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John Jay

John Jay
John Jay In office December 10, 1778 – September 28, 1779 Preceded by Succeeded by Born Henry Laurens Samuel Huntington December 12, 1745(1745-12-12) New York, New York May 17, 1829 (aged 83) Westchester County, New York Sarah Livingston (see Livingston family) King’s College (now Columbia University Episcopalian

Died Spouse Alma mater Religion

Portrait of John Jay painted by Gilbert Stuart

1st Chief Justice of the United States In office September 26, 1789 – June 29, 1795 Nominated by Succeeded by George Washington John Rutledge

2nd Governor of New York In office July 1, 1795 – June 30, 1801 Lieutenant Preceded by Succeeded by Stephen Van Rensselaer George Clinton George Clinton

2nd United States Secretary of Foreign Affairs In office May 7, 1784 – March 22, 1790 Preceded by Succeeded by Robert Livingston Thomas Jefferson (as United States Secretary of State)

John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17,1829) was an American politician, statesman, revolutionary, diplomat, a Founding Father of the United States, President of the Continental Congress from 1778 to 1779 and, from 1789 to 1795, the first Chief Justice of the United States. During and after the American Revolution, he was a minister (ambassador) to Spain and France, helping to fashion American foreign policy and to secure favorable peace terms from the British (the Jay Treaty) and French. He co-wrote the Federalist Papers with Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. As leader of the new Federalist Party, Jay was Governor of New York from 1795 to 1801 and became the state’s leading opponent of slavery. His first two attempts to pass emancipation legislation failed in 1777 and 1785, but the third succeeded in 1799. The new law he signed into existence eventually saw the emancipation of all New York slaves before his death.

Early life
Birth
Jay was born on December 12, 1745, to a wealthy family of merchants in New York City.[1] He was the eighth child and the sixth son in his family.[2] The Jay family was of

President of the Continental Congress

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French Huguenot origin and was prominent in New York City.[3] In 1685 the Edict of Nantes was revoked, thereby abolishing the rights of Protestants and confiscating their property. In the affected class were Jay’s paternal grandfather, Augustus Jay, which caused Augustus to move from France to New York to establish the Jay family.[4] Peter, Augustus’s son, and John’s father, was a merchant and had ten children with his wife, Mary Van Cortlandt. Only seven of the ten children survived.[5] After Jay was born, his family moved from Manhattan to Rye for a healthier environment; two of his siblings were blinded by the smallpox epidemic of 1739 and two suffered from mental handicaps.[5]

John Jay
Virginia, by British troops in January 1776 pushed Jay to support independence. With the outbreak of war, he worked tirelessly for the revolutionary cause and acted to suppress the Loyalists. Thus Jay evolved into first a moderate and then an ardent Patriot once he decided that all the colonies’ efforts at reconciliation with Britain were fruitless and that the struggle for independence which became the American Revolution was inevitable.[10]

During the American Revolution
Having established a reputation as a "reasonable moderate" in New York, Jay was elected to serve as delegate to the First and Second Continental Congresses which debated whether the colonies should declare independence. He attempted to reconcile America with Britain, up until the Declaration of Independence. Jay’s views became more radical as events unfolded; he became an ardent Patriot and attempted to move New York towards independence.

Education
Jay spent his childhood in Rye, New York, and took the same political stand as his father, who was a staunch Whig.[6]. He was educated there by private tutors until he was eight years old, when he was sent to New Rochelle to study under Anglican pastor Pierre Stoupe. In 1756, after three years, he would return to homeschooling under the tutelage of George Murray. In 1760, Jay continued his studies at King’s College, the thensixteen-year-old forerunner of Columbia University.[7] In 1764 he graduated[8] and became a law clerk for Benjamin Kissam.[5]

Entrance into lawyering and politics
In 1768, after being admitted to the bar of New York, Jay, with Robert Livingston, established a legal practice and worked there until he created his own law office in 1771.[5] He was a member of the New York Committee of Correspondence in 1774.[9] His first public role came as secretary to the New York committee of correspondence, where he represented the conservative faction that was interested in protecting property rights and in preserving the rule of law while resisting British violations of American rights. This faction feared the prospect of "mob rule". He believed the British tax measures were wrong and thought Americans were morally and legally justified in resisting them, but as a delegate to the First Continental Congress in 1774 he sided with those who wanted conciliation with Parliament. Events such as the burning of Norfolk,

The Treaty of Paris, Jay stands farthest to the left. In 1774, at the close of the Continental Congress, Jay returned to New York.[11] There he served on the New York City’s Committee of Sixty,[12] where he attempted to enforce a nonimportation agreement passed by the First Continental Congress.[11] Jay was elected to the third New York Provincial Congress, where he drafted the Constitution of New York, 1777;[13] his duties as a New York Congressman prevented him from voting on or signing the Declaration of Independence.[11][14] Jay served on the committee to

