Trenches, machineguns, air reconnaissance, barbed wire, and modern artillery with fragmentation shells helped bring the battle lines of World War I to a stalemate. The British sought a solution with the creation of the tank and mechanised warfare. The first tanks were used during the Battle of the Somme on 15 September 1916. Mechanical reliability became an issue, but the experiment proved its worth. Within a year, the British were fielding tanks by the hundreds and showed their potential during the Battle of Cambrai in November 1917, by breaking the Hindenburg Line, while combined arms teams captured 8000 enemy soldiers and 100 guns. Light automatic weapons also were introduced, such as the Lewis Gun and Browning automatic rifle. Manned observation balloons, floating high above the trenches, were used as stationary reconnaissance platforms, reporting enemy movements and directing artillery. Balloons commonly had a crew of two, equipped with parachutes.[82] In the event of an enemy air attack, the crew could parachute to safety. At the time, parachutes were too heavy to be used by pilots of aircraft (with their marginal power output) and smaller versions would not be developed until the end of the war; they were also opposed by British leadership, who feared they might promote cowardice.[83] Recognised for their value as observation platforms, balloons were important targets of enemy aircraft. To defend against air attack, they were heavily protected by antiaircraft guns and patrolled by friendly aircraft; to attack them, unusual weapons such as air-to-air rockets were even tried. Blimps and balloons contributed to airto-air combat among aircraft, because of their reconnaissance value, and to the trench stalemate, because it was impossible to move large numbers of troops undetected. The Germans conducted air raids on England during 1915 and 1916 with airships, hoping to damage British morale and cause aircraft to be diverted from the front lines. The resulting

Armoured cars German U-boats (submarines) were deployed after the war began. Alternating between restricted and unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic, they were employed by the Kaiserliche Marine in a strategy to deprive the British Isles of vital supplies. The deaths of British merchant sailors and the seeming invulnerability of Uboats led to the development of depth charges (1916), hydrophones (passive sonar,

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panic took several squadrons of fighters from France.[83]

World War I

Johnson’s Nieuport 11 armed with Le Prieur rockets for attacking observation balloons Another new weapon, flamethrowers, were first used by the German army and later adopted by other forces. Although not of high tactical value, they were a powerful, demoralizing weapon and caused terror on the battlefield. It was a dangerous weapon to wield, as its heavy weight made operators vulnerable targets. Trench railways evolved to supply the enormous quantities of food, water, and ammunition required to support large numbers of soldiers in areas where conventional transportation systems had been destroyed. A trench railway system was included in construction of the Maginot Line, but internal combustion engines and improved traction systems for wheeled vehicles rendered trench railways obsolete within a decade.

The First Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps Contingent, raised in 1914, sent as an extra, 90-man company to the 1 Lincolns in June, 1915, the first colonial volunteer unit to reach the Front. Its strength rapidly reduced. After losing 50% of its remaining men at Gueudecourt on 25 September 1916, the survivors merged with a Second Contingent of thirty-seven, and trained as Lewis gunners. By the War’s end, the two contingents had lost over 75% of their combined strength. Forty died on active service. 16 were commissioned., one received the O.B.E, and six the Military Medal published. The museum believes that historians have not taken full account of this material and accordingly has made the full archive of recordings available to authors and researchers.[84]

Prisoners of war
About 8 million men surrendered and were held in POW camps during the war. All nations pledged to follow the Hague Convention on fair treatment of prisoners of war. In general, a POW’s rate of survival was much higher than their peers at the front.[85] Individual surrenders were uncommon. Large units usually surrendered en masse. At the Battle of Tannenberg 92,000 Russians surrendered. When the besieged garrison of Kaunas surrendered in 1915, 20,000 Russians became prisoners. Over half of Russian losses were prisoners (as a proportion of those captured, wounded or killed); for Austria 32%, for Italy 26%, for France 12%, for Germany 9%; for Britain 7%. Prisoners from the Allied armies totalled about 1.4 million (not including Russia, which lost between 2.5 and 3.5 million men as prisoners.) From the Central Powers about 3.3 million men became prisoners.[86] Germany held 2.5 million prisoners; Russia held 2.9 million and Britain and France held about 720,000. Most were captured just prior to the Armistice. The U.S. held 48,000. The most dangerous moment was the act of

Legacy
The first tentative efforts to comprehend the meaning and consequences of modern warfare began during the initial phases of the war, and this process continued throughout and after the end of hostilities.

Soldiers’ experiences
The soldiers of the war were initially volunteers, except for Italy, but increasingly were conscripted into service. Books such as All Quiet on the Western Front detail the mundane time, but also the intense horror, of soldiers that fought the war. Britain’s Imperial War Museum has collected more than 2,500 recordings of soldiers’ personal accounts and selected transcripts, edited by military author Max Arthur, have been

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World War I
diplomatic force during the Russian Civil War.

Military attachés and war correspondents
Military and civilian observers from every major power closely followed the course of the war. Many were able to report on events from a perspective somewhat like what is now termed "embedded" positions within the opposing land and naval forces. These military attachés and other observers prepared voluminous first-hand accounts of the war and analytical papers. For example, former U.S. Army Captain Granville Fortescue followed the developments of the Gallipoli campaign from an embedded perspective within the ranks of the Turkish defenders; and his report was passed through Turkish censors before being printed in London and New York.[95] However, this observer’s role was abandoned when the U.S. entered the war, as Fortescue immediately re-enlisted, sustaining wounds at Montfaucon d’Argonne in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, September 1918.[96] In-depth observer narratives of the war and more narrowly focused professional journal articles were written soon after the war; and these post-war reports conclusively illustrated the battlefield destructiveness of this conflict. This was the not first time the tactics of entrenched positions for infantry defended with machine guns and artillery became vitally important. The Russo-Japanese War had been closely observed by Military attachés, war correspondents and other observers; but, from a 21st Century perspective, it is now apparent that a range of tactical lessons were disregarded or not used in the preparations for war in Europe and during the course of the Great War.[97] An early recorded use of the term "World War" is attributed to a well-known journalist for The Times, Colonel Charles Repington, who wrote in his diary on 10 September 1918: "We discussed the right name of the war. I said the we called it now The War, but that this could not last. The Napoleonic War was The Great War. To call it The German War was too much flattery for the Boche. I suggested The World War as a shade better title, and finally we mutually agreed to call it The First World War in order to prevent the millennium folk from forgetting that the

This photograph shows an emaciated Indian army soldier who survived the Siege of Kut surrender, when helpless soldiers were sometimes gunned down.[87][88] Once prisoners reached a camp, in general, conditions were satisfactory (and much better than in World War II), thanks in part to the efforts of the International Red Cross and inspections by neutral nations. Conditions were terrible in Russia, starvation was common for prisoners and civilians alike; about 15–20% of the prisoners in Russia died. In Germany food was in short supply, but only 5% died.[89][90][91] The Ottoman Empire often treated POWs poorly.[92] Some 11,800 British Empire soldiers, most of them Indians, became prisoners after the Siege of Kut, in Mesopotamia, in April 1916; 4,250 died in captivity.[93] Although many were in very bad condition when captured, Ottoman officers forced them to march 1,100 kilometres (684 mi) to Anatolia. A survivor said: "we were driven along like beasts, to drop out was to die."[94] The survivors were then forced to build a railway through the Taurus Mountains. In Russia, where the prisoners from the Czech Legion of the Austro-Hungarian army were released in 1917 they re-armed themselves and briefly became a military and

