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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Retirement Retirement Finance Financial regulation Finance designations Accounting scandals History of finance Stock market bubble Recession Stock market crash History of private equity Retirement is the point where a person stops employment completely.[1][2] A person may also semi-retire and keep some sort of retirement job, out of choice rather than necessity. This usually happens upon reaching a determined age, when physical conditions don’t allow the person to work any more (by illness or accident), or even for personal choice (usually in the presence of an adequate pension or personal savings). The retirement with a pension is considered a right of the worker in many societies, and hard ideological, social, cultural and political battles have been fought over whether this is a right. In many western countries this right is mentioned in national constitutions. Financial markets Bond market Stock (Equities) Market Forex market Derivatives market Commodity market Money market Spot (cash) Market OTC market Real Estate market Private equity Market participants Investors Speculators Institutional Investors Corporate finance Structured finance Capital budgeting Financial risk management Mergers and Acquisitions Accounting Financial Statements Auditing Credit rating agency Leveraged buyout Venture capital Personal finance Credit and Debt Employment contract Retirement Financial planning Public finance Tax Banks and banking Fractional-reserve banking Central Bank List of banks Deposits Loan Money supply Retirement age In most countries, the idea of a fixed retirement age is of recent origin, being introduced during the 19th and 20th centuries. Previously, the absence of pension arrangements meant that most workers continued to work until death, or relied on personal savings or the support of family or friends. Nowadays most developed nations have systems to provide pensions on retirement in old age, which may be sponsored by employers or the state. In many poorer countries, support for the old is still mainly provided through the family. The retirement age varies from country to country but it is generally between 55 and 70. In some countries this age is different for males and females. Sometimes certain jobs, the most dangerous or fatiguing ones in particular, have an earlier retirement age. In the United States, while most view 65 as normal retirement age, many retire before then, sometimes with contributory causes 1 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia such as job-loss, disability or wealth. However, the Old Age Survivors Insurance or OASI, better known as the Social Security system has age 62 as the earliest retirement age. Normal retirement age for Social Security has historically been age 65 to receive unreduced benefits, but it is gradually increasing to age 67. For those turning 65 in the year 2008 full benefits will be payable beginning at age 66. [3] Police officers in the United States are typically allowed to retire at half pay after only 20 years of service or three-quarter pay after 30 years, allowing people to retire in their early forties or fifties.[4] In 2007, retirement age for teachers in France is thirty eight years after employment and age 50 for train engineers [5] on the SNCF, the national railway. Many politicians, doctors, scientists, lawyers, television anchors, and professors still work well into their 70s, however some actors, models, athletes, and musicians only work until their 30s. Military members of the US Armed Forces may elect to retire after 20 years of active duty. Their retirement pay (not a pension since they can be involuntarily called back to active duty at any time) is calculated on total number of years on active duty, their final pay grade and the retirement system in place when they entered service. Allowances such as housing and subsistence are not used to calculate a member’s retired pay. Members awarded the Medal of Honor qualify for a separate stipend, regardless of the years of service. Military members in the reserve and US National Guard have their retirement based on a point system. Retirement about the retirement age. The state might be interested in a later retirement age for economic reasons. The cost of health care in retirement is large, because people tend to be ill more frequently in later life. Increasing numbers of older people, combined with an increase in the cost of healthcare, has led to the funding of post-retirement health care becoming a political issue. There is then pressure to reform healthcare systems to contain costs, or find new sources of funding. On a personal level, the rising cost of living during retirement is a serious concern to