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detect and defeat conspiracies, which monitored British Actions.[15] New York’s Provincial Congress elected Jay the Chief Justice of the New York Supreme Court on May 8, 1777,[11][16] which he served on for two years.[11] Jay served as President of the Continental Congress from December 10, 1778, to September 28, 1779. The Continental Congress turned to John Jay, an adversary of the previous president Henry Laurens,[14] only three days after Jay become a delegate and elected him President of the Continental Congress. Eight states voted for Jay and four for Laurens.[17]

John Jay

Secretary of Foreign Affairs
Jay served as the second Secretary of Foreign Affairs from 1784-1789, when in September, Congress passed a law giving certain additional domestic responsibilities to the new Department and changing its name to the Department of State. Jay served as acting Secretary of State until March 22, 1790. Jay sought to establish a strong and durable American foreign policy: to seek the recognition of the young independent nation by powerful and established foreign European powers; to establish a stable American currency and credit supported at first by financial loans from European banks; to pay back America’s creditors and to quickly pay off the country’s heavy War-debt; to secure the infant nation’s territorial boundaries under the most-advantageous terms possible and against possible incursions by the Indians, Spanish, the French and the English; to solve regional difficulties among the colonies themselves; to secure Newfoundland fishing rights; to establish a robust maritime trade for American goods with new economic trading partners; to protect American trading vessels against piracy; to preserve America’s reputation at home and abroad; and to hold the country together politically under the fledgling Articles of Confederation.[25] Jay believed his responsibility was not matched by a commensurate level of authority, so he joined Alexander Hamilton and James Madison in advocating for a stronger government than the one dictated by the Articles of Confederation.[5][26] He argued in his Address to the People of the State of New-York, on the Subject of the Federal Constitution that the Articles of Confederation were too weak and ineffective a form of government. He contended that: The Congress under the Articles of Confederation] may make war, but are not empowered to raise men or money to carry it on—they may make peace, but without power to see the terms of it observed—they may form alliances, but without ability to comply with the stipulations on their part—they may enter into treaties of commerce, but without power to [e]nforce them at home or

As a Diplomat
On September 27, 1779, Jay resigned his office as President and was appointed Minister to Spain. In Spain, he was assigned to get financial aid, commercial treaties and recognition of American independence. The royal court of Spain refused to officially receive Jay as the Minister of the United States,[18] having refused to recognize American Independence until 1783, fearing that such recognition could spark revolution in their own colonies. Jay, however, convinced Spain to loan $170,000 to the US government.[19] He departed Spain on May 20, 1782.[18] On June 23, 1782, Jay reached Paris, where negotiations to end the American Revolutionary War would take place.[20] Benjamin Franklin was the most experienced diplomat of the group, and thus Jay wished to lodge near him, in order to learn from him.[21] The United States agreed to negotiate with Britain separately, then with France.[22][23] In July 1782, Earl of Shelburne offered the Americans independence, but Jay rejected the offer on the grounds that it did not recognize American independence during the negotiations; Jay’s dissent halted negotiations until the fall.[22] The final treaty dictated that the United States would have Newfoundland fishing rights (extending its Western border), Britain would acknowledge the United States as independent and would withdraw its troops in exchange for the United States ending the seizure of Loyalist property and honoring private debts.[22][24] The treaty granted the United States independence, but left many border regions in dispute, and many of its provisions were not enforced.[22]

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abroad...—In short, they may consult, and deliberate, and recommend, and make requisitions, and they who please may regard them.[27]

John Jay
In Chisholm v. Georgia, the Jay Court had to answer the question: "Was the state of Georgia subject to the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and the federal government?"[35] In a 4-1 ruling (Iredell dissented), the Jay Court ruled in favor of two South Carolinan Loyalists who had had their land seized by Georgia. This ruling sparked debate, as it implied that old debts must be paid to Loyalists.[32] The ruling was overturned by the Senate when the Eleventh Amendment was ratified, as it ruled that the judiciary could not rule on cases where a state was being sued by a citizen of another state or foreign country.[5][32] The case was brought again to the Supreme Court in Georgia v. Brailsford, and the Court reversed its decision.[36][37] However, Jay’s original Chisholm decision established that states were subject to judicial review.[35][38] In Hayburn’s Case, the Jay Court ruled that courts could not comply with a federal statute that required the courts to decide whether individual petitioning American Revolution veterans qualified for pensions. The Jay Court ruled that determining whether petitioners qualified was an "act ... not of a judicial nature".[39] and that because the statute allowed the legislature and the executive branch to revise the courts ruling, the statute violated the separation of powers as dictated by the United States Constitution.[39][40][41]