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history of the world was the history of war."[98]

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Genocide
See also: Armenian Genocide, Assyrian Genocide, and Pontic Greek Genocide The ethnic cleansing of the Ottoman Empire’s Christian population, with the most prominent among them being the massacres of Armenians (similar policies were enacted against the Assyrians and Greeks), during the final years of the Ottoman Empire is considered by some genocide.[102] The Ottomans saw the entire Armenian population as an enemy[103] that had chosen to side with Russia during the beginning of the war.[104] The exact number of deaths is unknown although a range of 250,000 to 1.5 million is given for the deaths of Armenians.[105] The government of Turkey has consistently rejected charges of genocide and of others, arguing that those who died were simply caught up in the fighting or that killings of Armenians and other Christians were justified by their individual or collective treason.[106]

Opposition to the war
The trade union and socialist movements had long voiced their opposition to a war, which they argued, meant only that workers would kill other workers in the interest of capitalism. Once war was declared, however, many socialists and trade unions backed their governments. Among the exceptions were the Bolsheviks, the Socialist Party of America, and the Italian Socialist Party, and individuals such as Karl Liebknecht, Rosa Luxemburg and their followers in Germany. There were also small anti-war groups in Britain and France. Other opposition came from conscientious objectors - some socialist, some religious - who refused to fight. In Britain 16,000 people asked for conscientious objector status.[99] Many suffered years of prison, including solitary confinement and bread and water diets. Even after the war, in Britain many job advertisements were marked "No conscientious objectors need apply". Many countries jailed those who spoke out against the conflict. These included Eugene Debs in the United States and Bertrand Russell in Britain. In the U.S. the 1917 Espionage Act effectively made free speech illegal and many served long prison sentences for statements of fact deemed unpatriotic. The Sedition Act of 1918 made any statements deemed "disloyal" a federal crime. Publications at all critical of the government were removed from circulation by postal censors.[52] The Central Asian Revolt started in the summer of 1916, when the Russian Empire government ended its exemption of Muslims from military service.[100] In September 1917 the Russian soldiers in France began questioning why they were fighting for the French at all and mutinied.[101] In Russia, opposition to the war led to soldiers also establishing their own revolutionary committees and helped foment the October Revolution of 1917, with the call going up for "bread, land, and peace". The Bolsheviks agreed a peace treaty with Germany, the peace of BrestLitovsk, despite its harsh conditions.

Rape of Belgium
In Belgium, German troops, in fear of French and Belgian guerrilla fighters, or francstireurs, massacred townspeople in Andenne (211 dead), Tamines (384 dead), and Dinant (612 dead). On 25 August 1914, the Germans set fire to the town of Leuven, burned the library containing about 230,000 books, killed 209 civilians and forced 42,000 to evacuate. These actions brought worldwide condemnation.[107]

Aftermath

War crimes

The Beaumont Hamel Newfoundland Memorial in the Somme

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No other war had changed the map of Europe so dramatically — four empires disappeared: the German, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman and the Russian. Four defunct dynasties, the Hohenzollerns, the Habsburg, Romanovs and the Ottomans together with all their ancillary aristocracies, all fell after the war. Belgium was badly damaged, as was France with 1.4 million soldiers dead, not counting other casualties. Germany and Russia were similarly affected. Of the 60 million European soldiers who were mobilized from 1914 – 1918, 8 million were killed, 7 million were permanently disabled, and 15 million were seriously injured. Germany lost 15.1% of its active male population, Austria-Hungary lost 17.1%, and France lost 10.5%.[108] About 750,000 German civilians died from starvation caused by the British blockade during the war.[109] The war had profound economic consequences. In addition, a major influenza epidemic spread around the world. Overall, the Spanish flu killed at least 50 million people.[110][111] In November 1914 alone, epidemic typhus killed 200,000 in Serbia. There were about 25 million infections and 3 million deaths from epidemic typhus in Russia from 1918 to 1922.[112] By 1922 there were at least 7 million homeless children in Russia as a result of nearly a decade of devastation from World War I and the Russian Civil War.[113]

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war, the Ottoman Empire had maintained a modest level of peace and stability throughout the Middle East.[118] With the end of the war and the fall of Ottoman government, power vacuums developed and conflicting claims to land and nationhood began to emerge.[119] Sometimes after only cursory consultation with the local population, the political boundaries drawn by the victors of the First World War were quickly imposed, and in many cases are still problematic in the 21st century struggles for national identity.[120][121] While the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I was a pivotal milestone in the creation of the modern political situation of the Middle East, including especially the Arab-Israeli conflict,[122][123][124] the end of Ottoman rule also spawned lesser known disputes over water and other natural resources.[125] Further information: Sykes–Picot Agreement

Peace treaties
After the war, the Allies imposed a series of peace treaties on the Central Powers. The 1919 Treaty of Versailles, which Germany was kept under blockade until she signed, ended the war. It declared Germany responsible for the war and required Germany to pay enormous war reparations and award territory to the victors. Unable to pay them with exports (a result of territorial losses and postwar recession),[126] she did so by borrowing from the United States, until the reparations were suspended in 1931. The "Guilt Thesis" became a controversial explanation of events in Britain and the United States. The Treaty of Versailles caused enormous bitterness in Germany, which nationalist movements, especially the Nazis, exploited with a conspiracy theory they called the Dolchstosslegende. The treaty contributed to economic collapse of the Weimar Republic by sparking runaway inflation in the 1920s. The German Empire lost its colonial possessions and was saddled with accepting blame for the war, as well as paying punitive reparations for it. The Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires were completely dissolved. Austria-Hungary was also partitioned, largely along ethnic lines, into several successor states including Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia, as well as adding Transylvania to the Greater Romania who was allied with the victors. The details

Later conflicts
The end of World War I set the stage for other world conflicts, some of which are continuing into the 21st century. The Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, pushed for socialist revolution. Out of German discontent with the still controversial Treaty of Versailles, Adolf Hitler was able to gain popularity and power.[114][115] World War II was in part a continuation of the power struggle that was never fully resolved by the First World War; in fact, it was common for Germans in the 1930s and 1940s to justify acts of international aggression because of perceived injustices imposed by the victors of the First World War.[116] The establishment of the modern state of Israel and the roots of the continuing IsraeliPalestinian Conflict are partially found in the unstable power dynamics of the Middle East which were born at the end of World War I.[117] Previous to the end of fighting in the

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were contained in the Treaty of Saint-Germain and the Treaty of Trianon. The Russian Empire, which had withdrawn from the war in 1917 after the October Revolution, lost much of its western frontier as the newly independent nations of Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland were carved from it; Bessarabia was also re-attached to the Greater Romania as it had been a Romanian territory for more than a thousand years.[127] The Ottoman Empire disintegrated, and much of its non-Anatolian territory was awarded as protectorates of various Allied powers, while the remaining Turkish core was reorganised as the Republic of Turkey. The Ottoman Empire was to be partitioned by the Treaty of Sèvres in 1920. The treaty, however, was never ratified by the Sultan and was rejected by the Turkish republican movement. This led to the Turkish Independence War and, ultimately, to the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne.

