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					     Promoting Safety and
Presented by,
 Meena Sundari S
 SenthilKumar R B
 Shriti S Nath
 Sreedhevi S R
Health, Safety and Security
     The terms health, safety and security are closely related.


      A general state of physical, mental and emotional well-being.


      Condition in which the physical well-being of people is protected.


      Protection of employees and organizational facilities.
    Importance Of Health And
     Safety In The Workplace
   The elimination, or at least minimization, of health and safety hazards
    and risks is the moral as well as the legal responsibility of employers.
   Ill health and injuries inflicted or caused by the system of work or
    working conditions cause suffering and loss to individuals and their
   Accidents and absences through ill-health or injuries result in losses
    and damage for the organization.
   The business reasons are very much less significant than the human
   An accident is an unplanned
    and uncontrolled event in which
    an action or reaction occurs.

   Industrial Safety or employee
    safety refers to the protection of
    workers from the danger of
    industrial accidents.

   Safety, in simple terms, means
    freedom from the occurrence or
    risk of injury or loss.
Types of Accidents
        Causes of accidents
 Improperly guarded equipment
 Detective equipment
 Hazardous conditions
 Unsafe storage
 Improper illumination
 Improper ventilation

   A thing that is dangerous or cause damage.
        Causes of accidents (contd..)
Work Environment hazard:
1.Working in cold temperatures or handling cold
3.Floor space
5.Cables or air lines
6.Working at heights
7.House keeping
8.Air circulation
11.Dim light
12.Shadow or glare which causes a worker to
    adopt an awkward position to see better
Causes of accidents (contd..)

Electrical Hazards:
1.Energized switch gear/ equipment
2.Energized lines
3.Short circuits
4.Loose connections
5.Open wires
 Causes of accidents (contd..)
Fire & Explosion Hazards:
6.Pressure conduits
8.Dust from milling & sanding operations
Phases of Accident
           Accident Prevention
The prevention of accidents is achieved by

   Identifying the causes of accidents and the conditions under which
    they are most likely to occur.
   Taking account of safety factors at the design stage – building safety
    into the system.
   Designing safety equipment and protective devices and providing
    protective clothing.
   Carrying out regular risk assessments audits, inspections, and checks
    and taking action to eliminate risks.
Accident Prevention (contd..)
   Investigating all accidents resulting in damage to establish the cause
    and to initiate corrective action.
   Maintaining good records and statistics in order to identify problem
    areas and unsatisfactory trends.
   Conducting a continuous programme of education and training on safe
    working habits and methods of avoiding accidents.
   Leadership and motivation – encouraging methods of leadership and
    motivation which that do not place excessive demands on people.
           Occupational Health
   Occupational medicine
          This is a specialized branch of preventive medicine concerned
    with the diagnosis and prevention of health hazards at work and
    dealing with any ill-health or stress which that has occurred in spite of
    preventive actions.

   Occupational Hygiene
         This is the province of the chemist and the engineer or
    ergonomist engaged in the measurement and control of environmental
Who is involved with safety and
   A safe working environment does not just happen; it has to be created.
   Concern for safety should begin at the highest level within the
    organization, and managers and supervisors at all levels should be
    charged with demonstrating safety awareness, held responsible for
    safety training, and rewarded for maintaining a safe workplace.
   HR managers are often responsible for designing and implementing
    safety programs, as well as for training supervisors and managers in
    the administration of workplace safety rules and policies.

Effective safety programs share the following features:
   They include the formation of safety committee and participation by
    all departments within the company.
   They communicate safety with a multimedia approach that includes
    safety lectures,films,posters,pamphlets, and computer presentations.
    Who is involved with safety
      and health? (contd..)
 They instruct supervisors in how to
  communicate, demonstrate, and
  require safety, and they train
  employees in the safe use of
 They use incentives, rewards, and
  positive       reinforcement      to
  encourage safe behavior.
 They use safety directors and /or
  the safety committee to engage in
  regular self inspection and accident
  research to identify potentially
  dangerous situations.
Occupational Safety And Health Act
         of 1970 (OSHA)
    A federal law that requires employers to provide a safe and healthy work
    environment, comply with specific occupational safety and health
    standards, and keep records of occupational injuries and illnesses.

