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Motorcycle

Motorcycle

A pair of motorcycles packed for touring A motorcycle (also called a motorbicycle, motorbike, bike, or cycle) is a singletrack,[1] two-wheeled[2] motor vehicle powered by an engine. Motorcycles vary considerably depending on the task for which they are designed, such as long distance travel, navigating congested urban traffic, cruising, sport and racing, or off-road conditions. Being the most affordable form of motorised transport, in some parts of the world they are also the most widespread (e.g., Vietnam).[3][4][5]

A 1913 Fabrique National in-line four with shaft drive from Belgium Arguably, the first motorcycle was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt (since 1905 a city district of Stuttgart) in 1885.[6] The first petroleum-powered vehicle was essentially a motorised bicycle, although the inventors called their invention the Reitwagen ("riding car"). However, if a twowheeled vehicle with steam propulsion is considered a motorcycle, then the first one may have been American. One such machine was demonstrated at fairs and circuses in the eastern U.S. in 1867, built by Sylvester Howard Roper of Roxbury, Massachusetts.[6]

History

A pre-war Polish Sokół 1000 In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first motorcycle available for purchase.[7] In the early period of motorcycle history, many producers of bicycles adapted their designs to accommodate the new internal

Replica of the Daimler-Maybach Reitwagen

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combustion engine. As the engines became more powerful and designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle producers increased.

Motorcycle

A 2005 Triumph Daytona 955i An historic 1941 Crocker Until the First World War, the largest motorcycle manufacturer in the world was Indian, producing over 20,000 bikes per year. By 1920, this honour went to Harley-Davidson, with their motorcycles being sold by dealers in 67 countries. In 1928, DKW took over as the largest manufacturer. After the Second World War, the BSA Group became the largest producer of motorcycles in the world, producing up to 75,000 bikes per year in the 1950s. The German company NSU Motorenwerke AG held the position of largest manufacturer from 1955 until the 1970s. advanced design, but after the deaths of four NSU riders in the 1954–1956 seasons, they abandoned further development and quit Grand Prix motorcycle racing.[9] Moto-Guzzi produced competitive race machines, and by 1957 nearly all the Grand Prix races were being won by streamlined machines. The following year, 1958, full enclosure fairings were banned from racing by the FIM in the light of the safety concerns. From the 1960s through the 1990s, small two-stroke motorcycles were popular worldwide, partly as a result of East German Walter Kaaden’s engine work in the 1950s.[10] Today, the Japanese manufacturers, Honda, Kawasaki, Suzuki, and Yamaha dominate the motorcycle industry, although Harley-Davidson and BMW continue to be popular and supply considerable markets. Other major manufacturers include the Piaggio group of Italy, KTM, Triumph, Aprilia, Moto-Guzzi, MV Agusta and Ducati. In overall numbers the Chinese currently manufacture and sell more motorcycles than any other country and exports are rising. In addition to the large capacity motorcycles, there is an enormous market in smaller capacity (less than 300 cc) motorcycles, mostly concentrated in Asian and African countries. The growth in this market is popularly thought to have started with the 1958 Honda Super Cub, which went on to become the biggest selling vehicle of all time, 60 millionth unit produced in April 2008.[11]

NSU Sportmax streamlined motorcycle, 250 cc class winner of the 1955 Grand Prix season In the 1950s, streamlining began to play an increasing part in the development of racing motorcycles and the "dustbin fairing" held out the possibility of radical changes to motorcycle design. NSU and Moto-Guzzi were in the vanguard of this development both producing very radical designs well ahead of their time.[8] NSU produced the most

Technical aspects

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Motorcycle
50 cc Scooter.[14] A specially designed Matzu Matsuzawa Honda XL125 achieved 470 mpg(0.50 L/100 km; 560 mpg-imp) "on real US highways - in real conditions."[15] Due to lower engine displacements (100 cc–200 cc), motorcycles in developing countries offer good fuel economy. In the Indian market, the second most selling company, Bajaj, offers two models with superior fuel economy: XCD 125 and Platina. Both are 125 cc motorbikes with a company-claimed fuel economy of 109 km/l and 111 km/l, respectively.

A Suzuki GS500 with a clearly visible frame (painted silver).

Electric motorcycles
Very high fuel economy equivalents can be derived by electric motorcycles. Electric motorcycles are nearly silent, zero-emission electric motor-driven vehicles. Operating range and top speed suffer because of limitations of battery technology. Fuel cells and petroleum-electric hybrids are also under development to extend the range and improve performance of the electric motors.

Construction
Motorcycle construction is the engineering, manufacturing, and assembly of components and systems for a motorcycle which results in performance, cost and aesthetics desired by the designer. With some exceptions, construction of modern mass-produced motorcycles has standardised on a steel or aluminium frame, telescopic forks holding the front wheel, and disc brakes. Some other body parts, designed for either aesthetic or performance reasons may be added. A petrol powered engine typically consisting of between one and four cylinders (and less commonly, up to eight cylinders) coupled to a manual five- or six-speed sequential transmission drives the swingarm-mounted rear wheel by a chain, driveshaft or belt.

