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					                                                                                        ISSUE 13

                                                                                                F I N D U S O N T H E W E B AT : W W W . A F R I C AW O M A N . N E T

                               FOR AND ABOUT WOMEN IN AFRICA q AUGUST 2003

We can’t trust
USA when
it blocks
access to cheap
Aids drugs
By Sandra Nyaira, Zimbabwe

IT took just two hours for represen-
tatives of 144 countries meeting in
Geneva to abandon the latest at-
tempt to reach a consensus on
whether the world’s poorest people
should get access to affordable
medicine. The decision during a

                                                                                                                                                                                  Picture courtesy of the Nation Media Group
World Trade Organisation meeting
dealt a major blow to the campaign
against HIV/Aids in Africa.
   It is hypocrisy of the highest or-
der that George W. Bush, who mar-
shalled all the resources available
in his arsenal to fight Saddam Hus-
sein, should block a deal that would
have armed Africa to fight the pan-
demic on one of its weakest fronts.
Africans are dying in droves simply
because they cannot afford the an-
ti-retrovirals – or even proper nu-
                                                                                         LOVE CONQUERS THE AGE GAP
trition– that would keep them alive      Newlyweds 67-year-old Wambui Otieno and her 28-year-old husband Mbugua make a toast after they tied the knot. The wedding of the
long enough to see their children        renowned freedom fighter and her young love created huge controversy in Kenya. Read all about it on Page 2
into adulthood.
   Against this backdrop, how can
anyone take Bush’s pledge of US$15
billion to fight Aids in Africa seri-
                                         Inside the agonising
   Bush’s close links with the drugs
industry were blamed for the fail-                                                                                                                              Infected in the
ure of the talks aimed at securing
access to cheap medicines for de-
                                                                                                                                                                line of duty

                                         business of child slavery                                                                                              – Page 2
veloping countries. The US again
rejected a deal that would have
loosened global patent rules to en-
able poor countries to import cheap
                                                                                                                                                                The First Lady
versions of desperately needed           By Christabel Addo, Ghana                                     In July 2001, the Ivorian news publishing compa-         Syndrome
drugs.                                                                                              ny Knight Ridder ran a series of investigative arti-
   It is immoral that the United         WANT to buy a slave? Look no further than Ghana,           cles that laid bare this modern day slavery racket.         – Page 5
States should use its veto power to      where children as young as five are sold for as little      The articles profiled boys who had been tricked into
protect the lucrative patent rights      as 100,000 cedis (about US$12). They are sold to           slave labour for Ivorian cocoa farmers. Most were           Women stake
enjoyed by its powerful pharma-          strangers right across West and Central Africa and         aged 12 to 16, though there were some as young as
ceutical industry rather the rights      are to be found fishing or working in the cocoa fields       nine. The reports were riveting in their details of the     claim to land
of the sick and desperate to afford-     of Cote d’Ivoire. Unicef reports that over 200,000 chil-   trickery, threats and abuse associated with keeping         – Page 10
                Turn to DREAM / Page 2   dren have been sold into slavery in the region.                                             Turn to SLAVES / Page 11

  2 Africawoman                                                                                                                                                                   August 2003

MALAWI                                                                                                 POINT OF VIEW

Infected                                               Love conquers the age gap
in the                                                Wambui must be admired for asserting her right to live with whoever she wants
line                                    By Grace Githaiga, Kenya                   Many argued that Mbugua was          public adultery”. Another con-          authority to condemn her after

of duty                                      n what was billed as the mar-
                                                                                attracted by Wambui’s wealth.
                                                                                The stonemason first met
                                                                                                                        demned it as unbiblical. Let the
                                                                                                                        clergymen be specific and point
                                                                                                                                                                abandoning her.
                                                                                                                                                                   Wambui is being criticised be-

By Wezi Phiri

DOROTHY Ngoma wants the gov-
                                        I    riage of the century, renow-
                                             ned freedom fighter Wambui
                                             Otieno married Peter
                                        Mbugua on July 11, 2003, in a lav-
                                        ish civil wedding. No big deal, you
                                                                                Wambui when he went to fix her
                                                                                chimney. Wambui further upset
                                                                                the apple cart when she said she
                                                                                would bequeath her wealth to her
                                                                                new husband. Mbugua says, how-
                                                                                                                        out where in the Bible the issue of
                                                                                                                        age is discussed. Moral posturing
                                                                                                                        will simply not do.
                                                                                                                           Wambui had been widowed for
                                                                                                                        18 years and has a heart condi-
                                                                                                                                                                cause she went against the norm.
                                                                                                                                                                Yet there was not a single voice of
                                                                                                                                                                dissent when former Vice-Presi-
                                                                                                                                                                dent Michael Wamalwa tied the
                                                                                                                                                                knot with a woman 26 years his
ernment to provide nurses with          might say. Weddings happen dai-         ever, that he was motivated by          tion. Her children are all grown up     junior. Archbishop Emmanuel
free anti-retrovirals. “Nurses have     ly all over Kenya. The difference:      love and nothing else.                  and do not live with her. They crit-    Milingo of Zambia was never criti-
a professional responsibility to        She was 67 and he was 28.                  The man is over 18, I say. Where                                             cised when he “married” a Moon-
care for the sick, but who will care       Predictably, this marriage           is the crisis, as long as the deci-     “Marriage is about                      ist half his age. Nobody raised a
for them?” asks the president of        would split both their families and     sion to marry was reached by two        companionship, not sex.                 finger against President Robert
the Nurses Association of Malawi.       the country. Controversy tends to       consenting adults? Society speaks        It is a contract between               Mugabe of Zimbabwe when he
   Though she has no statistics,        dog Wambui, who in 1986 put up a        vaguely of the right age for mar-                                               married Grace Marufu, who is
                                                                                                                        two adults and an expression
Ngoma is certain that many of her       marathon legal battle to bury her       riage. But what exactly is this                                                 more than half his age.
members have been infected in the       lawyer first husband against his         right age? As one of Wambui’s           of love and commitment.                    What Wambui did is revolution-
course of their work. Day in, day       clan. She may have lost, but she        supporters put it, age is “just a de-   As for age, the idea is                 ary and liberating; it has given
out, nurses here complain of lack of    earned her place in history.            preciation of the body and body         completely irrelevant!                  older women hope. Would it not
resources – drugs, cloth, cotton           Back to the marriage. From the       cells”.                                                                         have been immoral for Wambui to
wool, nappies and gloves are con-       very moment that Wambui and                Wambui has the right to choose       icised their mother’s wedding but       live in secrecy in this union? What
stantly in short supply. “We don’t      Mbugua tied the knot, they be-          who to marry. Marriage is about         she retorted that they had aban-        she needs is understanding. At
even have soap at times,” Ngoma         came the subject of talk shows on       companionship, not sex and age. It      doned her in her hour of need.          least she did not take somebody’s
says. “We suffer just like everyone     radio stations and maintained a         is a contract between two adults        Mbugua must have touched                husband and cause the other
else and we are also dying.”            presence on newspaper front             and an expression of love and           Wambui’s heart by being there for       woman anguish and heartache.
   In the face of HIV/Aids, Malawi’s    pages for four straight days. One       commitment. As for age, the idea        her and taking care of her.             Older women who fear that
hospitals are full to the brim.         comedy group even made it their         is completely irrelevant!               Wambui has every right to leave         younger husbands may be out to
Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital        prime topic of the day.                    There are those who say that         her wealth to Mbugua – after all,       lay their hands on their wealth
is the main referral hospital in the       The majority of Kenyans dwelt        Wambui is a public figure and            he is the one tending to her needs      can always get them to sign
southern region. Situated in the        extensively on the fact that            might therefore be sending the          at this point in her life.              prenuptial agreements.
commercial city of Blantyre, the        Mbugua married a “grandmoth-            wrong signal to other young men.           Let Wambui’s children know              Wambui is beyond the reach of
hospital’s wards were designed to       er”. This amounts to trivialising       They claim that the morals of           that their mother has her own life      her critics. She must be admired
accommodate 45 to 50 beds; these        critical matters of the heart. What     young men will be “corrupted”.          to lead. They should work hard for      for asserting her right to live with
days they take in 100 to 150 pa-        is wrong with a grandmother hav-        One clergyman even went as far          their own money and stop eyeing         whoever she wants. What more
tients, with most sleeping on the       ing a loving man around her?            as to declare the marriage “legal       her wealth. They have no moral          can anyone expect from life?
   Half these patients are critically
ill and need to be bathed, turned,
fed and comforted. All this work is
often shared between two or three
nurses, who put in eight hours of
work each every day. The psycho-
logical pressure is intense, and the
                                        The shattering of Africa’s dream
nurses must face this situation day     From Page 1                                                                     facturers in India and Brazil “steal”   pandemic. These politicians have
after day. They must also contend                                                                                       their markets. Developing coun-         openly said their children and rela-
with fear of accidental infection .     able drugs. The question that                                                   tries rejected as too restrictive       tives have succumbed to the dis-
   According to Ngoma, many of          comes to mind when leaders like                                                 America’s counter-proposal – lim-       ease.
Malawi’s nurses are quitting be-        Bush attack tin-pot dictators like                                              iting imports to drugs for a short-        There are no easy answers for
cause of unfavourable working con-      Robert Mugabe over governance                                                   list of diseases including HIV/Aids     poor countries with small health
ditions as much as the poor pay.        issues is: “Do they really care about                                           malaria and tuberculosis.               budgets and even fewer doctors
   Grace Chihana, principal of Ka-      us or their own interests in                                                       This failure certainly damages       and nurses. Disease trends are
muzu College of Nursing, considers      Africa?”                                                                        the WTO’s reputation in Africa, es-     shaped by human behaviour and
it important for nurses to lobby the       Millions of Africans continue to                                             pecially when a Brazilian proposal      politicians need to tell their people
government for free anti-retrovi-       die from a disease that has been                                                to let the World Health Organisa-       that prevention is better than cure.
rals for their infected colleagues.     brought under control in the US                                                 tion decide which countries could          GlaxoSmithKline’s HIV drug
“Although we cannot pinpoint cas-       and the United Kingdom for the                                                  import the cheap drugs was not          treatment costs US$ 12,000 a year–
es of nurses infected in the line of    simple reason that Africa’s needs                                               even discussed. A South African         far beyond the poor. This even ex-
duty, it is important to give anti-     are overlooked unless they inter-                                               plan that would have required           ceeds current per capita health
retrovirals to those that go for vol-   fere with the interests of the West.                                            countries to declare a national         spending in low income countries,
untary testing and turn out posi-          A solution to the deadlock in the                                            emergency also failed to win over       which average $23 per person per
tive,” she says.                        deal to accord access to cheaper                                                the US drug industry.                   year, so aid from rich countries is
   Nevertheless, the Ministry of        drugs for poor countries like Zim-                                                 Kenya’s new trade minister,          certainly required to buy medi-
Health has no health care or risk       babwe, Kenya, Uganda and Ghana          SORRY STATE: Many African               Mukhisa Kituyu, angrily said as         cines to cope with such epidemics
package for nurses. Their salaries      lay in America’s hands. But the         women will not live long enough         the US refused to write the pre-        that threaten to overwhelm the na-
start from 4,000 kwacha (about          powerful links between Bush and         to see their children grow into         scription for the world’s poorest       tion states.
US$50) a month. Minister for            the pharmaceutical companies car-       adults.                                 countries: “While you people are           We may detest Bush for sabotag-
Health Yusuf Mwawa says that the        ried the day and negotiations hit a                                             having this complicated debate, my      ing the global talks that would have
nurses’ fears are valid enough to       deadlock.                               manufacturing capacity would gain       people are dying of Aids back home      made a huge difference for Africa,
warrant a comprehensive health             WTO members had agreed more          access to the life-saving medicines.    in Africa.”                             but there is hope in the announce-
care programme, including care          than a year ago that countries            A draft accord on imports was            The Geneva meeting ended with-       ment by his administration that it
and nutrition for employees infect-     could override patent rules in the      rejected by the US last December        out any hope for Africa. The time       would release US$15 billion over
ed with the virus.                      interests of public health and li-      after immense lobbying from drug        has come for African leaders to fol-    the next five years to fight the pan-
   “We see our colleagues die from      cense local producers to copy es-       firms, which fear that relaxing the      low the example of Nelson Man-          demic in the developing world. The
the disease, yet they receive no        sential drugs, but they failed to       rules to allow poor countries to im-    dela, Kenneth Kaunda and Joshua         question now is: will he live up to
care or medication,” Ngoma says.        spell out how countries with no         port generic drugs will help manu-      Nkomo and talk openly about the         this promise?
  August 2003                                                                                                                     Africawoman 3

hurt women
the most
By Yinka Shokunbi                                  When the government decided on June 30
                                                   this year to “sanitise” the petroleum indus-
ANN BASSEY still remembers the events of           try by a 54 percent price rise, the Nigerian
October 21, 2001, with remarkable clarity.         Labour Congress called a strike that was the
Now seven months pregnant, the 33-year-old         epitome of the ugly side of life in the country.
only has to look at her scarred body to recall        Nigeria is renowned as a trading nation
the explosion caused by adulterated petrol.        and street traders promptly mopped up the
   She recalls:                                    little kerosene that was available for re-sale
   “I realised there was no kerosene in the        at prices well beyond those approved, selling
house when I was about to prepare breakfast.       at 13 naira more than the official rate. Black
I went across the street to buy a bottle and       market operators took advantage of the
poured some into the stove, leaving a little for   week-long strike to hoard kerosene, creating
the lantern. I cooked without any problem          conditions for astronomical price rises. Nige-
and the family left for church.                    rians were thankful for small mercies, how-
   “As I was about to prepare the evening          ever, when there were no accidents arising
meal, there was a blackout. I found the rest of    from adulterated fuel.
the kerosene and poured it into the lantern.          The fuel crisis dates back to 1998, when
There was a big explosion as I struck a            Nigerians woke up to massive air pollution
match. Before I knew it, I was burning all         from hazardous fumes from cars and buses
over. I had fainted by the time my neighbours      that had been filled with adulterated petrol.       BETTER TIMES: Olayinka Fadayomi with her children before the kerosene explosion.
rushed in to help put off the fire.
   “I was at the Lagos State University Teach-                                                                                                           ported that Unipetrol – a Nigerian-owned oil
ing Hospital for three months. I was told I had                                                                                                          company – should be held responsible for the
suffered 50 percent burns. I am lucky to be                                                                                                              distribution of tainted kerosene. Unipetrol
alive. My left hand is stuck together and my                                                                                                             distribution tankers had been contaminated
fingers are so deformed that I can neither                                                                                                                and tankers used to supply petrol were the
wash nor do any domestic chores. I pray that                                                                                                             same ones used to deliver kerosene, thus af-
someone will come my way soon and I will                                                                                                                 fecting the quality.
get plastic surgery so I can regain the use of                                                                                                              The team recommended that Unipetrol be
my hand.”                                                                                                                                                prosecuted and made to pay compensation to
                                                                                                                                                         some 479 people believed to have been af-
Hideous injuries                                                                                                                                         fected. The compensation recommended
Bassey and others who suffered hideous in-                                                                                                               works up to about 70 million naira ($84 mil-
juries in the infernos caused by adulterated                                                                                                             lion) divided into categories of $400 to $4000.
kerosene have yet to receive any compensa-
tion from the government and the oil compa-                                                                                                              No responsibility
nies. Only two of the survivors have been rec-                                                                                                             Lagos Commissioner for Health Leke Pitan
ommended for reconstructive surgery over-                                                                                                                has said that the government will not take re-
seas. Though the Department of Petroleum                                                                                                                 sponsibility for any more treatment for the
Resources paid out some money between Ju-                                                                                                                survivors.
ly 6 and 31, those whose relatives died must                                                                                                               “We responded as expected in such an
wait for letters of administration from the        Olayinka Fadayomi on a hospital bed at Lagos State University Teaching Hospital.                      emergency to save lives. None of them paid
courts for their compensation to be                                                                                                                      for treatment as long as they went to gov-
processed.                                         The Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation         versity Teaching Hospital, 140 were female.        ernment hospitals.”
   A 2001 survey by a team from the Lagos          would say only that the fuel was probably          In Benin, 280 of the 467 people affected were        Joke Adisa, coordinator of the women’s de-
University Teaching Hospital showed that 75        contaminated at the source of importation.         female.                                            partment at the Committee for the Defence
percent of Nigerian homes use kerosene ei-                                                               Explosions caused by adulterated                of Human Rights, is urging women to press
ther for cooking or lighting their households.     Series of explosions                               kerosene have been reported in countries           for justice rather than leave the matter in the
Though many city homes have electricity,           In the past five years, a series of explosions      such as Ghana, Malawi, Papua New Guinea            hands of men. “When they fail to fight on our
they still buy kerosene because the National       have hit the country – from Lagos to Ibadan,       and Tanzania. According to the Internation-        behalf, we take it as an act of God,” she said.
Electric Power Authority cannot guarantee          Benin, Abuja and some parts of the north –         al Programme on Chemical Safety, kerosene            Even though many have been compensat-
more than six hours of power daily.                and often occur in places where petrol pipes       turns dangerous at a flashpoint lower than 37       ed by the Department of Petroleum Re-
   Due to high demand, getting petrol in most      have been vandalised or in homes.                  degrees centigrade. Nigerian authorities said      sources, which is directly supervised by the
parts of Nigeria is akin to passing through          Though there are no precise statistics on        this had dropped to 27 degrees where the ex-       president, several questions remain unan-
the proverbial eye of the needle. Most of the      the numbers of people who have died or been        plosions occurred. The lower the flashpoint,        swered: Who is responsible for their post-re-
supply is diverted from depots to street           hurt in these so-called accidents, women           the more inflammable the product becomes.           covery surgery? Who should be held ac-
tankers rather than filling stations.               have borne the brunt of the explosions by             Last March, an inquiry set up by the feder-     countable for ensuring the safety of fuel used
   Kerosene has always been a source of dis-       virtue of their domestic responsibilities. Of      al government and headed by Justice Ade Al-        in the country? Should kerosene remain the
content in this country of 120 million people.     200 patients admitted at the Lagos State Uni-      abi to look into the cause of the explosions re-   major source of domestic energy?
   4 Africawoman                                                                                                                                                               August 2003

                            EDITORIAL                                                                                      POINT OF VIEW
          Africawoman, P.O. Box 6064, Nairobi (00200) Kenya.
                          Tel: 254-2-2721429
     Tel/Fax :254-2-2721439 / Email:
   Editor: Lucy Oriang (
   Associate Director: Lesley Riddoch, BBC The Tan, Holyrood Road,
                                                                                                     Too high a cost
                                                                                                   for having dinner
             EH8 8JF, Scotland. (
          Coordinator: Florence Machio (
   Africawoman is produced by 80 women journalists from Kenya,
 Uganda, Zimbabwe, Ghana, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, Zimbabwe and
Nigeria who meet in a virtual newsroom once a month. The information
    produced is then linked to community radios throughout Africa
                      to reach grassroot women.                                          By Ruth Omukhango, Kenya                       ta suffered in silence, taking herbal medicine that
                                                                                                                                        was infinitely cheaper. She smiles broadly, adding:
                                                                                                    esperate to arrest the decline of its econ-
                                                                                                                                        “I recovered by the grace of God.”