OSHA’s Provisions:
    It imposes three major obligations on employers.
   To provide a safe and healthy work environment
   To comply with specific occupational safety and health standards
   To keep records of occupational injuries and illnesses

Occupational illness:
    Any abnormal condition or disorder caused by exposure to environmental
    factors associated with employment.
      The occupational safety and
         health administration
    The occupational safety and health administration has the primary
    responsibility for enforcing OSHA. It develops

   Occupational standards,
   Grants variances to employers,
   Conducts workplace inspections, and
   Issues citations and penalties.

    Summons informing employees of the regulations and standards that have
    been violated in the workplace.
Responsibilities and rights of employers and employees:

   Employers are responsible for meeting their duty to provide “a workplace
    free from recognized hazards,” for being familiar with mandatory OSHA
    standards, and for examining workplace conditions to make sure they
    conform to applicable standards.
   Employers have the right to seek advice and off-site consultation from
   Employees are responsible for complying with all applicable OSHA
   Employers have the right to demand safety and health on the job without fear
    of punishment.

Other agencies created by OSHA:

   Occupational safety and health review commission (OSHRC)
   National institute for occupational safety and health (NIOSH)
Approaches to Effective Safety
 Organizational response to
     safety and health.
Two kinds of approaches that management possess in maintaining
safety and health are

      1. Minimalist approach to safety and health
               Management complies with the legal requirements
placed upon it by the Occupational Safety and Health Act and other
state and federal regulations.

      2. Proactive approach to safety and health
               The workers represent a valued asset of the organization
and a significant source of the firm’s competitive advantage. As a
result safety and health issues and programs are designed to deal
effectively with them. Management should play five key roles to make
sure these characteristics are followed.
Five Key Roles for proactive

   Leading from the front
   Involving employees
   Analyzing Data
   Motivating safe behavior
   Innovating
    Leading from the front

 Managers must take the initiative in safety and
  health issues.
 Employees must see managers as proactive rather
  than reactive.
 As part of management’s leadership role,
  managers must accept accountability for the
  results of safety and health programs.
         Involving Employees
   One of the most common and effective strategies for
    involving employees is the use of company safety
    committees consisting of management and non
    management employees.
   These committees identify safety hazards and attempt to
    find solutions to resolve a problem.
   They also arrange for training seminars and other activities
    to increase employee awareness of safety.
              Analyzing Data

   A thorough analysis of the health and safety environment
    in the workplace is undertaken.
   Not doing this may lead a firm to “solve the wrong
   Negative results may occur from not analyzing the work
    environment and not encouraging employee participation
    early enough in the process.
      Motivate Safe Behavior
   Motivating safe work behavior in employees is one of the
    key roles of management to develop effective safety and
    health program.
   Five different approaches
         1. Programs that reward results
         2. Programs that recognize results
         3. Programs that reward behavior
         4. Programs that recognize behavior
         5. Programs that focus on expecting behavior

   A key role for management is to be creative in its
    approach to safety and health programs

   Such innovation is likely to be enhanced when
    management and employees work together on
    common problems
Preventive health programs: A wellness
   A company-sponsored program that focuses on preventing health problems in

   As health-care costs have skyrocketed over the last two decades, organizations
   have become more interested in preventive programs. Recognizing that they can
   have an effect on their employees behavior and lifestyle off the job, companies
   are encouraging employees to lead more healthy lives. They are also attempting
   to reduce health care costs through formal employee wellness programs.

A complete wellness program has three components:
 It helps employees identify potential health risks through screening and testing.
 It educates employees about health risks such as high blood pressure, smoking,
   poor diet and stress.
 It encourages employees to change their lifestyles through exercise, good
   nutrition and health monitoring.

   Wellness programs may be as simple and inexpensive as providing information
   about stop smoking clinics and weight loss programs or as comprehensive and
   expensive as providing of professional health screening and multimillion dollar
   fitness facilities.
          Stress Management
 Stress refers to an individuals reaction to a disturbing factor in the
 Stress is defined as an adaptive response to an external situation that
  results in physical. psychological, and/or behavioral deviations for
  organizational participants.