Dynamics

Fuel economy
Motorcycle fuel economy benefits from the relatively small mass of the vehicle. This, of course, relates to how the motorcycle is used. One person on a small motorcycle travelling a short distance is generally very economical. However, a large motorcycle generally has bad aerodynamics compared with a typical car, poor aerodynamics of exposed passengers and engines designed for goals other than fuel economy can work to reduce these benefits. Riding style has a large effect on fuel economy. Fuel economy varies greatly with engine displacement and riding style[12] ranging from a low of 29 mpg-US (8.1 L/100 km; 35 mpg-imp) reported by a Honda VTR1000F rider,[13] to 107 mpg-US (2.20 L/100 km; 129 mpg-imp) reported for the Verucci Nitro Racing motorcycles leaning in a turn. Different types of motorcycles have different dynamics and these play a role in how a motorcycle performs in given conditions. For example, a shorter wheelbase would generally make a bike lean faster and would be quicker around corners compared to a longer wheelbase. Longer wheelbase on the other hand provides more stability in a straight line.[16] Motorcycle tyres have a large influence over handling. Motorcycles must be leaned in order to make turns. This lean is induced by the method known as countersteering, in which the rider steers the handlebars in the direction opposite of the desired turn. Because it is

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counter-intuitive this practice is often very confusing to novices—and even to many experienced motorcyclists.[17] Short wheelbase motorcycles, such as sport bikes, can generate enough torque at the rear wheel, and enough stopping force at the front wheel, to lift the opposite wheel off the pavement. These actions, if performed on purpose, are known as wheelies and stoppies respectively. If carried past the point of recovery the resulting upset is known as "looping" the vehicle.

Motorcycle

Accessories
Various features and accessories may be attached to a motorcycle either as OEM (factory-fitted) or after-market. Aerodynamic sports fairing on a Honda CBR1000F Windscreen Also called windshields or screens, windscreens can be built into a fairing or be attached to an otherwise unfaired bike. They are usually made from transparent high-impact acrylic plastic. They may be shaped specifically to direct air flow over or around the head of the rider even if they are much shorter than the seated rider. The latest variation, introduced on the 1986 BMW K100LT, is electrically controlled height adjustment. Touring fairing on a Honda Gold Wing Fairing The most prominent of the plastic or fibreglass shells covering parts of the motorcycle is the "fairing". In practice, this may blend almost seamlessly with engine panels or wheel covers/mudguards (which in some cases will be painted or plated metal). These systems act to protect the rider from some or all of the weather, may improve aerodynamics (reducing drag), and are an important styling element. Modern fairings, mostly designed specifically for each motorcycle and fitted as original equipment by the manufacturer, have eliminated the aerodynamic and structural failings of early add-on fairings. Both sports and tourer versions improve (sometimes very considerably) the rider’s comfort in cold and wet weather and even "bikini" versions protect the vulnerable crotch region from water ingress.

1950s fibreglass side-loading "Golden Arrow" panniers from Craven. Panniers can be "hard" or "soft". Saddlebags or panniers Saddlebags or panniers mount on either side of the rear of the motorcycle roughly beside (but not interfering with) the pillion passenger. "Hard" panniers commonly come in an injection moulded plastic such as ABS, and "soft" panniers come in some form of textile (eg Cordura) or leather. Panniers are nearly always detachable and often lockable, both of

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their mountings and their closure. Side-loading panniers are especially suitable for carefully packed clothing and taking into hotel rooms (like a suitcase), while top-loading hard panniers are preferred by other users. Utility top-loading soft panniers often come in a "throw-over" form without mountings or fixings, perhaps safely held in place under the rider or pillion - or simply loose. Modern touring motorcycles often have panniers fitted as standard or they may be available as options on particular models. But most panniers come from local workshop industries which are not formally linked to the manufacturers of the motorcycle. The fixings of such panniers will be model specific, but the lucky rider may have a choice as to the actual case carried. Sidecar

Motorcycle

IMZ-Ural motorcycle with a "sports" sidecar A sidecar turns a motorcycle into a threewheeled vehicle. Their peak popularity (160,000 in the UK in 1955[18], pre-WWII in the US) came about when powerful motorcycles were available, but there were relatively few cars about. Sidecars such as the British Watsonian were coach-built in wood and had doors, sliding windows and even a sun-roof, but modern sidecars may be fibreglass or aluminium. Alignment of the sidecar is critical and the mountings come under considerable stress, making a quickly-detachable version largely impractical - in any case, the special sidecar tyres are poorly-suited to solo riding. The cornering of "an outfit" is partly controlled by the throttle and this makes for interesting effects - a sidecar wheel brake fitted (usually a pedal side-by-side with the motorcycle rear brake) helps considerably. Sidecars place a heavy strain on wheel bearings, wheel-spokes and suspension components even frames and engines may suffer. A hinged sidecar known as the "Sidewinder" became available in the UK in the 1970s, but its popularity came about due to driver licensing requirements, its carrying capacity being approximately limited to one tool-box. Trailer hitch A trailer hitch or tow hitch is a device mounted on a motorcycle that enables it to tow a motorcycle trailer. Legislation will often restrict them to carrying baggage but not passengers. Trunk Storage compartments are largely restricted to scooters, they may be underneath the seat,