Federalist Papers 1788
Jay did not attend the Constitutional Convention but joined Hamilton and Madison in aggressively arguing in favor of the creation of a new and more powerful, centralized but balanced system of government. Writing under the shared pseudonym of "Publius,"[28] they articulated this vision in the Federalist Papers, a series of eighty-five articles written to persuade the citizenry to ratify the proposed Constitution of the United States.[29] Jay wrote the second, third, fourth, fifth and sixty-fourth articles. All except the sixtyfourth concerned the "[d]angers from [f]oreign [f]orce and [i]nfluence".[30]

The Jay Court
[T]he people are the sovereign of this country, and consequently that fellow citizens and joint sovereigns cannot be degraded by appearing with each other in their own courts to have their controversies determined. The people have reason to prize and rejoice in such valuable privileges, and they ought not to forget that nothing but the free course of constitutional law and government can ensure the continuance and enjoyment of them. For the reasons before given, I am clearly of opinion that a State is suable by citizens of another State. —John Jay in the Court Opinion of Chisholm v. Georgia[31] In 1789, Jay was offered the new position of Secretary of State by George Washington; he declined. Washington nominated Jay as the first Chief Justice of the United States.[26] Washington also nominated John Blair, William Cushing, James Wilson, James Iredell and John Rutledge as Associate Judges;[32] Jay would later serve with Thomas Johnson,[33] who took Rutledge’s seat,[34] and William Paterson, who took Johnson’s seat.[34] The court had little business through its first three years and its first decision was West v. Barnes (1791) strictly interpreting statutory procedural requirements.[32]

Jury nullification
In 1794 in Georgia v. Brailsford (1794), Supreme Court Justice John Jay upheld jury instructions stating "you [jurors] have ...a right to take upon yourselves to ...determine the law as well as the fact in controversy." Jay noted for the jury the "good old rule, that on questions of fact, it is the province of the jury, on questions of law, it is the province of the court to decide," but this amounted to no more than a presumption that the judges were correct about the law. Ultimately, ’both objects [the law and the facts] are lawfully within your power of decision."[42][43]

1792 campaign for Governor of New York
In 1792, Jay was the Federalist candidate for governor of New York, but was defeated by Democratic-Republican George Clinton. Jay received more votes than George Clinton, but

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on technicalities the votes of Otsego, Tioga and Clinton counties were disqualified and therefore not counted, giving George Clinton a slight majority.[44] The state constitution said that the cast votes shall be delivered to the secretary of state "by the sheriff or his deputy," but, for example, Otsego County Sheriff Smith’s term had expired, so at the time of the election, the sheriff’s office had been legally vacant, and the votes could not be brought to the state capital by anybody legally authorized. Clinton partisans in the state legislature, in state courts and federal offices were adamant not to accept any argument that this would in practice subtract the constitutional right to vote from the voters in these counties, and these votes were disqualified.[45]

John Jay
The treaty did not resolve American grievances about neutral shipping rights and impressment,[50] and the Republicans denounced it, but Jay, as Chief Justice, decided not to take part in the debates.[51] The failure to get compensation for slaves taken by the British during the Revolution "was a major reason for the bitter Southern opposition".[52] Jefferson and Madison, fearing a commercial alliance with aristocratic Britain might undercut republicanism, led the opposition. Jay complained he could travel from Boston to Philadelphia solely by the light of his burning effigies. However, led by Hamilton’s newly created Federalist party and support from Washington, strongly backed Jay and thus won the battle of public opinion.[53] Washington put his prestige on the line behind the treaty and Hamilton and the Federalists mobilized public opinion. The Senate ratified the treaty by a 20-10 vote (just enough to meet the 2/3 requirement.) Graffiti appeared near Jay’s house after the treaty’s ratification, reading, "Damn John Jay. Damn everyone that won’t damn John Jay. Damn everyone that won’t put up the lights in the windows and sit up all nights damning John Jay."[54] In 1812, relations between Britain and the U.S. faltered. The desire of a group of members in the House of Representatives, known as the War Hawks, to acquire land from Canada and the British impressment of American ships led, in part, to the War of 1812.[55]