Liberians do not need
any more heroes
                                                                                                    omy, the Kenyan government appears to  Jobs are hard to come by in a depressed econo-
                                                                                                    have decided to put the interests of busi-
                                                                                                                                        my, and she still works for JAR. “Even just a loaf of
                                                                                                    ness over worker rights in a labour dis-
                                                                                         pute involving the country’s Export Processing
                                                                                                                                        bread and a packet of milk for my children is bet-
                                                                                                                                        ter than nothing,” she says philosophically. “I will
                                                                                                                                        continue working to provide for them.”
                                                                                            Anticipating a freer environment with the      Nduta’s life revolves around the firm. She re-
                hen Nigerian peace-keeping forces rode into Monrovia in Au-                                                             ports for work at 7am and leaves at 8pm. Night
                                                                                         change of government early this year, workers at

W               gust, thousands of civilians lined the streets of the Liberian
                capital to cheer them on. Waving white handkerchiefs and
                in full combat gear, they were here to put an end to the
bloody battles that have left hundreds of thousands dead and millions
                                                                                         several Export Processing Zones started demand-travel in the city is a risky affair but she chooses to
                                                                                                                                        walk home and save the Sh50 (US$0.65) fare that
                                                                                         ing better pay and working conditions and eventu-

                                                                                         tention to their plight.
                                                                                                                                        would eat into almost half the Sh120 (US$1.57) she
                                                                                         ally resorted to wildcat strikes to draw national at-
                                                                                                                                        earns daily.
                                                                                            But if they expected sympathy from the govern- “The only time I get to sit down is when I am on
others injured and traumatised.                                                                                                         lunch break,” she says. But quitting is not an op-
                                                                                         ment, which itself rode to power on the strength of
    The drums of war are still beating in the rural areas, however, and bands of                                                        tion, no matter how hard the going. It took her
                                                                                         mass action marked by huge political rallies, they
fighters allied to the many rebel groups still unleash terror on ordinary Liberians.      would be deeply disappointed. The new trade andlong enough to get this job. “I was lucky to be al-
Former President Charles Taylor may have gone into voluntary exile in Nigeria,                                                          lowed back after I fell ill. I have seen women who
                                                                                         industry minister, Mukhisa Kituyi, quickly moved
but this war-torn country’s wounds are far from healing.                                                                                have never been taken back after recuperation.”
                                                                                         to scotch the riots with his remarks that the work-
    For the myriads of innocent victims of the war, the key question remains: when       er revolt was “hooliganism and a primitive act of Nancy Achieng, who earns Sh100 (US$1.30) for a
will the violence end? The Economic Community of West African States has                 cowardice and irresponsible behaviour”.        nine-hour day at the Sameer Group, protests that
                                                                                            The status of workers in the EPZs was conve-they are made to squeeze two days’ worth of work
promised about 3,250 troops for the peace-keeping mission. Nigeria has provided
                                                                                         niently forgotten in the slang-                                       into one day. “It is like living in
1,500 of some 2,000 troops on the ground and 2,300 US soldiers are on the standby.       ing matches between unionists                                         a different world altogether at
    The war in this country, which Taylor himself started in 1989, has been particu-     and government officials anx-           “African leaders               the factory,” she says. “We are
larly hard on women. Victimised by both government and rebel soldiers, the               ious that the factory owners                                          not even allowed to talk to
women of Liberia have been treated as the spoils of war. Take the case of a woman        should not make good their             must ask themselves            each other.”
                                                                                         threats to shut down.                                                    They are not allowed phone
known only as Black Diamond. Only 22, she told journalists that she joined the
                                                                                            Curiously enough, there was
                                                                                                                                whether mass                   calls and risk forfeiting their
rebel forces after being gang-raped by the notoriously indisciplined and unpaid
forces loyal to Taylor in the northern Lofa county in 1999.                              little to be heard from women,         exploitation of                day’s pay should they answer
                                                                                         who comprise 70 to 90 percent                                         mobile phone calls. With un-
    “There were many reasons, but that was the key one,” she told Reuters. “It
                                                                                         of EPZs worldwide. Even                their people is the            employment in Kenya at 40
made me want to fight the man who caused all that, because if you are a good              though Kenyans glued to their                                         percent, these tough condi-
leader you can’t behave like that.”                                                      television sets could see
                                                                                                                                only way to grow               tions of work are a small price
    Many of Black Diamond’s female comrades have similar tales. Hundreds of              women workers running helter           their economies”               to pay.
thousands of other women who do not have the stomach for fighting have ended              skelter during the riots, they                                           According to the Interna-
up in refugee camps or among the dead.                                                   were nowhere to be seen when                                          tional Labour Organisation,
    The West African states that have chosen to intervene in this endless night-                                                        women in developing countries are generally paid
                                                                                         it came to addressing the Press or during the nego-
mare are to be praised for their initiative in trying to find a homegrown solution                                                       less than men for the same work – at best, women
                                                                                         tiations. The trade union movement in this country
                                                                                         is top heavy with men and there are no women ataverage 50 to 80 percent of wages earned by men.
to one of the most vicious wars to have plagued a region notorious for coup d’e-
                                                                                         all in the national leadership.                   The Central Organisation of Trade Unions chief,
tats. Democracy is well on its way to taking root once again in West Africa.                                                            Francis Atwoli, notes that EPZs have been out of
                                                                                            Because of the nature of their production tech-
    But there are lessons to be learnt from the US occupation of Iraq. It is one thing   niques, EPZs tend to prefer women workers for  bounds for labour inspectors. The government is,
to get rid of a dictator gone berserk and another to bring about the cherished                                                          therefore, unable to ensure that labour standards
                                                                                         their nimble fingers and diligent application to a
peace that has eluded Liberia for so long -– and this despite it being the oldest in-    production system that operates like a conveyerand laws are respected. Unlike other workers,
dependent country in Africa. Liberia came into being as a free nation in 1847 on                                                        those in EPZ have no unions to represent their in-
                                                                                         belt. About 85 percent of workers in Kenya’s EPZs
the wings of freed slaves arriving from the US.                                          are women.                                     terests.
    The challenge for Ecowas is to manage the transition in Liberia in a manner                                                            John Chifallu, spokesperson of the Export Pro-
                                                                                            Mary Nduta, a casual labourer at JAR Ltd, a tex-
                                                                                                                                        cessing Zones Authority – which provides “one-
                                                                                         tile firm based about 10 kilometres outside Nairobi,
that heals the wounds and lays a solid foundation for democracy to take root. It is
                                                                                         says women workers go through harrowing experi-stop” service for investors – says that all the com-
a task that will demand patience and a strong will on the part of the region’s lead-     ences just to put food on the family table.    panies must comply with the Zones Act, which in-
ers. Bringing the warring parties to the negotiation table is difficult enough, what                                                     cludes labour provisions. But when pressed to ex-
                                                                                            The mother of three narrowly escaped death af-
with the egos involved.                                                                  ter chemicals used at the factory affected her plain the terms of employment, he retorts: “You
    Disarming the many fighting factions and cleaning up the mess they have left in                                                      cannot ask someone how he runs his kitchen.”
                                                                                         health. “We were sent to clean machines with pow-
their wake will call for a great deal of international goodwill. And rebuilding the      erful chemicals, but we were not provided with    Other countries, such as Uganda, are keen to
country’s structures will take plenty of collective responsibility.                      protective gear,” she recalls.                 jump on the EPZ bandwagon in order to achieve
    Despite its much-vaunted Shock and Awe expedition in Iraq, the US has learnt                                                        economic growth through an export-led strategy.
                                                                                            Her feet soon started swelling as excess fluids
                                                                                                                                        But African leaders must ask themselves whether
                                                                                         accumulated in her veins. It transpired that she
that driving away a dictator is the easy part: it is now grappling with the problem
                                                                                                                                        mass exploitation of their people is the only way to
                                                                                         would need surgery, but she could not afford it and
of wiping out remnants of Saddam Hussein loyalists who continue to put up a fight                                                        grow their economies.
                                                                                         the company was unwilling to meet the costs. Ndu-
from within. The instability in post-war Iraq can, indeed, be said to have turned the
country into a magnet for terrorists. The ripple effects are being felt in
Afghanistan too.
                                                                                                                                                 Designers of Africawoman
                                                                                              ND A
    The moral of the story is that mercy missions must be thought through careful-
ly. Just as there is an entry policy, there must be an exit plan too. The West                                                  and many other newspapers around the world
African peacemakers have their work cut out for them: They must disarm the
warring factions as soon as possible and move quickly to set up democratic struc-           NEWS DESIGN ASSOCIATES
tures managed by Liberians themselves if the peace is to genuinely last. Should             I N C O R P O R A T E D
they fail in this, their mission will be reduced to just another Army of Occupation.                                                 
    Liberians do not need any more heroes. All they need is the space to lick their
wounds and rebuild their lives once and for all.
  August 2003                                                                                                                   Africawoman 5
       Ordinary Nigerians have shown little restraint in expressing their pent-up feelings against
        the Obasanjos. They compare the First Lady’s attitude with that of past military wives,
                     who were accused of being co-dictators with their husbands

          The First Lady Syndrome
              and all that jazz
By Ada Agina-Ude, Nigeria                                                                                                                             that, despite huge donations from private
                                                                                                                                                      and public sources, not much is seen or
         irst Lady Stella Obasanjo is on the                                                                                                          heard of the work that her charity is sup-

F        warpath – not because of the price in-
         creases on petroleum products or
         even in response to the lawsuit ask-
ing her and the wives of other prominent
leaders to account for money they have re-
                                                                                                                                                      posed to be doing. In contrast, Rwandan First
                                                                                                                                                      Lady Jeanette Kagame has led a high profile
                                                                                                                                                      campaign Aids, drawing not only on local
                                                                                                                                                      charity but also roping in other first ladies
                                                                                                                                                      from other regions of Africa.
ceived for their charity projects.                                                                                                                       Opinions are divided, though, over
   She wants the wives of governors to stop                                                                                                           whether or not first ladies should get in-
calling themselves first ladies. There is only                                                                                                          volved in public work. Political scientist
one First Lady in Nigeria. Period. Her edict                                                                                                            Okeke Anya argues that Nigerian first
came on June 24, just six days before a na-                                                                                                             ladies – including the governors’ wives, are
tional strike that paralysed business and                                                                                                               “just opportunists trying to encroach on an
government in Nigeria. She was address-                                                                                                                  area they have little or no knowledge of, in
ing the wives of governors of the 28 states                                                                                                             the main abusing the process with the use
under the ruling Peoples Democratic Party,                                                                                                              of state power”.
who gathered in Abuja for training on eti-                                                                                                                But others feel that all Nigerian citizens
quette and protocol.                                                                                                                                   should be free to carry out private and char-
   None of the governors’ wives has reacted                                                                                                           itable work without having to account for
in public to the directive, which has been                                                                                                            any money involved, although there are con-
widely interpreted here as a dangerous sig-                                                                                                           cerns that the first ladies cannot be equated
nal of a potential slide into civilian dictator-                                                                                                      with ordinary citizens, especially since their
ship. Mrs Obasanjo is not normally the volu-                                                                                                          projects receive state funds.
ble type, and her remarks coincided – unfor-
tunately for the First Couple – with a time of                                                                                                        Centred around power
tension for her husband, who has faced se-                                                                                                            The controversy surrounding first lady char-
vere criticism for arbitrary and insensitive                                                                                                          ities also centre around power: Chinyere Asi-
price increases.                                      Al-                                                                                for in the   ka, wife of the post-civil war administrator of
   Churning with anger at the price increas-       though Mrs                                                                        constitution.    the Igbo enclave started the Otu Olu Obodo
es, ordinary Nigerians have shown little re-       Babangida made                                                                 Wives of gover-     project in 1970 to mobilise women to help re-
straint in expressing their pent-up feelings       visible the First Lady                                                    nors have also joined    build schools and markets and keep the envi-
against the Obasanjos. They compare the            position for the very first                                        the bandwagon and are hard       ronment clean. Otu Olu Obodo did not dis-
First Lady’s attitude with that of past mili-      time in Nigeria, her achievements took sec-       at work on their own projects aimed at solv-     burse money directly, instead sending bills
tary wives, who were accused of being co-          ond place when complaints were raised that       ing one social problem or another – projects      to local government bosses through the of-
dictators with their husbands.                     too much public money was going into the         that have received sympathetic media cover-       fices of divisional administrators. It never-
                                                   project yet its accounts were never pub-         age despite the lawsuit.                          theless drew great criticism from people
Not tactful                                        lished. Other critics simply felt that she was     The bad Press seems concentrated, for the       who believed the state administrator’s wife
Mrs Obasanjo’s rebuke was ill-timed for an-        attaching too much glamour to the position.      time being, on Mrs Obasanjo. Pampered by          had gone beyond her brief and assumed the
other reason: It is not tactful of her to place       The widespread condemnation did not de-       the media during her husband’s first tenure,       position of deputy administrator.
herself in the centre of controversy when          ter her successors. Maryam Abacha had her        her recent statement has drawn scathing              Maryam Abacha is reputed to have contin-
there is a lawsuit against her, the wife of the    own office and launched the Family Econom-        comments. The governors’ wives may have           ued in the same vein as Maryam Babangida,
vice-president and the wives of 22 governors       ic Advancement Programme, which had sim-         remained silent, but commentators across          even though her husband’s government in-
in the immediate past government over              ilar goals with Mrs Babangida’s, which had       the board have not been tied down by proto-       dicted Mrs Babangida and took over many of
funds for their charity projects.                  been renamed Better Life for Rural Dwellers.     col and they have let loose with a volley of      her charity’s assets alongside the imposing
   The suit, filed in Lagos in April by human          Even Fatimah Abubakar, the career-mind-       criticism. There are any number of people         Centre for Women Development in Abuja
rights lawyer Chinonye Obiagwu, is asking          ed wife of the military head of state who        uncomfortable with Stella Obasanjo’s trans-       that she had registered in her own name.
them to “render public account of all the          handed over to an elected government in          formation from the president’s wife to an un-     With time, however, Mrs Abacha’s excesses
funds raised in their respective foundations       1999, found time to register the Women’s         appointed and unelected office holder. And         appeared greater – leading to her being ac-
and projects and to refund funds and proper-       Rights Advancement and Protection Alter-         they are speaking out.                            cused of being an accomplice in the looting
ties not accounted for”.                           native. She distanced herself from it and got      Nobel Laureate Wole Soyinka describes           of the Treasury.
   There are those who argue that she would        more involved in her work as a judge – but       the First Lady as arrogant and sarcastically         There have been suggestions that the of-
be better off working with the governors’          not before substantial state funds were do-      refers to her as “Imperial Majesty”. Writing      fice of first lady be streamlined and provided
wives, rather than alienating them, to pre-        nated at the launch.                             in the News, a weekly magazine, on July 3, a      for in the constitution, with clear and precise
sent a front against those who believe they           When Olusegun Obasanjo, a retired army        columnist had this to say: “Mrs Obasanjo          laws governing how they raise and spend
are abusing their positions.                       general, assumed office in 1999 as an elected     clearly has an ego bigger than those of the       funds and also what should be done about fi-
   The position of First Lady has been contro-     president, he said his wife would remain just    two Maryams. She is probably in the same          nancial and material gifts they may receive
versial in Nigeria since 1985, when Maryam         that and not be known as first lady. It be-       league with Imelda Marcos … and Marie An-         while in office.
Babangida occupied it. She created an office        came clear that she had her own plans when,      toinette, wife of the last French Monarch.”          But perhaps the greatest indictment of
for herself and set up what amounted to a          about a year into her husband’s administra-        There is no basis for comparing Mrs             Nigerian first ladies and their pet projects is
parallel power structure alongside that of         tion, she registered her own non-governmen-      Obasanjo with the Maryams, given the fact         that they come and go without much to show
her husband Ibrahim. From that office, she          tal organisation, the Child Care Trust Foun-     that she has little influence over her hus-        for all the efforts and funds poured into
controlled the wives of appointed and elect-       dation, with the declared objective of sup-      band, who is famously obstinate. Neither has      them. For all the glitz and glamour, being
ed governors. She used that authority to exe-      porting deprived children.                       she the tendency to acquire material things       first lady is a very temporary business. Will
cute her pet scheme, the Better Life for Rural        The Office of the First Lady has clearly       to the same level as Imelda Marcos.               someone please point this out to Stella
Women Project.                                     come to stay, even though it is not provided       The real problem with Mrs Obasanjo is           Obasanjo?
                               6 Africawoman                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     August 2003

              ZAMBIA                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   MALAWI

              Incest: The                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Netball team gets the
              campaign for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             short end of the stick
              justice gets                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             By Pilirani Semu-Banda

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       LONG neglected and under-funded,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   World Championships.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     This was too much for the netball
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   association, which promptly ac-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               stunned the spectators at the 2000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Commonwealth Games in Sydney,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Australia, when she took off her