Heated handgrips on a BMW Heated hand grips/seats Since motorcycles lack climate control or proper protection from the wind, some manufacturers offer heated seats or hand grips to relieve the discomfort of low temperatures experienced during night riding or the colder months. They can also be added on as aftermarket accessories and are powered by the bike’s electrical system. Luggage rack A common addition to many bikes is an attachment onto which bags or other luggage can be fastened. This removes the need for rider backpacks and is generally a more secure and a safer way to add carrying capacity to a motorcycle. In the 1950s the popular British motorcycle Triumph often came with a tank-mounted carrier. Load-security was better, but they lost popularity over the unproven, but keenly felt, danger to the rider in the event of a front-end collision.

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between the knees or in front of the steering head. A motorcycle trunk will normally be mounted behind the seat where it is known as a top box. Crash bar Crash bars are less popular than they used to be - vulnerable engines and fairings now sometimes being protected by OE fitted snubs instead. A common arrangement is a loop of chrome-plated steel tube mounted each side of a motorcycle’s lower frame. They primarily protect the bike’s engine and body panels during slides or tipovers but can also serve as a mount point for accessories like highway pegs, lights and, on police motorcycles, sirens, cameras and radar guns. They give little protection to the rider and bigger ones were sometimes linked to injuries when feet became trapped. Less common variations include sump-guards, primarily for offroad riding.

Motorcycle
and Vietnam.[3] The motorcycle is also popular in Brazil’s frontier towns.[5] Amid the global economic downturn of 2008, the motorcycle market grew by 6.5%.[20] Recent years have seen an increase in the popularity of motorcycles elsewhere. In the USA, registrations increased by 51% between 2000 and 2005.[21] This is mainly attributed to increasing fuel prices and urban congestion,[22] but is also partly due to television programmes such as reality show American Chopper, or adventure-travel shows such as Long Way Down.

Subcultures

Social aspects
Popularity
A motorcycle rally in Ontario Around the world, motorcycles have historically been associated with subcultures. Some of these subcultures have been loose-knit social groups such as the cafe racers of 1950s Britain, and the Mods and Rockers of the 1960s. A few are believed to be criminal gangs. Social motorcyclist organisations are popular and are sometimes organised geographically, focus on individual makes, or even specific models. Example motorcycle clubs include: American Motorcyclist Association, Harley Owners Group, Moto Guzzi National Owners Club, Gold Wing Road Riders (GWRRA), and BMW MOA. Many motorcycle organisations raise money for charities through organised events and rides. Some organisations hold large international motorcycle rallies in different parts of the world that are attended by many thousands of riders. Some other motorcycle organisations exist only for the direct benefit of others. Bikers Against Child Abuse (BACA) is one example. BACA assigns members to individual children to help them through difficult situations, or

Motorbikes are the primary form of transportation in Vietnam. In many cultures, motorcycles are the primary means of motorised transport. According to the Taiwanese government, for example, "the number of automobiles per ten thousand population is around 2,500, and the number of motorcycles is about 5,000."[19] In places such as Vietnam, motorcycle use is extremely high due to a lack of public transport and low income levels that put automobiles out of reach for many.[3] In Vietnam, motorised traffic consist of mostly motorbikes.[4] The four largest motorcycle markets in the world are all in Asia: China, India, Indonesia,

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even stay with the child if the child is alone or frightened.[23] In recent decades, motorcyclists have formed political lobbying organisations in order to influence legislators to introduce motorcycle-friendly legislation. One of the oldest such organisations, the British Motorcycle Action Group, was founded in 1973 specifically in response to helmet compulsion, introduced without public consultation.[24] In addition, the British Motorcyclists Federation (BMF), originally founded in 1960 as a reaction to the public perception of motorcyclists as leather-jacketed hooligans, has itself moved into political lobbying. Likewise, the U.S. has ABATE, which, like most such organisations, also works to improve motorcycle safety, as well as running the usual charity fund-raising events and rallies, often for motorcycle-related political interests.[25]