Jay Treaty
Relations with Britain verged on war in 1794. British exports dominated the U.S. market, while American exports were blocked by British trade restrictions and tariffs. Britain still occupied northern forts that it had agreed to surrender in the Treaty of Paris. Britain’s impressment of American sailors and seizure of naval and military supplies bound to enemy ports on neutral ships also created conflict.[46] Madison proposed a trade war, "A direct system of commercial hostility with Great Britain," assuming that Britain was so weakened by its war with France that it would agree to American terms and not declare war.[47] Washington rejected that policy and sent Jay as a special envoy to Great Britain to negotiate a new treaty; Jay remained Chief Justice. Washington had Alexander Hamilton write instructions for Jay that were to guide him in the negotiations.[48] In March 1795, the resulting treaty, known as the Jay Treaty, was brought to Philadelphia.[48] When Hamilton, in an attempt to maintain good relations, informed Britain that the United States would not join the Danish and Swedish governments to defend their neutral status, Jay lost most of his leverage. The treaty eliminated Britain’s control of northwestern posts[49] and granted the United States "most favored nation" status,[46] and the U.S. agreed to restricted commercial access to the British West Indies.[46] Washington signed the treaty, and the Senate approved it on a 20-10 vote.[46][49]

Governor of New York
While in Britain, Jay was elected governor of New York State as a Federalist. He resigned from the Supreme Court and served as governor until 1801. As Governor, he received a proposal from Hamilton to gerrymander New York for the Presidential election of that year; he marked the letter "Proposing a measure for party purposes which it would not become me to adopt," and filed it without replying.[56] President John Adams then renominated him to the Supreme Court; the Senate quickly confirmed him, but he declined, citing his own poor health[26] and the court’s lack of "the energy, weight and dignity which are essential to its affording due support to the national government."[57] Jay declined the Federalist renomination for governor in 1801 and retired to the life of a farmer in Westchester County, New York.

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John Jay
family plot which he had defined on the Rye property where he grew up. This estate, overlooking Long Island Sound, remained in the Jay family through 1904. A portion of it is managed (and its buildings are being restored for educational use) by the "Jay Heritage Center".[61]

Personal Views
As an abolitionist
Jay was a leader against slavery after 1777, when he drafted a state law to abolish slavery; it failed as did a second attempt in 1785.[62] Jay was the founder and president of the New York Manumission Society, in 1785, which organized boycotts against newspapers and merchants in the slave trade and provided legal counsel for free blacks claimed as slaves.[63] The Society helped enact the gradual emancipation of slaves in New York in 1799, which Jay signed into law as governor. Jay was pushing at an open door; every member of the New York legislature (but one) had voted for some form of emancipation in 1785; they had differed on what rights to give the free blacks afterwards. Aaron Burr both supported this bill and introduced an amendment calling for immediate abolition.[64] The 1799 bill settled the matter by guaranteeing no rights at all. The 1799 "An Act for the Gradual Abolition of Slavery" provided that, from July 4 of that year, all children born to slave parents would be free (subject only to apprenticeship) and that slave exports would be prohibited. These same children would be required to serve the mother’s owner until age twenty-eight for males and age twenty-five for females. The law thus defined a type of indentured servant while slating them for eventual freedom.[65] All slaves were emancipated by July 4, 1827; the process may perhaps have been the largest emancipation in North America before 1861,[66] except for the British Army’s recruitment of runaway slaves during the American Revolution.[67] In the close 1792 election, Jay’s antislavery work hurt his election chances in upstate New York Dutch areas, where slavery was still practiced.[68] In 1794, in the process of negotiating the Jay Treaty with the British, Jay angered Southern slave-owners when he dropped their demands for compensation for

Certificate of Election of John Jay as Governor of New York (June 6, 1795) Soon after his retirement, his wife died.[58] Jay remained in good health, continued to farm and stayed out of politics.[59] On the night of May 14, 1829, Jay was stricken with palsy, probably due to a stroke. He lived for three more days, dying on May 17.[60] He chose to be buried in a private

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slaves who had been captured and carried away during the Revolution.[50] He made a practice of buying slaves and then freeing them when they were adults and he judged their labors had been a reasonable return on their price; he owned eight in 1798, the year before the emancipation act was passed.[69]

John Jay

Religion

John Jay College of Criminal Justice in New York City There are also high schools named after Jay located in Cross River, New York; Hopewell Junction, New York and San Antonio, Texas. The Best Western Hotel chain named several of their colonial motif hotels the John Jay Inn. Exceptional undergraduates at Columbia University are designated John Jay Scholars, and one of that university’s undergraduate dormitories is known as John Jay Hall. The John Jay Center on the campus of Robert Morris University and the John Jay Institute for Faith, Society & Law are also named for him. Jay’s house, located near Katonah, New York, is preserved as a National Historic Landmark and as the John Jay Homestead State Historic Site.[72]