World War I
war as a Dominion of the British Empire, by its end Canada emerged as a fully independent nation.[131][132] While the other Dominions were represented by Britain, Canada was an independent negotiator and signatory of the Versailles Treaty.

Social trauma
The experiences of the war led to a collective trauma for all participating countries. The optimism of the 1900s was gone and those who fought in the war became known as the Lost Generation. For the next few years, much of Europe mourned. Memorials were erected in thousands of villages and towns. The soldiers returning home from World War I suffered greatly from the horrors they had witnessed. Many returning veterans suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder, called shell shock at the time. The social trauma caused by years of fighting manifested itself in different ways. Some people were revolted by nationalism and its results, and so they began to work toward a more internationalist world, supporting organisations such as the League of Nations. Pacifism became increasingly popular. Others had the opposite reaction, feeling that only strength and military might could be relied upon in a chaotic and inhumane world. Anti-modernist views were an outgrowth of the many changes taking place in society. The rise of Nazism and fascism included a revival of the nationalist spirit and a rejection of many post-war changes. Similarly, the popularity of the Dolchstosslegende ("stab-in-theback legend") was a testament to the psychological state of defeated Germany and was a rejection of responsibility for the conflict. The conspiracy theory of betrayal became common and the German public came to see themselves as victims. The Dolchstosslegende’s popular acceptance in Germany played a significant role in the rise of Nazism. A sense of disillusionment and cynicism became pronounced, with nihilism growing in popularity. This disillusionment for humanity found a cultural climax with the Dadaist artistic movement. Many believed the war heralded the end of the world as they had known it, including the collapse of capitalism and imperialism. Communist and socialist movements around the world drew strength from this theory and enjoyed a level of popularity they had never known before.

New national identities
Poland reemerged as an independent country, after more than a century. Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia were entirely new nations agglomerating previously independent peoples. Russia became the Soviet Union and lost Finland, Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia, which became independent countries. The Ottoman Empire was soon replaced by Turkey and several other countries in the Middle East. In the British Empire, the war unleashed new forms of nationalism. In Australia and New Zealand the Battle of Gallipoli became known as those nations’ "Baptism of Fire". It was the first major war in which the newly established countries fought and it was one of the first times that Australian troops fought as Australians, not just subjects of the British Crown. Anzac Day, commemorating the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, celebrates this defining moment.[128][129] After the Battle of Vimy Ridge, where the Canadian divisions fought together for the first time as a single corps, Canadians began to refer to theirs as a nation "forged from fire".[130] Having succeeded on the same battleground where the "mother countries" had previously faltered, they were for the first time respected internationally for their own accomplishments. Having entered the

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These feelings were most pronounced in areas directly or harshly affected by the war.[133][134]

World War I
the long-term effects were clouded by the defeat of these governments. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increased for three Allies (Britain, Italy, and U.S.), but decreased in France and Russia, in neutral Netherlands, and in the main three Central Powers. The shrinkage in GDP in Austria, Russia, France, and the Ottoman Empire reached 30 to 40%. In Austria, for example, most of the pigs were slaughtered and, at war’s end, there was no meat. All nations had increases in the government’s share of GDP, surpassing fifty percent in both Germany and France and nearly reaching fifty percent in Britain. To pay for purchases in the United States, Britain cashed in its massive investments in American railroads and then began borrowing heavily on Wall Street. President Wilson was on the verge of cutting off the loans in late 1916, but allowed a massive increase in U.S. government lending to the Allies. After 1919, the U.S. demanded repayment of these loans, which, in part, were funded by German reparations, which, in turn, were supported by American loans to Germany. This circular system collapsed in 1931 and the loans were never repaid. Macro- and micro-economic consequences devolved from the war. Families were altered by the departure of many men. With the death or absence of the primary wage earner, women were forced into the workforce in unprecedented numbers. At the same time, industry needed to replace the lost laborers sent to war. This aided the struggle for voting rights for women. As the war slowly turned into a war of attrition, conscription was implemented in some countries. This issue was particularly explosive in Canada and Australia. In the former it opened a political gap between French-Canadians — who claimed their true loyalty was to Canada and not the British Empire — and the Anglophone majority who saw the war as a duty to both Britain and Canada. Prime Minister Robert Borden pushed through a Military Service Act, provoking the Conscription Crisis of 1917. In Australia, a sustained pro-conscription campaign by Prime Minister Billy Hughes, caused a split in the Australian Labor Party and Hughes formed the Nationalist Party of Australia in 1917 to pursue the matter. Nevertheless, the labour movement, the Catholic Church, and Irish nationalist expatriates successfully

Lt. Col. John McCrae of Canada, who wrote the poem "In Flanders Fields", died in 1918 of pneumonia On 3 May 1915, during the Second Battle of Ypres, Lieutenant Alexis Helmer was killed. At his graveside, his friend John McCrae, M.D., of Guelph, Ontario, Canada wrote the memorable poem In Flanders Fields as a salute to those who perished in the Great War. Published in Punch on 8 December 1915, it is still recited today, especially on Remembrance Day and Memorial Day.[135][136]

Macro- and micro-economic effects
One of the most dramatic effects of the war was the expansion of governmental powers and responsibilities in Britain, France, the United States, and the Dominions of the British Empire. In order to harness all the power of their societies, new government ministries and powers were created. New taxes were levied and laws enacted, all designed to bolster the war effort; many of which have lasted to this day. Similarly, the war strained the abilities of the formerly large and bureaucratised governments such as in Austria-Hungary and Germany; however, any analysis of

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opposed Hughes’ push, which was rejected in two plebiscites. In Britain, rationing was finally imposed in early 1918, limited to meat, sugar, and fats (butter and oleo), but not bread. The new system worked smoothly. From 1914 to 1918 trade union membership doubled, from a little over four million to a little over eight million. Work stoppages and strikes became frequent in 1917–18 as the unions expressed grievances regarding prices, alcohol control, pay disputes, fatigue from overtime and working on Sundays and inadequate housing. Conscription put into uniform nearly every physically fit man, six of ten million eligible. Of these, about 750,000 lost their lives and 1,700,000 were wounded. Most deaths were to young unmarried men; however, 160,000 wives lost husbands and 300,000 children lost fathers.[137] Britain turned to her colonies for help in obtaining essential war materials whose supply had become difficult from traditional sources. Geologists, such as Albert Ernest Kitson, were called upon to find new resources of precious minerals in the African colonies. Kitson discovered important new deposits of manganese, used in munitions production, in the Gold Coast.[138]