Motorcycle

Mobility

A couple ride on a motorcycle in Udaipur, India. Annual sales of motorcycles in India is expected to exceed 10 million by 2010.[30] While people choose to ride motorcycles for various reasons, those reasons are increasingly practical, with riders opting for a powered two-wheeler as a cost-efficient alternative to infrequent and expensive public transport systems, or as a means of avoiding or reducing the effects of urban congestion.[31] In places where it is permitted, lane splitting, also known as filtering, allows motorcycles to use the space between vehicles to move through stationary or slow traffic.[32] In the UK, motorcycles are exempt from the £8 per day London congestion charge other vehicles must pay to enter the city during the day. Motorcycles are also exempt from toll charges at some river crossings, such as the Severn Bridge, Dartford Crossing, and Mersey Tunnels. Some cities, such as Bristol, allow motorcycles to use bus lanes and provide dedicated free parking. In the United States, those states that have high-occupancy vehicle lanes also allow for motorcycle travel in them. Other countries have similar policies. In New Zealand motorcycle riders are not required to pay for parking that is controlled

A Hells Angels wall mural in Southampton, UK. At the other end of the spectrum from the charitable organizations and the motorcycle rights activists are the Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs. These are defined by the Provincial Court of Manitoba as: "Any group of motorcycle enthusiasts who have voluntarily made a commitment to band together and abide by their organizations’ rigorous rules enforced by violence, who engage in activities that bring them and their club into serious conflict with society and the law".[26] The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and Criminal Intelligence Service Canada have designated four MCs as Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs (OMGs), which are the Pagans, Hells Angels, Outlaws MC, and Bandidos,[27][28] known as the "Big Four".[29]

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by a barrier arm;[33] the arm does not occupy the entire width of the lane, and the motorcyclist simply rides around it.[34] Many car parks controlled in this way supply special areas for motorcycles to park, so as not to unnecessarily consume spaces.

Motorcycle
conspicuousness to other traffic, and separating alcohol and riding. The United Kingdom has several organisations which are dedicated to improving motorcycle safety by providing advanced rider training over and above what is necessary to pass the basic motorcycle test. These include the Institute of Advanced Motorists (IAM) and the Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (RoSPA). Along with increased personal safety, riders with these advanced qualifications often benefit from reduced insurance costs.

Safety
Motorcycles have a higher rate of fatal accidents than automobiles. United States Department of Transportation data for 2005 from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System show that for passenger cars, 18.62 fatal crashes occur per 100,000 registered vehicles. For motorcycles this figure is higher at 75.19 per 100,000 registered vehicles – four times higher than for cars.[35] The same data show that 1.56 fatalities occur per 100 million vehicle miles travelled for passenger cars, whereas for motorcycles the figure is 43.47 – 28 times higher than for cars. Furthermore for motorcycles the accident rates have increased significantly since the end of the 1990s, while the rates have dropped for passenger cars.

An MSF rider course for novices Motorcycle Safety Education is offered throughout the United States by organisations ranging from state agencies to nonprofit organisations to corporations. The courses, designed by the Motorcycle Safety Foundation (MSF), include a Basic Rider Course, an Intermediate Rider Course and an Advanced Rider Course. In the UK (except Northern Ireland) and some Australian jurisdictions, such as New South Wales,[38] the Australian Capital Territory[39] and the Northern Territory,[40] it is compulsory to undertake a rider training course before being issued a Learners Licence. In Canada, motorcycle rider training is compulsory in Quebec and Manitoba only, but all provinces and territories have Graduated Licensing programs which place restrictions on new drivers until they have gained experience. Eligibility for a full motorcycle licence or endorsement for completing a Motorcycle Safety course varies by province. The Canada Safety Council, a non-profit safety organisation, offers the Gearing Up program across Canada and is endorsed by

Wearing a motorcycle helmet reduces the chances of death or injury in a motorcycle crash The two major causes of motorcycle accidents in the United States are: motorists pulling out or turning in front of motorcyclists and violating their rights-of-way and motorcyclists running wide through turns. The former is sometimes called a SMIDSY, an acronym formed from the motorists’ common response of "Sorry mate, I didn’t see you".[36] The latter is more common when motorcyclists mix drinking with riding.[37] Motorcyclists can anticipate and avoid some of these crashes with proper training, increasing their

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the Motorcycle and Moped Industry Council.[41] Training course graduates may qualify for reduced insurance premiums.

Motorcycle
and top speeds to be reached. However, at low-speed this position throws the weight of the rider onto the arms instead, and this is quickly tiring to the wrists of unfamiliar riders. Moreover, the sports position makes it more difficult for the rider to look around and foot through traffic. Very narrow, swept-back handlebars (or "clip-ons", short stubs clamped to the telescopic fork tubes) became illegal when they trapped the riders thumbs against the fuel-tank or unpopular because of the restricted steering movement and large turning circles required. Almost all these models now have full-fairings as standard and often come with almost complete engine enclosure. • - the rider leans forwards slightly ("Tourer" motorcycles use this position). The rider benefits from freedom of head movement, good visibility in all directions, and easier use of the feet while moving through stationary traffic. However, high speeds in this position leads to strain on the wrists, uneven roads lead to strain on the back, and extra exposure to the wind leads to both higher fuel consumption and a higher wind-chill factor. Many of these motorcycles now have some form of full fairing and will often come with panniers as OEM. • - the rider sits at a lower seat-height with the upper torso upright or leaning slightly rearwards. Legs are extended forwards, sometimes out of reach of the regular controls on cruiser pegs. This position may suit older riders better, allowing more comfortable circulation in the legs. High speeds are not really practical, and it is difficult for the rider to rise from the seat on encountering speed bumps and other road imperfections. This position was traditionally associated with extended or "raked" front forks but these were not particularly stable at speed and led to bigger turning circles. In some cases they were inadequately stiff and strong. These models may have windscreens but are less likely to have fairings or enclosure. Important factors of a motorcycle’s ergonomic geometry that determine the seating posture include the height, angle and location of footpegs, seat and handlebars. Likewise, factors in a rider’s physical geometry that contribute to seating posture include torso,

