Promoting Safety and Health Presented by, Meena Sundari S SenthilKumar R B Shriti S Nath Sreedhevi S R Health, Safety and Security The terms health, safety and security are closely related. Health: A general state of physical, mental and emotional well-being. Safety: Condition in which the physical well-being of people is protected. Security: Protection of employees and organizational facilities. Importance Of Health And Safety In The Workplace The elimination, or at least minimization, of health and safety hazards and risks is the moral as well as the legal responsibility of employers. Ill health and injuries inflicted or caused by the system of work or working conditions cause suffering and loss to individuals and their dependents. Accidents and absences through ill-health or injuries result in losses and damage for the organization. The business reasons are very much less significant than the human reasons. Accident An accident is an unplanned and uncontrolled event in which an action or reaction occurs. Industrial Safety or employee safety refers to the protection of workers from the danger of industrial accidents. Safety, in simple terms, means freedom from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. TYPES OF ACCIDENT Types of Accidents Causes of accidents Improperly guarded equipment Detective equipment Hazardous conditions Unsafe storage Improper illumination Improper ventilation Hazard: A thing that is dangerous or cause damage. Causes of accidents (contd..) Work Environment hazard: 1.Working in cold temperatures or handling cold items 2.Layout 3.Floor space 4.Noise 5.Cables or air lines 6.Working at heights 7.House keeping 8.Air circulation 9.Spillages 10.Humidity 11.Dim light 12.Shadow or glare which causes a worker to adopt an awkward position to see better Causes of accidents (contd..) Electrical Hazards: 1.Energized switch gear/ equipment 2.Energized lines 3.Short circuits 4.Loose connections 5.Open wires Causes of accidents (contd..) Fire & Explosion Hazards: 1.Petrol 2.LPG 3.Varnishes 4.Paints 5.Mists 6.Pressure conduits 7.Solvents 8.Dust from milling & sanding operations Phases of Accident Investigation Accident Prevention The prevention of accidents is achieved by Identifying the causes of accidents and the conditions under which they are most likely to occur. Taking account of safety factors at the design stage – building safety into the system. Designing safety equipment and protective devices and providing protective clothing. Carrying out regular risk assessments audits, inspections, and checks and taking action to eliminate risks. Accident Prevention (contd..) Investigating all accidents resulting in damage to establish the cause and to initiate corrective action. Maintaining good records and statistics in order to identify problem areas and unsatisfactory trends. Conducting a continuous programme of education and training on safe working habits and methods of avoiding accidents. Leadership and motivation – encouraging methods of leadership and motivation which that do not place excessive demands on people. Occupational Health Programmes Occupational medicine This is a specialized branch of preventive medicine concerned with the diagnosis and prevention of health hazards at work and dealing with any ill-health or stress which that has occurred in spite of preventive actions. Occupational Hygiene This is the province of the chemist and the engineer or ergonomist engaged in the measurement and control of environmental hazards. Who is involved with safety and health? A safe working environment does not just happen; it has to be created. Concern for safety should begin at the highest level within the organization, and managers and supervisors at all levels should be charged with demonstrating safety awareness, held responsible for safety training, and rewarded for maintaining a safe workplace. HR managers are often responsible for designing and implementing safety programs, as well as for training supervisors and managers in the administration of workplace safety rules and policies. Effective safety programs share the following features: They include the formation of safety committee and participation by all departments within the company. They communicate safety with a multimedia approach that includes safety lectures,films,posters,pamphlets, and computer presentations. Who is involved with safety and health? (contd..) They instruct supervisors in how to communicate, demonstrate, and require safety, and they train employees in the safe use of equipment. They use incentives, rewards, and positive reinforcement to encourage safe behavior. They use safety directors and /or the safety committee to engage in regular self inspection and accident research to identify potentially dangerous situations. Occupational Safety And Health Act of 1970 (OSHA) A federal law that requires employers to provide a safe and healthy work environment, comply with specific occupational safety and health standards, and keep records of occupational injuries and illnesses. OSHA’s Provisions: It imposes three major obligations on employers. To provide a safe and healthy work environment To comply