World War I
the word."— Indianapolis Star September 20, 1914 [139] The term was used again near the end of the war. English journalist Charles A. Repington wrote: “ [Diary entry, September 10, 1918]: We discussed the right name of the war. I said the we called it now The War, but that this could not last. The Napoleonic War was The Great War. To call it The German War was too much flattery for the Boche. I suggested The World War as a shade better title, and finally we mutually agreed to call it The First World War in order to prevent the millennium folk from forgetting that the history of the world was the history of war." The First World War, 1914-1918 (1920) [139]

See also
• • • • • European Civil War List of people associated with World War I List of wars List of wars by death toll World War One - Medal Abbreviations

Media

Cognate names for the war
Before World War II, the war was also known as The Great War, The World War, The War to End All Wars, The Kaiser’s War, The War of the Nations and The War in Europe. In France and Belgium it was sometimes referred to as La Guerre du Droit (the War for Justice) or La Guerre Pour la Civilisation / de Oorlog tot de Beschaving (the War to Preserve Civilization), especially on medals and commemorative monuments. The term used by official histories of the war in Britain and Canada is The First World War, while American histories generally use the term World War I. The earliest known use of the term First World War appeared during the war. German biologist and philosopher Ernst Haeckel wrote shortly after the start of the war: “ There is no doubt that the course and character of the feared "European War"...will become the first world war in the full sense of

Play video Video clip of allied bombing runs over German lines Play video Primitive WWI tanks help the Allies with an advance in Langres, France (1918)

Animated maps
• An animated map "Europe plunges into war" • An animated map of Europe at the end of the war

Notes
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] ^ Evans 2004, p. 188 Willmott 2003, p. 10 ^ Willmott 2003, p. 15 Keegan 1988, p. 8 Willmott 2003, p. 307 Willmott 2003, p. 6 Keegan 1988, p. 7

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[8] Keegan 1988, p. 11 [9] ^ Keegan 1998, p. 52 [10] ^ Willmott 2003, p. 21 [11] Prior 1999, p. 18 [12] Fromkin [13] ^ Keegan 1998, pp. 48–49 [14] Willmott 2003, pp. 22–23 [15] ^ Willmott 2003, p. 26 [16] Willmott 2003, p. 27 [17] Willmott 2003, p. 29 [18] Duffy [19] ^ Terraine 1963, p. 508 [20] "Vimy Ridge, Canadian National Memorial" ( – Scholar search), Australians on the Western Front 1914-1918 (New South Wales Department of Veteran’s Affairs and Board of Studies), 2007, http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/ vimy_ridge/index.html [21] Winegard, Timothy. "Here at Vimy: A Retrospective – The 90th Anniversary of the Battle of Vimy Ridge". Canadian Military Journal 8 (2). http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo8/no2/ winegard-eng.asp. Retrieved on 2009-04-21. [22] Taylor2007, pp. 39–47 [23] Keene 2006, pp. 5 [24] Halpern 1995, p. 293 [25] Zieger 2001, pp. 50 [26] "Coast Guard in the North Atlantic War". http://www.uscg.mil/History/ h_AtlWar.html. Retrieved on 2007-10-30. [27] Gilbert 2004, pp. 306 [28] von der Porten 1969 [29] Jones, p. 80 [30] "Nova Scotia House of Assembly Committee on Veterans’ Affairs". Hansard. http://www.gov.ns.ca/ legislature/hansard//comm/va/ va_2006nov09.htm. Retrieved on 2007-10-30. [31] "Greek American Operational Group OSS, Part 3 continued". http://www.pahh.com/oss/pt3/p23.html. Retrieved on 2007-10-30. [32] The U-boat War in World War One [33] Price [34] Fromkin 2001, p. 119 [35] ^ Hinterhoff 1984, pp. 499–503 [36] Boghos Nubar the president of the "Armenian National Assembly" declared to Paris Peace Conference, 1919 through a letter to French Foreign Office - 3 December 1918

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[37] The Battles of the Isonzo, 1915-17, FirstWorldWar.com, http://www.firstworldwar.com/battles/ isonzo.htm [38] Battlefield Maps: Italian Front, FirstWorldWar.com, http://www.firstworldwar.com/maps/ italianfront.htm [39] Hickey 2003, pp. 60-65 [40] Participants from the Indian subcontinent in the First World War, Memorial Gates Trust, http://www.mgtrust.org/ind1.htm, retrieved on 2008-12-12 [41] Fraser 1977 [42] Hughes 2002, p. 474 [43] Dignan 1971, p. 57 [44] Sykes 1921, p. 101 [45] Singh [46] Herbert 2003 [47] Asghar 2005 [48] Lyons, 243. [49] Marshall, 292. [50] Heyman 1997, pp. 146–147 [51] Brands 1997, p. 756 [52] ^ Karp 1979 [53] Tuchman 1966 [54] see: Woodrow Wilson declares war on Germany. [55] "African Americans during World War I". http://www.archives.gov/education/ lessons/369th-infantry/. [56] Wilgus, p. 52 [57] Archives, National, African Americans during World War I, http://www.archives.gov/education/ lessons/369th-infantry/ [58] Millett & Murray 1988, p. 143 [59] Westwell 2004 [60] ^ Moon 1996, pp. 495-496 [61] ^ "The Battle of Amiens: 8 August 1918". Australian War Memorial. http://www.awm.gov.au/1918/battles/ amiens.htm. Retrieved on 2008-12-12. [62] Map [63] Rickard, J (5 March 2001). "Erich von Ludendorff, 1865-1937, German General". Military History Encyclopedia on the Web. HistoryOfWar.org. http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/ people_ludendorff.html. Retrieved on 2008-02-06. [64] Ordeal Of Victory John Terraine [65] ^ Pitt 2003 [66] Maurice 1918 [67] ^ Chronicle Of The First World War