Types

A boulevard cruiser (front) and a sportbike (background) There are three major types of motorcycle: street, off-road, and dual purpose. Within these types, there are many different subtypes of motorcycles for many different purposes. Street bikes include cruisers, sportbikes, scooters and mopeds, and many other types. Off-road motorcycles include many types designed for dirt-oriented racing classes such as motocross and are not street legal in most areas. Dual purpose machines like the dualsport style are made to go off-road but include features to make them legal and comfortable on the street as well. Each configuration offers either specialised advantage or broad capability, and each design creates a different riding posture.

Motorcycle rider postures
The motorcyclist’s riding position depends on rider body-geometry (anthropometry) combined with the geometry of the motorcycle itself — falling along a spectrum of three basic postures.[42] • - the rider leans forwards into the wind and the weight of the upper torso is supported by air pressure - but only as long as the motorcycle is travelling at speed (typically 50mph/80kmh and upwards). The reduced frontal area cuts wind resistance and, where legal restrictions permit, allow higher cruising

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arm, thigh and leg length, and overall rider height.

Motorcycle
licence may sit the third and final stage known as the "full licence". Until an individual has their "full licence" they are only able to ride a motorcycle which has an engine capacity of 250 cc or less.[43] A similar system is used in most states of Australia, with some variations. "Learners Permit" and "Provisional" licence holders must not have bikes that exceed a power to weight ratio of 150 kW/tonne or 660 cc, whichever comes first. All 250 cc bikes (with a few listed exceptions) are automatically included in this LAMS (Learner Approved Motorcycle Scheme) list. Before getting a "Learners Permit" a PreLearner course is required, which issues a certificate of completion, valid for 3 months. Upon passing a computer test, the rider is granted a Learners Permit, which is valid for 12 months. Whilst on a learners permit, the rider may not carry a pillion or side car and may not exceed 80 kilometres per hour (50 mph) or the posted speed limit, whichever is lower.[44] To progress to a Provisional Licence, the rider must successfully complete a Pre-Provisional riders course, followed by a riding skills test called MOST (Motorcycle Operator Skill Test). The rider is then able to obtain a "P1 Provisional Licence". P1 provisional licences can be renewed and must be held without suspension for 12 months, after which time it can be upgraded to a P2 provisional licence. The P2 provisional licence is then to be held for 2 more years before the rider obtains their full licence, providing they have not breached any laws causing them to be suspended or disqualified in that period. P2 provisional riders are permitted to carry a pillion, P1 riders are not. There are exceptions to this rule for mature age licence holders, who may be eligible to bypass the P2 provisional period.[44] The laws of some countries allow anyone with a car licence to legally ride mopeds not exceeding 50 cc in capacity, meaning that they do not need to show any competency in handling such a vehicle.

Legal definitions and restrictions
See also: Restrictions on motorcycle use on freeways A motorcycle is broadly defined by law in most countries for the purposes of registration, taxation and rider licensing as a powered two-wheel motor vehicle. Most countries distinguish between mopeds of 49 cc and the more powerful, larger, vehicles (scooters do not count as a separate category). Many jurisdictions include some forms of three-wheelers as motorcycles.

Australia and New Zealand

A scooter and a motorcycle In New Zealand, "learner" and "restricted" motorcycles may only have a 250 cc engine capacity, restricting 15-year-old learner riders to speeds of around, or a bit more than, 160 km/h (99 mph). • Note that on a learner license on a motorcycle limits the rider to riding up to 70 km/h (maximum of 80km/h in Australia), anything over this figure would be breaking the law. The legal age to be eligible to apply for a New Zealand motorcycle licence is 15 years and over. New Zealand employs a three stage system for motor vehicle licensing. At age 15, an individual can gain their first licence known as their "learner licence". They must hold this for at least 6 months before they are able to move on to their "restricted licence". They must then hold this "restricted licence" for one and half years. After a period of 6–18 months, depending on age and additional training, a holder of a restricted

Canada and parts of the US
In Canada and some U.S. jurisdictions, threewheeled motor vehicles fall under the auspices of motorcycle regulations. The laws and regulations for legal moped usage in the U.S. vary by state.[45]