with specific occupational safety and health standards To keep records of occupational injuries and illnesses Occupational illness: Any abnormal condition or disorder caused by exposure to environmental factors associated with employment. The occupational safety and health administration The occupational safety and health administration has the primary responsibility for enforcing OSHA. It develops Occupational standards, Grants variances to employers, Conducts workplace inspections, and Issues citations and penalties. Citation: Summons informing employees of the regulations and standards that have been violated in the workplace. Responsibilities and rights of employers and employees: Employers are responsible for meeting their duty to provide “a workplace free from recognized hazards,” for being familiar with mandatory OSHA standards, and for examining workplace conditions to make sure they conform to applicable standards. Employers have the right to seek advice and off-site consultation from OSHA. Employees are responsible for complying with all applicable OSHA standards. Employers have the right to demand safety and health on the job without fear of punishment. Other agencies created by OSHA: Occupational safety and health review commission (OSHRC) National institute for occupational safety and health (NIOSH) Approaches to Effective Safety Management Organizational response to safety and health. Two kinds of approaches that management possess in maintaining safety and health are 1. Minimalist approach to safety and health Management complies with the legal requirements placed upon it by the Occupational Safety and Health Act and other state and federal regulations. 2. Proactive approach to safety and health The workers represent a valued asset of the organization and a significant source of the firm’s competitive advantage. As a result safety and health issues and programs are designed to deal effectively with them. Management should play five key roles to make sure these characteristics are followed. Five Key Roles for proactive approach Leading from the front Involving employees Analyzing Data Motivating safe behavior Innovating Leading from the front Managers must take the initiative in safety and health issues. Employees must see managers as proactive rather than reactive. As part of management’s leadership role, managers must accept accountability for the results of safety and health programs. Involving Employees One of the most common and effective strategies for involving employees is the use of company safety committees consisting of management and non management employees. These committees identify safety hazards and attempt to find solutions to resolve a problem. They also arrange for training seminars and other activities to increase employee awareness of safety. Analyzing Data A thorough analysis of the health and safety environment in the workplace is undertaken. Not doing this may lead a firm to “solve the wrong problem” Negative results may occur from not analyzing the work environment and not encouraging employee participation early enough in the process. Motivate Safe Behavior Motivating safe work behavior in employees is one of the key roles of management to develop effective safety and health program. Five different approaches 1. Programs that reward results 2. Programs that recognize results 3. Programs that reward behavior 4. Programs that recognize behavior 5. Programs that focus on expecting behavior Innovating A key role for management is to be creative in its approach to safety and health programs Such innovation is likely to be enhanced when management and employees work together on common problems Preventive health programs: A wellness approach A company-sponsored program that focuses on preventing health problems in employees. As health-care costs have skyrocketed over the last two decades, organizations have become more interested in preventive programs. Recognizing that they can have an effect on their employees behavior and lifestyle off the job, companies are encouraging employees to lead more healthy lives. They are also attempting to reduce health care costs through formal employee wellness programs. A complete wellness program has three components: It helps employees identify potential health risks through screening and testing. It educates employees about health risks such as high blood pressure, smoking, poor diet and stress. It encourages employees to change their lifestyles through exercise, good nutrition and health monitoring. Wellness programs may be as simple and inexpensive as providing information about stop smoking clinics and weight loss programs or as comprehensive and expensive as providing of professional health screening and multimillion dollar fitness facilities. Stress Management STRESS: Stress refers to an individuals reaction to a disturbing factor in the environment. Stress is defined as an adaptive response to an external situation that results in physical. psychological, and/or behavioral deviations for organizational participants. SOURCES OF STRESS: Organizational stressors Group stressors Individual stressors Stress Management (contd..) Organizational stressors: In organizations, frequent causes of stress are Task Demands Role Demands Interpersonal Demands Organizational Structure Organizational Leadership Organizations Lifecycle Group Stressors: It can be categorized into three as explained below: Lack of group cohesiveness Lack of social support Interpersonal and inter-group conflicts Stress Management (contd..) Individual Stressors: Among individual factors contributing to stress are personality and life and career changes. In respect of personality, the distinction between Type A and Type B behavior patterns becomes relevant. The achievement orientation, impatience and perfectionism of individuals with Type A personalities may create stress in work circumstances that other persons find relatively stress free. Type A personalities, in this sense, bring stress on themselves. Type B personality, on the other hand is less stress prone. Life and career changes can also be stress producing. Life changes may be slow or sudden. These changes have dramatic effect on people. Sudden changes are highly stressful. Stress Management (contd..) Environmental Factors: Extra organizational factors also contribute to job stress, these factors include political, economic and technological uncertainties. These factors contribute to stress because of their negative influence on one’s job tenure. Consequences of stress: The consequences of over stress are grouped into four categories. Individual subjected to excess stress probably will not experience consequences in all four categories, since reactions depend on the individual, the type of stressor and the amount of stress being experienced. Psychological Consequences Physiological Consequences Behavioral Consequences Organizational Consequences Stress Management (contd..) The ways in which stress can be managed by an individual include: Time management Balanced diet Physical exercises Relaxation Yoga The ways in which stress can be managed by an organization include: Job design Targets and performance standards Placement Career development Performance management processes Counseling Management training Violence in the workplace Violence disrupts productivity, causes untold damage to those exposed, and costs employers millions of rupees. Organizations should initiate measures to protect employees and physical resources. It is important that companies concentrate on avoiding violence rather than simply dealing with it after it occurs. Violence can take a variety of forms including harassment, threats, assaults and sabotage. MODERATELY INJURIOUS HIGHLY INJURIOUS Property damage, vandalism Physical attacks and assaults Sabotage Psychological trauma Pushing , fist fights Anger related accidents Major violations of company policy Rape Theft Murder Violence in the workplace (contd..) Who commits acts of violence? Violence by strangers Violence by customers/clients Violence by coworkers Violence by personal relations Negligent hiring: Hiring an employee with a history of violent or illegal behavior without conducting background checks or taking proper precautions. Dealing with violence at work Heightened security measures Improved employee screening Workplace violence training Dealing with angry employees Enhanced attention to retaining employees Job factors and Organizational factors associated with workplace violence and the cost of workplace violence Indoor Environmental Quality The Occupational Safety and Health Act was clearly designed to protect the health as well as the safety of the employees Because of the impact of workplace accidents, managers and employees may pay more attention to these kinds of immediate safety concerns than to job conditions that are dangerous to their health It is essential, therefore , that health hazards be identified and controlled Pressure from the federal government and unions, as well as increased public concern, has given employers a definite incentive to provide the safest and healthiest work environment possible Indoor Environmental Quality (Contd..) General conditions of health with respect to sanitation, housekeeping, cleanliness, ventilation, water supply, pest control and food handling are important to monitor Sealing windows, reducing outside air thus resulting in sick buildings phenomenon This gives rise to employee complaints such as headaches, dizziness, disorientation, fatigue, and eye, ear and throat irritation Indoor Environmental Quality (Contd..) According to the American lung association four basic ways to overcome polluted buildings are to Eliminate tobacco smoke Provide adequate ventilation Maintain the ventilating system Remove sources of pollution Indoor Environmental Quality (Contd..) Common sources of emissions released by office equipment Wet-Process Photocopying Machines Computer terminals Dry-Process photocopying Machines Fax machines Laser printers Ink/bubble Jet Printers Other Health Related Issues AIDS and other Blood borne pathogens Drugs in the work place Psychological health Smoking in the workplace Musculoskeletal disorder Alcoholism and substance abuse Burn out LET US NOW WATCH A VIDEO TO UNDERSTAND SAFETY AND HEALTH BETTER THANK YOU!