              under way
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Malawi’s sportswomen face a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 cused the government of favouring                                                                           shoes and raced barefoot. When
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       dilemma – they can continue to                                                                                                                                                                                                                              men’s sports. Treasurer Florence                                                                            questioned, she said she was un-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       soldier on under their own steam                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Chakhaza said the netball govern-                                                                           comfortable in shoes as she was
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       or find international sponsors if                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ing body was shattered that the                                                                             used to running without them. She
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       they are to be all that they can be.                                                                                                                                                                                                                        government, which ought to spear-                                                                           did not have running shoes be-
              By Barbara Kalunga                                                                                                                                                                                                  HIV/Aids. Worse still, the courts                                                                                                                                                                                                       The situation is so desperate that                                                                                                                                                                                                                       head equal treatment for women                                                                              cause she had no sponsor.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  have a severe backlog of cases,                                                                                                                                                                                                      the Malawi national netball team                                                                                                                                                                                                                            and men, had given priority to                                                                                 Dubbed Malawi’s whizz kid for
              FOLLOWING a sharp rise in incest                                                                                                                                                                                    leading to delays of years.                                                                                                                                                                                                          was forced to withdraw from the                                                                                                                                                                                                                             sportsmen who have brought                                                                                  sending tremors across Southern
              cases, activists here have set up a                                                                                                                                                                                   The Child Friendly Court was                                                                                                                                                                                                       World Netball Championship held                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Malawi more embarrassment than                                                                              Africa after she won the 5000 me-
              campaign for harsher punishment                                                                                                                                                                                     launched in 2001 as a pilot in Lusa-                                                                                                                                                                                                 in Jamaica from July 11 to 20. The                                                                                                                                                                                                                          glory. “We are stunned by the gov-                                                                          tres race in record time during the
              for those who attack children in                                                                                                                                                                                    ka and aims to ensure that chil-                                                                                                                                                                                                     netball queens were shattered.                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ernment’s conduct,” said Chak-                                                                              athletics confederation champi-
              their own homes.                                                                                                                                                                                                    dren’s rights are respected in the                                                                                                                                                                                                   And rightly so, considering they                                                                                                                                                                                                                            haza. “This is painful.”                                                                                    onship in South Africa on June 5,
                 Less than 30 percent of reported                                                                                                                                                                                 administration of justice. It is ex-                                                                                                                                                                                                 were the only other country be-                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Crestfallen Mpinganjira reckons                                                                           2003, Chikwakwa was never able to
              incest cases that end up in court be-                                                                                                                                                                               pected to expand this year to Kitwe                                                                                                                                                                                                  sides well endowed South Africa to                                                                                                                                                                                                                          that netball receives little attention                                                                      find local sponsors. On March 26
              cause the children are threatened                                                                                                                                                                                   and Ndola in the Copperbelt and                                                                                                                                                                                                      qualify from the continent.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 because decision-makers believe                                                                             this year, she represented Malawi
              by their attackers and their own                                                                                                                                                                                    the tourist capital Livingstone.                                                                                                                                                                                                        Netball Association of Malawi                                                                                                                                                                                                                            that women’s place is in the                                                                                at the World Cross Country cham-
              relatives, according to Young Wom-                                                                                                                                                                                    Though Zambian law provides                                                                                                                                                                                                        General Secretary Ireen Mpingan-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        pionships in Switzerland without a
              en’s Christian Association Lusaka                                                                                                                                                                                   for a maximum life imprisonment                                                                                                                                                                                                      jira says the team withdrew from                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        coach or official chaperon because
              Regional Coordinator Lucy Masiye.                                                                                                                                                                                   for sexual attacks on children, this                                                                                                                                                                                                 the event because the association
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 “The government                                                                               she could raise no funding for
                 Considered taboo in most Afri-                                                                                                                                                                                   sentence is rarely handed down.                                                                                                                                                                                                      was unable to pay the participation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       managed to find the                                                                            them.
              can cultures, incest is no longer the                                                                                                                                                                               “Right judges for right punishment                                                                                                                                                                                                   fee of US$13,700. Malawi ranks                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            money to send the                                                                                For someone who in July 2002
              hidden crime that it once was. Dur-                                                                                                                                                                                 are what we need,” says Masiye.                                                                                                                                                                                                      among the best three netball teams                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        football team to                                                                              was one of only 10 athletes to have
              ing the first quarter of this year, for                                                                                                                                                                              “Why should we allocate a low                                                                                                                                                                                                        in Africa together with South                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           dinner with Queen Elizabeth and
              example, police received 209 com-                                                                                                                                                                                   class judge to handle such serious                                                                                                                                                                                                   Africa and Nigeria. But this was
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Nigeria for an Africa                                                                         Prince Philip during the Common-
              plaints of child defilement, with the                                                                                                                                                                                cases, which leave children devas-                                                                                                                                                                                                   not the first the team had failed to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Cup of Nations game                                                                           wealth Games in Manchester, this
              capital recording 146. Only 49 of                                                                                                                                                                                   tated and disturbed for life?”                                                                                                                                                                                                       participate in an important fixture.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       three weeks after it                                                                          lack of attention from her country’s
              these cases reached the courts.                                                                                                                                                                                       Lapses in law have raised doubts                                                                                                                                                                                                      Despite its fine performances,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          said there was no                                                                             sports governing bodies is unac-
                 Even then, these statistics are be-                                                                                                                                                                              about the courts’ capacity for fair                                                                                                                                                                                                  the team has been unable to attend                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ceptable.
              lieved to be just the tip of the ice-                                                                                                                                                                               and just trials. Free representation                                                                                                                                                                                                 eight international games since
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 money to fund the                                                                                Malawi Sports Council Executive
              berg given the conspiracy of si-                                                                                                                                                                                    by government lawyers is virtually                                                                                                                                                                                                   1999 – and this despite a series of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       netball team’s outing                                                                         Secretary George Jana agreed that
              lence that usually attends incest.                                                                                                                                                                                  impossible as the few lawyers in                                                                                                                                                                                                     never-ending fundraising cam-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             at the World                                                                                  women in sports have been rele-
              Families are reluctant to confront                                                                                                                                                                                  the legal aid wing are bogged down                                                                                                                                                                                                   paigns and events. Even at the local                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Championships.”                                                                               gated to the back burner. “We are
              incest for fear of public humiliation                                                                                                                                                                               with cases in their chambers. Many                                                                                                                                                                                                   level, netball tournaments get                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          trying to find sponsors in both gov-
              and the possibility that acknowl-                                                                                                                                                                                   of the cases cannot be sustained in                                                                                                                                                                                                  scanty attention from both govern-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ernment and private institutions so
              edging it may break up families.                                                                                                                                                                                    court or end up being withdrawn.                                                                                                                                                                                                     ment and private organisations.                                                                                                                                                                                                                             kitchen, not on the pitch. If the pol-                                                                      we can pay greater attention to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    According to records at the YW-                                                                                                                                                                                                       Not so the football team, which                                                                                                                                                                                                                          icy-makers were to give priority to                                                                         women’s sports,” he told Africa-
              Outside the courts                                                                                                                                                                                                  CA’s Children in Crisis Centre, 49                                                                                                                                                                                                   has a reputation as the continent’s                                                                                                                                                                                                                         women’s sports, she believes, there                                                                         woman.
              Some parents opt for compensation                                                                                                                                                                                   percent of cases could not be pros-                                                                                                                                                                                                  whipping boys and has barely                                                                                                                                                                                                                                would be a significant shift in spon-                                                                           But Minister for Sports Henry
              outside the courts – which they                                                                                                                                                                                     ecuted because some of the perpe-                                                                                                                                                                                                    made a mark at the regional level.                                                                                                                                                                                                                          sorship for their teams.                                                                                    Mabeti accused the netball associ-
              may consider more attractive be-                                                                                                                                                                                    trators were unknown. In some,                                                                                                                                                                                                       Despite its dismal standing, the na-                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Disgruntled netball players have                                                                          ation of failing to follow the right
              cause of the high poverty levels and                                                                                                                                                                                there was no evidence to support                                                                                                                                                                                                     tional football team gets steadfast                                                                                                                                                                                                                         resorted to petitioning the coun-                                                                           channels when soliciting govern-
              the time it takes to settle matters                                                                                                                                                                                 the case and witnesses were some-                                                                                                                                                                                                    support from President Bakili Mu-                                                                                                                                                                                                                           try’s sports council with com-                                                                              ment funding. “They fail to go
              through the court system.                                                                                                                                                                                           times unwilling to testify.                                                                                                                                                                                                          luzi and a host of other well-wish-                                                                                                                                                                                                                         plaints of unfair treatment but it is                                                                       through the sports council and on-
                 Besides, there are no guarantees                                                                                                                                                                                   Child attackers therefore remain                                                                                                                                                                                                   ers.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        early days yet when it comes to                                                                             ly grumble,” he said.
              that justice will be done in the                                                                                                                                                                                    free to repeat the offence, especial-                                                                                                                                                                                                   As if to add insult to injury, the                                                                                                                                                                                                                       judging the impact of the sports-                                                                              Mpinganjira promptly denied the
              courts. Some insensitive judges                                                                                                                                                                                     ly since the majority of perpetra-                                                                                                                                                                                                   government managed to find the                                                                                                                                                                                                                               women’s activism.                                                                                           accusation. Mabeti could not ex-
              have given an astonishing one-day                                                                                                                                                                                   tors are bailed out soon after ar-                                                                                                                                                                                                   money to send the football team to                                                                                                                                                                                                                            They could borrow a leaf from 17-                                                                         plain why Chikwakwa, for all her
              jail sentence for defilement and the                                                                                                                                                                                 rest. Despite a high profile cam-                                                                                                                                                                                                     Nigeria for an Africa Cup of Na-                                                                                                                                                                                                                            year-old athlete Catherine Chik-                                                                            success on the track, could not get
              law is silent on instances where                                                                                                                                                                                    paign, however, judges find them-                                                                                                                                                                                                     tions game just three weeks after it                                                                                                                                                                                                                        wakwa, who is leaving the country                                                                           funding. Malawian must sports-
              children are infected with sexually                                                                                                                                                                                 selves held back by professional                                                                                                                                                                                                     said there was no money to fund                                                                                                                                                                                                                             to turn professional in Germany.                                                                            women leave home in order to get
              transmitted diseases, including                                                                                                                                                                                     limitations.                                                                                                                                                                                                                         the netball team’s outing at the                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Malawi’s only female athlete                                                                                recognition, it seems.

                                                                                                 ISSUE SIX                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          SPECIA L REPOR T ON HIV/Ai ds
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       VIOLEN CE

              Africawoman                                                                                                                                                                                                SPECIA L REPOR T ON DOMES TIC
                                                                                                           F I N D U S O N T H E W E B AT                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ISSUE NINE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Africawoman ricawoman
                                                                                                                                          : WWW.AFRICAWOMAN.N
                                                                                                                                                              E                                        T
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                F I N D U S O N T H E W E B AT :
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 W W W . A F R I C AW O M A N . N E T                                                                                                                                            WWW.AFRICAWOMAN.NET
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         F I N D U S O N T H E W E B AT :

                                 FOR AND ABOUT WOM
                                                   EN IN AFRICA                                                                        q         OCTOBER 2002                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       FOR              AND ABOUT WOMEN IN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        HAVE YOU READ
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        AFRICA q ISSUE 8 q
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           DECEMBER 2002

     No easy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Y 2003
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           NOVEMBER 2002                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    IN AFRICA q FEBRUAR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              q        ISSUE 7                    q                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     FOR AND ABOUT WOMEN
                                                                                                                                                                       It’s got to                               FOR AND ABOUT WOME
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    N IN AFRICA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             What Archbishop Desmond Tutu says:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         l election
                                                                                                                                                                       be love if                                                                                              relationship, a woman finds ways to explain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Women gain strength in Kenya’s genera
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 “In an ideal world, we have hoped

     way out                                                                                                                                                           Joburg is
                                                                                                                                                                                                              COMMENT                                “In order toincidentsin amistreatment, whether emotional or physical.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      away the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       At times, she feels she may have contributed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    to her abuse ”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     that everyone would be responsible
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                would have hoped they would do. Unfortunately,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          fates to pretend otherwise. So we
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            about sex . . . that everyone would
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  in the real world that is not the case
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             are going to have to teach people so-called
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   behave as we
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           and it is to fly in the face of ghastly
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Why we                                                                                                                                                                                                                             to have to speak about condoms and                                          safer sex, we are going

     for people
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PREVIOUS ISSUES OF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       seek to make it possible for people
                                                                                                                                                                       to mean                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         to reproductive sexual health.” — From
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               a video address on Breaking
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               to have access
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 the Silence,                                                               come
                                                                                                                                                                       anything                               say                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           at an HIV/AIDS symposium in South
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            the main
     ravaged                                                                                                                                                           Western leaders claim to love
                                                                                                                                                                       Africa, but still play a major
                                                                                                                                                                       role in helping the continent's
                                                                                                                                                                       citizens sink deeper into
                                                                                                                                                                                                              ‘No’ to
     by war
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           By Kwamboka Oyaro

                                                                                                                                                                       poverty – at least that is what
                                                                                                                                                                      some ofi ts leaders, including
                                                                                                                                                                      Namibia's Sam Nujoma, think.                      his special edition of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    wearing-in day was a time

    The African Union faces its first major
                                           challenge as rebel
                                                                                                                                                                      Susan Naa Sekyere questions
                                                                                                                                                                      this love for Africa, with
                                                                                                                                                                      reference to Tony Blair's speech
                                                                                                                                                                      at the recent Earth Summit              T         Africawoman is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        dedicated to the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        international                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Martha Karua
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           S      for hugs and congratula-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  tions for the nine women
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  elected in the Kenyan elec-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           tions of December 27, interna-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           SUNDAY TIMES, JOHANNESBURG

    troops in Ivory Coast threaten to overthrow                                                                                                                                                               campaign against violence                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Lina Jebii Kilimo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Beth Mugo                                                                               tionally acclaimed for ushering in
                                                 the                                                                                                                  THE MESSAGE WAS STARK: A CHILD                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Charity Ngilu                                                                                                                                                                        a peaceful transition as former
    government. The AU has pledged 'zero                                                                                                                               dies in Africa every three minutes     targeting women. It is our                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   president Daniel arap Moi began
                                            tolerance' of coups

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        S TIME FOR
                                                                                                                                                                       due to famine. This was the open-      own small contribution to the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                his retirement. For Kenyan
    and mutinies in an attempt to rid the
                                          continet off wars. But                                                                                                       ing statement in British Prime Min-    16 Days of Activism Against                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   women, however, it was the dawn

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  The Church, condomsIT’
   are the forces of rebellion so deeply entrenched                                                                                                                   ister Tony Blair’s speech in the high
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Gender Violence, held                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         of a new era in more ways than
                                                     in Africa                                                                                                        level segment allotted to heads                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      one.
   listening? Nabusayi Wamboka visited                                                                                                                                state at the World Summit on Sus-
                                                                                                                                                                                                               between November 25 and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Here are the stories of some of
                                        northern Uganda                                                                                                               tainable Development.                    December 10. This year marks                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                the key winners:
   to measure the progress of President
                                          Yoweri's campaign                                                                                                              Blair spoke minutes after his
                                                                                                                                                                                                               the eleventh anniversary of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        GHANA
                                                                                       Out looking in: Children who were                                              Namibian counterpart, Sam Nujo-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       CHARITY NGILU Minister for Health

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       If you enjoyed this issue,
    against the Lord's Resistance Army led                                                                                  locked out of Lacor hospital wait                                                  the campaign started at the                                                                                                                                                                    de-
                                            by Joseph Kony                            outside the fence for a chance                                                 ma, who delivered a stinging con-                                                                                                                                                                    Nigerian husband. “he has now
                                                                                                                       to be let in for the night’s shelter.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Project: “A woman usually           Sibongile Tutani was shot by her                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Fondly known as Mama Rainbow
                                                                                      The majority of people affected                                                demnation of both Mr Blair and the        Centre for Women’s Global          Sheila Mahere, director of the Musadsa                                            serted me after a he obtained a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         residence permit and does not want
                                                                                                                         in Gulu are women and children.
                                                                                                                                                                     European Union for allegedly caus-                                                                                   is willing to hang on, waiting                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    – after the rallying cry of Kenyans
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Leadership Institute.              wants her relationship to work and                                                to see me near our business premises.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    and compassion CELEBRATION
   northern Uganda. There is
                                             blow up and allow us some peace.
                                                                                      the Ugandan Government for the                                                 ing all of Zimbabwe’s woes.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            desperately hoping for change
                                       no       Images from my trip to Lacor,
                                                                                      past 15 years.
                                                                                                                              the hardships of life.
                                                                                                                                                                        Nujoma went on to claim that               Since 1991, some 1,000         and hoping that things will improve.”                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     through the ballot box – Charity
   respite from the booming sounds
                                       in    Agwe, Bungatira and Irianga-Lalya                                                  I fell asleep still pondering the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Ngilu is a symbol of the Kenyan
  the neighbourhood. No, it is not the                                                   The booming music is the least                                             some of the countries represented           organisations in over 90
                                             villages flash past my tired mind                                                 implications of this long-running                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             woman who has shattered all the
                                                                                —                                                                                   at the summit developed HIV                 countries have used the 16

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      you can find back copies at:
  bombs that one might expect in                                                      of their worries. For a people who                                                                                to                                        ZIMBABWE
                                        a    hungry and angry faces, sickly chil-                                            war between the rag-tag army led
  war-torn zone. It is the latest in hip-                                            have listened to bomb blasts day                                               wipe out people in the Least Devel-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     stereotypes of women in politics.
                                            dren and adults resigned to their                                                by Joseph Kony and President                                                       days to organise activities

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Violence stalks the land
  hop and Lingala music from Alobo                                                   and night, suffered humiliation,                                               oped Countries. He challenged the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        She made history as the first
                                            fate. Life has been a daily ordeal                                               Yoweri Museveni’s Government.
  Night Club and Travellers Inn
                                                                               for   been torn away from their fami-                                                supposedly guilty countries to pay          such as processions,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Kenyan woman ever to contest
                                            the Acholi who have been displaced                                                  Today, a generation of Acholi has
  Kampala Road. I toss and turn,
                                            by the war that has raged between
                                                                                     lies and still ended up being
                                                                                                                             been born and raised in protected                            Turn to Page 2        candlelight vigils, tribunals                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                presidential elections in 1997.
  praying that the loudspeakers will
                                            the Lord’s Resistance Army and
                                                                                     blamed for their misfortune, loud
                                                                                                                             camps — yet more people are                                                        where survivors give personal                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Her strong will and empathy for
                                                                                     music offers some reprieve from                                           at                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            the grassroots woman has en-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 testimonies and panels of
                                                                                                                                                  Turn to Page 2
                                                                                                                                                                    Inside                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   deared her to voters in Kitui Cen-

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          – and women pay price
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 respected leaders respond to                                                                                                                                                                        By Eunice Menka
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              get elected in significant numbers
 Wild leaves can’t be better than GM                                                                                                                                                                             the issues raised, and other
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      living with HIV/Aids as immoral.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         But the main challenge for health
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          and, for the moment, our focus is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              on helping                                 For the first time in Kenyan history, women
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             tral constituency and to Kenyans
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              in general. President Mwai Kibaki

                                                                                                                                            food                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    CLERGYMEN may have ditched their militant                                                  profes-    people living with the disease.”                   ly to prevent transmission. About
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 39 church                                                                                                                                                                    recognised her strength and
                                                                                                                                                                     3. Never too                                awareness activities. Media                                                                                                                                                                        stand over HIV/Aids for a more compassion-       sionals and groups working with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            non-gov-        Health professionals argue, however,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             leaders made the announcement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                at a work-                                                                                                         40 years ago. It was not a secret that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          the party
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ernmental organisations still remains                                                                                                                                                                 appointment to a sense of shame
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               arising from                                                                   showed confidence in her ability