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[68] Nicholson 1962 stolenyears/ww1/turkey/story2.asp, [69] Ludendorff 1919 retrieved on 2008-12-10 [70] The Meuse-Argonne Offensive: Overview, [95] Fortescue 28 October 1915, p. 1 http://www.worldwar1.com/dbc/ [96] "Granville Roland Fortescue". Arlington bigshow.htm, retrieved on 2007-10-30 National Cemetery. [71] "Ghent Burghers Hail Liberators", New http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/ York Times, 15 November 1918, fortesc.htm. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive[97] Sisemore 2003 free/ [98] Shapiro & Epstein 2006, p. 633 pdf?res=940DE1DC1239E13ABC4D52DFB7678383609EDE [99] Lehmann 1999, p. 62 [72] "Fall of Ghent Near, German Flank in [100] zbeks. Based on the Country Studies U Peril", New York Times, 26 October 1918 Series by Federal Research Division of published 30 October 1918, the Library of Congress. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ [101]amie H Cockfield (1997). With snow on J abstract.html?res=9F05E4D61539E13ABC4850DFB6678383609EDE&scp=4&sq=Ghent+1918&st=p their boots : The tragic odyssey of the [73] Stevenson 2004, p. 383 Russian Expeditionary Force in France [74] Stevenson 2004 during World War 1. Palgrave [75] "Clairière de l Armistice" (in French). Macmillan. ISBN 0312220820. Compiègne. http://www.compiegne.fr/ [102] etter from the International Association L decouvrir/clairierearmistice.asp. of Genocide Scholars to Prime Minister Retrieved on 2008-12-03. Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, 13 June 2005 [76] ^ "1918 Timeline". [103] ewy 2005, p. 57 L http://www.indiana.edu/~league/ [104] erguson 2006, p. 177 F 1918.htm. [105] alakian 2003, pp. 195-196 B [77] "The Last Hours". [106] romkin 1989, pp. 212-215 F http://www.nwbattalion.com/last.html. [107] eegan 1998, pp. 82–3 K [78] Mosier 2001, pp. 42–48 [108] itchen 2000, p. 22 K [79] Heller 1984 [109]Die miserable Versorgung mit " [80] Postwar, there were numerous pulp Lebensmitteln erreichte 1916/17 im novels on future "gas wars", including "Kohlrübenwinter” einen dramatischen Ghastly Dew The Gas War of 19--. Höhepunkt. Während des Ersten [81] Price 1980 Weltkriegs starben in Deutschland rund [82] Winter, Denis. First of the Few. 750.000 Menschen an Unterernährung [83] ^ Johnson 2001 und an deren Folgen. [1] [84] "Forgotten Voices of the Great War". [110] nobler 2005 K Imperial War Museum. [111]Influenza Report". " http://www.forgottenvoices.co.uk/. http://www.influenzareport.com/ir/ Retrieved on 2008-03-30. overview.htm. [85] Phillimore & Bellot 1919, pp. 47–64 [112]oseph M. Conlon. "The historical impact J [86] Ferguson 1999, pp. 368-9 of epidemic typhus" (PDF). [87] Blair 2005 http://entomology.montana.edu/ [88] Cook 2006, pp. 637–665 historybug/TYPHUS-Conlon.pdf. [89] Speed 1990 [113] nd Now My Soul Is Hardened: A [90] Ferguson 1999 Abandoned Children in Soviet Russia, [91] Morton 1992 1918-1930, By Thomas J. Hegarty, [92] Bass 2002, p. 107 Canadian Slavonic Papers [93] "The Mesopotamia campaign". British [114]The Ending of World War One, and the " National Archives. Legacy of Peace". BBC. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/ pathways/firstworldwar/battles/ wwone/war_end_01.shtml. mesopotamia.htm. Retrieved on [115]The Rise of Hitler". " 2007-03-10. http://www.schoolshistory.org.uk/ [94] "Prisoners of Turkey: Men of Kut Driven hitlergainspower.htm. along like beasts", Stolen Years: [116]World War II". Britannica Online " Australian Prisoners of War (Australian Encyclopedia. War Memorial), http://www.awm.gov.au/

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

World War I

http://www.britannica.com/eb/ • American Armies and Battlefields in article-9110199/World-War-II. Europe: A History, Guide, and Reference [117] conomist 2005 E Book, U.S. Government Printing Office, [118] ooker 1996 H 1938, OCLC 59803706, [119] uller 2008 M http://www.secstate.wa.gov/history/ww1/ [120] aplan 1993 K maps.aspx [121] alibi 1993 S • Army Art of World War I, U.S. Army [122] vans 2005 E Center of Military History: Smithsonian [123]sraeli Foreign Ministry I Institution, National Museum of American [124] elvin 2005 G History, 1993, OCLC 28608539, [125]saac & Hosh 1992 I http://www.secstate.wa.gov/history/ [126] eynes 1920 K publications_detail.aspx?p=28 [127] lark 1927 C • Asghar, Syed Birjees (2005-06-12), A [128]’ANZAC Day’ in London; King, Queen, " Famous Uprising, Dawn Group, and General Birdwood at Services in http://www.dawn.com/weekly/dmag/ Abbey". New York Times. 26 April 1916. archive/050612/dmag14.htm, retrieved on http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ 2007-11-02 abstract.html?res=9400E1DD113FE233A25755C2A9629C946796D6CF&scp=12&sq=New+Zealand+ • Ashworth, Tony (2000), Trench warfare, [129]The ANZAC Day tradition". Australian " 1914-18 : the live and let live system, War Memorial. http://www.awm.gov.au/ London: Pan, ISBN 0330480685, OCLC commemoration/anzac/ 247360122 anzac_tradition.asp. Retrieved on • Bade, Klaus J; Brown, Allison (tr.) (2003), 2008-05-02. Migration in European History, The [130]Vimy Ridge". Canadian War Museum. " making of Europe, Oxford: Blackwell, http://www.warmuseum.ca/cwm/ ISBN 0631189394, OCLC 52695573 exhibitions/guerre/vimy-ridge-e.aspx. (translated from the German) Retrieved on 2008-10-22. • Balakian, Peter (2004), The Burning [131]The War’s Impact on Canada". Canadian " Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and War Museum. America’s Response, New York: http://www.warmuseum.ca/cwm/ HarperCollins, ISBN 0060558709, OCLC exhibitions/guerre/war-impact-e.aspx. 56822108 Retrieved on 2008-10-22. • Bass, Gary Jonathan (2002), Stay the Hand [132]Canada’s last WW1 vet gets his " of Vengeance: The Politics of War Crimes citizenship back". CBC News. Tribunals, Princeton, New Jersey: 2008-05-09. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/ Princeton University Press, pp. 424pp, ottawa/story/2008/05/09/babcockISBN 0691092788, OCLC 248021790 citizen.html. • Blair, Dale (2005), No Quarter: Unlawful [133] aker, Kevin Stabbed in the Back! The B Killing and Surrender in the Australian past and future of a right-wing myth War Experience, 1915-1918, Charnwood, Harper’s Magazine, June 2006 Australia: Ginninderra Press, ISBN [134] hickering 2004 C 1740272919, OCLC 62514621 [135]John McCrae (from Historica)". " • Blumberg, Arnold, ed. (1995), Great http://www.histori.ca/minutes/ Leaders, Great Tyrants?, Westport, minute.do?id=10200. Connecticut: Greenwood Press, ISBN [136] vans David. "John McCrae (from the E 0313287511, OCLC 30400598 Canadian Encyclopedia)". • Brands, Henry William (1997), T. R.: The http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/ Last Romantic, New York: Basic Books, index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&ArticleId=A0004849. ISBN 0465069584, OCLC 36954615 [137] avighurst, pp. 134-5 H • Cecil, Lamar (1996), Wilhelm II: Emperor [138] reen 1938, pp. CXXVI G and Exile, 1900-1941, II, Chapel Hill, [139] Shapiro, Robert, "Yale Book of ^ North Carolina: University of North Quotations" (2006) Carolina Press, pp. 176, ISBN 0807822833, OCLC 186744003 • Chickering, Rodger (2004), Imperial Germany and the Great War, 1914-1918, See also: List of World War I books