Jay’s home, near Katonah, New York, is a New York State Historic Site and National Historic Landmark. Jay was Anglican, a denomination renamed the Protestant Episcopal Church in America after the American Revolution. Since 1785 Jay had been a warden of Trinity Church, New York. As Congress’s Secretary for Foreign Affairs, he supported the proposal after the Revolution that the Archbishop of Canterbury approve the ordination of bishops for the Episcopal Church in the United States.[69] He argued unsuccessfully in the provincial convention for a prohibition against Catholics holding office.[70] In a letter addressed to Pennsylvania House of Representatives member John Murray, dated October 12, 1816, Jay wrote, "Providence has given to our people the choice of their rulers, and it is the duty, as well as the privilege and interest, of our Christian nation to select and prefer Christians for their rulers."[71]

Notes
[1] "John Jay 1789-1795". www.supremecourthistory.org. http://www.supremecourthistory.org/ 02_history/subs_timeline/images_chiefs/ 001.html. [2] Pellew p.1 [3] "John Jay". The John Jay Institute for Faith, Society and Law. http://www.johnjayinstitute.org/ ?get=get.johnjay. Retrieved on 2008-08-20. [4] Pellew, George: "American Statesman John Jay", page 1. Houghton Mifflin, 1890 [5] ^ "A Brief Biography of John Jay" (in English) (HTML). The Papers of John Jay. Columbia University. 2002. http://www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/digital/ jay/biography.html.

Legacy
Several geographical locations have adopted John Jay’s name, including: Jay, Maine; Jay, New York; Jay, Vermont; Jay County, Indiana and Jay Street in Brooklyn. In 1964, the City University of New York’s College of Police Science was officially renamed the John Jay College of Criminal Justice.

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Pellew p.6 Stahr, page 9 Barnard edu retrieved August 31, 2008 "John Jay". www.ushistory.org. http://www.ushistory.org/Declaration/ related/jay.htm. Retrieved on 2008-08-21. [10] Klein (2000) [11] ^ "Jay and New York" (in English) (HTML). The Papers of John Jay. Columbia University. 2002. http://www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/digital/ jay/jayandny.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-23. [12] Stahr, page 443 [13] "The First Constitution, 1777." (in English) (HTML). The Historical Society of the Courts of the State of New York. New York State Unified Court System. http://www.courts.state.ny.us/history/ elecbook/lincoln/pg9.htm. Retrieved on 2008-08-23. [14] ^ "John Jay" (in English) (HTML). NNDB. http://www.nndb.com/people/374/ 000049227/. Retrieved on 2008-08-23. [15] James Newcomb (2007-12-13). "Remembering John Jay, One of Our Founding Fathers" (in English) (HTML). The John Birch Society. http://www.jbs.org/index.php/jbs-newsfeed/689-remembering-john-jay-one-ofour-founding-fathers. [16] "Portrait Gallery" (in English) (HTML). The Historical Society of the Courts of the State of New York. New York State Unified Court System. http://www.nycourts.gov/history/ Gallery_C.htm#r_2. Retrieved on 2008-08-23. [17] Stanley Louis Klos. "John Jay" (in English) (HTML). Virtualology.net. Evisium Inc.. http://johnjay.net. Retrieved on 2008-08-25. [18] ^ United States Department of State: Chiefs of Mission to Spain [19] "John Jay". Independence Hall Association. http://www.ushistory.org/ Declaration/related/jay.htm. Retrieved on 2008-08-22. [20] Pellew p.166 [21] Pellew p.170 [22] ^ "Treaty of Paris, 1783" (in English) (HTML). U.S. Department of State. The Office of Electronic Information, Bureau of Public Affairs. http://www.state.gov/r/ [6] [7] [8] [9]

John Jay
pa/ho/time/ar/14313.htm. Retrieved on 2008-08-23. [23] Stanley L. Klos. "Treaty of Paris" (in English) (HTML). Virtuolology.com. Evisum Inc.. http://treatyofparis.com/. Retrieved on 2008-08-23. [24] "The Paris Peace Treaty of 1783" (in English) (HTML). The University of Oklahoma College of Law. http://www.law.ou.edu/ushistory/ paris.shtml. [25] Whitelock p.181 [26] ^ "John Jay" (in English) (HTML). Find Law. http://supreme.lp.findlaw.com/ supreme_court/justices/pastjustices/ jay.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-25. [27] "Extract from an Address to the people of the state of New-York, on the subject of the federal Constitution." (in English) (HTML). The Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/ r?ammem/ bdsdcc:@field(DOCID+@lit(bdsdccc0501)). Retrieved on 2008-08-23. [28] WSU retrieved August 31, 2008 [29] "The Federalist Papers" (in English) (HTML). Primary Document in American History. The Library of Congress. http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ ourdocs/federalist.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-21. [30] "Federalist Papers Authored by John Jay" (in English) (HTML). Foundingfathers.info. http://www.foundingfathers.info/ federalistpapers/jay.htm. Retrieved on 2008-08-21. [31] "CHISHOLM V. GEORGIA, 2 U. S. 419 (1793) (Court Opinion)" (in English) (HTML). Justia & Oyez. http://supreme.justia.com/us/2/419/ case.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-21. [32] ^ "The Jay Court ... 1789-1793" (in English) (HTML). The Supreme Court Historical Society. http://www.supremecourthistory.org/ 02_history/subs_history/02_c01.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-21. [33] "Thomas Johnson" (in English) (HTML). Law Library - American Law and Legal Information. http://law.jrank.org/pages/ 7836/Johnson-Thomas.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-22. [34] ^ "Appointees Chart" (in English) (HTML). The Supreme Court Historical Society.