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      that   shop in Kadoma, 140 kilometres southwest                                                                                                                                                   for women
 MARITA BENHURA’S FAMILY LAST                                                                                                                                                                                     organisations have weighed                                                                                                                                                                        ate approach, but they are adamantly
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               how to    this stance will not help the country                                               By Lilian of Juma                                                                                  to women’s         leadership traditionally had no time                       by appointing her to the plum post
   had a proper meal of sadza, veg-
                                            Biotechnology    was high on the agenda during the
                                           Summit, with heated debate for and                     recent Earth              most three weeks, they have kept         young to make                                in, too, using their resources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ing on to their opposition to condoms
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Presidentmeans of preventing                       as a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     convince the churches to embrace
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     in the fight against the pandemic.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            condoms      with the rise in HIV/Aids. Over half
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                a million
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Harare. Zimbabwe is among some
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             countries worst hit by the pandemic.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     of the                                                the fact that previous delegations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           world conferences had routinely
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                been led by        in politics – favouring token appointments                  of Minister for Health.
   etables and peanut butter nearly                                                against GM foods. Zambia,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Speaking in parliament recently,                                                                                                                     Ghanaians are infected with the                                                                                                 stan-                                                                     rather than any concrete measures
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        to improve
                                       a   which didn’t want GM foods for its                                               their eyes peeled in the hope that
                                                                                                                                                                     a difference                                 to highlight some of the key                                                            nomic violence at some point in her
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  life. Many
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      government In a communiqué
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         infection.                     Says Samuel Aboagye-Mensah,                                                          virus. It is                                    THE gains may be modest by East African
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               But Malawi’s Council of Churches                                                            men – including the end of the United
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Nations                                                                      Although she did not clinch the
  month ago, when her husband                                                   starving citizens, has agreed to                                                a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   By Ropafadzo Mapimhidze                                                                                       Robert Mugabe declared that the                                         to Vice-President Alui                                              general     pointless, they say, for churches                                                            says,              have emerged from                                                                         the performance of women in leadership
                                     re-   take them on condition that they are                                             lorry or two will deliver maize, the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  issues in this pervasive                                                                do not live to tell their stories.                                                                    vic-                                                secretary of the Christian Council                                                        and faith-    however, that government effortsdards, but Kenyan women                                        Decade for Women conference held
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  in Nairobi                                                                   presidency in the 1997 elections –
  ceived a 50-kg bag of maize from                                                 not in
                                          Zimbabwe, faced with six million starving the form of seeds. And                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Sun-    would introduce laws to protect would-be           Mahama in mid-November, the                                                            of Ghana:     based organisations to speak about                                                    to promote                            stronger
                                                                                                                            staple in these parts. About 400                                                                                                                                                 The violent death of Muusha at her
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          domestic violence. Zim-   major religious organisations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     leaders of     “There are still grey and unresolved                                                       morality     condom use are immoral. Augustinejust-concluded general election
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              the                                                                                                                  the board.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              gone on          she got 469,807 against Moi’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   WHEN Learnmore Jongwe and Rutendo ridge home sent shock waves throughout the tims and survivors of
  the Grain Marketing Board centre                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              areas                                                                                                                                                      in 1985.
                                                                                         citizens, will also accept                                                                                                problem.                                                                                                                                                                                                                          said they                                                           and ignore the condom issue.                                                               Muso-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              than ever before. After years of mediocre
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         rank-                                                                        Indeed, prominent Kanu women had
  in Shangure village, about 50 kilo-
                                          GM food. However, the debate on
                                          or not still rages on. Grace Mutandwa
                                                                               whether or not to have GM foods
                                                                                                                           families are hunger-stricken
                                                                                                                                                              at    5. Can’t wait                                     November 25 was declared      Muusha said “till death do us part”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          at a colour-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          nation only because of the high
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               profile of the     babwe is signatory to the Convention
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             on thewould speak more openly about sex
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       from the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    which would not make it possible
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    churches to give in to condom use
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              for the      They contend that when churches
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            pole, secretary-general of the council,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      is on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            record accusing the governmentings in politics, the December poll saw
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          nine                And so the New Year dawned bright
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    to signif-     record opposing affirmative action
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          as a policy          2,444,801 – she entered history as
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               the first woman in sub-Sahara
  metres east of Harare. It was                                                   reports from Zimbabwe.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ful wedding in August last year, little
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             did their                                                           Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   pulpit and encourage their leaders                                                    as a means     their anti-condom creed and rail                                                       of Malawi,                                                   promising, with the women appointed                    to improve women’s presence in leadership
 enough to feed them for just
                                      a   white-owned commercial farms.
                                                                                                                              Six million other Zimbabweans
                                                                                                                           — half the population — could
                                                                                                                                                                    to get back                                    the International Day Against
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    guests and families know just how
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            soon this     personalities involved. In October,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      shot dead his wife, Sibongile Tutani,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Against Women, the Fifth Southern
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Africa De-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      to accept
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   people living with HIV/Aids, besides
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    of HIV prevention.”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Few people are willing to stir the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        prevention programmes that even
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           against HIV
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              women elected and another eight nominated
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            which is in the throes of a massive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 crisis, of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            encouraging promiscuity by makingtwo main parties – the National Rainbow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            icant ministries – health, water resources
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   decision-making. Zipporah Kittony,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          a nominat-           Africa to go for the presidency.
 week.                                                                           me, were out on the commercial                                                                                                    Violence at the first Feminist                                              barely a    Jude Uso                                               velopment Corporation Gender Declaration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   of with their messages on abstinence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   uing                                                                                     hornet’s    appear to promote condom use,                                                         the avail-                                                    the office of the vice-president – and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  not just the                                                                  She had clearly cut a niche for
    After poor rains in the last farm-
                                          But, as women, you know how dif-
                                          ficult it is to get land in your own
                                                                                 farms trying to get land. Only one
                                                                                                                           starve to death unless they receive
                                                                                                                          more than 800,000 tonnes of emer-
                                                                                                                                                                    on the train                                   conference for Latin America
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    would be. They would both be dead
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    year later.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           after arguments over their union,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  which was
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                convenience.     1998 and other regional instruments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            and     nest and the member churches on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   cil have settled on activities and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          the coun-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            they fail to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        appreciate the fundamental principles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  of risk
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           able hundreds of thousands of condoms. and the former ruling party, Kanu.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           cording to the clergyman, research Though a far cry from neighbouring Ugan-                      traditional culture and social services.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ed member of the last parliament and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    of the former head of state, came out
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            a relative
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            openly to           herself in the Kenyan political
 ing season, hunger has left a trail                                             of my three sons got a piece of land,                                                                                                                                                                       beautiful     best described as a marriage of                                                                           This new position comes as a welcome                                                education      reduction and health promotion.                                                         indicates                                                                                                                                                                     landscape.
                                     of  right, so we came back home and                                                  gency food aid required to feed the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   and the Caribbean held in           The saga began when Muusha, so                                                              obtained a     women’s rights.                                                                            re-   around abstinence and faithfulness.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               da’s 75 women parliamentarians out
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     of a total
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Changed attitudes to women                              chide the first woman ever to contest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             the pres-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           “He has now deserted me after he
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           that condoms are not 100 percent
 suffering in this small rural com-                                              so the other two are back.”                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      lief
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                says for health professionals and other stake-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Musasa Project Director Sheila Mahere holders
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                “Sec-      Some churches have, however,                                                          effective                                                                                                                                                                       “Kenyans need their pride and
munity. “Our yields were not very
                                         tried to grow crops. It was too late
                                         by then, and there was no rain.”
                                                                                   She can no longer cook porridge
                                                                                                                          nation between now and the next
                                                                                                                          harvest in March next year. Al-
                                                                                                                                                                    7 . Teachers,                                   Bogota, Colombia, in July        and happy on her wedding day,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         was stabbed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     eight times on July 19 by her husband,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              who was      residence permit and he does not
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  want to see
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  there has been an upsurge in domestic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            violence        who have long complained of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   tions of the Christian community
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   understand or accept the condom
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         would not                                           approved
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       the use of condoms in anti-Aids programmes.         against HIV. His solution? Abstinence and Tanzania’s 61 out of 274, it was cause
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               of 304 and                                                   “The election of nine women to Parliament
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           is a     idency in 1997, telling Charity Ngilu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            that Ken-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                of the        honour restored. This can only be
good this past farming season be-                                               for her family in the morning. They                                                                                                                                                                                        me near our business premises, though
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       my par-                                                    titude of some churches and faith-based                                               messages,”                                                         strict monogamy.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               for celebrations across the country.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In the last                                                       changed       yans still needed the fatherly guidance                   achieved if women aspire for lead-
                                            Benhura adds: “We failed to                                                   ready, three million women and
                                                                                                                                                                    mini-skirts                                     1981. In 1999, the United        the spokesperson for Zimbabwe’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           opposition                                                             after the Muusha killing. In 2001,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      the organisa-                                         or-    says Aboagye-Mensah. “Besides,                      A couple of years ago, six Christian
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               denomi-                                                                                                      clear indication that Kenyans have
cause of the drought. We also lost                                              have only one meal a day —                                                                                                                                                                                                 ents provided the capital to kick start
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     the oper-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          numberganisations that routinely condemned people
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   of                                                                                   we are re-     nations in Zimbabwe unequivocally                      The Catholic Church, in turn, has
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               parliament, there were only four
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        elected                                                       appoint-      then president, Daniel arap Moi.                           ership positions. With extensive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            their attitudes to women, while their
                                     a   grow as much as we usually do be-                                          at    children are described as being                                                           Nations officially recognised     Movement for Democracy, over allegations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     of                                                           tion recorded a sharp rise in the                                                                ally doing more to keep the youth                                                             stated    headed a massive international                                                                                                                                                          in the last parlia-
lot of time trying to get land on the                                           night — and spend the day looking                                            in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ations,” said Tutani, daughter of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 a prominent                                                                                                                                              occupied                                                                                            campaign five nominated. Indeed, the number                                                                               Most of the Kanu women
                                         cause my sons, who normally help
                                                                                for wild fruits and honey. For
                                                                                                                          distress because of hunger. The           and dreadlocks                                  November 25 as the               infidelity on both sides. He died
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           in custody
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            businessman, just a week before
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                she died. Her     women seeking shelter and counselling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              — from
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          there were
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       that condoms could be used within
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             the fami-                                          women and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Turn to Page 2 had never exceeded 10 throughout
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                of women
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ments show that the new president
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     has confi-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Betty Tett,      ment chose to sit on the fence during
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              a heated         and committed training through
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               seminars and workshops, this can
                                                                                                                   al-                         Turn to Page 2                                                                                        about three months later.                                                               the chin and died     40 to 165. In June and July this year,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   dence in women’s leadership,” said                       national debate over their party’s decision
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 to re-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    International Day for the                                              why it has       husband shot himself through                           a record 208 and 231 cases including
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            21 and 19                                                                                                                                                                                      Kenya’s history.                                                 a Nairobi politician, who was nominated
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        and ap-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            women to           be realised,’’ she said.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The killing revived debate over                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      And the icing on the cake was yet
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    to come:                                                                         nege on Kenya’s promise to name
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Elimination of Violence                                             up with a do-      instantly.                                             old cases respectively. 55 counselling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             pointed an assistant minister as part
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      of a deal                                                                   When the ruling party was ne-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      taken Zimbabwe so long to come                                           suggest that as many as 95 per-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Three of the women were appointed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  to the Cab-                                                                        one-third of the country’s slots
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          in the East
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Against women. December 10                                             family vio-        Some surveys
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   were also conducted over the telephone.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   to avert violence and ugly confrontations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              in                                                               gotiating the winning formula, she
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      mestic violence law, especially since                 cent of Zimbabwean women have been
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      at the re-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           inet of the new government, with another
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        three                                                                        African Legislative Assembly.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             few years.                                                               Mahere points out that it is very
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          difficult for                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          was the only woman among eight
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     celebrates the adoption, in      lence has been on the rise in the past                                                     Most of them                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Kenya had                  Westlands constituency.                                    With the National Rainbow Coalition
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  expe-     ceiving end of domestic violence.                                                        Turn to Page 2                                                                                                                                                                                        as assistant ministers. The last time                                Part of the breakthrough for women
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         can be                                                                 men in the National Rainbow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      At least one in four women in Zimbabwe                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     prior to the                                                                        ria sweeping across the country in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2002, how-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     1948, of the Universal                                                      or eco-     suffer in silence.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            a woman in the Cabinet was just                                   attributed to the formation of the National
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Rain-                                                                 Coalition core group that worked
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      riences physical, sexual, psychological                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         held in                                                                        ever, it soon became apparent that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Declaration of Human Rights.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Fourth World Conference on Women                                  bow Coalition, a union of 16 political
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    parties cob-                                                in poli-        on merging of parties and finally
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1995 in Beijing. It was a short-lived
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  stranglehold        chances of gaining a stronger foothold                                         Turn to Page 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   1997 poll.                 bled together to challenge Kanu’s                                                       Turn to Page 8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            mance, at any rate, as she lost in the                            on Kenyan politics since independence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Cynics were quick to link Nyiva Mwendwa’s
  August 2003                                                                                                                  Africawoman 7
NIGERIA                                                                                                                                 TANZANIA

Anti-corruption                                                                                                                         Care at
                                                                                                                                        home, but for
Amazon fights crime                                                                                                                      how long?
Threats, abusive telephone calls, hate mail and mysterious items,                                                                       By Jamilla Mwanjisi

including live animals, are common sights in Dora Akunyili’s office                                                                      THERE was song and dance when the 93 women and
                                                                                                                                        men came to the end of their home-based care train-
                                                                                                                                        ing. But it was joy tempered by the knowledge of the
By Nkiru Okoro                             veillance was beefed up at all ports of en-   for Lagos in November 2001 for an un-          challenge ahead: the new graduates from Arusha and
                                           try, bogus drugs already on the market        scheduled but important meeting, a gang        Dar es Salaam will be expected to visit people suffer-
WHEN President Olusegun Obasanjo ap-       were mopped up and destroyed.                 of 10 armed robbers laid siege on her          ing from HIV/Aids and nurse them; they will also
pointed Dora Nkem Akunyili the new di-        Within no time, the impact of this mul-    Abuja house for over two hours.                comfort and counsel their families – all for free.
rector of Nigeria’s National Agency for    ti-pronged strategy was being felt far and      They disconnected the telephone lines           The training focused on caring for and supporting
Food and Drug Administration in April      wide. This was no mean achievement in         and power and terrorised workers,              chronically ill people at home. Aids patients, especial-
2001, there was a chorus of protests. Her  a country that last year was ranked sec-      threatening to kill them if they did not       ly, need a great deal of support – physical, emotional
detractors argued that she did not have    ond only to Brazil as the most corrupt in     produce her. Threats, abusive telephone        and social – if they are to effectively handle stigma
enough experience in the public service,   the world.                                    calls, hate mail and mysterious items, in-     and discrimination. Only weeks in operation, home-
having spent the preceding 16 years as a      Prior to Akunyili’s arrival, it was com-   cluding live animals such as tortoises,        based care is already being praised generously.
lecturer at the University of Nigeria      mon knowledge that unscrupulous busi-         are common sights in her office.                   “People tell us that the teams have reduced the
Nsukka.                                    nessmen would deliberately reduce the           When Nafdac’s biggest laboratory in          burden on families,” said Grace Muro, programme of-
  “I was told I was inexperienced, old     strength of drugs. Most of the water la-      Oshodi, Lagos, was vandalised early this       ficer with Pathfinder International, which has backed
and without capacity,” she says today.     belled “pure” contained either unaccept-      year, she was so devastated that her last      the initiative in Dar es Salaam and Arusha. “Families
The deeply religious pharmacist strode     able chemicals or bacteria and patients       son, Obuneneme told her: “Do you re-           can now get relief at least once a week and they have
confidently into battle, how-                                                                       alise that all this is happening     someone to share their worries with.”
ever. She has not looked back                                                                      to you because you are burning          With the increased challenges of HIV/Aids and the
since those disheartening                                                                          people’s money and risking           subsequent strain on Africa’s health systems, home-
early days.                                                                                        your life in the process? If it is   based care is crucial. It offers families a chance to
  Akunyili’s key tasks would                                                                       because of these new cars that       care for and support their loved ones at home; the
be to wipe out the counterfeit                                                                     you remain in this scary job,        costs and stress of attending to a patient in hospital
drugs that had flooded the                                                                          drop it. We were better off with     are also reduced.
Nigerian market and bring                                                                          you in your previous job.”
the food and drug industries                                                                                                            Unfair treatment
up to international stan-                                                                       Money returned                          “Our health system is overwhelmed,” said Muro.
dards. She had the incentive                                                                    Back in 1998, Akunyili was the          “There are not enough medical staff and drugs and
to sweep into action: her sis-                                                                  zonal secretary of the Petrole-         the hospital beds cannot accommodate everyone.
ter Vivian, who was diabetic,                                                                   um Special Trust Fund cover-            Patients do not get the attention and care they need.
died as a result of injecting                                                                   ing five south eastern states –          Many terminally ill patients are released from hospi-
fake insulin in 1988.                                                                           Anambra, Abia, Eboyin, Enugu            tals so they can make room for new patients consid-
  Speaking at a public gath-                                                                    and Imo. The story is told of           ered to need more attention. “This is very unfair,”
ering in Lagos on June 4,                                                                       how she returned to the official         Muro added. “We can’t just leave them to die because
Akunyili had this to say:                                                                       kitty an unutilised 2.6 million         they have been sick for a long time.”
“Nafdac was in such a bad                                                                       naira (£12,000) that had been              According to research conducted in Tanzania in Ju-
state that I was under in-                                                                      granted her for treatment over-         ly 2002, people with chronic diseases occupied 60 per-
tense pressure to perform. I                                                                    seas. Her doctors volunteered           cent of hospital beds. The quality of their lives was
transformed this into a sense                                                                   to provide her with false re-           very low. Most had no access to medical treatment,
of urgency in addressing                                                                        ceipts and medical documents            counselling or any kind of support. The study also
counterfeit drugs and I                                                                         to show that she had surgery,           found that stigma and discrimination were rampant
brought this to my staff right                                                                  but she would have none of it.          in many families. A total of 200 volunteers are expect-
from the first day I assumed                                                                     This earned her a commenda-             ed to have been trained by the end of this year.
office. Together we devel- OVERCOMING THE ODDS: Dora Nkem Akunyili, director of                  tion from the fund’s chairman              Home-based care originated in Zambia in 1987
oped effective strategies, Nigeria’s National Agency for Food and Drug Administra-              and one-time head of state, Re-         when a survey at Chikankata Hospital showed that 90
which have been instrumen- tion.                                                                tired General Muhammadu                 percent of Aids patients preferred to be at home. The
tal in achieving improve-                                                                       Buhari. Her curriculum vitae            hospital arranged for teams of health workers to visit
ments in regulation and control.”          with chronic illnesses such as asthma,    soon landed on the desk of President               their homes once a month, covering a small area
                                           high blood pressure, heart disease and    Obasanjo, who had put out word that he             around the hospital.
Drugs destroyed                            diabetes died in large numbers even       was looking for a credible candidate to               The Zambian model has become popular as a strat-
Nafdac has destroyed counterfeit drugs     though their ailments could easily be     clean up Nafdac.                                   egy to ease the stress the health sector faces and also
worth US$16 million. But Akunyili has      controlled by medication.                     For her industry, commitment to hon-           improve the quality of life for people with long term
not rested on her laurels. Bogus drug         Most soft drinks sold locally did not  esty, transparency and integrity, Akuny-           illnesses. “I have seen people thrown out of their fam-
dealers have been forced into public con-  have the same content as those in the de- ili has received over 90 awards and recog-         ily homes because they are HIV-positive,” said Vumil-
fessions and warehouses full of fake       veloped countries and expired processed   nitions from governments and interna-              ia Omari, who spends her spare time counseling peo-
drugs have been raided in Onitsha in       foods were blatantly dumped in Nigeria.   tional organisations in Africa, Europe             ple living with HIV and Aids. “Some of the people I
Anambra state and in Lagos. Repentant      It was a case of big money for big time   and America.                                       visit tell me they have not been cleaned for several
merchants of death handed over half of     criminals and the last thing they wanted      But perhaps the greatest honour that           days because the caregiver is scared to touch them.”
more than 850 million naira worth of       on their exploitative path was an honest, the 49-year-old has received is the grati-            HIV-positive herself, Omari believes people tend to
drugs for destruction in July 2001.        hardworking woman.                        tude of millions of Nigerians whose lives          discriminate against people living with HIV because
  She and her staff mounted massive           After all, Nafdac had become synony-   have been saved by a reduction in coun-            they do not have the facts. “Surprisingly, some people
public information campaigns on the        mous with the $50 bill – which guaran-    terfeit drugs.                                     still believe that you can get HIV by hugging or feed-
dangers of substandard drugs and mes-      teed automatic clearance for any im-          She believes the fight against corrup-          ing a person with Aids,” she said.
sages were published through work-         ports, including even the sand in plenti- tion should not be left to the agency or              The home-based care approach is an excellent way
shops, alert notices, publications and ad- ful supply in the country.                the government. She looks forward to a             of involving communities in health care. How long
vertisements in national media. There         Predictably, Akunyili’s stay at Nafdac time when other regulatory bodies like             such projects can continue is open to conjecture,
were administrative changes at the         has not been without incident. Her office  customs, immigration and police will be            however. Even volunteers need a continuous supply
agency and the war against counterfeit     and home have been burgled several        corruption-free.                                   of kits. They also need to be motivated to continue
was carried to the overseas sources. Sur-  times. When she had to leave abruptly                                                        supporting the sick.
  8 Africawoman                                                                                                                                                                      August 2003