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Motorcycle
motorcycle experience to train and pass a test in around five days. The exact rules are laid out on the UK Department for Transport (DOT) web-site.[47] Three-wheeled vehicles weighing less than 8 cwt (cwt = hundredweight, 112 lbs) or 406 kg were long classified as motorcycles in the UK and could be driven with a full motorcycle license (a requirement there be no reverse gear fitted was dropped in the 1960s). This exemption was linked to the enduring popularity of three-wheeled vehicles in the UK (such as the Reliant Regal van used in the popular TV series "Only Fools and Horses") but was abolished for new license holders in October 2000.[48] Mass-production of threewheelers ceased in 1998 but the licensing exemption still benefits trikes and their riders.

In many jurisdictions, the term "motorcycle" includes trikes In the United States, licensing requirements vary widely among the states and territories, but generally riders are required to pass written and practical (on-cycle) competency tests. In about half the states, successful completion of a rider education course (such as those offered by the Motorcycle Safety Foundation) is accepted by state licensing agencies in lieu of examination. The specifics of the motorcycle and moped laws in the U.S. can be obtained from each individual state’s Department of Motor Vehicles website.[46]

Environmental impact
In 2007 and 2008, motorcycles and scooters, due to good fuel efficiency, attracted interest in the United States from environmentalists and those affected by increased fuel prices.[49][50] Piaggio Group Americas supported this interest with the launch of a "Vespanomics" website and platform, citing lower per-mile carbon emissions (40 lb/mile less than the average car, a 65% reduction) and better fuel economy.[51] Other sources, however, point out that while motorcycles may be better in terms of greenhouse gases, a motorcycle releases 10–20 times more total pollution per mile than a new car.[49][52] This pollution comes in large part from nitrogen oxide, a byproduct of combustion that is a major component of smog and is largely because of their less efficient catalytic converters.[49] United States Environmental Protection Agency 2007 certification result reports for all vehicles versus on highway motorcycles (which also includes scooters),[53] the average certified emissions level for 12,327 vehicles tested was 0.734. The average "Nox+Co End-Of-Useful-Life-Emissions" for 3,863 motorcycles tested was 0.8531, for a difference of about 16%, not the claimed 10X factor. Likewise, if one looks at how many of the 2007 motorcycles tested were also catalytic equipped, 54% of them, 2,092, were equipped with a catalytic converter. European emission standards for motorcycles are similar to those for cars. Motorcycles must meet Euro III standards,[54]

UK
All motorcycle riders in the UK must first take a one-day CBT course, regardless of which class of motorcycle they intend to ride. In addition a theory test must be taken prior to taking a practical test for any type of motorcycle licence. Entry level to motorcycling at age 16 is the moped, a motorcycle of engine capacity no greater than 50 cc restricted to a maximum design speed of 50 km/h (31 mph). At age 17 the rider may have a "light motorcycle" with an engine up to 125 cc and a power output not exceeding 11 kW (15 hp). Only a Compulsory Basic Training (CBT) licence is needed to ride a learner motorcycle with an L plate. A "large restricted motorcycle" has a power output of not more than 25 kW (34 hp). Riders are restricted to riding large restricted motorcycles or smaller for two years after passing their initial motorcycle test. For riders over age 21 there is a direct access route to gaining a licence to ride a large motorcycle, which allows somebody with no

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while cars must meet Euro IV standards. Therefore, the difference in total pollution between motorcycles and cars that pass European emission standards would be small, certainly much smaller than the 10X factor claimed by the referenced LA Times article.