many older adults. Retirement calculators Retirement calculators generally accumulate a proportion of salary up to retirement age, as illustrated in the clickable ’nut accumulation’ example on the left. This shows a straightforward case which nonetheless could be practically useful for optimistic people hoping to work for only as long as they are likely to be retired: more information about this is at retirement calcs Support and funds Retired workers then support themselves either through pensions or savings. In most cases the money is provided by the government, but sometimes granted only by private subscriptions to mutual funds. In this latter case, subscriptions might be compulsory or voluntary. In some countries an additional "bonus" is granted una tantum (once only) in proportion to the years of work and the average wages; this is usually provided by the employer. The financial weight of provision of pensions on a government’s budget is often heavy and is the reason for political debates For more complicated situations, there are several online retirement calculators on the Internet. Many retirement calculators project how much an investor needs to save, and for how long, to provide a certain level of retirement expenditures. Some retirement calculators, appropriate for safe investments, assume a constant, unvarying rate of return. Monte Carlo retirement calculators take 2 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia volatility into account, and project the probability that a particular plan of retirement savings, investments and expenditures will outlast the retiree. Retirement calculators vary in the extent to which they take taxes, social security, pensions, and other sources of retirement income and expenditures into account. The assumptions keyed into a retirement calculator are critical. One of the most important assumptions is the assumed rate of real (after inflation) investment return. A conservative return estimate could be based on the real yield of inflation indexed bonds offered by some governments, including the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. The TIP$TER retirement calculator projects the retirement expenditures that a portfolio of inflation-linked bonds, coupled with other income sources like Social Security, would be able to sustain. Current real yields on United States Treasury Inflation Protected Securities (TIPS) are available at the US Treasury site. Current real yields on Canadian ’Real Return Bonds’ are available at the Bank of Canada’s site. As of mid-October, 2008, US Treasury inflation-linked bonds (TIPS) were yielding about 2.5%-3% real per annum. Retirement 40 years of saving 33.33% of pay we have accumulated assets of 13.33 years of pay, as in the graph. In the graph to the right, the lines are straight, which is appropriate given the assumption of a zero real investment return. The lines would be curved if one assumed a non-zero real investment return. The graph above can be compared with those generated by many retirement calculators. However, most retirement calculators use nominal (not ’real’ dollars), and therefore require a projection of both the expected inflation rate and the expected nominal rate of return. One way to work around this limitation is to, for example, enter ’0% return, 0% inflation’ inputs into the calculator. The Bloomberg retirement calculator gives the flexibility to specify, for example, zero inflation and zero investment return and to reproduce the graph above. The MSN retirement calculator in 2008 cannot be changed from an assumed 3% per annum inflation rate, so one would set an investment return assumption of 3%. Ignoring tax, someone wishing to work for a year and to then relax for a year on the same living standard needs to save 50% of pay. Similarly, someone wishing to work from age 25 to 55 and to be retired for 30 years till 85 needs to save 50% of pay if government and employment pensions are not a factor, and if it is considered appropriate to assume a zero real investment return. The problem that the lifespan is not known in advance can be reduced in some countries by the purchase at retirement of an inflation-indexed life annuity. Retirement calculations Many individuals use ’retirement calculators’ on the Internet to determine the proportion of their pay which they should be saving in a tax advantaged-plan (eg IRA or 401-K in the US, RRSP in Canada, personal pension in the UK). After expenses and any taxes, a reasonable (though arguably pessimistic) long-term assumption for a safe real rate of return is zero. So in real terms, interest doesn’t help the savings grow. Each year of work must pay its share of a year of retirement. For someone planning to work for 40 years and to be retired for 20 years, each year of work pays for