Monkey dey work, baboon dey chop
By Charity Binka                         the law is a disincentive to govern-    beautiful and was sufficiently elo-         The Ghanaian Quality Grain            sources and manpower necessary
                                         ment officials who may want to           quent to convince the powers-that-      Company case is typical of corrup-       to tackle corruption but also the po-
IN a move that has been interna-         take the initiative with projects.      be they were on to a good thing.        tion in Africa – except for the fact     litical will to ensure that it makes
tionally acclaimed, President John       Others have questioned why it              Although she was unable to ac-       that there was a successful convic-      strides in its work.
Kufuor’s government has cracked-         should have taken the executive         count for an initial loan of $7 mil-    tion. It has been difficult to prose-        The fight against graft is not just
down on public service officials          secretary of the association almost     lion, guaranteed by parliament, the     cute perpetrators of corruption in       about laws. The law has to be seen
who are involved in corruption.          a decade to notice this.                finance minister guaranteed an-          Africa, even where there are laws,       to be applied. The thousands of
   Two former ministers and a se-          Former finance minister Kwame          other $12 million without reference     because of cultural respect for au-      Kenyans who have been turning
nior civil servant have already          Peprah was sentenced to four            to parliament. Judge Kwame Afreh        thority and traditional practices        out to listen to the proceedings of
been felled in Ghana’s anti-corrup-      years for his role in the conspiracy    said this approval could only have      that make petty corruption accept-       the Goldenberg Inquiry are tacitly
tion crusade, which kicked off with      to defraud the government of            come from the president, but the        able.                                    telling the Mwai Kibaki govern-
investigations into a rice farming       US$20 million through the Aveyime       accused would not say a word. In-          Buying a government official a         ment that they want to see justice
scam that has left the country with      rice project in the Volta region.       deed, the defence team was careful      chicken or goat in return for free       done in the case that involved ir-
a US$20 million debt and little rice     Ibrahim Adam, former minister for       not to refer to the invisible hand of   service is largely regarded as nor-      regular payments for non-existent
on the market. The US government         food and agriculture, and George        the former president.                   mal. It is only when corruption ris-     gold exports by Goldenberg Inter-
has reciprocated by jailing Juliet       Yankey, a director in the finance           The judge was not amused, and        es to grand levels, such as Kenya’s      national Ltd in the early 1990s. The
Cotton, the African American at          ministry, received two years each.      he declared in court that the three     Sh68 billion (about US$900 million)      inquiry is also investigating how
the centre of the scandal, for de-       Interestingly enough, there was no      government officials were going to       Goldenberg gold export scam, that        the Central Bank of Kenya paid
frauding Ghana.                          evidence that any of the three ben-     jail for the simple reason that they    it becomes a matter of public con-       US$210 million in “fictitious foreign
   Also feeling the pinch is the         efited personally from the funds.        failed to tell the court that they      cern. Corruption is estimated to         exchange claims” to Exchange
youth and sports minister in the         Cotton, the central figure in the        were following instructions from        cost Africa $150 billion a year.         Bank Ltd, owned by Goldenberg
Kufuor government, who was sent          scam, paid herself a $2 million         their former boss, Rawlings.               Most donor organisations have         supremo Kamlesh Pattni.
to jail for four years after he failed   salary, bought a $1 million house          Referring to the saying “Monkey      now tied aid to evidence of at-             But organisations such as Trans-
to account for US$46,000 meant for       and two Mercedes Benz cars and          dey work, baboon dey chop”, Jus-        tempts to tackle corruption and the      parency International argue that
local footballers.                       paid her husband $200,000 as exec-      tice Afreh said Cotton had taken        African Union and governments            corruption is not a one-way traffic.
   But while the government has re-      utive secretary of the project.         advantage of her relations with         continent wide have been pressed         If Africans are guilty of corruption,
ceived praise for applying the crim-       Equally interesting was Rawl-         government officials to “milk this       into coming up with strategies to        so are the Western firms that deal
inal law that makes it an offence for    ings’ role: he was said to have flown    poor country”. He added: “It ap-        deal with this pervasive cancer in       with them. The Lesotho High
public officials to “cause financial       Cotton to the Aveyime site and re-      pears someone up there liked her.”      African society.                         Court, for example, has convicted
loss to the country”, there are          portedly pressured the officials in-        All that Yankey would say was:          In Malawi, the Anti-Corruption        Acres International, a Canadian en-
those who have accused it of witch       to giving her the loan. All these in-   “If I were asked to go and steal or     Bureau has been charged with pre-        gineering consulting firm, of pay-
hunting. Ironically, the law was         structions were verbal, however, so     kill, I would not have done that. I     venting corruption, investigating        ing bribes to win contracts on a
passed by the regime of former           he could not be pinned down.            worked tirelessly for this project      and prosecuting cases and under-         multi-billion dollar dam project
president Jerry Rawlings.                  The Aveyime saga began in 1995,       and if I should be sentenced for an     taking civic education. Botswana         backed by the World Bank. Indeed,
   Criticism has come from the ex-       when Cotton arrived in Ghana            offence I have not committed, I         has created the Directorate on Cor-      even World Bank officials have
ecutive secretary of the Civil Ser-      claiming to be an expert in rice pro-   leave it to the Almighty.” Not too      ruption and Economic Crime,              been implicated in corruption, no-
vants Association, who argues that       duction. She was single, young and      many tears were shed for him.           which enjoys not only the re-            tably in Kenya.


                                                   No privatisation
By Doreen Matonga                                                                                                                                       Minister Friday Jumbe confirmed that the
                                                                                                                                                        government would settle the longstanding
THE events at David Whitehead and Sons,                                                                                                                 debts but indicated that the company had to
Malawi’s sole textile company, were surpris-                                                                                                            be overhauled if it was to regain its lost glory.
ing enough without the additional informa-                                                                                                                 Trouble broke out on the day of the hand-

                                                   for us, thank you!
tion: the chief executive was the strike leader!                                                                                                        over, when an English consultant of the pri-
Only two years ago, the firm had over 4,000                                                                                                              vatisation commission, Arthur Stevens, was
employees, but this had dropped to 400 by                                                                                                               knocked unconscious as the workers protest-
mid-2003 and more jobs were in danger.                                                                                                                  ed. Over 50 policemen were sent to the firm
   Within a week, Evelyn Mwapasa was a                                                                                                                  to ensure security. “We told the commission
household name — not just because she had                                                                                                               not to sell the company,” says Titus Nam-
taken the unprecedented step of inciting her         More than 30 state-owned firms have been         500,000 kwacha a month in profits was being         bazo, a worker at the company.
workers to lay down tools but also because         sold since 1995, including the country’s rail-    sold. There was no logical to it since the buy-       President Bakili Muluzi promptly halted
she was challenging the entire principle of        way. Few have enjoyed a turn-around after a       er was to pay a deposit of $1 million on hand-     the hand-over and established a commission
privatisation that has become the catch-           change in the management, which tends to          over and pay the balance in 10 instalments.”       of inquiry into the controversial sale. The re-
phrase in Africa. The sale of government           favour foreigners, and retrenchment has hit         Much as she understood the essence of the        port has yet to be released.
firms have led to massive job cuts in coun-         the workers hard. David Whitehead is              privatisation process, Mwapasa was infuriat-          As if the drama was not enough for the
tries as diverse as Kenya and Zambia but its       among the state-supported firms that have          ed that the commission should sell a profit-        workers and Mwapasa, Stanbic Bank seized
benefits have yet to be felt either at the per-     made losses, prompting the privatisation          making unit at what amounted to a throw-           the company assets 10 days later because of
sonal or official levels — chiefly because the       commission to advertise for prospective buy-      away price.                                        a US$2 million debt, which Mwapasa said was
firms have been sold at throwaway prices and        ers.                                                The government had injected millions to          being repaid slowly. Stanbic has put in place
in suspicious circumstances.                                                                         revive the company that once manufactured          a receiver-manager to take care of finances
   Mwapasa, 31, mobilised the staff at the         First mistake                                     over 110,000 metres of cloth per month but         until its money is recovered. Rumours were
Whitex factory to force the privatisation com-     The commission’s first mistake was to do all       which now produces 140,000 metres — mean-          rife that Mwapasa would lose her job.
mission to either drop the sale altogether or      the groundwork involved in selling Whitex         ing the production level had gone up despite          “I have not been dismissed,” she says.
to hold out for a better sale package. Through     without consulting the management of the          the smaller staff. “I was convinced people         “What has happened is that the bank wants
its own chief executive, Maziko Sauti Phiri,       firm, which had already done its own assess-       were running away from the truth and I             its money back. As soon as they recover their
the commission had decided to go ahead with        ment and come up with a price of 300 million      vowed to fight for the company till the end,”       money, we will get back to normal as an in-
the hand-over of the company worth US$4            kwacha .                                          she says. “Besides, the government under-          dependent company.”
million to an Asian consortium, Jimtex/              Says Mwapasa: “We were just informed            took to settle the company’s debts to bring it        Mwapasa has been vindicated by Privati-
Mapeto wholesalers and Jimtex, at a mere           that the privatisation commssion was doing        back on track.”                                    sation Minister Justin Malewezi’s admission
$0.5 million.                                      the groundwork for the sale. We were never          David Whitehead had two main problems            in parliament that the process has not gone
   With the workers threatening to seek a          asked for things like company profile and val-     that initially warranted its privatisation: it     as per the government’s plan. He noted some
court injunction, Phiri said: “We will go          uation assets, which are the major determi-       was overstaffed, resulting in the government       flaws and indicated that experts and tech-
ahead with the hand-over since all we want         nants for this kind of deal. It was very shock-   pumping in a lot of money to service salaries      nocrats may have to revisit the entire pri-
is for the company to make a profit.”               ing to hear that a company that posts almost      and benefits. It also had a lot of debts. Finance   vatisation plan.
  August 2003                                                                                                                        Africawoman 9

Democracy and                                                                                                                                               Take a
censorship                                                                                                                                                   fresh
are a tough mix                                                                                                                                               look
By Caroline Somanje

AS it moves to repeal oppressive cen-
sorship laws dating back to 1968,
Malawi finds itself in the uncomfort-
                                              to monitor the law effectively.
                                                 The bill provides for stiffer penalties
                                              for offenders. Theatre managers or
                                              owners who fail to comply with the law
                                              are now jailed for six months and fined
                                                                                           raphy is not part of our society,”
                                                                                           Munthali argues, “and there are cer-
                                                                                           tain things that need not be enter-
                                                                                           tained, even when dealing with the
                                                                                           changing times. Pornography is de-
able position of being between the dev-
il and the deep blue sea.
   The Kamuzu Banda regime ruth-
lessly used the Censorship and Control
of Entertainment Act to suppress dis-
sent: one could be jailed for receiving
                                              200 kwacha (about US$2.17); in the new
                                              scheme of things, they will be locked up
                                              for three years and be fined 250,000
                                              kwacha (about $2,717). “The emphasis
                                              is on regulation and not control (ban-
                                              ning), which is now the internationally
                                                                                           meaning to women. We feel betrayed.”
                                                                                              Ngeyi Kanyongolo, president of the
                                                                                           Women Lawyers Association, says
                                                                                           pornographic materials are not a prob-
                                                                                           lem as long as they are viewed in the
                                                                                           privacy of people’s homes. Banning
                                                                                                                                                            life in
and sending “objectionable” material
through the post and these included
simple works of art, literature, songs
and plays. Many artists and journalists
were either killed or jailed and others
forced out of their jobs because the cen-
                                              preferred method of regulating enter-
                                              tainment, publications and films,” says
                                              the commission.
                                                 But Emmie Chanika, executive di-
                                              rector of the Civil Liberties Committee,
                                              describes the proposed law as unfortu-
                                                                                           pornography is not a viable solution,
                                                                                           she says, because people can still see it
                                                                                           on the Internet and in small video
                                                                                           showrooms. The key word is control, in
                                                                                           her view – and this is where the prob-
                                                                                           lem lies.
sorship board had decreed that they           nate. Democracy has a price, she says,          The lawyer is wary about linking
were guilty of “professional aggres-          and the new law is just one of the many      pornography to sexual abuse of
sion” — and this without the benefit of        examples. Chanika brings a new twist         women. “It is like saying wearing mini-
a court hearing.                                                                           skirts is a call for trouble, hence anyone
   Even international pop music did not       While the proposed new law will              raped or assaulted in a mini-skirt de-
escape the censor’s scissors. The song                                                     serves it,” says Kanyongolo.
Cecilia, You Are Breaking My Heart
                                              do away with limits on the                      According to the United States Na-
could not be played locally as it was         creative arts, it will permit                tional Coalition for the Protection of
taken to cast aspersions on Cecilia           distribution of materials                    Children and Families, research has
Tamanda Kadzamira, the president’s            containing explicit and violent              proved that pornography and its mes-
official hostess. Renowned poet Jack                                                        sages can shape attitudes and encour-
                                              sex, child pornography, sex with
Mapanje was one of the early victims of                                                    age behaviour that can harm individual
the law. He had to seek asylum in the         animals, degrading sexual                    users and their families.
United Kingdom because the authori-           practices and extreme violence                  “Pornography is often viewed in se-
ties thought his work criticised the old                                                   cret, which creates deception within
regime.                                       to the debate when she says that the         marriages that can lead to divorce. In
   But if Bakili Muluzi’s government          whole question of pornography should         addition, pornography promotes the al-
thought it would be doing Malawians a         be looked at from a wider perspective        lure of adultery, prostitution and unre-
favour by changing the law, it has            since politicians constantly degrade         al expectations that can result in dan-
learnt that there is no easy road to          women at public rallies.                     gerous promiscuous behaviour,” the
democracy. The problem? While the                She cites Muluzi’s reference to hu-       organisation says, adding that it also
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ISSUE 12

proposed new law will do away with            man rights activist Robson Chitengo as       leads to sexual addiction.                                                                                                                          FIND US O
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         N THE WEB
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   AT : W W W .

limits on the creative arts, it will permit   having been caught red-handed “climb-           Other studies in Phoenix in the US
distribution of materials containing ex-      ing” another man’s wife. Chitengo had        indicate that sex offences were 506 per-                                                                  AFRICA q
                                                                                                                                                                                                              MAY 200
                                                                                                                                                                                             OMEN IN
                                                                                                                                                                                     ABOUT W
plicit and violent sex, child pornogra-       been campaigning against Muluzi’s            cent greater in neighbourhoods where                                              FOR AND

phy, sex with animals, degrading sexu-        proposed amendment to the constitu-          “adult” businesses were located. Mary         KENYA

al practices and extreme violence.            tion to allow him to run for a third term    Anne Layden, director of education at         Memories
                                                                                                                                         of pain,
                                              in office. Muluzi’s outburst came after       the University of Pennsylvania, adds          death
freedom of expression                         members of the youth wing of his Unit-       that she has treated sexual violence          and
  The Malawian government argues              ed Democratic Front were implicated          victims and perpetrators for 13 years           By Betty Muriuk

                                                                                                                                            THE elderly women
                                                                                                                                                                      walked slowly
                                                                                                                                                                corridor, afraid
                                                                                                                                            down the dingy
                                                                                                                                                                    rooms on either

that banning entertainment materials          in attacks on Chitengo.                      and has not encountered a single case            look into the dark
                                                                                                                                            side, yet drawn
                                                                                                                                             more powerf
                                                                                                                                             peered into the
                                                                                                                                                                to them by a force
                                                                                                                                                              ul than fear.
                                                                                                                                                                   dark cells, their
                                                                                                                                                                     g over the walls

unnecessarily contravenes freedom of             Says Chanika: “Are we hills that          that does not involve pornography.                misty eyes runnin
                                                                                                                                             that had held their
                                                                                                                                              ters for weeks
                                                                                                                                              days that they
                                                                                                                                                                      sons and daugh-
                                                                                                                                                                 on end – long,
                                                                                                                                                                 would probab
                                                                                                                                                                                   ly like

                                                                                                                                               to forget, but never dark memo-

expression and people’s right to infor-       should be climbed? The law should cov-          As for the Public Entertainment and                 The dark cells
                                                                                                                                                ries and secrets
                                                                                                                                                Kenya’s history
                                                                                                                                                                      of a dark time
                                                                                                                                                                   , memories of
                                                                                                                                                                and despair.
                                                                                                                                                                                     Tears                                                        DOWN WITH THE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                DEMON DRINK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   illegal brews
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   that have turned
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         local men into
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            zombies. (Full
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Story Page 8)

                                                                                                                                                and death                            the 20                                                                      a protest over
                                                                                                                                                                 the cheeks of

mation – especially adults.                   er such issues as these, including ex-       Publications Bill, the special law com-               flowed down
                                                                                                                                                 women as their
                                                                                                                                                 ed   their experie
                                                                                                                                                                      offspring recoun
                                                                                                                                                                       nces in the cells,

                                                                                                                                                                                                    A woman in Centra
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           l Kenya stokes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              the fire during

                                                                                                                                                                                                            OF THE
                                                                                                                                                                   suspected of politica
                                                                                                                                                  where anyone                               d
                                                                                                                                                                       held and torture

  The bill says the X-Rated material          plicit and intimate dances like the pop-     mission anticipates working “with the                  dissidence was                                    UGANDA

                                                                                                                                                                                                 GETTING RIDENCE
                                                                                                                                                                     the now disban
                                                                                                                                                  by officers of                           for-
                                                                                                                                                                       of the police in
                                                                                                                                                  Special Branch
                                                                                                                                                                       Daniel arap Moi’s
                                                                                                                                                   mer president

will be allowed for personal use only         ular but suggestive kwasa kwasa orig-        community for the public good”. This
                                                                                                                                                                                       the 24-
                                                                                                                                                       The underg    round cells of
                                                                                                                                                                         House had
                                                                                                                                                    storey Nyayo

                                                                                                                                                                                                 DEATH SENT
                                                                                                                                                                              viewin  g three
                                                                                                                                                    opened for public ng demands
                                                                                                                                                    weeks earlier,                              be
                                                                                                                                                                           s of the cells to

and not for public exhibition, but this       inally from the Democratic Republic of       will involve civic education, through                     by former inmate
                                                                                                                                                     allowed to visit
                                                                                                                                                         Stories of the
                                                                                                                                                                           physical and men-
                                                                                                                                                                               d on those who
                                                                                                                                                      tal suffering inflicte the cells had                                                                                                                                       victims conspir
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 e to frustrate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 the justice system
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     sentence is one

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   that the death
                                                                                                                                                                  detained in                                                                                                                                                   They also argue cks in implementing the law,

has not appeased critics who see              Congo. Our local Chisamba dance,             the media, and voluntary community                         had been
                                                                                                                                                       been told from
                                                                                                                                                                          the 1980s to the
                                                                                                                                                                                 the accounts
                                                                                                                                                       ly 1990s. While horror, dread

                                                                                                                                                                                                       By Anne Mugisa                                            Law considered
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                of the major drawba
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 which some have
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    described as “harsh
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             and inhu-

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 to be too harsh on
                                                                                                                                                                            s of                                                                             the                                                                 man”.                                       out of the
                                                                                                                                                       aroused feeling                       , they                          a legal regime that allowed is                                                                                             have had babies
                                                                                                                                                        and sympathy
                                                                                                                                                                          for the victims               AFTER 13 years of child molesters, Uganda                                                                                    Some of the girls                 they are reluc-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   the defilers and

pornography writ large all over the           done by elderly women at initiation          monitoring committees will comprise
                                                                                                                                                                                         s / Page 2                         for
                                                                                                                                                                        Turn to memorie                 death sentence                          – to the delight                                                                  “liaisons” with                  . Others have

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 child molesters
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         the drawing board                                                                                                        ce” the fathers         s because the
                                                                                                                                                                                                        going back to             ed it as too harsh
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       and diffi-                                                                  tant to “sacrifi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   not to press charge s or are mi-
                                                                                                                                                                                                         of those who dismisse.                                                                                                   prevailed upon                   familie
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            e pregnancies.                        close to their
                                                                                                                                                                                                         cult to put in practic new move want the offence                               cut down teenag                            offenders are

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      as a means to                                from 14 to

country’s many video shops that are           ceremonies to groom young women in           traditional, religious and political lead-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             the                                                           t to sex was raised                     nors themselves. 15-year-old girl undermined
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Supporters of              one tried only
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          by the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    d from a capital g a maximum of life              The age of consen                                               Two years ago,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       a                        g she had
                                                                                                                                                                                                          change                                                                                                                                                      swearin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            one carryin                               18.                                      in real terms.                        her defiler by
                                                                                                                                                                                                          High Court to                         Act came at the                             had little impact                       the case against                    even though the
                                                                                                                                                        Young girls will                                  imprisonment.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             The Defilement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                was a sharp rise
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    in attacks on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         But the law has
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              have risen, with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  the victims
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Attacks on minors r. In February, a three-year-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    never seen the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    30-year-old man
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       to the witness
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         box was a repli-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       the key state wit-
                                                                                                                                                        bring change                                       time when there                                                                                                           baby she carried

largely out of control of the authorities.    readiness for marital obligations, is an-    ers as well as teachers and youths with                         – Page 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                           children, some
                                                                                                                                                                                                            old. Parents and
                                                                                                                                                                                                            an opportunity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             of the victims

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              to curb the runawa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              only a few months
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                child rights activist
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       s saw it as
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    y rates of sex-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       getting ever younge Margaret underwent a ma-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       old identified only
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       jor operation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kampala to fix
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         at Mulago Referra
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          her uterus, which
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                l Hospital in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                was ruptured
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                sexual attacks
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ca of the accuse
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ness, the case
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        According to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      d. As she was
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    was thrown out.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           , the man had
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       the girl’s mother abandoned
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   made her pregna
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       nt and
                                                                                                                                                          Farewell, dear
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             of                       seduced her,                                        he
                                                                                                                                                                                                            ual crimes against into effect at a time when                                 twenties. Cases                                                thrown out of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         school. When
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        by a man in his

  The chair of the special law commis-        other example. These are not for             the express purpose of “upholding cul-                         Sifanele
                                                                                                                                                            – Page 5
                                                                                                                                                                                                               The law also came from the HIV/Aids pan-
                                                                                                                                                                                                             the country was
                                                                                                                                                                                                             demic,   with Uganda
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      one of the countr
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               and little girls
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ies hard
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                were easy prey
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        on very small
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         children are reporte

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             But legal practiti
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 d almost dai-

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        report that they
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          because some
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          find it
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      her after she was
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      was arrested,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     he started   sending her messag 7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Turn to law / Page

                                                                                                                                                                                                              hit. Teenagers                               lly since                      the offenders                                    E7
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      advances, especia                   difficult to try
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               OF WAR – PAG
sion, Supreme Court of Appeal Judge           younger eyes but, surprisingly, our lo-      tural norms and values”.                                        You can’t play
                                                                                                                                                           that in here
                                                                                                                                                                                                              older men’s sexual ing powers. It was also seen
                                                                                                                                                                                                              they had no bargain

                                                                                                                                                                                                                         WORLD OPI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  NION THE FIR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ST CASUALTY
                                                                                                                                                            – Page 6
Anastasia Msosa, believes the changes         cal Television Malawi beams them                “As for failures, those will be experi-
are to the country’s advantage because        without any age restrictions.”               enced with practice,” says Censorship
“people will be able to explore their tal-       Chanika has a soulmate in Catherine       Board member E. Galafa. “It is difficult
ents to the full” but expresses doubts        Munthali, who heads the Society for          to foretell a failure without trying a sys-
as to whether Malawi has the capacity         the Advancement of Women: “Pornog-           tem first.”
  10 Africawoman                                                                                                                                                           August 2003

       “In Zimbabwe, it was grabbing land from the white settlers. For Zambia,
      it will be grabbing land from our own brothers because of being landless.”