References

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521839084, OCLC 55523473 Clark, Charles Upson (1927), Bessarabia, Russia and Roumania on the Black Sea, New York: Dodd, Mead, OCLC 150789848, http://depts.washington.edu/cartah/ text_archive/clark/meta_pag.shtml Coffman, Edward M (1998), The War to End All Wars: The American Military Experience in World War I, Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, ISBN 0813109558, OCLC 38842092 Cook, Tim (2006), "The politics of surrender: Canadian soldiers and the killing of prisoners in the First World War", The Journal of Military History 70 (3): 637–665, doi:10.1353/jmh.2006.0158 Cornish, Nik; Karachtchouk, Andrei (ill.) (2001), The Russian Army 1914-18, Menat-Arms, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, pp. 48, ISBN 1841763039, OCLC 248331622 Coulthard-Clark, Christopher D (2001), The Encyclopaedia of Australia’s Battles, Crows Nest, New South Wales: Allen & Unwin, pp. 320pp, ISBN 1865086347, OCLC 48793439 Cruttwell, Charles Robert Mowbray Fraser (2007), A History of the Great War, 1914–1918, Chicago: Academy Chicago Publishers, ISBN 0897333152 general military history Dignan, Don K (February 1971), "The Hindu Conspiracy in Anglo-American Relations during World War I.", The Pacific Historical Review (University of California Press) 40 (1): 57–76, ISSN 0030-8684, http://www.jstor.org/stable/ 3637829 Duffy, Michael, Somme, First World War.com, http://www.firstworldwar.com/ battles/somme.htm, retrieved on 25 February 2007 Dupuy, Trevor Nevitt (1979), Numbers, Predictions and War, Indianapolis: BobbsMerrill, ISBN 0672521318, OCLC 4037624 Eksteins, Modris (1989), Rites of Spring: The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age, London: Bantam, ISBN 0593018621, OCLC 19455240 an analysis of cultural changes before, during, and after the war Ellis, John; Cox, Michael (2001), The World War I Databook: The Essential Facts and Figures for All the Combatants,

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London: Aurum, ISBN 1854107666, OCLC 46506978 Esposito, Vincent J (1997), 1900–1918, The West Point Atlas of American Wars, II, New York: Henry Holt, ISBN 0805053050, OCLC 39644150, http://www.dean.usma.edu/history/web03/ atlases/great%20war/ great%20war%20index.htm despite the title covers entire war Evans, David (2004), The First World War, Teach yourself, London: Hodder Arnold, ISBN 0340884894, OCLC 224332259 Evans, Leslie (27 May 2005), Future of Iraq, Israel-Palestine Conflict, and Central Asia Weighed at International Conference, UCLA International Institute, http://www.international.ucla.edu/ article.asp?parentid=24920, retrieved on 2008-12-30 Falls, Cyril Bentham (1959), The Great War, New York: Putnam, ISBN 0399501002, OCLC 8664179 general military history Ferguson, Niall (1999), The Pity of War, New York: Basic Books, pp. 563pp, ISBN 046505711X, OCLC 41124439 Ferguson, Niall (2006), The War of the World: Twentieth-Century Conflict and the Descent of the West, New York: Penguin Press, ISBN 1594201005 Fischer, Fritz (1967), Germany’s Aims in the First World War, New York: Norton, OCLC 1558559 (original German title "Griff nach der Weltmacht: Die Kriegzielpolitik des kaiserlichen Deutschland 1914/18") Fischer, Fritz; Jackson, Marian (1975), War of Illusions: German Policies From 1911 to 1914, New York: Norton, OCLC 221830012 (original German title "Krieg der Illusionen die deutsche Politik von 1911 - 1914") Fortescue, Granville Roland (28 October 1915), London in Gloom over Gallipoli; Captain Fortescue in Book and AshmeadBartlett in Lecture Declare Campaign Lost. Say Allies Can’t Advance; Attack on Allied Diplomacy in Correspondent’s Doleful Talk Passed by Censor, New York Times, http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ abstract.html?res=9907E3DE1E38E633A2575BC2A96 Fraser, Thomas G (April 1977), "Germany and Indian Revolution, 1914-18", Journal of Contemporary History (Sage Publications) 12 (2): 255–272,

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doi:10.1177/002200947701200203, ISSN 00220094 Fromkin, David (2001), A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East, New York: Owl Books, pp. 119, ISBN 0805068848, OCLC 53814831 Fromkin, David (2004), Europe’s Last Summer: Who Started the Great War in 1914?, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, ISBN 0375411569, OCLC 53937943 Fussell, Paul (1975), The Great War and Modern Memory, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195019180, OCLC 1631561 on literature Gelvin, James L (2005), The IsraelPalestine Conflict: One Hundred Years of War, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521852897, OCLC 59879560 Gilbert, Martin (2004), The First World War: A Complete History, Clearwater, Florida: Owl Books, pp. 306, ISBN 0805076174, OCLC 34792651 Gray, Edwyn A (1994), The U-Boat War, 1914–1918, London: L Cooper, ISBN 0850524059, OCLC 59816503 Green, John Frederick Norman (1938), "Obituary: Albert Ernest Kitson", Geological Society Quarterly Journal (Geological Society) 94 Haber, LF (1986), The Poisonous Cloud: Chemical Warfare in the First World War, Oxford: Clarendon, ISBN 0198581424, OCLC 12051072 Halpern, Paul G (1995), A Naval History of World War I, New York: Routledge, ISBN 1857284984, OCLC 60281302 Harrach, Franz, "Archduke Franz Ferdinand’s Assassination, 28 June 1914: Memoir of Count Franz von Harrach", Primary Documents (First World War.com) Hardach, Gerd (1977), The First World War 1914–1918, London: Allen Lane, ISBN 0713910240, OCLC 3174153 economics Heller, Charles E (1984), Chemical warfare in World War I : the American experience, 1917-1918, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute, OCLC 123244486, http://www-cgsc.army.mil/ carl/resources/csi/Heller/HELLER.asp Henig, Ruth Beatrice (2002), The Origins of the First World War, Lancaster Pamphlets (3rd ed.), London: Routledge, ISBN 0415262054, OCLC 59470456