itself and for half a year of retirement. Hence 33.33% of pay must be saved and 66.67% can be spent when earned. After For most people, employer pensions, government pensions and the tax situation in their country are important factors, typically taken account of in calculations by actuaries. Ignoring those significant nation-specific factors but not necessarily assuming zero real interest rates, a ’not to be relied upon’ calculation of required personal savings rate zprop can be made using a little mathematics. [6]It helps to have a dimly-remembered acquaintance with geometric series, maybe in the form 1+r+r2+ r3 + + r n-1 = (1-rn)/(1-r) You work for w years, saving a proportion zprop of pay at the end of each year. So the after-savings purchasing power is (1-zprop) of 3 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia pay while you are working. You need a pension for p years. Let’s say that at retirement you are earning S per year and require to replace a ratio Rrepl of your pre-retirement living standard. So you need a pension of (1 – zprop ) Rrepl S, indexed to price inflation. Let’s assume that the investments, after price inflation fprice, earn a real rate ireal in real terms where (1+ ireal ) = ((1+inominal))/((1+fprice ) ) (Ret-01) Let’s assume that the investments, after wage inflation fpay, earn a real rate i rel to pay where (1+ i rel to pay ) = ((1+inominal))/((1+fpay ) ) (Ret-02) Retirement pensions that are available. It is common to not include any house value in the calculation of this necessary lump sum, so for a homeowner the lump sum pays primarily for non-housing living costs. Size of lump sum saved Will you have saved enough at retirement? Use our necessary but unrealistic assumption of a constant after-pay-rises rate of interest. At retirement you have accumulated zprop S {(1+ i rel to pay )w-1+(1+ i rel to pay )w-2 +… ….+ (1+ i rel to pay )+ 1 } = zprop S ((1+i rel to pay)w- 1)/i rel to pay Size of lump sum you need: Is a million enough? To pay for your pension, assumed for simplicity to be received at the end of each year, and taking discounted values in the manner of a net present value calculation, you need a lump sum available at retirement of: (1 – zprop ) R repl S {(1+ ireal ) -1+(1+ ireal ) -2 +… ….+ (1+ ireal ) -p} = (1-zprop ) R repl S {(1 – (1+ireal)-p )/ireal} Above we have used the standard mathematical formula for the sum of a geometric series. (Or if ireal =0 then the series in curly parentheses sums to p since it then has p equal terms). As an example, assume that S=60,000 per year and that it is desired to replace Rrepl=0.80, or 80%, of pre-retirement living standard for p=30 years. Assume for current purposes that a proportion z prop=0.25 (25%) of pay was being saved. Using ireal=0.02, or 2% per year real return on investments, the necessary lump sum is given by the formula as (1-0.25)*0.80*60,000*annuity-seriessum(30)=36,000*22.396=806,272 in the nation’s currency in 2008-2010 terms. To allow for inflation in a straighforward way, it is best to talk of the 806,272 as being ’13.43 years of retirement age salary’. It may be appropriate to regard this as being the necessary lump sum to fund 36,000 of annual supplements to any employer or government Equate and derive necessary saving proportion To make the accumulation match with the lump sum needed to pay your pension: zprop S (((1+i rel to pay )) w - 1)/i rel to pay = (1-zprop ) R repl S (1 – ((1+i real)) -p )/i real Bring zprop to the left hand side to give our answer, under this rough and unguaranteed method, for the proportion of pay that we should be saving: zprop = R repl (1 – ((1+i real )) -p )/i real / [(((1+i rel to pay )) w - 1)/i rel to pay + R repl (1 – ((1+i real )) -p )/i real ] (Ret-03) You are encouraged to download the useat-your-own-financial-risk spreadsheet. The results in the spreadsheet can be seen to make sense. For example, working for 5 years and drawing a pension for 5 years requires you to save almost half your pay, with interest helping only a little. Note that the special case i rel to pay =0 = i real means that we instead sum the geometric series by noting that we have p or w identical terms and hence z prop = p/(w+p). This corresponds to our graph above with the straight line real-terms accumulation. Sample Results The result for the necessary zprop given by (Ret-03) depends critically on the assumptions that you make. As an example, you might assume that price inflation will be 3.5% per year forever and that your pay will 4 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia increase only at that same rate of 3.5%. If you assume a 4.5% per year nominal rate of interest, then (using 1.045/1.035 in real terms ) your pre-retirement and post-retirement net interest rates are the same, irel to pay = 0.966 percent per year and ireal = 0.966 percent per year. These assumptions may be reasonable in view of the market returns available on inflation-indexed bonds, after expenses and any tax. Equation (Ret-03) is readily coded in Excel and with these assumptions gives the required savings rates in the accompanying picture. Retirement employment before retirement age as part of the employer’s labor force rationalization. In this case, a monetary inducement may be involved. Savings needed for early retirement While conventional wisdom has it that one can retire and take 7% or more out of a portfolio year after year, this would not have worked very often in the past.