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John Jay

http://www.supremecourthistory.org/ [47] Elkins and McKitrick p 405 myweb/fp/courtlist.htm. Retrieved on [48] ^ Kafer p.87 2008-08-22. [49] ^ "Jay’s Treaty" (in English) (HTML). [35] ^ "Chisholm v. Georgia, 2 U.S. 419 Archiving Early America. (1793)" (in English) (HTML). The Oyez http://www.earlyamerica.com/ Project. http://www.oyez.org/cases/ earlyamerica/milestones/jaytreaty/. 1792-1850/1793/1793_0/. Retrieved on Retrieved on 2008-08-25. 2008-08-21. [50] ^ Baird, James. "The Jay Treaty". [36] "Georgia v. Brailsford, Powell & Hopton, www.columbia.edu. 3 U.S. 3 Dall. 1 1 (1794)" (in English) http://www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/digital/ (HTML). Oyez & Justia. jay/jaytreaty.html. Retrieved on http://supreme.justia.com/us/3/1/ 2008-08-22. index.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-21. [51] Estes (2002) [37] "John Jay (1745 - 1829)" (in English) [52] quoting Don Fehrenbacher, The (HTML). The Free Library. Farlex. Slaveholding Republic (2002) p. 93; http://jay.thefreelibrary.com/. Retrieved Frederick A. Ogg, "Jay’s Treaty and the on 2008-08-21. Slavery Interests of the United States." [38] Johnson (2000) Annual Report of the American Historical [39] ^ "HAYBURN’S CASE, 2 U. S. 409 Association for the Year 1901 (1902) (1792)" (in English) (HTML). Justia and 1:275-86 in JSTOR. Oyez. http://supreme.justia.com/us/2/ [53] Todd Estes, "Shaping the Politics of 409/case.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-22. Public Opinion: Federalists and the Jay [40] Robert J Pushaw Jr. [Georgetown Law Treaty Debate". Journal of the Early Journal "Why the Supreme Court never Republic (2000) 20(3): 393-422. ISSN gets any "Dear John" letters: Advisory 0275-1275; online at JSTOR opinions in historical perspective"] (in [54] Walter A. McDougall, Walter A. (1997) English) (HTML). Georgetown Law (in English). Promised Land, Crusader Journal. Bnet. Georgetown Law Journal. State: The American Encounter with the Retrieved on 2008-08-22. World Since 1776. Houghton Mifflin [41] "HAYBURN’S CASE" (in English) Books. pp. 29. ISBN 9780395901328. (HTML). Novelguide.com. http://books.google.com/ http://www.novelguide.com/a/discover/ books?id=Gr6atcdK37EC. Retrieved on dah_04/dah_04_01862.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-22. 2008-08-22. [55] "WARS - War of 1812" (in English) [42] We the Jury by Jefferey B Abramson (HTML). USAhistory.com. pp.75-76 http://www.usahistory.com/wars/ [43] Mann, Neighbors and Strangers, pp. 1812.htm. 75,71 [56] Monaghan, pp.419-21; Adair, Douglass; [44] Jenkins, John (1846) (in English) (HTML). Marvin Harvey (April 1955). "Was History of Political Parties in the State of Alexander Hamilton a Christian New-York. Alden & Markham. Statesman?". The William and Mary http://books.google.com/ Quarterly 12 (3rd Ser., Vol. 12, No. 2, books?id=Gm04AAAAMAAJ&pg=PA42#PPA44,M1. Alexander Hamilton: 1755-1804): Retrieved on 2008-08-25. 308–329. doi:10.2307/1920511. [45] Dr. James Sullivan (1927). "The History http://links.jstor.org/ of New York State". Lewis Historical sici?sici=0043-5597%28195504%293%3A12%3A2%3 Publishing Company. [57] Laboratory of Justice, The Supreme http://www.usgennet.org/usa/ny/state/ Court’s 200 Year Struggle to Integrate his/bk12/ch3/pt2.html. Retrieved on Science and the Law, by David L. 2008-08-20. Faigman, First edition, 2004, p. 34; [46] ^ "John Jay’s Treaty, 1794–95" (in Smith, Republic of Letters, 15, 501 English) (HTML). U.S. Department of [58] Whitelock p.327 State. The Office of Electronic [59] Whitelock p.329 Information, Bureau of Public Affairs. [60] Whitelock p.335 http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/time/nr/ [61] "News and Events: Pace Law School, 14318.htm. Retrieved on 2008-08-25. New York Law School, located in New