     Women stake their claim to land
By Brenda Zulu, Zambia                                                                                 preserving the identity of the society”.     gender and land has come to the fore
                                                                                                          But while gender consultants such as      and, at every discussion, it was clear
SPILLOVER effects from the controversial                                                               Sara Longwe note that the proposed pol-      women marrying into other villages
Zimbabwean land question have re-                                                                      icy pays no heed to gender considera-        were literally compared to workers who
awakened buried land ownership issues                                                                  tions and discriminatory practices, the      should leave the area once their hus-
in Zambia, with women taking centre-                                                                   average Zambian villagers are more           bands died,” Kumwenda adds.
stage to ensure that their right to own                                                                concerned about land being grabbed             Allocating 30 percent of land to
land is enshrined in the constitution cur-                                                             from them and allocated to foreigners in     women would also pose serious prob-
rently under review.                                                                                   the name of investors. “Their concern is     lems where polygamy was in practice.
  The national draft policy on land stip-                                                              that land in the rural areas remain un-      Under customary land tenure, single
ulates that women, classified as a vul-                                                                 der customary law,” says Godfrey             women, divorcées and widows had ac-
nerable group, should have access to 30                                                                Kumwenda, a community facilitator in         cess to land until they married or re-
percent of the total arable land.                                                                      Southern Province.                           married — when they were expected to
  But they argue that the 30 percent is                                                                                                             surrender the land to the headman. Wid-
not enough, especially taking into con-                                                                Customary law                                ows who were not from the same areas
sideration that they are the majority                                                                  Customary law has long been the bane         as their late husbands were generally
users of land. Any policy reform must                                                                  of African women’s lives, and Kumwen-        expected to return to their families.
recognise the contribution they make to-                                                               da notes: “Some villagers still feel that      However, those in support of the 30
wards food production and reduction of                                                                 there is no need to allocate them land       percent rule insist that women need to
poverty in rural areas. Women also ob-                                                                 since those who are married have access      supplement their income and to educate
ject to being grouped in the vulnerable                                                                to their husbands’ land.”                    their children, especially when widowed.
and disabled people category.                                                                             At a land policy review meeting at        “Having access to land would enable
  Furthermore, the women are calling                                                                   Moomba Palace in Livingstone, men ar-        women to continue living normally and
for clear land allocation procedures.                                                                  gued that there was no need for married      supporting their families,” they argue.
They also want the operations of the De-                                                               women to be allocated 30 percent of land,      In 1996, the government passed the
partment of Land or Rural Land Man-                                                                    which should instead be reserved for the     Land Act to provide title deeds for land,
agement authorities to be decentralised                                                                vulnerable and the disabled. “In South-      including that held under customary
and would like to have their views                                                                     ern Province, many people feel that          law. The law also guarantees women, the
worked into the draft land policy and                                                                  there is no need for women to be allo-       majority of whom are in rural areas, se-
considered in the Constitutional Review                                                                cated their own land, especially in the      curity of tenure for 99 years.
Commission.                                                                                            traditional set-up, because they got mar-      But the procedures for acquiring land
  Agriculture consultant Bernadette          she adds. “For Zambia, it will be grab-    WORKING THE    ried and even if they divorced or they be-   and title deeds are still cumbersome and
Lubozya says that acquiring land in          bing land from our own brothers be-        FAMILY LAND:   came widows they could go back to their      bureaucratic, leading to unnecessary de-
Zambia is a problem and there is need to     cause of being landless.”                  Zambian        parents and gain access to land there,”      lays in processing applications for land.
improve the delivery system and make            Lubozya called on the government to     women are      says Kumwenda.                               The system for granting title deeds re-
land accessible to as many Zambians as       craft a land policy that would re-estab-   demanding         Some men also argued that if women        mains mostly centralised, which makes
possible, especially women, who have         lish a Zambian rural society that “pro-    equal rights   were given land they would be compet-        the process cumbersome for people liv-
been marginalised. “In Zimbabwe, it was      vides equal opportunity and security to    to             ing with their husbands and this would       ing in rural areas. Besides, poor women
grabbing land from the white settlers,”      any individual while at the same time      resources.     result in a rise in divorce. “The issue of   can rarely afford the fees.
  August 2003                                                                                                                 Africawoman 11

Inside the
business of
child slave
From Page 1                             adequate legislation, ignorance of
these young workers.                    the law, poor law enforcement,
   The Knight Ridder investiga-         porous borders, police corruption
tions revealed that the children are    and a shortage or resources help
lied to about jobs and wages. They      perpetuate child slavery in the re-
suffer beatings, insufficient meals,     gion. Even though child slavery is
being locked up at night and work       illegal in Cote d’Ivoire, the govern-
days lasting more than 12 hours         ment says the practice continues
without a break. They are separat-      because the multi-nationals do not
ed from their families and live in      pay enough for cocoa beans, forc-
constant fear.                          ing farmers to use child labour –
   Though some children do man-         which is cheaper.
age to escape, they often fear re-
turning home and end up on the          Signed agreement
streets. According to Unicef, a         The government has since signed
thriving trade in human traffic has      an agreement with chocolate man-
developed in many parts of Africa       ufacturers and human rights or-
mainly because of grinding pover-       ganisations to ensure an end to
ty. Slave dealers often trick parents   child slavery.                           CHEAP LABOUR: Children are often exploited by farmers seeking maximum profits.
into selling the children under the       For Ghana to witness such bar-
pretext that they are being taken       baric acts so many centuries after       describes the exploitation of chil-     Operation Bring the Children              the campaign will help establish in-
away to get a good education. Ulti-     the slave trade was abolished is an      dren as a development issue and         Home to help retrieve the lost chil-      come-generating activities to en-
mately, the children can be sold as     abomination that reveals the level       calls for its eradication. Child lab-   dren.                                     able women become financially in-
far away as Europe. The child           of poverty and insensitivity that        our destroys children physically,         The idea is to end rural poverty        dependent.
smugglers operate in Benin, Burk-       some parents and families have           emotionally, educationally and so-      and incorporate chiefs and opinion           Will such efforts help save West
ina Faso, Cameroon, Gabon,              been reduced to.                         cially. Because Ghana has been          leaders in the campaign to promote        Africa’s children from the misery
Ghana, Cote d’Ivoire, Mali and            The International Labour Organ-        identified as the gateway to child       formal education.                         of slavery? Only time will tell. But
Nigeria.                                isation’s International Programme        trafficking and other forms of slav-       Through the Ministry of                 it is worth trying, for the sake of fu-
   Child trafficking experts say in-     on the Elimination of Child Labour       ery, the government has launched        Women’s and Children’s Affairs,           ture generations.


Selling state firms is no solution
By Grace Zulu                           tions by miners demanding to be          the missing money. They detained        cause I have failed to provide for        to the graveyard, which is very far
                                        paid their dues by the government.       him for over three hours.               them. Hunger has led to her stray-        away. The mining company used to
ONLY six years ago, privatisation       Some protestors have succeeded in           Beatrice Mumba, of Roan town-        ing into other means of survival,”        provide us with transport, but it
was considered the silver bullet        getting their outstanding dues, but      ship, told Africawoman that she         she said. The situation remains           can no longer do so. The church is
that would rejuvenate Zambia’s ail-     the majority has ended up arrested       could no longer bear to wait for the    volatile and the women have vowed         also struggling. We are all strug-
ing mining industry. Nowhere was        – thus guaranteeing their compli-        promises that the salary arrears        to take to the streets again as this      gling to bury our dead.”
the sale of mines celebrated more       ance.                                    would be paid. “I need the five          appears to be the only guarantee of         Widow Chanda Mwila has
than in Luanshya, one of the seven         That was until over 200 women         months’ salary arrears my hus-          government attention. They were           moved away to neighbouring Kitwe
mining towns.                           and children took to the streets to      band is owed,” she said.                tired, they argued, of visiting politi-   as she awaits payment of her hus-
  The Binani group of companies         demand the release of the money. It         “What does the government            cians who promised to solve their         band’s dues.
set up the Roan Antelope Mining         tool police reinforcements from          think we feed on? We can’t live on      problems but left them in exactly           She has a small makeshift stall at
Corporation and 5,000 jobs were         well beyond Luanshya and a hefty         empty promises and bouncing             the same situation.                       the centre of a busy market and is
soon available. The company fell on     dose of teargas to disperse the          checks.”                                                                          able to provide for her children. Not
hard times, however, and the Zam-       women, who protested that they              Her husband was sent on vaca-        Hopeless situation                        everyone is so lucky, however.
bia Privatisation Agency was quick      were starving and their children         tion two years ago after working        Until the next buyer takes over, the        “Because my friends had nothing
to move in. Locals who had relied       needed school fees.                      for over 25 years at the mines as a     situation remains hopeless. The ill       to feed their children, I gave them
on the mine for a living were left in      It all started with a meeting a day   contracts clerk. His salary has         go unattended; only those who suf-        chickens on credit,” said Given
limbo and employees were sent on        earlier at which the women blew          come in fits and starts and he has       fer HIV/Aids, tuberculosis and dia-       Kangwa. “They promised to pay
vacation. Everyone lived in antici-     whistles and chanted in prepara-         been forced to take a lower salary      betes receive help from the church.       back as soon as their husbands
pation of the government’s finding       tion for the street action.              with a different company in an ef-         Funerals last only a day as the        were paid. I have lost out because
a new investor to put the mines            Come morning, the women and           fort to sustain his family.             bereaved have no food for the             they were not paid on time.”
back in gear.                           children marched to District Ad-            The mother of six says her older     mourners. Local MP Cameron                  She does not regret helping out
  It was not to be, however, and the    ministrator Joseph Chilambwe’s of-       children have dropped out of            Pwele has received praise for help-       and, though she is a widow, she
small town of Luanshya has been         fice and demanded that he call            school. “One of them is pregnant        ing out with his car during funer-        joined the demonstrations in soli-
the scene of riots and demonstra-       President Levy Mwanawasa over            and I feel very bad as a mother be-     als. Said Mumba: “We have to walk         darity with her friends.
  12 Africawoman                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  August 2003


It’s not the
law that
it’s what’s
in the heart
By Dorothy Mmari                                                                                                                                                                                                            clients. They kept turning up on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DYING CRAFT: Maria Haule hands over her circumcising tools to the village executive officer, Mo-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          hammed Omar.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          meeting the greatest resistance to                                                                                                                                          of their own free will for the simple
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            her doorstep even when she tem-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ending female circumcision – also                                                                                                                                           reason that they believe it will
MARIA CHACHA circumcises up to                                                                                                                                                                                              porarily quit her job. “I do very lit-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        known as female genital mutilation                                                                                                                                          boost their chances of marriage.
3,000 girls a day during peak peri-                                                                                                                                                                                         tle,” she confides. “I do not cut all                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          or cutting – from girls from the                                                                                                                                            She believes that circumcision will
ods. As an acknowledged expert in                                                                                                                                                                                           parts as some other women do.”                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                practising communities.                                                                                                                                                     eventually die out – but it will die
her industry, she simply depends                                                                                                                                                                                               Despite years of activism, non-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              In the northern Mara region,                                                                                                                                              hard.
on her reputation to bring in the                                                                                                                                                                                           governmental organisations are                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Chacha says, the girls come to her                                                                                                                                             “To be sincere, I think those who
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      announce in public that they are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      stopping female genital mutilation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      are only doing so because they are

                                               LIVING IN AFRICA                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       paid,” says Emmanuel Maginga, co-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ordinator of children’s issues with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      the Aids Control and Community

                                                                              – A woman’s perspective                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Development Organisation, which
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      is based in Mara.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Samuel Nyadwera, public health
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      officer at Tarime District Hospital,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      is just as cautious. “You can’t tell an
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ISSUE NINE

                                                                    COMMONWEALTH DAY SPECIAL
                                                                                                             F I N D U S O N T H E W E B AT : W W W . A F R I C AW O M A N . N E T                                            6 Africawoman
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 World Summit Special

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Africawoman        FOR AND AB
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    OUT WOMEN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            FIND US ON T
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         H E W E B AT : W
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          WW.AFRICA                                              WOMAN.NET
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      elderly tribesman that female gen-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ital mutilation is bad and expect
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               MARIA HAULE: Used to circum-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               cise 20 girls a day
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      him to change at the blink of an
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              IN AFRICA q
                                       FOR AND ABOUT WOMEN IN AFRICA q MARCH 2003                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Women gain strength
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  in Kenya’s general elec

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Globso lisation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             eye,” he told Africawoman.               year had been cut. From January

                                                                                                                                                                                  Good                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Here
                                                                                                                                                                                  friends                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        come                                                    Despite the fact that Tanzania        to June this year, 42.2 percent of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 the main
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      it bad for Africa?
                                                                                                                                                                                  look out
                                                                                                                                                                                  for each                                            Why is                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     winners                                              passed a law in 1998 to protect girls    246 had undergone the operation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              growth is dependent on                                                                                                                                                                                       By Kwamboka Oyaro

                                                                                                                                                                                  other                                                                                                                                                   OPINION
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             tiatives. “Kenya’s economic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             the African region,” he
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  would rather trade with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      from this tradition, many locals are        Clearly, the practice continues
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Charity Ngilu                                                                                                                                                                              wearing-in day was
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             By Florence Machio, Kenya                                                                                                                          Yet some African countries                                 A                                                                                                                                                                                                                 a time
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       than their own neighbours.                                                   Lina Jebii Kilimo                                                                                                                            for hugs and congratula-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              developing countries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              afford to buy                                       of the developed world—not                                                 refusal to allow in Kenyan                                                                                          Beth Mugo                                                                                       tions for the nine
                                                                                                                                                                                  By Margaret Nankinga                                                            y grandmother cannot                              compete in the markets                                                    case in point is Tanzania’s                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 women

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  sugar, yet the crop that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               produces it                                        are of inferior quality
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              but sim-                                   have locked African countries                                                                                                                                         Martha Karua                                      elected in the Kenyan

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           IT’S TIME FOR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    because their products                                                    tea. Western countries                                        lev-                                                                                                                                                                         tions of December                     elec-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  stretches as far as the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             eye can see in                                           world does not play fair                                          such as “minimum residue                                                                                                                                                                                                                   27, interna-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ply because the developed                                                on the basis of issues

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      reluctant to take advantage of it for    despite the campaign to discourage
                                                                                                                                                                                  ADDRESSING the Commonwealth                                                                                       district.                                                          own markets.                                                African economies can-                                                                                                                                                                                tionally acclaimed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  her home in Kenya’s Busia                                                            outside its                            els”. They have set standards                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       for ushering in
                                                                                                                                                                                  Business Council at London’s Re-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                is 87 and            when it comes to products                                    mar-                                       a deliberate move to take                                                                                                                                                                                   a peaceful transition
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Selpha Maende Okweno                                                               as he speaks. African                     not meet in what appears                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              as former
                                                                                                                                                                                  form Club early this year, Secre-                                                                                                      Otieno shakes his head                                   every-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 president Daniel arap
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             about the days when she                                           for the kind of “free trade”                    the best of Africa   and leave it high and dry.                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Moi began
                                                                                                                                                                                  tary-General Don Mckinnon said:                                                  nostalgic                                         kets were not ready                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                his retirement. For
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          on her children for a living.                                            says. “We needed to prepare                                             for Africa’s Development,                                                                                                                                                                                                              Kenyan
                                                                                                                                                                                  “For too long, the developing world                         did not have to depend                                                 one is talking about, he                                                     The New Partnership
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ‘gold’ educated my                                            manpower to enable us
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    sieve                                  as the blueprint for Africa’s                                                                                                                                                                                women, however,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               it was the dawn
                                                                                                                                                                                  has been promised a new deal - aid,                                        was gold to her. “This                                   for  things like inspection                                              which has been praised                                         The                                                                                                                                                                       of a new era in more
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         she says. Once a rich woman,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              by                                           in.”                                                               does not go far enough.
                                                                                                                                                                                  investment and real trade opportu-                                                                                                  the imports that are coming                                               deliverance from poverty                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ways than

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      fear of being cursed by the older        female genital mutilation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              sons and daughters,”                                      the                                                                          can-                                         launched Africa Union                                                                                                                                                                                 one.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            been impoverished by                          But even inspection will
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        not help. Globalisation                 document, which the newly
       Striking nurses in Kenya: Low pay has driven many of these caring professionals to England                                                                                 nities - and for too long the affluent                       local standards, she has                                                                               unequal relations       that have                                         as its  first agenda, fails to                                                                                                                                                                             Here are the stories
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          her the talk of town.                        not be divorced from the                                                 proposes to push forward                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             of some of
                                                                                                                                                                                  world has not delivered on its                              same ‘gold’ that made                                                                                                            poor. It is                                 a fair and just global market.                                                                                                                                                                              the key winners:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                was once part of the agri-                                       rich countries and the                         address the absence of

                                                                                                                                                                                  promise.”                                                      Busia, in western Kenya,                                              long existed between                                                                                    that it is within the capacity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 But, according to the                                                more than anything else.                  Instead, it says: “We hold

                                                                                                                                                                                     Yes, developing countries in the                          cultural hub of the country.                                            a change in terminology                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         CHARITY NGILU Minister
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Paper, Busia is one of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             the                                                    insist that countries                                               to create fair and just                                                                                                                                                                                                        for Health
                                                                                                                                                                                  Commonwealth have been receiv-                               Poverty Reduction Strategy                                lack of           The Bretton Woods institutions                           room         of the international community                                                                                                                                                                                                        Fondly known as
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Expensive farm inputs,                                                    their markets to create                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Mama Rainbow
                                                                                                                                                                                  ing aid. Yes, there is investment                            districts on the decline.                                                such as Kenya liberalise                                                 conditions.”