[9] [10] When making periodic inflation-adjusted withdrawals from retirement savings,[11] can make meaningless many assumptions that are based on long term average investment returns. Proportion of pay to save The chart at the right shows the year-to-year portfolio balances after taking $35,000 (and adjusting for inflation) from a $750,000 portfolio every year for 30 years, starting in 1973 (red line), 1974 (blue line), or 1975 (green line).[12] While the overall market conditions and inflation affected all three about the same (since all three experienced the exact same conditions between 1975 and 2003), the chance of making the funds last for 30 years depended heavily on what happened to the stock market in the first few years. Those contemplating early retirement will want to know if they have enough to survive possible bear markets such as the one that sent the 1973 retiree back to work after 20 years. The history of the US stock market shows that one would need to live on about 4% of the initial portfolio per year to ensure that the portfolio is not depleted before the end of the retirement. [13] This allows for increasing the withdrawals with inflation to maintain a consistent spending ability throughout the retirement, and to continue making withdrawals even in dramatic and prolonged bear markets.[14] (The 4% figure does not assume any Monte Carlo: Better allowance for randomness Finally, a newer method for determining the adequacy of a retirement plan is Monte Carlo Simulation. This method has been gaining popularity and is now employed by many financial planners.[7] A Monte Carlo retirement calculator [8] allows users to enter savings, income and expense information and run simulations of retirement scenarios. The simulation results show the probability that the retirement plan will be successful. Early retirement Early retirement can be at any age, but is generally before the age (or tenure) needed for eligibility for support and funds from government or employer-provided sources. Thus, early-retirees rely on their own savings and investments to be initially self-supporting, until they start receiving such external support. Early retirement is also a euphemistic term for accepting termination of 5 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia pension or change in spending levels throughout the retirement.) When retiring prior to age 59 1/2, there is a 10% IRS penalty on withdrawals from a retirement plan such as a 401(k) plan or a Traditional IRA. Exceptions apply under certain circumstances. At age 59 and six months, the penalty-free status is achieved and the 10% IRS penalty no longer applies. To avoid the 10% penalty prior to age 59 1/2 a person should consult a lawyer about the use of IRS rule 72 T. This rule must be applied for with the IRS. It allows the distribution of a IRA account prior to age 59 1/2 in equal amounts of a period of either 5 years or until the age of 59 1/2 which ever is the longest time period without a 10% penalty. Taxes still must be paid on the distributions. Retirement Life after retirement Retirement might coincide with important life changes; a retired worker might move to a new location, for example a retirement community, thereby having less frequent contact with their previous social context and adopting a new lifestyle. Often retirees volunteer for charities and other community organisations. Tourism is a common marker of retirement and for some becomes a way of life, such as for so called grey nomads.Often retirees are called upon to care for grandchildren and occasionally aged parents. For many it gives them the more time to devote to a hobby or sport such as golf or sailing. On the other hand, many retirees feel restless and suffer from depression as a result of their new situation. Either because of the sudden increase in free time, or because of a decline in their personal health, the newly retired are one of the most vulnerable societal groups when it comes to depression.