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York 20 miles north of NY City. Environmental Law.". www.pace.edu. http://www.pace.edu/LawSchool/News/ lectures/jaylecture.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-22. [62] John Jay and Sarah Livingston Jay, Selected Letters of John Jay and Sarah Livingston Jay (2005) pp 297-99; online at [1] [63] Roger G. Kennedy, Burr, Hamilton, and Jefferson: A Study in Character (2000) p. 92 [64] "Timeline of Events Leading up to the Duel" (in English) (HTML). The Duel. PBS. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/ duel/timeline/index.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-25. [65] Edgar J. McManus, History of Negro Slavery in New York [66] Jake Sudderth (2002). "John Jay and Slavery". Columbia University. http://www.columbia.edu/cu/lweb/digital/ jay/JaySlavery.html. [67] Gordon S. Wood, American Revolution, p. 114 [68] Herbert S. Parmet and Marie B. Hecht, Aaron Burr (1967) p. 76 [69] ^ Crippen II, Alan R. (2005). "John Jay: An American Wilberforce?". http://www.johnjayinstitute.org/ index.cfm?get=get.johnjaypaper. Retrieved on 2006-12-13. [70] Kaminski, John P. (March 2002). "Religion and the Founding Fathers". Annotation: the Newsletter of the National Historic Publications and Records Commission 30:1. ISSN 0160-8460. http://www.archives.gov/ nhprc/annotation/march-2002/religionfounding-fathers.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-25. [71] Jay, William (1833) (in English). The Life of John Jay: With Selections from His Correspondence and Miscellaneous Papers. J. & J. Harper. pp. 376. http://books.google.com/ books?id=V50EAAAAYAAJ. Retrieved on 2008-08-22. [72] "Friends of John Jay Homestead". www.johnjayhomestead.org. http://www.johnjayhomestead.org/. Retrieved on 2008-08-24.

John Jay

References
• Bemis, Samuel F. (1923) (in English). Jay’s Treaty: A Study in Commerce and Diplomacy. New York, New York: The Macmillan Company. • Brecher, Frank W. Securing American Independence: John Jay and the French Alliance. Praeger, 2003. 327 pp. • Casto, William R. The Supreme Court in the Early Republic: The Chief Justiceships of John Jay and Oliver Ellsworth. U. of South Carolina Press, 1995. 267 pp. • Combs, Jerald. A. The Jay Treaty: Political Background of Founding Fathers (1970) (ISBN 0-520-01573-8); concludes the Federalists "followed the proper policy" because the treaty preserved peace with Britain • Elkins, Stanley M. and Eric McKitrick, The Age of Federalism: The Early American Republic, 1788-1800. (1994), detailed political history • Estes, Todd. "John Jay, the Concept of Deference, and the Transformation of Early American Political Culture." Historian (2002) 65(2): 293-317. ISSN 0018-2370 Fulltext in Swetswise, Ingenta and Ebsco • Ferguson, Robert A. "The Forgotten Publius: John Jay and the Aesthetics of Ratification." Early American Literature (1999) 34(3): 223-240. ISSN 0012-8163 Fulltext: in Swetswise and Ebsco • Johnson, Herbert A. "John Jay and the Supreme Court." New York History 2000 81(1): 59-90. ISSN 0146-437X • Kaminski, John P. "Honor and Interest: John Jay’s Diplomacy During the Confederation." New York History (2002) 83(3): 293-327. ISSN 0146-437X • Kaminski, John P. "Shall We Have a King? John Jay and the Politics of Union." New York History (2000) 81(1): 31-58. ISSN 0146-437X • Kefer, Peter (2004) (in English). Charles Brockden Brown’s Revolution and the Birth of American Gothic. • Klein, Milton M. "John Jay and the Revolution." New York History (2000) 81(1): 19-30. ISSN 0146-437X • Littlefield, Daniel C. "John Jay, the Revolutionary Generation, and Slavery" New York History 2000 81(1): 91-132. ISSN 0146-437X

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
• Michael, William Henry History of the Department of State of the United States (1901) United States Dept • Monaghan, Frank. John Jay: Defender of Liberty 1972. on abolitionism • Morris, Richard B. The Peacemakers: The Great Powers and American Independence 1965. • Morris, Richard B. Seven Who Shaped Our Destiny: The Founding Fathers as Revolutionaries 1973. chapter on Jay • Morris, Richard B. Witness at the Creation; Hamilton, Madison, Jay and the Constitution 1985. • Morris, Richard B. ed. John Jay: The Winning of the Peace 1980. 9780060130480 • Pellew, George John Jay 1890. Houghton Mifflin Company • Perkins, Bradford. The First Rapprochement; England and the United States: 1795-1805 Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1955. • Stahr, Walter (March 1 2005) (in English). John Jay: Founding Father. New York & London: Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 482. ISBN 9781852854447. http://books.google.com/ books?id=oHVLBRTz2T0C. • Whitelock, William (1887) (in English). The Life and Times of John Jay. Statesman. pp. 482.