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• Herbert, Edwin (2003), Small Wars and Skirmishes 1902-1918: Early Twentiethcentury Colonial Campaigns in Africa, Asia and the Americas, Nottingham: Foundry Books Publications, ISBN 1901543056 • Herrmann, David G (1996), The Arming of Europe and the Making of the First World War, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, ISBN 0691033749, OCLC 32509928 • Herwig, Holger H (1996), The First World War: Germany and Austria-Hungary 1914–1918, London: Arnold, ISBN 0340573481, OCLC 60154404 • Heyman, Neil M (1997), World War I, Guides to historic events of the twentieth century, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, ISBN 0313298807, OCLC 36292837 • Hickey, Michael (2003), The Mediterranean Front 1914-1923, The First World War, 4, New York: Routledge, pp. 60–65, ISBN 0415968445, OCLC 52375688 • Higham, Robin DS; Showalter, Dennis E, eds. (2003), Researching World War I: A Handbook, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, ISBN 031328850X, OCLC 51922814 , historiography, stressing military themes • Hinterhoff, Eugene (1984), Young, Peter, ed., "The Campaign in Armenia", Marshall Cavendish Illustrated Encyclopedia of World War I (New York: Marshall Cavendish) ii, ISBN 0863071813 • Hooker, Richard (1996), The Ottomans, http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/OTTOMAN/ OTTOMAN1.HTM, retrieved on 2008-12-30 • Hoover, Herbert; Wilson, Woodrow (1958), Ordeal of Woodrow Wilson, New York: McGraw-Hill, OCLC 254607345 • Howard, Michael Eliot (2002), The First World War, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 175, ISBN 0192853627, OCLC 59376613 , general military history • Hubatsch, Walther; Backus, Oswald P (1963), Germany and the Central Powers in the World War, 1914–1918, Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas, OCLC 250441891 • Hughes, Thomas L (October 2002), "The German Mission to Afghanistan, 1915-1916", German Studies Review (German Studies Association) 25 (3):

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447–476, doi:10.2307/1432596, ISSN • Kitchen, Martin (2000), Europe Between 01497952 the Wars, New York: Longman, ISBN Hull, Cordell; Berding, Andrew Henry 0582418690, OCLC 247285240, Thomas (1948), The Memoirs of Cordell http://www.jimmyatkinson.com/papers/ versaillestreaty.html#endnotes Hull, 1, New York: Macmillan, pp. 81, • Knobler, Stacey L, ed. (2005), The Threat OCLC 228774232 of Pandemic Influenza: Are We Ready? Isaac, Jad; Hosh, Leonardo (7-9 May Workshop Summary, Washington DC: 1992), Roots of the Water Conflict in the National Academies Press, ISBN Middle East, University of Waterloo, 0309095042, OCLC 57422232, http://web.archive.org/web/ http://www.nap.edu/books/0309095042/ 20060928053605/http://www.oranim.ac.il/ html/7.html courses/meast/water/ • Lee, Dwight Roots+of+the+Water+Conflict+in+the+Middle+East.htm Erwin, ed. (1953), The Outbreak of the First World War: Who Isenberg, Michael Thomas (1981), War on Was Responsible?, Boston: Heath, Film: The American Cinema and World pp. 74pp, OCLC 8824589 , readings from War I, 1914-1941, Fairleigh Dickinson multiple points of view University Press, ISBN 0838620043, • Lehmann, Hartmut; van der Veer, Peter, OCLC 5726236 eds. (1999), Nation and religion: Johnson, James Edgar (2001), Full Circle: perspectives on Europe and Asia, The Story of Air Fighting, London: Cassell, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton ISBN 0304358606, OCLC 45991828 University Press, ISBN 0691012326, Joll, James (1984), The Origins of the First OCLC 39727826 World War, London: Longman, ISBN • Lewy, Guenter (2005), The Armenian 0582490162, OCLC 9852205 Massacres in Ottoman Turkey: A Disputed Jones, Howard (2001), Crucible of Power: Genocide, Salt Lake City, Utah: University A History of U. S. Foreign Relations Since of Utah Press, ISBN 0874808499, OCLC 1897, Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly 61262401 Resources Books, ISBN 0842029184, • Lyons, Michael J (1999), World War I: A OCLC 46640675 Short History (2nd ed.), Prentice Hall, Kaplan, Robert D. (February 1993), "Syria: ISBN 0130205516 Identity Crisis", The Atlantic, • Ludendorff, Erich (1919), My War http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/199302/ Memories, 1914-1918, OCLC 60104290 kaplan, retrieved on 2008-12-30 also published by Harper as "Ludendorff’s Karp, Walter (1979), The Politics of War Own Story, August 1914-November 1918: (1st ed.), ISBN 006012265X, OCLC The Great War from the Siege of Liege to 4593327 , Wilson’s maneuvering U.S. into the Signing of the Armistice as Viewed war from the Grand Headquarters of the Keegan, John (1998), The First World War, German Army" OCLC 561160 Hutchinson, ISBN 0091801788 , general • Marsden, William Edward (2001), The military history School Textbook: Geography, History, and Keene, Jennifer D (2006), World War I, Social Studies, London: Routledge, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, pp. 177, ISBN 0713040432, OCLC pp. 5, ISBN 0313331812, OCLC 46836724 70883191 • Maurice, Frederick Barton (18 August Kennedy, David M (1982), Over Here: The 1918), "Foe’s reserves now only 16 First World War and American Society, divisions; Allies’ Counteroffensive has Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN reduced them from 60, Gen. Maurice says 0195032098, OCLC 9906841 , covers Ludendorff in dilemma; he must choose politics & economics & society between giving up offensive projects and Kennett, Lee B (1992), The First Air War, shortening his line", New York Times, 1914–1918, New York: Free Press, ISBN http://query.nytimes.com/gst/ 0029173019, OCLC 22113898 abstract.html?res=9B02EFD6103BEE3ABC4052DFBE Keynes, John Maynard (1920), The • Millett, Allan Reed; Murray, Williamson Economic Consequences of the Peace, (1988), Military Effectiveness, Boston: New York: Harcourt, Brace and Howe, OCLC 213487540

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Allen Unwin, ISBN 0044450532, OCLC 220072268 Moon, John Ellis van Courtland (July 1996), "United States Chemical Warfare Policy in World War II: A Captive of Coalition Policy?", The Journal of Military History 60 (3): 495–511, doi:10.2307/ 2944522, http://www.jstor.org/stable/ 2944522 Morton, Desmond; Granatstein, Jack L (1989), Marching to Armageddon: Canadians and the Great War 1914–1919, ISBN 0886192099, OCLC 21449019 Morton, Desmond (1992), Silent Battle: Canadian Prisoners of War in Germany, 1914-1919, Toronto: Lester Pub, ISBN 1895555175, OCLC 29565680 Mosier, John (2001), "Germany and the Development of Combined Arms Tactics", Myth of the Great War: How the Germans Won the Battles and How the Americans Saved the Allies, New York: Harper Collins, ISBN 0060196769 Muller, Jerry Z (March/April 2008), "Us and Them - The Enduring Power of Ethnic Nationalism", Foreign Affairs, http://www.foreignaffairs.org/ 20080301faessay87203/jerry-z-muller/usand-them.html, retrieved on 2008-12-30 Neiberg, Michael S (2005), Fighting the Great War: A Global History, Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, ISBN 0674016963, OCLC 56592292 Nicholson, Gerald WL (1962), Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1919: Official History of the Canadian Army in the First World War (1st ed.), Ottawa: Queens Printer and Controller of Stationary, OCLC 2317262, http://www.censol.ca/ research/greatwar/nicholson/index.htm Phillimore, George Grenville; Bellot, Hugh HL (1919), "Treatment of Prisoners of War", Transactions of the Grotius Society 5: 47–64, OCLC 43267276 Pitt, Barrie (2003), 1918: The Last Act, Barnsley: Pen and Sword, ISBN 0850529743, OCLC 56468232 Pope, Stephen; Wheal, Elizabeth-Anne, eds. (1995), The Macmillan Dictionary of the First World War, ISBN 033361822X, OCLC 60238536 Price, Alfred (1980), Aircraft versus Submarine: the Evolution of the Antisubmarine Aircraft, 1912 to 1980, London: Jane’s Publishing, ISBN 0710600089, OCLC 10324173 Deals with technical