 Organizational stressors
 Group stressors
 Individual stressors
 Stress Management (contd..)
Organizational stressors:
In organizations, frequent causes of stress are
 Task Demands
 Role Demands
 Interpersonal Demands
 Organizational Structure
 Organizational Leadership
 Organizations Lifecycle

Group Stressors:
It can be categorized into three as explained below:
 Lack of group cohesiveness
 Lack of social support
 Interpersonal and inter-group conflicts
    Stress Management (contd..)
Individual Stressors:

   Among individual factors contributing to stress are personality and life
    and career changes. In respect of personality, the distinction between
    Type A and Type B behavior patterns becomes relevant.

   The achievement orientation, impatience and perfectionism of
    individuals with Type A personalities may create stress in work
    circumstances that other persons find relatively stress free. Type A
    personalities, in this sense, bring stress on themselves.

   Type B personality, on the other hand is less stress prone. Life and
    career changes can also be stress producing. Life changes may be slow
    or sudden. These changes have dramatic effect on people. Sudden
    changes are highly stressful.
    Stress Management (contd..)
Environmental Factors:

   Extra organizational factors also contribute to job stress, these factors
    include political, economic and technological uncertainties. These
    factors contribute to stress because of their negative influence on one’s
    job tenure.

Consequences of stress:
     The consequences of over stress are grouped into four categories.
    Individual subjected to excess stress probably will not experience
    consequences in all four categories, since reactions depend on the
    individual, the type of stressor and the amount of stress being
   Psychological Consequences
   Physiological Consequences
   Behavioral Consequences
   Organizational Consequences
    Stress Management (contd..)
The ways in which stress can be managed by an individual include:

   Time management
   Balanced diet
   Physical exercises
   Relaxation
   Yoga

The ways in which stress can be managed by an organization include:

   Job design
   Targets and performance standards
   Placement
   Career development
   Performance management processes
   Counseling
   Management training
        Violence in the workplace
   Violence disrupts productivity, causes untold damage to those exposed, and
    costs employers millions of rupees.
   Organizations should initiate measures to protect employees and physical
    It is important that companies concentrate on avoiding violence rather than
    simply dealing with it after it occurs.

    Violence can take a variety of forms including harassment, threats, assaults and
    Property damage, vandalism               Physical attacks and assaults
    Sabotage                                 Psychological trauma
    Pushing , fist fights                    Anger related accidents
    Major violations of company policy       Rape
    Theft                                    Murder
Violence in the workplace (contd..)
 Who commits acts of violence?
    Violence by strangers
    Violence by customers/clients
    Violence by coworkers
    Violence by personal relations

 Negligent hiring:
     Hiring an employee with a history of violent or illegal behavior
     without conducting background checks or taking proper precautions.
 Dealing with violence at work
 Heightened security measures
 Improved employee screening
 Workplace violence training
 Dealing with angry employees
 Enhanced attention to retaining employees

    Job factors and Organizational factors
    associated with workplace violence and the cost
    of workplace violence
Indoor Environmental Quality
    The Occupational Safety and Health Act was clearly designed to
     protect the health as well as the safety of the employees

    Because of the impact of workplace accidents, managers and
     employees may pay more attention to these kinds of immediate safety
     concerns than to job conditions that are dangerous to their health

    It is essential, therefore , that health hazards be identified and

    Pressure from the federal government and unions, as well as increased
     public concern, has given employers a definite incentive to provide the
     safest and healthiest work environment possible
Indoor Environmental Quality
   General conditions of health with respect to sanitation,
    housekeeping, cleanliness, ventilation, water supply, pest
    control and food handling are important to monitor

   Sealing windows, reducing outside air thus resulting in
    sick buildings phenomenon

   This gives rise to employee complaints such as headaches,
    dizziness, disorientation, fatigue, and eye, ear and throat
Indoor Environmental Quality
    According to the American lung association four basic
    ways to overcome polluted buildings are to

   Eliminate tobacco smoke

   Provide adequate ventilation

   Maintain the ventilating system

   Remove sources of pollution
Indoor Environmental Quality
    Common sources of emissions released by office
   Wet-Process Photocopying Machines
   Computer terminals
   Dry-Process photocopying Machines
   Fax machines
   Laser printers
   Ink/bubble Jet Printers
    Other Health Related Issues
 AIDS and other Blood borne pathogens
 Drugs in the work place
 Psychological health
 Smoking in the workplace
 Musculoskeletal disorder
 Alcoholism and substance abuse
 Burn out

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