John Jay
Historical Society, Congressional Quarterly Books). ISBN 1568021267. Frank, John P. (1995). Friedman, Leon; Israel, Fred L.. eds. The Justices of the United States Supreme Court: Their Lives and Major Opinions. Chelsea House Publishers. ISBN 0791013774. Hall, Kermit L., ed (1992). The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195058356. Martin, Fenton S.; Goehlert, Robert U. (1990). The U.S. Supreme Court: A Bibliography. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Books. ISBN 0871875543. Urofsky, Melvin I. (1994). The Supreme Court Justices: A Biographical Dictionary. New York: Garland Publishing. pp. 590. ISBN 0815311761.

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See also
• List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States • List of United States Chief Justices by time in office • List of U.S. Supreme Court Justices by time in office • New York Manumission Society • United States Supreme Court cases during the Jay Court

Primary sources
• Landa M. Freeman, Louise V. North, and Janet M. Wedge, eds. Selected Letters of John Jay and Sarah Livingston Jay: Correspondence by or to the First Chief Justice of the United States and His Wife (2005) • Morris, Richard B. ed. John Jay: The Making of a Revolutionary; Unpublished Papers, 1745-1780 1975.

External links
• Digitized Collection of 217 John Jay Letters, 1776 thru 1827. • Essay: John Jay and the Constitution Online exhibition for Constitution Day 2005, based on the notes of Professor Richard B. Morris (1904-1989) and his staff, originally prepared for volume 3 of the Papers of John Jay. • John Jay at Find A Grave • History of the Court, the Jay Court 1789-1795, Supreme Court Historical Society. • John Jay, Supreme Court Historical Society. • John Jay bust, by John Frazee (1790-1852), Marble, circa 1831, Size: 24" h., Catalog No. 21.00010, S-141, Old Supreme Court

Further reading
• Abraham, Henry J. (1992). Justices and Presidents: A Political History of Appointments to the Supreme Court (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506557-3. • Cushman, Clare (2001). The Supreme Court Justices: Illustrated Biographies, 1789–1995 (2nd ed.). (Supreme Court

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Political offices Preceded by Henry Laurens

John Jay

Succeeded by President of the Continental Samuel Huntington Congress December 10, 1778 – September 28, 1779 United States Secretary for Foreign Affairs May 7, 1784 – March 22, 1790 Governor of New York 1795 – 1801 Succeeded by Thomas Jefferson
as United States Secretary of State

Preceded by Robert Livingston

Preceded by George Clinton Diplomatic posts New title Legal offices New title

Succeeded by George Clinton

Succeeded by United States Minister to Spain September 29, 1779 – May 20, 1782 William Carmichael Chief Justice of the United States Succeeded by September 26, 1789 – June 29, 1795 John Rutledge John Jay’s Federalist Papers on • Federalist #2 Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence • Federalist #3 Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence (continued) • Federalist #4 Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence (continued) • Federalist #5 Concerning Dangers from Foreign Force and Influence (continued) • Federalist #64 The Powers of the Senate

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Chamber, U.S. Senate Collection, Office of Senate Curator. The Papers of John Jay An image database and indexing tool comprising some 13,000 documents scanned chiefly from photocopies of original documents from the Rare Book & Manuscript Library, Columbia University in the City of New York and approximately 90 other institutions. Jay Heritage Center Jay’s Treaty, Library of Congress Oyez Project U.S. Supreme Court media on John Jay. Works by John Jay at Project Gutenberg John Jay at MetaLibri

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Jay" Categories: 1745 births, 1829 deaths, American Episcopalians, American diplomats, Counterintelligence analysts, Continental Congressmen from New York, Governors of New York, Federalist Papers, Chief Justices of the United States, John Jay, People from New York City, Columbia University alumni, United States presidential candidates, 1789, United States presidential candidates, 1796, United States presidential candidates, 1800, United States federal judges appointed by George Washington This page was last modified on 21 May 2009, at 02:03 (UTC). All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License. (See Copyrights for details.) Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a U.S. registered 501(c)(3) taxdeductible nonprofit charity. Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers

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