Motorcycle

[8] Willoughby, Vic (1982). Exotic Motorcycles. London: Osprey Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 0850453224. [9] "Rupert Hollaus". Motorsport Memorial. http://www.motorsportmemorial.org/ focus.php?db=ms&n=1418. Retrieved on 2008-04-03. [10] Ed Youngblood. "Motocross goes International, 1947 through 1965". The • List of motorcycle manufacturers History of Motocross, Part Two, • Motorcycle Safety Foundation Motorcycle Hall of Fame Museum. • Motorcycle helmet http://www.motorcyclemuseum.org/ exhibits/MX/history/part2.asp. Retrieved on 2007-06-29. [11] Honda Sells Its 60 Millionth - Yes, [1] Foale, Tony (2006). Motorcycle Handling Millionth - Super Cub Wired.com and Chassis Design. Tony Foale Designs. [12] "Motorcycle Fuel Consumption & Real p. 4-1. ISBN 978-84-933286-3-4. World Performance Guide". MFC [2] Cossalter, Vittore (2006). Motorcycle Website. Dynamics. Lulu. ISBN http://www.motorcyclefuelconsumption.com/. 978-1-4303-0861-4. Retrieved on 2008-06-13. [3] ^ Hiroko Nakata (2008-10-08). [13] "Total Motorcycle Fuel Economy Guide". "Motorcycle makers battle it out in Total Motorcycle Website. Vietnam". Japan Times. http://www.totalmotorcycle.com/ http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/ MotorcycleFuelEconomyGuide/ nb20081008a2.html. Retrieved on index.htm. Retrieved on 2006-08-14. 2009-03-11. [14] "Verucci Gas Scooters". Gekgo [4] ^ Patti McCracken (2008-10-01). Worldwide, www.gekgo.com. "Vietnam eats, sleeps, and dreams on http://www.gekgo.com/verucci-gasmotorbikes". The Christian Science scooters.html. Retrieved on 2006-08-15. Monitor. http://features.csmonitor.com/ [15] "Doing More with Less Energy". The backstory/2008/10/01/vietnam-eatsCraig Vetter Fuel Economy Contests sleeps-and-dreams-on-motorbikes/. 1980 through 1985. Retrieved on 2009-03-11. http://www.craigvetter.com/pages/ [5] ^ Alexei Barrionuevo (2008-11-03). "That 470MPG/470MPG%20Main.html. Roar in the Jungle Is 15,000 Motorbikes". Retrieved on 2006-08-15. The New York Times. [16] Gaetano, Cocco (2004). Motorcycle http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/04/ Design and Technology. Minneapolis: world/americas/ MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. 04tabatinga.html?n=Top/Reference/ pp. 34–35. http://books.google.com/ Times%20Topics/Subjects/M/ books?id=80oc8EjsF-4C&pg=PA34&lpg=PA34&dq= Motorcycles,%20Motor%20Bikes%20and%20Motorscooters.(July 2000). "Steering in [17] Joel Fajans Retrieved on 2009-03-11. bicycles and motorcycles" (PDF). [6] ^ "The Past—1800s: First motorcycle". American Journal of Physics, v. 68 (7): The History and Future of Motorcycles 654–59. http://socrates.berkeley.edu/ and motorcycling—From 1885 to the ~fajans/pub/pdffiles/SteerBikeAJP.PDF. Future, Total Motorcycle Website. Retrieved on 2006-08-04. http://www.totalmotorcycle.com/ [18] 160,000 sidecar outfits on the road in future.htm#1800s. Retrieved on 1955 in the UK. Watsonian-Squire 2007-06-28. sidecars [7] "Brief History of the Marque: Hildebrand [19] Chung-Li. "Sustainable Development & Wolfmuller". Hildebrand & Wolfmuller Indicators for Taiwan". Workshop on Motorad, European Motorcycle Universe. Sustainable Development Indicators. http://www.cybermotorcycle.com/euro/ http://www.gio.gov.tw/taiwan-website/ brands/hildebrand_wolfmuller.htm. 5-gp/eco/html/part5-5.htm. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2007-06-28. 2006-08-14.