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      generation. Just as frightening is          When locals say they are chang-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       have                                                                      aid. Few                                            Mungwe, who believe                                                                                                                                                                              – after the rallying
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           of irrigation schemes                                                     are to receive foreign                         There are those, like John                                                                                                                                                                                                                                cry of Kenyans
                                                                                                                                                                                  and inter-trade among the Com-                               credit and the collapse                                                  for globalisation if they                                                                                                              want
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   into an unreliable cash                                                       world have the means                                       setting the agenda. They                                                                                                                                                                                  desperately hoping
                                                                                                                                                                                  monwealth nations. But there must                             conspired to turn sugarcane                                             governments in the developing tied and they have                         that multinationals are                                     insist-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              for change
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        of the much-vaunted                                        are literally                                                               inputs from Africa by                                                                                                                                                                                  through the ballot
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            box – Charity
                                                                                                                                                                                  be fairer terms of trade if this aid,                         crop. Delays in the construction                                        to resist. Their hands                                                    “cheap labour and cheap
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      up its doors, yet they                                                                                                                                                                         Ngilu is a symbol
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           of the Kenyan
                                                                                                                                                                                  trade and investment is to generate                           Busia Sugar Factory have
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                not helped.                              no choice but to submit.                                    hope-        ing on the continent opening                                                                                                                                                                                                       woman who has shattered
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 by the govern-                                       watched helplessly and                                         than we were”.
                                                                                                                                                                                  development and if these countries                                My grandmother was
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              commissioned                                  My grandmother has                                                    leave us poorer                                             be                                                                                                                                                                     stereotypes of women               all the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     of sugarcane she grew                                                   is eroded systematically.                                        are necessary, let them

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  in politics.
                                                                                                                                                                                  are to become real partners in de-                             ment to increase the amount                                             lessly as her earning power                                                 Much as investments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 agree to take in anyone
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 who                                                                                                                                                                 She made history

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      the prospect of being alienated or       ing their ways, according to Mara
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                closer to her                                                  be celebrating its tenth
                                                                                                                                                                                  velopment.                                                     because a new      factory was being built                                      Sugar Company would                                               regulated. Let us not just                                                                                                                                                                                                                             as the first
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         off. Not that it would have                                             dollars. This is what econo-                                                                                                                                                                        Kenyan woman ever
                                                                                                                                                                                     “Why is it that the developing                              home. That was 12 years
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ago.                                      anniversary had it taken                                       of         is willing to give us a few            For the first time in neo-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              to contest
                                                                                                                                                                                  world is being criticized for pro-                                 All sugarcane produced
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  in Busia is crushed and                 made a difference in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        long term. Liberalisation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    way—           mists call international
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              sub-contracting or even                                                      Kenyan history, women                                                                                                    presidential elections
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Her strong will and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 in 1997.
                                                                                                                                                                                  tecting a manufacturing industry                               processed at Mumias
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Sugar Company, which
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     from the increased pro-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          the market would have
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       seen it go the Mumias                       colonialism.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                By farmers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   factories andLilian Juma
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                say                                                              get                                        elected in significant                                   the grassroots woman
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                empathy for
                                                                                                                                                                                  that builds a consumer product at                               handle the surplus resulting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  afford to buy from farmers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          plenty of sugar and nowhere
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               to sell it.                            Executives of the sugar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             levies on imported sugar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             appointment to a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    deared her to voters
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  has en-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             in Kitui Cen-
                                                                                                                                                                                  three times the world price, yet it                             duction. Mumias can only                                                                                                                          “heavy and enforced”                                       (and                                                              sense of shame arising                                                                            tral constituency
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                “spoiled” consumers                                         unattractive to importers be modest

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      mistreated in their com-                             Regional Doctor Costa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               THE gains may
                                                                                                                                                                                  seems acceptable that, in Europe,                               what it can grind and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     small share            While liberalisation has                                                make it economically                         Kenya’s six sugar             by East African stan-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             the fact that previous
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       delegations to women’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             from        40 years ago. It was                                      in general. President
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        and to Kenyans
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        has lost out on even its
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            with a wide variety         of “pure white” imported                    consequently consumers)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    and givedards, but Kenyan                                                world conferences                                                                  not a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        leadership traditionally secret that the party                                       Mwai Kibaki
       Local hospitals are left high and dry as poorly-paid nurses                                                                                                                farmers spend five times more than
                                                                                                                                                                                  developing countries do to raise a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Lately, Mumias
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  of the market. Why? There
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    are cheaper imports com-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 The cost of processing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              my            sugar, thousands of sugarcane snatched
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           farmers have             factories a new lease of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                life.          the just-concluded
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   African countries slap
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 the general election stronger
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              than ever before. After
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       women have emerged
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  from       men – including the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   had routinely been
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     end of the United
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           led by       in politics – favouring
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   had no time for women
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       rather than any concrete token appointments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  recognised her strength
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  showed confidence
                                                                                                                                                                                  single cow?” Mckinnon wonders.                                   ing from as far as Brazil.                                                                                   better life                            Mungwe suggests that                                                 years of mediocre               Decade for Women                             Nations                                                                                          in her ability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              seen their dreams of a                                                                                     countries when they                                                                       conference held in                                                                             by appointing her
       move north to shore up Britain’s National Health Service                                                                                                                      This is the essence of interna-                               grandmother’s sugarcane
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   makes it very expensive
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                afford to pay the price.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             This is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     away by the so-called free
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             trade                   same tariffs on the developed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     bring in their goods. Is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ings in politics, the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              women according
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                that possible? Notelected and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      to December poll
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           saw nine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            in 1985.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              And so the New
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Nairobi       the performance of            measures to improve
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             women in leadership
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        to the plum post
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  of Minister for Health.
                                                                                                                                                                                  tional trade that hinders the devel-                             and Mumias can barely                   globalisation and free                                                                                                                            the their money,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     noanother eight nominated                                     Year dawned bright                  the board.                                                    Although she did

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      “You can’t tell Munilo, they simply
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   we still needtwo main parties

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Otieno, who argues that                                                                        by      promising, with the                              and                                                                                         not clinch the
       By Sandra Nyaira, Zimbabwe                             ropean Union nationals do not want, mainly be-           ment in 1999 to stop “systematically stripping”            opment of real partnerships be-                                   all in the name of liberalisation,                                                                      do not understand these
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           dy-                                                                            – the National Rainbow                                  women appointed                         Indeed, prominent                                      presidency in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         gave in to pressure by                                                                                                                              Coalition and the                                             icant ministries –                          to signif-                              Kanu women had                                          1997 elections –
                                                              cause of their irregular immigration status.             Southern Africa of its most vital resource —               tween Commonwealth countries:                                     trade. The Kenya government liberalised its econo-                         Many farmers in Busia                                   ex-           matter how little.                                             former ruling party,                                        health, water resources               record opposing affirmative                    gone on      she got 469,807 against
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          is handicapped by poor                                                 countries will be attending
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Though a far cry                          Kanu.                                                                                                        action as a policy
       THEY come from different parts of Africa, but            Occupied mostly in cleaning and care giving            skilled medical staff.                                               Turn to GOOD FRIENDS / Page 2                           World Trade Organisation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     and                                    namics. Trade in Kenya                                                      It seems that African                                 alliancesfrom neighbourin                    the office of the vice-presiden                    and      to improve women’s                                        2,444,801 – she entered
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        a myriad of problems
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  to                                                 strategies, challenges                                                  da’s 75 forge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               If the ruling elitewomen parliamenta                         g Ugan-                                         t – and not just the                              presence in leadership                                         history as
       have just one goal when they arrive in Britain         in hospitals and old people's homes, they work              Three years on, the stripping game has ignit-                                                                             my in 1990. This has brought                                            port promotion and marketing                                              Rio+10 as underdogs.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     that want profitable invest-              rians out of a total
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           traditional culture
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                and social services.                  decision-making.                                  and     the first woman in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            high cost of doing business,              with foreign corporations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            of 304 and Tanzania’s                                                                                                                         Zipporah Kittony,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               a nominat-                              sub-Sahara
       — to make a better life for themselves and their       for 18 to 22 hours every day. They rarely have           ed debate in London over the government's                                                                                     farmers in the sugarbelt.                                       a      for regional integration,                                       and                                                                          61
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             are likely out of 274, it was cause          Changed attitudes                                          ed member of the                                           Africa to go for the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     “spoiled” consumers with                                                       poor infrastructure
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            lack of regulatory framework, the Import and Export                       ments in these countries,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     African countries
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            for celebrations across                                                                                                                       last parliament and                                           presidency.
       families back home.                                    the time to rest and eat well, their ultimate goal       morality in recruiting the foreign medical staff.                                                                                While liberalisation has                                                                                                                                                   same way they are going
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    to it the country. In                                                to women                    of the former head                          a relative     She had clearly cut
                                                                                                                                                                                  INSIDE                                                                                                                    thou-                                                                                                                                                                          the last                                                                                         of state, came out

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         James Jengo, a gynae-                             mean they have cha-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               white” imported sugar,                        insecurity. Kenya used
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          to have                                     to leave the summit the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            parliament, there                                             “The election of nine                                      chide the first woman                        openly to                              a niche for
          They are the thousands of women, most of            being to amass as much money as possible and                Southern Africa takes pride in its array of in-                                                                            wide variety of “pure                                          of                                                                     into                                                                        were
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           women and five nominated. only four elected                                             women to Parliament                                                                          herself in the Kenyan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       have seen their dreams                                             that regulated what came                                                                                                                       clear indication                                                                       ever to contest the                                        political
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             and Sales Supplies Act                                                                                                                                                                                                         is a

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         an elderly
       them professional, who leave their poorly paid         fulfill their dreams of owning houses and cars            stitutions of higher learning that annually                                                                                    sands of sugarcane farmers                          free trade.                                             to pave the way for liber-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      – as underdogs.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           of power. Even never
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               if they        Indeed, the number                             that Kenyans have                      idency in 1997, telling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Charity Ngilu that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     pres-     landscape.
       jobs and make tracks for the United Kingdom            and having a comfortable life back home.                 churn out qualified personnel — which contin-                                                                                                            away by the so-called                         the country. It was scrapped                                                They will have no negotiating women had the Unit-                                               their attitudes to                          changed        yans still needed                                Ken-
                                                                                                                                                                                  Cricket row splits                                                  a better life snatched                                                                                                                                                           countries such as
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        exceeded 10 throughout                                women, while their                                         the fatherly guidance                    “Kenyans need their
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     to many sectors, especially                                                                                       do, the fact that developed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Kenya’s history.                                              ments show that                             appoint-                                                                                               pride and
       in search of greener pastures.                           These foreign women, recruited from their              ues to trek to the UK in search of greener pas-                                                                                   “Globilisation is a curse                                            alisation.                                                                                                   little or no commitment                                                           the new president                      then president, Daniel                          of the    honour restored.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         says Director of Internal                                            other African countries                  ed States have demonstrated And the icing on the cake was yet                                                                                has confi-                                  arap Moi.                                            This can only be
          For many immigrants from Africa and most            nursing jobs by UK agencies, now hold Britain's          tures soon after training. Zimbabwe has re-                Commonwealth                                                        agriculture, in this country,”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 adds that it is high time
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 These days, Kenya and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         clutching at straws. For
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Kenya,                                       augur well. of the women
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Three                                          to come:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         dence in women’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              leadership,” said
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Betty Tett,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Most of the Kanu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             women in the last                achieved if women
       of the developing world, Britain is the land of        health delivery system in their hands.                   sponded by bonding nurses and doctors for the                                                                                   Trade Seth Otieno. He                                                  have been reduced to                                                     to the summit does not                                        were appointed to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      will                              a Nairobi politician,                                      ment chose to sit                              parlia-                             aspire for lead-
                                                                                                                                                                                  – Page 4                                                                                       admitted that liberalisation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   is a                                     of a Counterfeit Committee                                                  the day her sugarcane
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          My grandmother awaits inet of the new government, with another Cab-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         the                                   who was nominated                                        on the fence during                   ership positions. With

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      cologist at a Tarime dis-                            nged the cutting style –
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        pointed an assistant                          and ap-                                                                                             extensive
       great opportunity — a country overflowing                                                                        number of years they were trained with public                                                                                   Kenyans and Africans                                                   the straw is in the form                                                                               that she once knew. After
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        a                                                                                          national debate over                         a heated      and committed training
                                                              British recruiting drive                                                                                                                                                                                          much the same way as                                                             to look into inferior quali-          once again be the “gold”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          as assistant ministers.                            three      to avert violence
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 minister as part of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       a deal                               their party’s decision                                          through
       with milk and honey. But things soon fall apart                                                                 funds.                                                                                                                          “national disaster” in                                                  that was recently launched                  locally in the name                                                                          The
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       shewoman in thequestion: last time Kenya had                                          and ugly confrontatio                 nege on Kenya’s                                  to re-   seminars and workshops,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                dumped                                                                   a has only one Cabinet                                                                                                                         promise to name
       as they experience the trauma and the stress of        British health service trusts are recruiting                African leaders argue Britain continues to              Why women                                                            HIV/Aids.                                                               ty products that are being                                               long talk on globalisation,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Fourth World no market was just prior to the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                if there is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Westlands constituency
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ns in      one-third of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        country’s slots in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             women to        be realised,’’ she said.           this can

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     tribesman that and it is still unaccept-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Africans were bombarded                                                                                         “Why should I plant sugarcane                                                                     Part of the breakthroug
       surviving in a foreign land.                           growing numbers of nurses from overseas to               strip them of their nurses and doctors to shore                                                                                    The director argues that                                             of free trade.                                      should trade
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Conference on Women                                                                                   African Legislative                        the East
          The women, who now form a very powerful             ease staff shortages while homegrown hospital            up its National Health Service (NHS) by dan-               should be leaders                                                     with concepts and    terms such as the information
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  According   to Otieno, African countries                              for it?”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         1995 in Beijing.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                It was a short-lived
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          held in      attributed to the formation h for women can be                With the National
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Assembly.                             When the ruling party
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             gotiating the winning           was ne-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         one market and opened                                                     regional integration ini-                                             mance, at any rate,                              perfor-                                      of the National Rain-                               Rainbow Coalition                                            formula, she
       economic group in their adopted land, leave            workers emigrate to the US, where they enjoy             gling attractive perks they can never afford.              – Page 8                                                              perhighway, new economy,                                cannot          among themselves through                                                                                                           as she lost in the 1997             bow Coalition, a union
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 of 16                            ria sweeping across                            eupho-     was the only woman
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 trade, yet their products                                                                                                                                  Cynics were quick                               poll.      bled together to challenge political parties cob-                                   the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ever, it soon became country in 2002, how-                                          among eight

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      pensary, believes the sit-
       their husbands, extended families, children and        better salaries and perks.                                  In the years since Mandela appealed to                                                                                        up their countries for                                                                                                                                                                                       to link Nyiva Mwendwa’s                                          Kanu’s stranglehold                                    apparent that women’s          men in the National
       friends to work in the UK. The skilled women             This prompted former South African Presi-              Britain to stop poaching nurses from southern                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   on Kenyan politics                                         chances of gaining
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             since independenc                                                                              Coalition core group
       do all the menial jobs that the British and Eu-        dent Nelson Mandela to tell the British govern-                                       Turn to NURSES / Page 12      Tired of a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       e nearly                              a stronger foothold
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                in poli-    on merging of parties
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      that worked
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Turn to Page 8                                   and finally
                                                                                                                                                                                  senseless war                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Turn to Page 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      female genital able, no matter how lit-
                  THE SCHOLARSHIP THAT CHANGED NJOKI’S LIFE – PAGE 5                                                                                                              – Page 11

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      uation has been improv-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Africawoman 5
                                   December 2002

                                                                                                                                                                         Africawoman 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Africawoman FAMILY VIOLENCE
                                                                                                      SPECIAL REPORT
                                                                                                                                                 ON HIV/AIDS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           SPECIAL REPORT ON HIV/Aids
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  F I N D U S O N T H E W E B AT : W W W . A F R I C A W O M A N . N E T June 2002
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ing steadily: last year, he                          tle they claim to cut.
                              By Ruth Gabi, Zimbabwe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       SPECIAL REP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ORT                                                                                                                                                received only three pa- is bad and expect               Female genital muti-
                             F                                                                THIRTY
                                                 or four months, I
                                                 Finally, I sought the                                                                                                                                                rands in town on
                                                                             advice of

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      tients who bled exten-                               lation is a source of in-
                                                three friends. “Why                                                                                                                                                                            Monday, May 22. I
                                                                             should you                                                                                                                              dropped off a story
                                                go for an Aids test                                                                                                                                                                               with my editor at
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     The Herald and the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   lasting
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 expended on finding
                                                                          and stress                                                                                                                                                              radio at
                                                yourself out?” Sheila                                                                                                                                               cal shop for repair. F O R the electri- N D A B O U T W O M E N I N A F R I C A q I S S U E 8 q D E C E M B E R 2 0 0 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             deal of effort has                               attacks,

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      him to change come for a number of el-
                                                                             shot back.                                                                                                                                                         I left town at 9.15am
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ide and a great
                                                A friend from my
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         al nature of these
                                                                        teaching days,                                                                                                                              and drove to Wilkins
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          problem world-w
                                  Sheila was in her                                                                                                                                                                                                Infectious Dis-
                                                          early forties and getting                                                                                                                                eases Hospital on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         e is a pervasive                                        e of the very person

                                  fatter by the day. “And                                                                                                                                                                                    the outskirts of the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               own
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ing. But becaus                           being left to their

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Domestic violenc
                                                                 what would you do                                                                                                                                 city.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             to women’s well-be                         y of the victims,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      sively from the circumci-
                                  about it even if you
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   of the greatest threats
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      It was all pleasantries
                                    I had no answer to
                                                             that. “Just live and                                                                                                                                 as I paid the $50 for               from the staff
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        What Archbishop Desmond Tutu says:                                                                                                                                                                       solutions to one                                                and girls, the majorit                     lot in life and they
                                 happy,” she continued.                                be                                                                                                                                                     the test and I was
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      led                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  area — with women                             that this is their
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        e remains a grey
                                                                “Life is too short to                                                                                                                            into the counsellor’s
                                 worry about such                                                                                                                                                                                              room at 9.30am.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         them to believe                      over Africa and
                                                         things. As for me,
                                                                                I will                                                                                                                          counsellor, in her             “In an idealThe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          early thirties, intro- world, we have hoped that everyone would be responsible about sex . . . that everyone would behave as we                                                                                                            domestic violenc                                 that conditions                   are sweeping all
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    a cultural regime

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        at the blink
                                 not go for an Aids
                                                         test, if only to spite                                                                                                                                 duced herself and
                                family doctor. He                                 our                                                                                                                                                     asked me not say                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            them live in                                   winds of change
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            would have my          hoped they would do. Unfortunately, in the real world that is not the case and it is to fly in the face of ghastly                                                                                              devices. Many of                                demonstrates, the                        the whistle on abuse.
                                                                                                              OF TH
                                                       wants to use me as                                                                                                                                      name but to give her
                                guinea pig. When                                 a                                                                                                                                                           my
                                                                                                                                                                                                               name. She was warmly mother’s first
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          as our special report                         silence and blow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      sion and had to receive                              derly people, and the
                                                        I went to him with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 dressed and the to pretend otherwise. So we are going to have to teach people so-called safer sex, we are going
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    put up with it. But,
                                                                                a sore                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              the
                                throat he told me
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              the courage to break
                                                       to go for an Aids test.                                                                                                                                heater in the room
                               when my husband                                      But                                                                                                                                                   was on. I, on the other
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     are gradually finding

                                                        went with the same                                                                                                                                    hand, had on only                                           to have to speak about condoms and seek to make it possible for people to have access
                               plaint, he merely                                   com-                                                                                                                                                 a skirt and blouse
                                                      gave him                                                                                                                                               yet I was sweating.                                  and
                                  Mary, in her mid-fifties prescription.”                                                                                                                                                                 I told her I was hot
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                to reproductive sexual health.” — From a video address on Breaking the Silence,
                                                                                                                                                                                                            she switched off the                                    and
                               daughters at university, and with two                                                                                                                                                                      heater.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         of an eye”
                                                               chose to be neutral.                                                                                                                            “Now I am going to                                                                        at an HIV/AIDS symposium in South Africa
                              “The issue is not knowing                                                                                                                                                                                     ask you some ques-