World War I
developments, including the first dipping hydrophones Prior, Robin (1999), The First World War, London: Cassell, ISBN 030435256X Robbins, Keith (1993), The First World War, New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0192891499, OCLC 26402515 , short overview Ross, Stewart Halsey (1996), Propaganda for War: How the United States was Conditioned to Fight the Great War of 1914-1918, Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland, ISBN 0786401117, OCLC 185807544 Gilpin, Robert (1989), Rotberg, Robert I; Rabb, Theodore K, eds., The Origin and Prevention of Major Wars, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 225, ISBN 0521379555, OCLC 123169187 Salibi, Kamal Suleiman (1993), "How it all began - A concise history of Lebanon", A House of Many Mansions - the history of Lebanon reconsidered, I.B. Tauris, ISBN 1850430918, OCLC 224705916, http://almashriq.hiof.no/lebanon/900/902/ Kamal-Salibi/ Shapiro, Fred R; Epstein, Joseph (2006), The Yale Book of Quotations, Yale University Press, ISBN 0300107986 Silkin, Jon, ed. (1996), The Penguin Book of First World War Poetry (2nd ed.), New York: Penguin, ISBN 0141180099, OCLC 37105631 Singh, Jaspal, History of the Ghadar Movement, panjab.org.uk, http://www.panjab.org.uk/english/ histGPty.html, retrieved on 2007-10-31 Sisemore, James D (2003), The RussoJapanese War, Lessons Not Learned, U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, http://cgsc.cdmhost.com/cdm4/ item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/ p4013coll2&CISOPTR=113 Snyder, Jack L (1984), Ideology of the Offensive, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, ISBN 0801416574 Southgate, Troy, The Fischer Controversy, http://www.rosenoire.org/articles/ hist9.php Speed, Richard B., III (1990), Prisoners, Diplomats and the Great War: A Study in the Diplomacy of Captivity, New York: Greenwood Press, ISBN 0313267294, OCLC 20694547 Stevenson, David (1996), Armaments and the Coming of War: Europe, 1904-1914,

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New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0198202083, OCLC 33079190 Stevenson, David (2004), Cataclysm: The First World War As Political Tragedy, New York: Basic Books, pp. 560pp, ISBN 0465081843, OCLC 54001282 , major reinterpretation Stevenson, David (2005), The First World War and International Politics, Oxford: Clarendon, OCLC 248297941 Stokesbury, James (1981), A Short History of World War I, New York: Morrow, ISBN 0688001289 Strachan, Hew (2004), The First World War: Volume I: To Arms, New York: Viking, ISBN 0670032956, OCLC 53075929 : the major scholarly synthesis. Thorough coverage of 1914 Taylor, AJP (1963), The First World War: An Illustrated History, Hamish Hamilton, OCLC 2054370 Taylor, John M (Summer 2007), "Audacious Cruise of the Emden", The Quarterly Journal of Military History 19 (4): 38-47, doi:10.1353/jmh.2007.0331, ISSN 0899-3718 Terraine, John (1963), Ordeal of Victory, Philadelphia: Lippincott, pp. 508pp, OCLC 1345833 Tuchman, Barbara Wertheim (1962), The Guns of August, New York: Macmillan, OCLC 192333 , tells of the opening diplomatic and military manoeuvres Tuchman, Barbara Wertheim (1966), The Zimmerman Telegram (2nd ed.), New York: Macmillan, ISBN 0026203200, OCLC 233392415 Tucker, Spencer (1999), European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia, ISBN 081533351X, OCLC 40417794 Tucker, Spencer C (2005), Encyclopedia of World War I. A Political, Social and Military History, Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio, ISBN 1851094202 van der Vat, Dan (1988), The Atlantic Campaign, London: Grafton, ISBN 0586206957 Connects submarine and antisubmarine operations between wars, and suggests a continuous war Venzon, Anne Cipriano; Miles, Paul L, eds. (1995), The United States in the First World War: An Encyclopedia, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0824070550 von der Porten, Edward P (1969), German Navy in World War II, New York: T. Y. Crowell, OCLC 164543865

World War I
• Westwell, Ian (2004), World War I Day by Day, St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Pub., pp. 192pp, ISBN 0760319375, OCLC 57533366 • Wiggin, Addision (29 November 2006), "[www.dailyreckoning.com.au/brettonwoods-agreement/2006/11/29/ Bretton Woods agreement]", The Daily Reckoning (Port Phillip Publishing), www.dailyreckoning.com.au/brettonwoods-agreement/2006/11/29/ • Wilgus, William John (1931), Transporting the A. E. F. in Western Europe, 1917–1919, New York: Columbia University Press, OCLC 1161730 • Willmott, H.P. (2003), World War I, New York: Dorling Kindersley, ISBN 0789496275, OCLC 52541937 • Winter, Denis (1982), The First of the Few: Fighter Pilots of the First World War, Allen Lane, pp. 223pp, ISBN 0713912782 • Winter, Jay M (2005), The Experience of World War I (2nd ed.), Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195207769 , topical essays; well illustrated • Zieger, Robert H (2001), America’s Great War: World War I and the American experience, Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, pp. 50, ISBN 0847696456 • "Country Briefings: Israel", The Economist, 28 July 2005, http://www.economist.com/countries/ Israel/ profile.cfm?folder=History%20in%20brief, retrieved on 2008-12-30 • Israeli Foreign Ministry, Ottoman Rule, Jewish Virtual Library, http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/ jsource/History/Ottoman.html, retrieved on 2008-12-30

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External links
• A multimedia history of World War I • World War I rare Photograph album • The Heritage of the Great War, Netherlands • The War to End All Wars on BBC • World War 1 Atlas A day-by-day map of the First World War • WWI Service Questionnaires at Gettysburg College • Collection of World War I Color Photographs • The Commonwealth War Graves Commission

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• Royal Engineers Museum Royal Engineers and the First World War • World War I : Soldiers Remembered Presented by the Washington State Library and Washington State Archives

World War I
• The World War I Document Archive Wiki • US World War I links • Maps of Great War

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