See also

References

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Motorcycle

[20] Makiko Kitamura and Tetsuya Komatsu guide.asp#fees Parking. Retrieved on (2009-03-03). "Honda’s $140-a-Month 2008-08-08. Motorbikes Ease Pain of ‘Grim’ Car [34] Motorcycle parking in Wellington CBD Market". Bloomberg. [Archive] - Kiwi Biker forums http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/ [35] "Vehicles Involved in Fatal Crashes, news?pid=20601109&sid=aoL_x9oQUU44&refer=exclusive. State: USA". Fatality 1994–2006 Retrieved on 2009-03-11. Analysis Reporting System. United [21] "Popularity of high-performance States Department of Transportation. motorcycles helps push rider deaths to http://www-fars.nhtsa.dot.gov/Trends/ near-record high". Insurance Institute for TrendsGeneral.aspx. Retrieved on Highway Safety. 11 September 2007. 2007-11-12. http://www.iihs.org/news/rss/ [36] "The ’sorry mate I didn’t see you’ pr091107.html. Retrieved on campaign". South Gloucestershire 2008-10-22. Council. http://www.southglos.gov.uk/ [22] "Soaring Gas Prices Shine Money-Saving TransportandRoads/Motorcycling/ Spotlight on Motorcycles". Reuters. 19 SorryMateIDidntSeeYou/. Retrieved on May 2008. http://www.reuters.com/ 2008-05-21. article/pressRelease/ [37] Hurt, H.H., Ouellet, J.V. and Thom, D.R. idUS190576+19-May-2008+PRN20080519. (January 1981). "The Hurt Report". Retrieved on 2008-10-22. Technical Report, Volume 1, Traffic [23] "About BACA". Bikers Against Child Safety Center, University of Southern Abuse. http://www.bacausa.com/Internet/ California. http://www.clarity.net/~adam/ AboutBACA.aspx. Retrieved on hurt-report.htm. Retrieved on 2007-10-10. 2007-05-16. [24] "About MAG". MAG UK. http://www.mag[38] "Learner riders licence". Motorcycle uk.org. Retrieved on 2007-10-10. Rider Training Scheme, Roads and [25] Some other lobbying organisations are Traffic Authority, NSW. listed in Category:Motorcyclists http://163.189.217.150/licensing/tests/ organizations. motorcycleridertrainingscheme/ [26] Organized Crime Fact Sheet- Public learnerriderslicence.html. Retrieved on Safety Canada 2007-05-16. [27] FBI Safe Street Violent Crime Initiative [39] "Learner Licence". Road Transport Report Fiscal Year 2000- FBI.org Information Management, [28] 2004 Annual Report- Criminal www.rego.act.gov.au. Intelligence Service Canada, cisc.gc.ca http://www.rego.act.gov.au/licensing/ [29] Motorcycle Gangs- Connecticut Gang licencelearner.htm. Retrieved on Investigators Association 2007-05-16. [30] http://www.automobileindia.com/two[40] "Motorcyclist Education Training And wheelers/statistics/sales.html Licencing (METAL)". Northern Territory [31] Bob Tomlins (September 1997). "Rider Department of Planning and training in Europe The Views and the Infrastructure, www.ipe.nt.gov.au. Needs of the Rider" (PDF). The http://www.ipe.nt.gov.au/whatwedo/mvr/ Federation of European Motorcyclists. licensing/metal.html. Retrieved on http://www.fema.ridersrights.org/docs/ 2007-05-16. irt_finalreport.PDF. Retrieved on [41] "MMIC Information". Motorcycle and 2007-06-30. Moped Industry Council. [32] "All the info you need on lanesharing http://www.mmic.ca. Retrieved on (lanesplitting)". www.WhyBike.com. 2007-05-16. http://www.whybike.com/ [42] "A Three Dimensional Analysis of Riding motorcycle274.htm. Retrieved on Posture in Three Different Styles of 2007-06-28. Motorcycle" (PDF). Motorcycle Safety [33] Parking "Drivers guide to Auckland City Foundation. March 2006. parking". City of Aukland. 2007. http://www.msf-usa.org/imsc/ http://www.aucklandcity.govt.nz/ proceedings/b-Smithauckland/Transport/parking/ ThreeDimensionalAnalysisofRiderPosture.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-01-31.

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Motorcycle

[43] "Getting your motorcycle licence". Land http://www.vespausa.com/wwh/ Transport New Zealand. Vespanomics-platform.pdf. Retrieved on http://www.ltsa.govt.nz/licensing/ 2009-01-09. motorcycle/index.html. Retrieved on [52] Umbra Fisk (28 May 2003). "On 2008-03-05. motorcycles - Ask Umbra". Grist. [44] ^ "Motorcycle". Rta.nsw.gov.au. http://www.grist.org/advice/ask/2003/05/ http://www.rta.nsw.gov.au/licensing/ 28/umbra-motorcycles/index.html. gettingalicence/motorcycle/index.html. [53] "Certified Highway Motorcycle Test Retrieved on 2008-10-24. Result Report Data (2007)". US EPA. 8 [45] "Moped Laws". www.mopedarmy.com. January 2008. http://www.epa.gov/otaq/ http://www.mopedarmy.com/wiki/ crttst.htm. Moped_laws. Retrieved on 2007-05-16. [54] "Motorcycle Emissions Regs Examined". [46] "DMV Websites". www.mopedarmy.com. Motorcycle USA. http://www.motorcyclehttp://www.mopedarmy.com/wiki/ usa.com/ DMV_Websites. Retrieved on Article_Page.aspx?ArticleID=4352&Page=1. 2007-05-16. [47] "Mopeds and Motorcycles: Routes to your licence" (PDF). UK Department for • American Motorcyclist Association - the Transport. http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/ governing body for motorcycle sport in the roadsafety/drs/cyclingandmotorcycling/ U.S. The AMA lobbies for the rights of dsandmotorcyclesroutesto4640.pdf. motorcyclists through the AMA-PAC. Retrieved on 2009-01-26. • Fédération Internationale de [48] Trike Law The Trike Shop UK. Motocyclisme - the governing body for [49] ^ Susan Carpenter (June 11, 2008). international motorcycle sport. The FIM "Motorcycles and emissions: The also lobbies for the rights and interests of surprising facts". LA Times. motorcyclists. http://www.latimes.com/news/ • Motorcycle Glossary - definitions of printedition/highway1/la-hymotorcycle terms throttle11-2008jun11,0,1076364.story. • About Motorcycles - comprehensive Retrieved on 2008-08-08. motorcycle information and news [50] Judy Dahl (September 2007). "Baby, You • Motorcycle Safety Foundation - an Can Drive My Vespa". Madison internationally recognised developer of Magazine. http://madisonmagazine.com/ comprehensive, research-based, article.php?section_id=918&xstate=view_story&story_id=234751. motorcycle rider education and training. Retrieved on 2008-08-08. • Motorcycles at the Open Directory Project [51] "Vespanomics - Vespa Economics". Piaggio Group USA.

External links

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