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    beat                                                                                                                                                                                              stitches. Nevertheless,                              number of pupils drops
                                                                  whether or not                                                                                                                           tions,” she began.
                              you are HIV-positive                                                                                                                                                                                    “If some of them are

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      “How can yousident?”
                                                          but                                                                                                                                             personal you can                                         too
                              worry about too many to live well and not                                                                                                                                   She read something
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    just tell me to skip
                                                            things. Just eat well                                                                                                                                                       that sounded like
                              and look after yourself.                                                                                                                                                                                                           a

                                                             For all we know, we                                                                                                                         charter about confidentiali
                             may all be positive.                                                                                                                                                        tened. All I wanted                    ty. I hardly lis-
                                                       ”                                                                                                                                                                             was for the test to
                                Zenda. my long-time                                                                                                                                                     over and done with.                                     be
                                                            friend from univer-
                             sity and a single mother,

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        le vice-pre                                                                                                                                                                                                   statistics from the same                             dramatically during the
                                                              was more prag-                                                                                                                                I rattled off the answers
                            matic. “Listen,” she                                                                                                                                                        Age: 48. Children:                     to her questions.
                                                       said, “you will go                                                                                                                                                         Three teenagers.
                            the test when the                                 for

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   a who
                                                   time is right. Time                                                                                                                                  partners: One. Method                               Sexual
                            send you. In the meantime,                       will                                                                                                                                                         of protection: Con-
                                                                 make sure you                                                                                                                         doms. Reason for
                           protect yourself. As                                                                                                                                                                                  requesting test: Loss
                                                      for me, I never sleep                                                                                                                            hair and weight. Method                                  of
                           with my boyfriend                                                                                                                                                                                                of coping with                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               debate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               nship sparks a great
                                                                                     OF MY
                                                    without a condom                                                                                                                                   stress: Reading.
                           check physically every                            and I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          in an abusive relatio
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      dispensary indicate that from Jan-       circumcision season.
                                                          time to see that he                                                                                                                             For fear of prolonging
                          wearing one.”                                            is                                                                                                                                                      the interview, I did-
                                                                                                                                                                                                      n’t tell her that my                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          she lived                                                                                              the man become
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 e’s admission that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 SUNDAY TIMES, JOHANNESBURG

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  husband had not                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       by poverty. Should

                              For years, I had looked                                                                                                                                                 condoms twice and                                     used                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          this school of thought,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Specioza Kazibw
                                                             at the HIV/Aids
                          crisis in Zimbabwe                                                                                                                                                                                       I was worried. “Now,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             frustrated, goes                               into
                                                    from a distance –                                                                                                                                 will take a little bit                                     I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            to turn his wife
                         until I came face to
                                                   face with the problem.
                                                                           that is,
                                                                                                                                                                                                     know the results in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 of blood and we will                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               he can be expected
                         My husband of 18
                                                 years suddenly lost                                                                                                                                 counsellor, pricking
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  10 minutes,” said
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        o                                                                                                                                             his punching bag. in Uganda that this
                         his weight towards                                 half                                                                                                                                                   my left thumb. I was                                                                                                                                                                                                                               By Sarah Namulond                                                                                                                                                 And it is not only
                                                                                                                                                                                                     too numb with worry                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     According to the

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      uary to mid-July this year, only six        At the end of the day, it appears,
                                                   the end of 2001. By
                         beginning of 2002,                                 the                                                                                                                                                      to tell her to take                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Ugandan                                                                                                                 philosophy holds.                             Per-
                                                 he was looking ancient.                                                                                                                            from my right thumb,                                      it                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         omen warm to                                                                                                                                                      Population Fund’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     as I am left-handed.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             United Nations

                         And, as if that was
                                                 not enough, he shaved                                                                                                                                 “You can go to the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Vice-President
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Specioza                                                                                                                                             , 32 percent of
                        his head, donned                                                                                                                                                                                           waiting room,” she                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Over                                                                                                               sonalising Population that it is okay
                                               long white garments                                                                                                                                  said, putting the slide                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Wandira Kazibwe. has                                                                                                                                                    say
                        joined one of the many                              and                                                                                                                                                     on a table full of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          she                                                                                                                   Nicaraguan women his wife if he even
                                                       emerging “Glory                                                                                                                              gloves and syringes.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  I said I preferred                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      the past decade,           for                                                                                                                   a husband to beat
                       Alleluia” churches                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             for                                              on
                                                 that go up the hills                                                                                                                              ing where I was. I                                       wait-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         earned a reputation                                                                                                                                                  has been cheating
                       every weekend for                                                                                                                                                           and courage to stand
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              did not have the energy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 rights and defend-                                                                                                                    suspects that she                          d a nor-
                                                all night                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   can be considere

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      of the 33 women who came in for          the battle against female cutting
                          Whenever our teenaged prayers.                                                                                                                                                                          up before I knew                                                                               GHANA                                                                                                                                                 advancing women’s                                                                                                                                               him. “Violence                                 an
                                                            children ex-                                                                                                                           status. Even if I had                                    my                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               institution.                                                                                                                                                     says Alba Alvaro,
                       pressed their concern,                                                                                                                                                                                   wanted to go out,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ing the marriage              been a strong                                                                                                                     mal part of life,”
                                                      he                                                                                                                                          don’t think my body                                     I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    also helps educate
                      portunity to evangelise. took it as an op-                                                                                                                                                                 would have obeyed                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Kazibwe has always                    She has                                                                                                                 obstetrician who about domestic
                                                                                                                                                                                                  It didn’t belong to                                         me.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        mother and wife.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            The Church, condoms
                                                       He closed him-
                      self up in his newfound                                                                                                                                                                                me any longer.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             woman, good                                                                                                                                                     low-income women                        it’s an ex-
                                                      “salvation” and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        of marriage, telling of                                                                                                                                        even think that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        spoken candidly
                      took to chanting lengthy
                     ed by several versions prayers, surround-
                                                     of the Bible.                                                                                                                    I               watched the minutes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                a bed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       that it is not always she once
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        abuse. “Some
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         pression     of love and caring.” percent of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       that 75

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      first deliveries were not circum-         will not be won through the laws of
                                                                                        “would you go for                                                                                                                             tick by on the wall                                                                                                                                                                                                                               roses. Of her own                       rests                                                                                                                       The U.N. estimates                         been
                                                                                                                                                                                                 clock. I looked at the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     “A rose flower                                                                                                                                                         n women have
                                                                                                            an Aids test?”
                                                                                       “Never,” came the                                                                                                                        bit of blood on the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      had this to say:                        its beau-                                                                                                               married Nicaragua sex or abused in
                                                                                                            reply. “I trust my                                                                   slide that would decide                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   but doesn’t lose                                                                                                                                                    into
                         began worrying seriously                                      band completely.                         hus-                                                                                               my fate. I tried not                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  among thorns                                                                                                                                                     beaten, coerced              psychologically.
                                                             at the begin-                                I am the only woman               weight. Sick with
                                                                                                                                                              worry,I                           to think, but I kept                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         have had our struggles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             thinking. “What if...”                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ty or scent. We                                                                                                                                                  some way, including

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              and compassion
                    ning of February.                                                  sleeps with.”                               he                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 and                                                                                                                                                                   is
                                            My hair                                                                                        would read Dickens’                                  had to stop thinking.                                       I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 him I’m your wife                                                                                                                                                 debilitating poverty vi-
                    falling fast. The children was thinning and                          Tall and slim, Jane                               the early hours of
                                                                                                                                                                   Pickwick Papers until                                       I picked up a pamphlet                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     but I always tell                                                                                                                                                   As in Uganda,
                                                      joked about it, say-                                     often dressed in den-                                                            titled Nutrition Guide                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       my husband.”                                                                                                                                                           cause of domestic
                   ing my head was                                                    im jeans and spoke
                                                                                                                                                              the morning. I got
                                                                                                                                                                                     to                                         for People with HIV                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       he knows he is                                                                                                                                                   cited as the major reports that more
                                           now the Kalahari                                                  freely of sex. “David         know Mrs Gamp so                                     and began reading.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 l outspoken manner,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           olence. The UNFPA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               the land. Only a direct appeal to the
                                                                                                                                                                 well that I could even

                   had never had much                              Desert. I         so afraid of Aids that                         is                                                                                       The least I could do                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            In her traditiona
                                                hair. In fact, I was                                           he wouldn’t dare           afford a weak smile                                  prepare myself.                                           was                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       that she had often                                                                                                                                          new jobs means
                   ten referred to in                                   of-          gle ‘it’ anywhere near                       dan-                           now
                                                                                                                                          sunken eyes and cheeks. and then from my                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Kazibwe also said             and the positives                                                                                                                 people and no                               young
                                           Nyanja as uja alibe                                                  another woman,”                                                                   The counsellor returned                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Wandira Kazibwe                                                                       and lots of poor
                  meaning “that one                                  sisi,           said, laughing.                               she    HIV status was taking Ignorance of my                                                        at 9.45am. She                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      weighed the negatives                 the posi-                                 dent Specioza                                                                    creased tension                         on men.
                                             with no hair”, when                                                                                                                               picked up the slide                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              and decided                         Ugandan Vice-Presi                                                      is difficult to guess.                                forced to rely
                  was in secondary                                      I                The crux came in                                                           its
                                                                                                                                         now the perfect picture toll on me. I was                                          and circled something                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          in her marriage                           “Mar-                                                           from the engineer inspired by this                     women who are                              are not
                                           school in Zambia.                                                 May. I fell sick. Despite                                                         on a form. I looked                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              d the negatives.                                                                                                                                                     is that women
                  er the bare patches                               To cov-         no signs of injury,                                                              of misery and could                                   at her anxiously and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            tives outweighe                           de-                                            d, stam-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     She could have
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        been                                    The good news                                the
                                             on my head, I took                                          I was left breathless           not even bear looking                                tried hard to read                By Eunice Menka                                       living with HIV/Aids as immoral.               and, for the moment, our focus is on helping   ly to prevent transmission. About 39 church                                                                                institution,” she                   could   also sing, he stammere                                                      Break the Si-                                      any more and
                  wearing headscarves                                  to           spasms of pain shot                          as                                at myself in the mir-                                  her face. It was complete-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        riage is a good                                                                  d.                                          day theme                           taking this nonsense nmental organisa-
                                              .                                                             through my left leg          ror. So afraid was                                   ly impassive. She                                                                          But the main challenge for health profes-   people living with the disease.”               leaders made the announcement at a work-                                                                                      basic unit of society.”          mered and stammere tune is decidedly               year’s women’s
                                                                                                                                                            I of myself                                                  then came and sat                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  clared. “It is the                                                                                                                   Violence.                   number of non-gover situation is on the

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         At the government’s Tarime Dis-       hearts and minds of communities
                     In March, I started                                           from the base of my                                   my own living nightmare. that I became                                                                     oppo-
                                                                                                                                                                                              site me. “The results CLERGYMEN may have ditched their militant                         sionals and groups working with non-gov-         Health professionals argue, however, that    shop in Kadoma, 140 kilometres southwest of                                                                                       on International                 Two years later,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          the                         lence, Stop Domestic
                 and heart palpitations.
                                              suffering night sweats                                        foot to the hip. I was                                                                                           are negative,” she                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                All this changed                           d to                         say Mukyala Kazibwe                                   however, is that                 tions addressin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  g the
                                                 I would wake up at
                                                                                   partially immobile                                       I had to know my                                  quietly. I looked at                                      said
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                stand over HIV/Aids for a more compassion-            ernmental organisations still remains how to   this stance will not help the country deal     Harare. Zimbabwe is among some of the                                                                                       when she announce an                different. “They                                      What is certain,                       de-                             Domestic Relations
                                                                                                         for days. I hobbled                                  status                                                      her in disbelief. As                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Women’s Day,                                                                                                                    d belief in many
                 midnight drenched.                                                around on my toes                                    tinue living a worthwhile in order to con-           word “negative” finally ate approach, the they are adamantly hold-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  she had been living
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          in                           about our husbands              there is widesprea                                     rise. Uganda’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Parliament and,
                                            To try and steady
                                                                     my                                  and suffered excruciat-                                      life. I made the de-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     but                              convince the churches to embrace condoms       with the rise in HIV/Aids. Over half a million countries worst hit by the pandemic.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             the world that                                         keeps telling us                      are                                  that domestic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               is coming up in
                heartbeat, I would                                                ing pain all night                                    cision one Sunday                                                                       registered, tears of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ip, sparking off
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         an                               for them they                veloping countries Ugandan women                                               women a “bargainin
                                           shut my eyes and
                                                                   medi-                               long. I lost five kilo-                               morning as the church            gratitude welled up                ing on to their opposition to condoms as a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           in eyes. “Thank you,”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      in the fight against the pandemic.              Ghanaians are infected with the virus. It is     But Malawi’s Council of Churches says,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             abusive relationsh                                     who beat us when                    they beat                                                              passed, will give
                tate. The palpitations                                            grammes that week.                                    service was ending.                                  said, looking her in               means of preventing infection.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          I                              Says Samuel Aboagye-Mensah, general         pointless, they say, for churches and faith-   however, that government efforts to promote                                                                                    on domestic violence                               not beaten. No,                   lence is no big
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            , battered women
                tinued for weeks.
                                              and night sweats
                                                                      con-                                                                                    I looked at the time.                                       the face. “You are                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  emotive debate                                         lucky they are             be beaten until
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  I                                 – a lame concept            chip. In the meantime
                                         Frantic by now, I confided                   This is it, I thought.
                                                                                                             I am going to watch        was 10 o’clock. There,                         It   brave to be doing                                       very
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In a communiqué to Vice-President Alui            secretary of the Christian Council of Ghana:   based organisations to speak about morality    condom use are immoral. Augustine Muso-                                                                                         all over East Africa. de-        us. Even   me – I used to                    a     blame it on machismo that decrees,                                            the kind of resources
                                                                                                                                                                 looking at the green                                  this every day.”                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       that had echoes                                                                            she told                               men                             who do not have

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      trict Hospital, 55 percent of women      that practice it will put an end to it
               in Jane, a woman                                                   myself disappear                                     and blue stained glass                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            she                            was enough,”                     embraced by many that women are                                                                 dent can
                                         I met at the city council                                     and become a skeleton.                                                                  “It was also very braveMahama in mid-November, the leaders of                          “There are still grey and unresolved areas     and ignore the condom issue.                   pole, secretary-general of the council, is on                                                                                       years earlier,                decided enough                                                                                                                of the vice-presi
               swimming pool where                                               Too afraid to consult                                 hind the young and
                                                                                                                                                                  church windows be-                                             of you religious
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                major to come,” organisations said they                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Interviewed two                           of be-                          on March 15. “I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         among other things, husbands.                          at the disposal                          Children
                                              I took my 14-year-old                                        a doctor, I had sleep-                                                           she said, smiling.                                                                        which would not make it possible for the         They contend that when churches preach       record accusing the government of Malawi,                                                                                         she now accuses                 women’s meeting                          me,                                                                                 the Women and
               son for lessons. “Jane,”                                          less nights and often                                                       enthusiastic priest,                                     At five minutes to                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        scribing the man                                                           have been beating              the “property”
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           of their                              take refuge at
                                               I began cautiously,                                         woke up to examine          made a vow: I would                           I                                                           10, I left
                                                                                                                                                                                            Wilkins Hospital New would speak more openly about sex from the                           churches to give in to condom use as a means   their anti-condom creed and rail against HIV   which is in the throes of a massive crisis, of                                                                                       as a “real ladies’           Mr Kazibwe, you                                                          no ordinary Ugandan                                    Kampala.
                                                                                 my body to see where                                  by 10 o’clock the next
                                                                                                                                                              know my HIV-status                                             Start Centre. I                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ing a wife batterer,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         and political aide.”                          can you beat a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            But Kazibwe is                                       Crisis Centre in            in other ways
                                                                                                            I had lost the most                                                             walked through the                  pulpit and encourage their leaders to accept          of HIV prevention.”                            prevention programmes that even remotely       encouraging promiscuity by making avail-                                                                                                                           walk out. How                                                                       was least ex-
                                                                                                                                                               day.                                                       waiting room in a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    man, good listener                         of poli-                       I’m  very sorry.”                        and her confession                                Word is spreading                  rs tell
                                                                                                                                          I was surprisingly                               I vaguely saw three                  people livinghaze. HIV/Aids, besides contin-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    with                                 Few people are willing to stir the hornet’s appear to promote condom use, they fail to     able hundreds of thousands of condoms. Ac-                                                                                      her to the centre                  vice-president?                                    woman                   Namakula, a toma-                                     in newspape
              “My husband of 18                                                                                                                               calm as I ran my er-                                       men and a woman                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        He had pushed                                                                    her – but only           pected. Said Hanifa                                     Advertisements
                                  years suddenly lost                                                                                                                                      ing in line to see the                                   wait-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                uing with their messages on abstinence and            nest and the member churches on the coun-      appreciate the fundamental principles of risk  cording to the clergyman, research indicates                                                                                      a glowing interview.                He admitted beatingon each occasion                                                 “If the                               their rights, volunteers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          counsellor.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           tics, she said, in                                                                                        to vendor in a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Kampala slum:                          women about

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      who delivered for the first time last     once and for all.
                                                      half his weight towards                                                                                                                                                   fidelity.                                              cil have settled on activities and education   reduction and health promotion.                that condoms are not 100 percent effective                                                                                               Engineer Kazibwe                               her                                                                     could                                 anti-violence posters
               ancient. And, as if that                                       the end of 2001. By                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sample this: When in her own                        twice. He slapped        and returning             country’s highest
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ranking woman                     make house calls,
                                        was not enough,                                                                                                                                                                             This new position comes as a welcome re-          around abstinence and faithfulness. “Sec-        Some churches have, however, approved        against HIV. His solution? Abstinence and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 wooed her 28 years
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ago,                         for ‘insubordination’                 Kazib-                         about us who
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              have no
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   are plastered up
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         in public restrooms
                          emerging “Glory Alleluia he shaved his head, donned long white the beginning of 2002, he was looking
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              .”                            hours. Engineer                be beaten, how
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                lief for health professionals and other stake-        tions of the Christian community would not     the use of condoms in anti-Aids programmes.    strict monogamy.                                                                                                                 a musical encounter                home in the wee                         his                                                                                      women are speaking
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 words, “It was                              her                           by saying he loved              bargaining power?” about “bargaining                    and high profile                            far-
                                                     ” churches that go up                      garments and joined                                                                                                             holders who have long complained of the at-           understand or accept the condom messages,”     A couple of years ago, six Christian denomi-     The Catholic Church, in turn, has spear-                                                                                           music. He loved                 we capped it all                                                                                                                    ces have been
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 She loved church                       practice                           they would reconcile.              Clearly, it is not
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  all                              out. The consequen
                                                                           the hills every weekend                    one of the many                                                                                           titude of some churches and faith-based or-           says Aboagye-Mensah. “Besides, we are re-      nations in Zimbabwe unequivocally stated       headed a massive international campaign
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  voice. They met
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       during music                      wife and hoped          dent swallowed                                  women’s unequal
                                                                                                   for all night prayers”                                                                                                       ganisations that routinely condemned people           ally doing more to keep the youth occupied     that condoms could be used within the fami-                                 Turn to Page 2                                                                                           in Makerere, Ugan-                Why the vice-presi                              power.” To some,                          ed            reaching.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  at Lumumba Hall . Several days later,                                    came out to talk
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             of the                             men are accentuat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         her words and                                      lationships with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  da’s main university              party she was                         years after she
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        a musical                         abuse several
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   he gatecrashed                           if he
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          she asked him
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   attending. When

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Description: South African Prenuptial Agreements document sample