[17] In some countries, retired workers will continue to participate in the life of their family and their society, often following ancient ethnic roles. Some countries are sponsoring initiatives to help retired workers keep contributing to social and cultural life. Many people in the later years of their lives, due to failing health, require assistance, the highest degree of assistance - in some countries - being provided in a nursing home. Those who need care, but are not in need of constant assistance, may choose to live in a retirement home. This is a facility giving the retired person some degree of freedom, yet with close-by medical assistance to handle emergencies. Retirement ceases if the retiree decides to go back to work. A retiree may go back to work for a number of reasons, ranging from financial hardship, to the simple desire for activity or new social interactions. New careers where the ’retired’ return to work is an increasing phenomenon in Industrialised countries where inflation has reduced the value of available Pension income below that required to maintain a reasonable standard of living. Many corporations are now explicitly recruiting retired workers for their experience, attitude and loyalty. Old-age pensions are usually not reduced because of other income, so the latter comes Calculations using actual numbers Although the 4% initial portfolio withdrawal rate described above can be used as a rough gauge, it is often desirable to use a retirement planning tool that accepts detailed input and can render a result that has more precision. Some of these tools model only the retirement phase of the plan while others can model both the savings or accumulation phase as well as the retirement phase of the plan. The effects of making inflation-adjusted withdrawals from a given starting portfolio can be modeled with a downloadable spreadsheet [15] that uses historical stock market data to estimate likely portfolio returns. Another approach is to employ a retirement calculator [16] that also uses historical stock market modeling, but adds provisions for incorporating pensions, other retirement income, and changes in spending that may occur during the course of the retirement. Population aged at least 65 years in 2005 6 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia on top of the former. This may be different in the case of a disability pension. Retirement [15] http://retireearlyhomepage.com/ re60.html downloadable spreadsheet [16] FIRECalc: A different kind of retirement calculator [17] http://www.retirementjoy.com/ avoiding depression after retirement See also • • • • • • Pension AARP Ageing Mandatory retirement Gerontology Social security External links • "Historical Development", Social Security Administration • "Economic History of Retirement in the U.S.", Eh.net • TIP$TER retirement calculator, asset allocation planner, and Monte Carlo simulator • Retirement planning calculator, MSN Money • "Struggling with retirement",Time magazine • "Brain Health Roadmap", a joint venture by the CDC and Alzheimer’s Association • "Building the best retirement plan", BusinessWeek, July 19, 1999 • "The Unretired" - HONOLULU Magazine ~ November 2006 • "Boomers Not Saving Adequately for Retirement", "Greater Boston" show with Emily Rooney, WGBH TV, Boston, Massachusetts, aired on August 6, 2007. • Working past retirement age in the UK • Women Heading into Retirement Face Bigger Obstacles, summary of study conducted by Hewitt Associates about factors affecting women’s retirement readiness in the US. • Medicare Rights Center — Education and advocacy organization. • Medicare Interactive — Online Medicare reference guide created by the Medicare Rights Center. References [1] "Retire: To withdraw from one’s occupation, business, or office; stop working." American Heritage Dictionary [2] "Retire: Leave one’s job and cease to work, especially because one has reached a particular age. Compact Oxford Dictionary [3] Normal retirement age (NRA) [4] Michael Bucci (November 1992). "Police and firefighter pension plans". Monthly Labor Review 115 (11). http://findarticles.com/p/articles/ mi_m1153/is_n11_v115/ai_13262436. Retrieved on 2007-08-03. [5] Strikes focus on earlier retirement [6] Broverman, Samuel A., Mathematics of Investment and Credit, 3rd. Edition, Section 2.3.1 Actex Publications, Inc, Winsted CT, (2004) [7] A SURE BET? (Wealth Manager) [8] Online Monte Carlo Retirement Planner [9] Getting Going - WSJ.com [10] SC:Lynch #2 [11] http://firecalc.com/intro.php volatility [12] FIRECalc: Why another retirement calculator? [13] Dallas Morning News | News for Dallas, Texas | Scott Burns: Columns 2006 [14] Retire Early’s Safe Withdrawal Rates in Retirement Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retirement" Categories: Termination of employment, Retirement, Aging This page was last modified on 16 May 2009, at 21:03 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers 7